Introduction to Anthropology

ANT 2000, Fall 2007 M, W, & F, 10:00 – 10:50am, Bldg 15, Room 1304

Unit 3 Glossary
Subsistence Strategies • Incipient Development - There are numerous location around the world where agriculture/domesticates initially developed • Adoption - Additionally, there are regions which adopted domesticates/agricultural practices from other regions • Cultivation: Is the propagation or assistance of desirable plants. This often includes weeding, tending, watering, seed dispersal, etc. Cultivation can be performed with/on non-domesticates • Domesticate: A plant (or animal) that has undergone significant genetic changes which often include (but are not limited to): • An inability to reproduce without assistance • Increasing edible proportion • Increasing fragility to skeleton or seed • Change in coats (seeds or animals) • Agriculture: The cultivation of domesticates at some degree of intensity Hunter-Gatherers • Prehistorically the most common strategy • Low population densities & community sizes • Generally nomadic • Minimal trade & exchange with other groups • Informal (achieved) leadership roles • e.g. Eskimo, Kalahari !Kung San Horticulturalists • A form of Cultivation • “Propagation of desirable plants…” • May be growing domesticates or not • Generally an un-intensive form of cultivation • No complicated tools or machinery • No pesticides/fertilizer, limited irrigation • Small, infrequently planted fields • Use fallow periods and slash-and-burn • Greater residential stability than Hunter-Gatherers • e.g. Yanomamö

Agriculturalists • A More intensive form of cultivation • Most often the cultivation of domesticates • Use of pesticides/fertilizer, machinery • Irrigation & terra-forming • High labor demands • Supports large, dense, sedentary communities • Associated with considerable social complexity (hierarchy) • Trade & exchange are very important • Divisions of labor and craft specialist • e.g. Illinois Pastoralists • Herders who raise domesticated animals • Nomadic to semi-nomadic lifestyle • Some social hierarchy…Part- to Full-time leadership roles • Low density, small communities • Limited division of labor…trade is very important • e.g. Lapps, Navajo

Social Complexity • Inequality & Heterogeneity • Status distinctions (vertical social inequality) • Access to material goods • Access to knowledge • Access to decision making • Divisions of Labor (horizontal diversity) Commonly cited characteristics of States include: • Well defined territorial • Higher population sizes & densities • Concentration of power & authority in a small number of people • Authority is often established through coercion, not consensus • Separation of secular and religious authority/structure • Expanded social hierarchy & stratification • Discrete and extensive division of labor • Monumental building & public works • Food surpluses • Urbanization • Formal government & bureaucracy • Record keeping or written language

Economic Systems Economy: system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources or goods Economics: the study of economies • Economists study the economies of developed or developing nations • Economic Anthropologists study the economic systems of non-industrial societies in a comparative way Means of Production • The materials and energy necessary for production • Includes: • Raw materials • Labor • Technology • Knowledge & Information Modes of Production • The way production is organized within an economy • Includes: • Social relations between laborers and bosses, producers and consumers • The role of wages, social obligations, etc. in procuring labor Various Modes of Production • Household Production: Production of goods (or services) by the household members for consumption by the household • Household Industry: Production of goods for exchange or sale to individuals outside the household. Production is part-time and secondary to primary subsistence activities • Individual Workshop: Sporadic production of goods for a market by an individual for whom the production is the primary economic activity • Nucleated Workshops: Clusters of Individual workshops associated with larger markets, more available labor, and longer periods of production

Trade & Exchange • • • Exchange involves the transfer of goods or services from one individual or group of individuals to another Redistribution: Movement of goods into a regional center or into the control of a central authority, and then back to the local or individual level Reciprocity: Exchange of goods or services without using money • Various forms • Generalized: Giving to closely related people without specific expectations for return • Balanced: Exchanges between more distantly related people with an expectation of an equal return at some future point

Sex & Gender • • • • Sex is the biologically defined role a person plays in reproduction of the species Gender is the socially or culturally defined role a person plays in society Sexual Orientation is the sexual attraction of and to any one person to persons of the same or opposite sex. Sexual Orientation can be classified as one of the following: • Heterosexual: attraction to members of the opposite sex/gender • Homosexual: attraction to members of the same sex/gender • Bisexual: attraction to members of both sex/gender groups • Asexual: lack of attraction to or interest in any sex/gender

Marriage & Family • Some common traditional marriage practices • Bridewealth: a gift of money or goods from the husband & his kin to the bride & her kin • Bride service: work performed by the husband for the bride’s family • Dowry: a gift of money or goods from the wife & her kin to the groom & his kin • Pre-nuptial Agreement Whom to marry? • Incest Taboo: A Cultural prohibition against marriage or sexual relations between certain categories of people • e.g., brother-sister • Mother-son & father-daughter (Oedipus Rex) • Exogamy: Choosing marriage partners only from outside one’s group • Endogamy: Choosing marriage partners only from within one’s group What to do with your brother- or sister-in-law? • Levirate: A man is obliged to marry his brother’s widow • Sororate: A woman is obliged to marry her sisters widower Post-Marital Residence • Patrilocal: Residence with the husband’s family • Matrilocal: Residence with the wife’s family • Bilocal: Spending partial residence time with both families • Avunculocal: Residence with an uncle’s family • Neolocal: Establishment of a new residence

Religion & Ritual Basic Types of Religion • Polytheistic: Religions that conceptualize multiple divine beings • Monotheistic: Religions that conceptualize only one divine being • Animism: A belief that souls or spirits inhabit both living and non-living things • Revitalizationist Movements: New religious forms that develop during periods of extreme change or traumatic cultural contact Two Parts of Religion Belief • Cosmology: A conception of what the Universe (or Life) is and how it is structured • Cosmogony: An explanation for how the Cosmos became what it is • Myths: A chronicle of divine individuals or forbearers • Sacred & Profane (Space & Action) • Moral Proscriptions (Taboos) Behavior • Prayer • Preaching (Exhortation) • Feasts & Sacraments • Sacrifice • Congregation • Symbolism • Healing • Ritual: Relatively unchanging sequences of actions that form a connection between the sacred & profane Religious Specialists • Priests • Often a learned or inherited, full-time role • Perform relatively invariant, calendrical rituals • Follows a liturgy – an proscribed sequence Shaman • A part-time role based upon a special relationship with the supernatural • Performs more variable, personalize life-crisis rites • Utilizes trance-like states, to connect with supernatural

Other specialist types exist: • Diviner or fortune-teller • Healer • Witch

Revitalization Movements: • Social & religious movements (often during periods of cultural change) that seek to alter or renew or refresh a society • Such movements may harken back to traditional mores or perceived “golden” periods • Sometimes referred to as Cargo Cults, Messianic Movements, Nativistic or Millenarian Cults • Syncretism: Combined aspects of one or more culture and religion into a new fusion • Examples: • Seneca (Iroquois) Handsome Lake Religion • Melanesian Cargo Cults • Plains Indians Ghost Dance • Peyote Cult of the American West (NAC) • Raelian Movement (Alien & Cloning) Ritual • Some common characteristics of rituals: • Events that are set apart from regular life • Participants/observers are encouraged to focus upon ritual acts • Have a formalized or stereotyped routine • Communicate values, ideas, and beliefs to groups of people • Often bridge the sacred and profane worlds • Imbue the profane world with supernatural power Rites of Passage: Ceremonies that accompany and facilitate important transitions • Naming ceremonies • Funerals • Marriages

Globalization & Colonialism • • • Colonialism: Political, social, economic, or military domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power Acculturation: Exchange of cultural traits between two (or more) cultures in contact Globalization: Increasing economic and political interdependence of nations and peoples across the globe Core-Periphery • Core (1st World Countries) • Industrial, dominate banking & military power, high level of technology • U.S. & Western Europe, Japan • Semi-periphery (2nd World Countries) • Some industry, less power & wealth • China, Mexico, Brazil, Russia • Periphery (3rd World Countries) • Limited industrialization and financial means, dependent on human labor, agricultural • Bolivia, Zaire, Bangladesh

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