O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide

Page 1

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide

Past Y ear Termi nol ogi es
Terminologies asked in Past Years Cambridge O Levels Papers
S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. June 2008 Batch processing Interrupt Top-down design Laptop computer Trackerball November 2006 Verification Video-conferencing Handshaking Simulation Batch processing June 2005 Buffer Gateway Validation Polling Data-logging November 2003 Buffer Verification Gigabyte Batch processing File generations June 2002 Multimedia Array De-skilling Expert system Verification November 2007 Byte CD-ROM Interrupt Buffer Virtual reality June 2006 Smart Card Relational database ROM De-skilling Top-down design November 2004 MICR Batch processing Modem Virus Interrupt June 2003 Check sum Relational database Random access mem ory (RAM) Top-down design Alphanumeric characters November 2001 Robot Online processing Buffer Modem Simulation June 2007 Virus Verification Interrupt Simulation Electronic scabbing November 2005 Expert system Electronic scabbing Top-down design Interrupt Buffer June 2004 Byte Compiler Handshaking Technical documentation Simulation November 2002 Data logging Check digit Serial access Assembler Handshaking June 2001 MICR Handshaking Polling Batch processing GUI

Page 2

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide

S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

June 2000 Macro Buffer File generations Polling Systems design Nov 1997 Digital data User documentation OCR Assembler Validation Mailbox Polling

June 1999 RAM Fax Validation User documentation Interrupt Virtual reality June 1997 Kilobyte (KB) String data Batch processing Hand-shaking Multimedia Top-down design

June 1995 Bit ROM Hacking Megabyte Analogue data PIN Key field Bar code File generations Icons Numeric data Control character Multiprogramming Computer -aided design Desktop publishing Electronic mail June 1991 Amendments Insertions Deletions Step-wise refinement Electronic mail Repetition Selection

June 1993 Buffer String Merging Rogue value User documentation

June 1998 Kilobyte (KB) Alphanumeric data Serial Access Hand-shaking Multimedia Simulation June 1996 Virus Data type Buffer Technical documentation Simulation Assembler RAM Modem Bar code Algorithm Process control Interpreter June 1992 Real time processing Buffer Touch-sensitive pad

June 8th 1990 Buffer LAN Sequential file Direct-access file

June 20th 1990 Verification Interpreter assembler

Page 3

such as a letter. disk full error. its ball is rolled with the hand. The copies are usually executed when the file is loaded into memory. etc Virtual reality: A simulated 3-D environment that a user can experience and manipulate as if it were physical. and so on. disk full error. printer out of paper error etc. A trackball’s housing is stationary. . possibly mounted in a special pair of goggles. CD-ROM: Acronym for compact disc read-only m emory. today almost always consisting of 8 bits. Interrupt: A signal/message generated by a device/operating system/hardware/software which causes a break in the execution of a program/stops running of program. Laptop computer: It is a portable computer system that can be used anywhere. It alters/damages files/alters files or data Page 4 . A trackball also typically has one or more buttons to initiate other actions. The user sees the environment on computer simulation. which translate the ball’s motion into vertical and horizontal movement on the screen.g. or a punctuation mark. allowing them to infect still other files. disk. it is the stepwise refinement of the problem. Special input devices. Top-down design: A design produced with breaking down the problem/task/program into sub problems/smaller tasks/modules. November 2007 Byte: Short for binary term. June 2007 Virus: An intrusive program that infects computer files by inserting in those files copies of itself. A byte can represent a single character. printer out of paper error etc. design of chemical plants.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide June 2008 Batch processing: It is the data processing in which (processing) doesn't start until all data is collected in which there is no need for human interaction and it uses computer during "quiet" time/overnight. It has integrated keyboard/screen/pointing device and uses a battery/mains power not required Trackerball: A pointing device that consists of a ball resting on two rollers at right angles to each other. such as gloves or suits fitted with motion sensors. Interrupt: A signal/message generated by a device/operating system/hardware/software which causes a break in the execution of a program/stops running of program. e. Buffer: Temporary store/memory that holds data being transferred between devices often used to compensate for different speeds of devices examples printer. detect the user's actions. Examples: overflow errors. A form of storage characterized by high capacity (roughly 650 megabytes) and the use of laser optics rather than magnetic means for reading data. A unit of data. a digit. Examples: overflow errors.

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide

Verification: It is checking to make sure that data has been entered correctly. Verification is often carried out by getting two users to enter the same set of data at different computers. Once both users have entered the data the two sets of data are compared to check that they match up. Any data that does not match up is rejected. Verification can also be carried out by software which might, for example, ask for the same data to be entered twice. If both entries don't match up the data is rejected. Interrupt: A signal/message generated by a device/operating system/hardware/software which causes a break in the execution of a program/stops running of program. Examples: overflow errors, disk full error, printer out of paper error etc. Simulation: To study the behaviour of a system by using a model/represents real life/mathematical representation. Results can be predicted using a simulation program. e.g. flight simulator, modelling hazardous chemical reaction Electronic scabbing: allows managers to switch (word processing/computer processing duties) from striking clerks in one country/location to non-striking clerks in another country/location.

November 2006 Verification: It is checking to make sure that data has been entered correctly. Verification is often carried out by getting two users to enter the same set of data at different computers. Once both users have entered the data the two sets of data are compared to check that they match up. Any data that does not match up is rejected. Verification can also be carried out by software which might, for example, ask for the same data to be entered twice. If both entries don't match up the data is rejected. Video-conferencing: The use of a computer to send sound and video images from one computer to another in real time is called video-conferencing. Handshaking: A series of signals acknowledging that communication or the transfer of information can take place between computers or other devices. A hardware handshake is an exchange of signals over specific wires (other than the data wires), in which each devic e indicates its readiness to send or receive data. A software handshake consists of signals transmitted over the same wires used to transfer data, as in modem-to-modem communications over telephone lines. Simulation: The imitation of a physical process or object by a program that causes a computer to respond mathematically to data and changing conditions as though it were the process or object itself. OR The study of a real life situation by means of a working model is called simulation.

Batch processing: The practice of acquiring programs and data sets from users, running them one or a few at a time, and then providing the results to the users. OR The practice of storing transactions for a period of time before they are posted to a master file, typically in a separate operation undertaken at night.

Page 5

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide

June 2006 Smart Card: In banking and finance, a credit card that contains an integrated circuit that gives it a limited amount of intelligence and memory. Relational database: A database or database management system that stores information in tables-rows and columns of data-and conducts searches by using data in specified columns of one table to find additional data in another table. In a relational database, the rows of a table represent records (collections of information about separate items) and the columns represent fields (particular attributes of a record). In conducting searches, a relational database matches information from a field in one table with information in a corresponding field of another table to produce a third table that combines requested data from both tables. ROM: Acronym for read-only memory. A semiconductor circuit into which code or data is permanently installed by the manufacturing process. De-skilling: A change/update of systems in which skilled/semi skilled labour replaced by microprocessor-controlled systems e.g. manufacturing, office work Top-down design: breaking down the problem/task/program into sub problems/smaller tasks/modules - stepwise refinement.

November 2005 Expert system: A software that contains/programmed with the knowledge of human experts knowledge base inference engine uses rules/rule base man/machine interface ability to “add to its knowledge”/learn from previous experience examples: chess, medical diagnosis, mineral prospecting, car diagnostics, tax calculations, etc. Electronic scabbing: allows managers to switch (word processing/computer processing duties) from striking clerks in one country/location to non-striking clerks in another Top-down design: breaking down the problem/task/program into sub problems/smaller tasks/modules - stepwise refinement Interrupt: a signal/message generated by a device/operating system/hardware/software which causes a break in the execution of a program/stops running of program. examples: overflow errors, disk full error, printer out of paper error etc. Buffer: Temporary store/memory that holds data being transferred between devices often used to compensate for different speeds of devices examples printer, disk, etc. OR

Page 6

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide

A region of memory reserved for use as an intermediate repository in which data is temporarily held while waiting to be transferred between two locations or devices. For instance, a buffer is used while transferring data from an application, such as a word processor, to an input/output device, such as a printer

June 2005 Buffer: Temporary store/memory that holds data being transferred between devices often used to compensate for different speeds of devices examples printer, disk, etc. OR A region of memory reserved for use as an intermediate repository in which data is temporarily held while waiting to be transferred between two locations or devices. For instance, a buffer is used while transferring data from an application, such as a word processor, to an input/output device, such as a printer Gateway: It is a link between systems that uses telecommunications/telephones and co nverts data passing through allows a computer in a LAN to communicate with a computer in a WAN - device/software translates – between a LAN and a WAN or another LAN Validation: check on data input to detect any data that is incomplete/unreasonable or mistyped e.g. type, format, range, length, presence, control total, check digit Polling: Testing a station/terminal/device in a multi–access system in a sequential order/in turn to establish whether it is holding data for transmission/collection to allow time sharing e.g. checking source of interrupt OR The process of periodically determining the status of each device in a set so that the active program can process the events generated by each device, such as whether a mouse button was pressed or whether new data is available at a serial port. This can be contrasted with event-driven processing, in which the operating system alerts a program or routine to the occurrence of an event by means of an interrupt or message rather than having to check each device in turn. Data-logging: The automatic capture of data over a certain period of time by means of sensors is called Data-Logging. e.g. weather forecasting, temperature, rainfall, wind speed, wind direction, pressure, CO2

November 2004 MICR: A form of character recognition that reads text printed with magnetically charged ink, determining the shapes of characters by sensing the magnetic charge in the ink. Once the shapes have been determined, character recognition methods are used to translate the shapes into computer text. A familiar use of this form of character recognition is to identify bank checks. Batch processing: The practice of acquiring programs and data sets from users, running them one or a few at a time, and then providing the results to the users. OR

Page 7

E. Compiler: Complier is the translator that translates the entire program & displays all the error with the error message & the location of the error on the screen. saves the status of its work. A communications device that enables a computer to transmit information over a standard telephone line.g. and transfers control to a special routine known as an interrupt handler.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide The practice of storing transactions for a period of time before they are posted to a master file. typically in a separate operation undertaken at night. software interrupt June 2004 Byte: Short for binary term. It translates the program before executing it. as in modem-to-modem communications over telephone lines. Interrupts can be generated by various hardware devices to request service or report problems. and instructions on the use and maintenance of the product. a digit. such as a letter. Documentation usually includes necessary information about the type of computer system required. Technical documentation: The set of instructions shipped with a program or a piece of hardware. modems are needed to convert digital to analog and vice versa. allowing them to infect still other files. and so on. which contains the instructions for dealing with the particular situation that caused the interrupt. Because a computer is digital (works with discrete electrical signals representing binary 1 and binary 0) and a telephone line is analog (carries a signal that can have any of a large number of variations). Modem: Short for m odulator/demodulator. Interrupt: A signal from a device to a computer's processor requesting attention from the processor. today almost always consisting of 8 bits. or a punctuation mark. Virus: An intrusive program that infects computer files by inserting in those files copies of itself. internal interrupt. it suspends its current operations. A hardware handshake is an exchange of signals over specific wires (other than the data wires). The copies are usually executed when the file is loaded into memory. When the processor receives an interrupt. The types of interrupts: external interrupt.: Translator of COBOL. or by the processor itself in response to program errors or requests for operating-system services. Interrupts are the processor's way of communicating with the other elements that make up a computer system. OR The study of a real life situation by means of a working model is called simulation. A software handshake consists of signals transmitted over the same wires used to transfer data. Page 8 . A unit of data. setup instructions. Handshaking: A series of signals acknowledging that communication or the transfer of information can take place between computers or other devices. A byte can represent a single character. Simulation: The imitation of a physical process or object by a program that causes a computer to respond mathematically to data and changing conditions as though it were the process or object itself. in which each device indicates its readiness to send or receive data. hardware interrupt.

Verification is often carried out by getting two users to enter the same set of data at different computers. The term RAM. The storage locations can be accessed in any order.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide November 2003 Buffer: Temporary store/memory that holds data being transferred between devices often used to compensate for different speeds of devices examples printer. Relational database: A database or database management system that stores information in tables-rows and columns of data-and conducts searches by using data in specified columns of one table to find additional data in another table. One thousand megabytes (1. Verification ca n also be carried out by software which might. such as a word processor. a buffer is used while transferring data from an application. Page 9 . The oldest is called the grandfather. In a relational database. the next oldest is the father. disk. typically in a separate operation undertaken at night. Semiconductorbased mem ory that can be read and written by the central processing unit (CPU) or other hardware devices. ask for the same data to be entered twice. for example. is generally understood to refer to volatile memory that can be written to as well as read. For instance. to an input/output device. and then providing the results to the users.576 bytes). Gigabyte: It is the unit of memory.048. The practice of acquiring programs and data sets from users. Once both users have entered the data the two sets of data are compared to check that they match up. and the newest is the son June 2003 Check sum: A calculated value that is used to test data for the presence of errors that can occur when data is transmitted or when it is written to disk. The practice of storing transactions for a period of time before they are posted to a master file. Top-down design: A program design methodology that starts with defining program functionality at the highest level (a series of tasks) and then breaks down each task into lowerlevel tasks. Any data that does not match up is rejected. If both entries don't match up the data is rejected.000 × 1. however. OR A region of memory reserved for use as an intermediate repository in which data is temporarily held while waiting to be transferred between two locations or devices. a relational database matches information from a field in one table with information in a corresponding field of another table to produce a third table that combines requested data from both tables. running them one or a few at a time. Random access memory (RAM): Acronym for random access memory. In conducting searches. etc. File generations: A concept used to distinguish stored versions of a set of files. such as a printer Verification: It is checking to make sure that data has been entered correctly. the rows of a table represent records (collections of information about separate items) and the columns represent fields (particular attributes of a record). Acronym: GB Batch processing: Execution of a batch file.

#. any element of which can be referenced by an expression consisting of the array name followed by an indexing expression. in which each device indicates its readiness to send or receive data. all of the same type.g. wind direction. which.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Alphanumeric characters: Consisting of letters or digits. 0-9. e. which combines the aforementioned elements with hypertext. and other special characters A data structure composed of a sequence of characters usually representing human.readable text. and sometimes including control characters. graphics. space characters. Handshaking: A series of signals acknowledging that communication or the transfer of information can take place between computers or other devices. a list of data values.e. office work. which are understandable by humans. manufacturing. such as mailing list files and word processing documents. in turn.g. @ etc. Array: In programming. This process determines whether an error occurred when the number was entered. De-skilling: A change/update of systems in which skilled/semi skilled labour replaced by microprocessor-controlled systems e. A hardware handshake is an exchange of signals over specific wires (other than the data wires). Characters include AZ. Sequential access is best used for files in which each piece of information is related to the information that comes before it. animation. a-z. and video. Arrays are part of the fundamentals of data structures. Serial access: A method of storing or retrieving information that requires the program to start reading at the beginning and continue until it finds the desired data. multimedia is a subset of hypermedia. *. CO2 Check digit: A digit added to an account number or other identifying key value and then recomputed when the number is used. It is the the translator for low level language (i. wind speed. Assembly Language) that converts assembly language programs. are a major fundamental of computer programming. November 2002 Data logging: The automatic capture of data over a certain period of time by means of sensors is called Data-Logging. into executable machine language. rainfall. temperature. as in modem-to-modem communications over telephone lines. Assembler: A language translator. Expert system: A software that contains/programmed with the knowledge of human experts knowledge base inference engine Page 10 . June 2002 Multimedia: The combination of sound. weather forecasting. -. pressure. In the world of computers. A software handshake consists of signals transmitted over the same wires used to transfer data. or both. +.

ideally without human supervision. to an input/output device. character recognition methods are used to translate the shapes into computer text. For instance. A familiar use of this form of character recognition is to identify bank checks: Handshaking: A series of signals acknowledging that communication or the transfer of information can take place between computers or other devices. The storage locations can be accessed in any order. car diagnostics. a buffer is used while transferring data from an application. Semiconductor-based memory that can be read and written by the central processing unit (CPU) or other hardware devices. A hardware handshake is an exchange of signals over specific wires (other than the data wires). Buffer: Temporary store/memory that holds data being transferred between devices often used to compensate for different speeds of devices examples printer. Verification: It is checking to make sure that data has been entered correctly. OR A region o f memory reserved for use as an intermediate repository in which data is temporarily held while waiting to be transferred between two locations or devices. Simulation: The imitation of a physical process or object by a program that causes a computer to respond mathematically to data and changing conditions as though it were the process or object itself. Any data that does not match up is rejected. medical diagnosis. for example. Once both users have entered the data the two sets of data are compared to check that they match up. such as a printer. such as a word processor. etc.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide uses rules/rule base man/machine interface ability to “add to its knowledge”/learn from previous experience examples: chess. November 2001 Robot: A machine that can sense and react to input and cause changes in its surroundings with some degree of intelligence. etc. If both entries don't match up the data is rejected. ask for the same data to be entered twice. Verification is often carried out by getting two users to enter the same set of data at different computers. Online processing: Processing of transactions (instructions and data) as soon as the computer receives them. disk. Verification can also be carried out by software which might. Modem: Acronym for random access memory. mineral prospecting. tax calculations. determining the shapes of characters by sensing the magnetic charge in the ink. June 2001 MICR: A form of character recognition that reads text printed with magnetically charged ink. in which each device in- Page 11 . Once the shapes have been determined.

When the key code is typed or the macro name is used. the next oldest is the father.g. in which the operating system alerts a program or routine to the occurrence of an event by means of an interrupt or message rather than having to check each device in turn. menus.g. such as a word processor. to an input/output device. the program carries out the instructions of the macro. such as whether a mouse button was pressed or whether new data is available at a serial port. as in modem-to-modem communications over telephone lines. often. such as a printer. disk. Users can create a macro to save time by replacing an often-used. A software handshake consists of signals transmitted over the same wires used to transfer data. checking source of interrupt Page 12 . files. and dialog boxes on the screen. and options with graphical images. This can be contrasted with event-driven processing. and then providing the results to the users.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide dicates its readiness to send or receive data. The practice of acquiring programs and data sets from users. Buffer: Temporary store/memory that holds data being transferred between devices often used to compensate for different speeds of devices examples printer. Polling: Testing a station/terminal/device in a multi–access system in a sequential order/in turn to establish whether it is holding data for transmission/collection to allow time sharing e. Batch processing: Execution of a batch file. a set of keystrokes and instructions recorded and saved under a short key code or macro name. and the newest is the son. Graphical User Interface (GUI): A visual computer environment that represents programs. File generations: : A concept used to distinguish stored versions of a set of files. Polling: Testing a station/terminal/device in a multi–access system in a sequential order/in turn to establish whether it is holding data for transmission/collection to allow time sharing e. The practice of storing transactions for a period of time before they are posted to a master file. a buffer is used while transferring data from an application. etc. running them one or a few at a time. OR A region of memory reserved for use as an intermediate repository in which data is temporarily held while waiting to be transferred between two locations or devices. typically in a separate operation undertaken at night. For instance. sometimes lengthy. with the keyboard. The oldest is called the grandfather. series of strokes with a shorter version. checking source of interrupt OR The process of periodically determining the status of each device in a set so that the active program can process the events generated by each device. The user can select and activate these options by pointing and clicking with a mouse or. such as icons. June 2000 Macro: In applications.

The user sees the environment on display screens. The types of interrupts: external interrupt. testing. Interrupts can be generated by various hardware devices to request service or report problems. Conventional fax machines scan an original document. June 1999 RAM: Acronym for random access memory. internal interrupt. The transmission of text or graphics over telephone lines in digitized form. hardware interrupt. Special input devices. Semiconductor-based memory that can be read and written by the central processing unit (CPU) or other hardware devices. User documentation: The documents produced to help user to run a software or a program. Interrupt: A signal from a device to a computer's processor requesting attention from the processor. possibly mounted in a special pair of goggles.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide OR The process of periodically determining the status of each device in a set so that the active program can process the events generated by each device. The storage locations can be accessed in any order. software interrupt. it suspends its current operations. Fax: Short for facsimile. such as gloves or suits fitted with motion sensors. and documentation. creation of prototypes. such as whether a mouse button was pressed or whether new data is available at a serial port. and reproduce the received image on a printer. This can be contrasted with event-driven processing. debugging. Systems design: All the phases involved in developing and producing new hardware or software. Interrupts are the processor's way of communicating with the other elements that make up a computer system. Virtual reality: A simulated 3-D environment that a user can experience and manipulate as if it were physical. in which the operating system alerts a program or routine to the occurrence of an event by means of an interrupt or message rather than having to check each device in turn. detect the user's actions. When the processor receives an interrupt. Page 13 . and transfers control to a special routine known as an interrupt handler. saves the status of its work. User Guide and the User Manual. or by the processor itself in response to program errors or requests for operating-system services. transmit an image of the document as a bit map. which contains the instructions for dealing with the particular situation that caused the interrupt. Validation: The process of analyzing data to determine whether it conforms to predetermined completeness and consistency parameters. including product specification. This includes Help.

and other special characters. as in modem-to-modem communications over telephone lines. A software handshake consists of signals transmitted over the same wires used to transfer data. space characters. All the data. OCR: The process in which an electronic device examines printed characters on paper and determines their shapes by detecting patterns of dark and light. Serial Access: A method of storing or retrieving information that requires the program to start reading at the beginning and continue until it finds the desired data. Sequential access is best used for files in which each piece of information is related to the information that comes before it. which are understandable by humans.e. KB. such as mailing list files and word processing documents. It is the the translator for low level language (i.e. User documentation: The documents produced to help user to run a software or a program. November 1997 Digital data: The data based on digits and numbers. into executable machine language.024 bytes Abbreviated K. in which each device indicates its readiness to send or receive data. and video. the state of 0 and 1. multimedia is a subset of hypermedia. which combines the aforementioned elements with hypertext. In the world of computers. character recognition methods-pattern matching with stored sets of characters-are used to translate the shapes into computer text. Assembly Language) that converts assembly language programs. Validation: The process of analyzing data to determine whether it conforms to predetermined completeness and consistency parameters Page 14 . A hardware handshake is an exchange of signals over specific wires (other than the data wires). User Guide and the User Manual. Assembler: A language translator. and sometimes including control characters. or both. or Kbytes Alphanumeric data: Consisting of letters or digits.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide June 1998 Kilobyte (KB): A data unit of 1. Also called sequential access. This includes Help. on and off. Simulation: The imitation of a physical process or object by a program that causes a computer to respond mathematically to data and changing conditions as though it were the process or object itself. Once the scanner or reader has determined the shapes. Hand-shaking: A series of signals acknowledging that communication or the transfer of information can take place between computers or other devices. Multimedia: The combination of sound. graphics. animation. which is in the form of digital signals i.

024 bytes Abbreviated K. multimedia is a subset of hypermedia. such as whether a mouse button was pressed or whether new data is available at a serial port. In the world of computers..O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Mailbox: A disk storage area assigned to a network user for receipt of e-mail messages. and video. The practice of storing transactions for a period of time before they are posted to a master file. The practice of acquiring programs and data sets from users. June 1997 Kilobyte (KB): A data unit of 1. allowing them to infect still other files. in which each device indicates its readiness to send or receive data. animation. Characters include A-Z. +. KB. Viruses often have damaging side effects-sometimes intentionally. a-z. and so on. Batch processing: Execution of a batch file. #. June 1996 Virus: An intrusive program that infects computer files by inserting in those files copies of itself. String data: A data structure composed of a sequence of characters usually representing human-readable text. A software handshake consists of signals transmitted over the same wires used to transfer data. For example. The copies are usually executed when the file is loaded into memory. running them one or a few at a time. in which the operating system alerts a program or routine to the occurrence of an event by means of an interrupt or message rather than having to check each device in turn. some viruses can destroy a computer's hard disk or take up memory space that could otherwise be used by programs. som etimes not. *. Page 15 . Hand-shaking: A series of signals acknowledging that communication or the transfer of information can take place between computers or other devices. Multimedia: The combination of sound.g. 0-9. which combines the aforementioned elements with hypertext. Polling: Testing a station/terminal/device in a multi–access system in a sequential order/in turn to establish whether it is holding data for transmission/collection to allow time sharing e. or Kbyte. -. Data storage area specified to keep received mails. typically in a separate operation undertaken at night. @ etc. as in modem-to-modem communications over telephone lines. Top-down design: A program design methodology that starts with defining program functionality at the highest level (a series of tasks) and then breaks down each task into lowerlevel tasks. checking source of interrupt OR The process of periodically determining the status of each device in a set so that the active program can process the events generated by each device. A hardware handshake is an exchange of signals over specific wires (other than the data wires). graphics. This can be contrasted with event-driven processing. and then providing the results to the users.

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Data type: A definition of a set of data that specifies the possible range of values of the set. grocery products. Assembly Language) that converts assembly language programs. Data types are most often supported in high-level languages and often include types such as real. Simulation: The imitation of a physical process or object by a program that causes a computer to respond mathematically to data and changing conditions as though it were the process or object itself. RAM: Acronym for random access m emory. the operations that can be performed on the values. and the way in which the values are stored in memory. to an input/output device. For instance. Defining the data type allows a computer to manipulate the data appropriately. character. such as a word processor. floating point. which are understandable by humans. into executable machine language. such as a printer. setup instructions. Page 16 .e. and other merchandise. Semiconductor-based memory that can be read and written by the central processing unit (CPU) or other hardware devices. Technical documentation: The set of instructions shipped with a program or a piece of hardware. Modem: Acronym for random access memory. bar codes represent binary information that can be read by an optical scanner. Used for rapid. Algorithm: A finite sequence of steps for solving a logical or mathematical problem or performing a task. and grocery stores. error-free input in such facilities as libraries. Bar codes: The special identification code printed as a set of vertical bars of differing widths on books. Buffer: Temporary store/memory that holds data being transferred between devices often used to compensate for different speeds of devices examples printer. Boolean. etc. Process Control: The aspect of computer in which the computer is used to monitor and/or control the processes in which the raw materials are converted into useful products is called Process Control. Assembler: A language translator. Documentation usually includes necessary information about the type of computer system required. OR. and instructions on the use and maintenance of the product. It is the the translator for low level language (i. hospitals. Semiconductor-based memory that can be read and written by the central processing unit (CPU) or other hardware devices. How a language handles data typing is one of its major characteristics. integer. OR The study of a real life situation by means of a working model is called simulation. and pointer. The storage locations can be accessed in any order. The storage locations can be accessed in any order. a buffer is used while transferring data from an application. disk. A region of memory reserved for use as an intermediate repository in which data is temporarily held while waiting to be transferred between two locations or devices.

Icons: A small image displayed on the screen to represent an object that can be manipulated by the user. error message and location of the error and stops the program as it finds the errors while executing and translating the program. such as carriage return. A unique code number assigned. by sharing out the processor's time so that each program receives some attention some of the time.robin fashion-that is. Multiprogramming: A form of processing in which a computer holds more than one program in memory and works on them in round. linefeed. or pressure. Page 17 . frequency. June 1995 Bit: Short for bi nary digit. and is represented physically by an element such as a high or low voltage at one point in a circuit or a small spot on a disk magnetized one way or the other. Abbreviation: MB. Key field: field in a record structure or an attribute of a relational table that has been designated to be part of a key. sometimes interpreted as 1 million bytes. PIN: Acronym for p ersonal identification number. grocery products.576 bytes (2 20 ). Hacking: To gain illegal acces into someone’s computer to harm or copy the data is called hacking. The smallest unit of information handled by a computer. A semiconductor circuit into which code or data is permanently installed by the manufacturing process. The main field of the file is called key field. or any number. such as voltage.048. Numeric data can be calculated. and the newest is the son. Or. Usually 1. Numeric data: Data based on the digits 0 – 9. File generations: A concept used to distinguish stored versions of a set of files. Analogue data: Data that is represented by continuous variations in some physical property. The oldest is called the grandfather. or a true or false logical condition.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Interpreter: It is the language translator that translates each instruction of the program one by one and displays the error. Control character: Any of the first 32 characters in the ASCII character set (0 through 31 in decimal representation). Bar code: The special identification code printed as a set of vertical bars of differing widths on books. each of which is defined as having a standard control function. the next oldest is the father. to the authorized user. Megabyte: It is unit of memory or storage. or backspace. and other merchandise. ROM: Acronym for read-only memory. as with automatic teller machine cards. One bit expresses a 1 or a 0 in a binary numeral. By serving as visual mnemonics and allowing the user to control certain computer actions without having to remember commands or type them at the keyboard.

such as a printer String: A data structure composed of a sequence of characters usually representing humanreadable text. June 1992 Real time processing: A processing system that reacts to events before the events become obsolete. @ etc. Touch-sensitive pad: variety of graphics tablet that uses pressure sensors. #. rather than the electromagnetics used in more expensive high-resolution tablets. and scientific models ranging from simple tools to buildings. such as a word processor. architectural. The exchange of text messages and computer files over a communications network. Buffer: A region of memory reserved for use as an intermediate repository in which data is temporarily held while waiting to be transferred between two locations or devices. Rogue value: Any value out of the sequence of the set of values. Characters include A-Z. to track the position of a device on its surface. to an input/output device.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Computer-aided design (CAD): Acronym for computer-aided design. Page 18 . in an ordered way and without changing the basic structure of either. such as a word processor. such as a printer. For instance. +. Electronic mail: Short for electronic mail. A system of programs and workstations used in designing engineering. For instance. integrated circuits. *. and warn air traffic controllers or pilots while they still have time to react. June 1993 Buffer: A region of memory reserved for use as an intermediate repository in which data is temporarily held while waiting to be transferred between two locations or devices. such as lists. and molecules. airline collision avoidance systems must process radar input. a buffer is used while transferring data from an application. a buffer is used while transferring data from an application. a-z. usually between computers or terminals. Merging: The process to combine two or more items. User documentation: The documents produced to help user to run a software or a program. -. detect a possible collision. User Guide and the User Manual. 0-9. This includes Help. Desktop publishing is a multiple-step process involving various types of software and equipment. to an input/output device. For example. aircraft. such as a local area network or the Internet. June 1991 Amendments: Alterations or changes in data or program. Desktop publishing: The use of a computer and specialized software to combine text and graphics to create a document that can be printed on either a laser printer or a typesetting machine.

message of error & location of error on the screen while executing & translating the program & stops the program. ask for the same data to be entered twice. folder or computer. Deletions: To remove a record or a file temporarily or permanently from a file. Page 19 . A group of computers and other devices dispersed over a relatively limited area and connected by a communications link that enables any device to interact with any other on the network. Verification is often carried out by getting two users to enter the same set of data at different computers. such as a word processor.BASIC. Repetition: To execute one or more statements or instructions repeatedly. If both entries don't match up the data is rejected. Any data that does not match up is rejected. Verification can also be carried out by software which might. Direct-access file: The ability of a computer to find and go straight to a particular storage location in memory or on disk to retrieve or store an item of information. Verification: is checking to make sure that data has been entered correctly. Statements or instructions so executed are said to be in a loop. such as a printer LAN: Acronym for local area n etwork. a buffer is used while transferring data from an application. For instance. for example. Sequential file: File created or based on the method of storing or retrieving information that requires the program to start reading at the beginning and continue until it finds the desired data. Q. the highlighted portion of an on-screen document. to an input/output device. Interpreter: It is a language translator that translates each instruction one by one & displays the actual error. Electronic mail: Short for electronic mail. Once both users have entered the data the two sets of data are compared to check that they match up. such as a local area network or the Internet. E. It translates the program while executing it. Step-wise refinement: to break a difficult or a bigger problem into different steps so that each of the broken phase is solved individually and hence the whole main problem is solved.g. June 1990 Buffer: A region of memory reserved for use as an intermediate repository in which data is temporarily held while waiting to be transferred between two locations or devices.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Insertions: To add a new record arranged ascending or descending in between the records of a file.: Translator of GWBASIC. Selection: In applications. usually between computers or terminals. The exchange of text messages and computer files over a communications network.

e.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Assembler: A language translator. which are understandable by humans. into executable machine language Page 20 . It is the the translator for low level language (i. Assembly Language) that converts assembly language programs.

2000. seen & used are Hardware. Software: All that statements. ME.: § Dos. Page 21 .O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Notes Programming Languages Programming Languages Computer: Computer is an electronic device that takes in input process it and gives a manipulated output as result. Hardware: All the physical components of computer that can be touched. § Windows 95. Packages: Packages are the pre-planned. § Unix. their programs are then translated into machine codes.g. § Linux. Programs using words and commands that are easy to understand & look like English words. Languages 2. functions and statements. Application Software: Application Softwares are the softwares that are used to work with the computer & to do desired & specific purpose. Packages Languages: Languages are pre-planned. There are two types of Softwares: 1. High Level Language: HLL is a Computer programming language that is easy to learn and write. pre-programmed Application softwares that are used to do some particular type of work. pre-programmed & programmable Application Softwares that are used to do variety of tasks by using their commands. commands. Their tools & functions can be used to do specific type of work. Each high-level language instruction represents more than one machine code instruction. 98. source sharing and file security. Application Soft ware. E. 2. and are used for file management. System Software: System Softwares are the softwares which are used to get command over computer whenever the computer is switch on. System Software. Types of Application Softwares: There are two types of Application Softwares: 1. § Sun Solaris. instructions & functions we provide computer to work with it are called software.

g. an array. E. It translates the program before executing it. Variable: A variable is a quantity named in a program & whose value can change. In a program it may or may not be given a name. Constant: A constant is a value that doesn’t change. It translates the program while executing it. Page 22 . The programmer can only use it for its special purpose & can’t use it as an identifier. Translator: A translator program is one that transforms programming language instructions into Machine Languages code that are under stood by the computer. Source code needs to be compiled into object code before it can be executed by a computer. where each instructions represents a single machine code. Complier: Complier is the translator that translates the entire program & displays all the error with the error message & the location of the error on the screen. a constant. An identifier can be a name for a variable. that was translated from the source code of a program. The term most commonly refers to machine code that can be directly executed by the system's central processing unit (CPU). Reserved Words: A reserved word is a name that has some special significance to the compiler or interpreter. a program is divided up into numbered lines. E.: Translator of GWBASIC. OR Human-readable program statements written by a programmer or developer in a high-level or assembly language that are not directly readable by a computer. etc. Identifier: An identifier is a name invented by the programmer for some data. which is long complex to program in.: Translator of COBOL. Object Code: Object codes are the codes that are produced after the translation of the program into machine codes. Each line has a line number & contains one or more statements. Interpreter: Interpreter is a translator that translates each instruction one by one & displays the actual error.g. OR The code. Line: In some languages. Q. Source Code: Source codes are the actual programming codes that are produced before the translation of the program into machine codes.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Low-Level Language: A Low-level language is a language. but it can also be assembly language source code or a variation of machine code. message of error & location of error on the screen while executing & translating the program & stops the program.BASIC. such as BASIC or COBOL. Statement: A program statement is a single instruction composed of its reserved words. generated by a compiler or an assembler. a file.

Alphabetic Characters / Alphabets. There are 3 kinds of error: 1. Character: Character is a unit of representing some message. Page 23 .Special Symbols. Runtime Error. but that result isn’t the expected & desired result. constants & operators (such as +. This error comes after the execution of program if we enter wrong entries. etc) that is to be evaluated by the computer. OR Runtime Error: The error that comes b/c of the mistakes of the user is a Runtime Error. Logical Error: Logical errors are the errors that are found due to the incorrect flow of program.Numeric Characters / Numbers. Logical Error. the computer may be asked to divide by 0 or 1 of the numbers produced may be too large to fit in memory location. Runtime Error: These are also called execution errors. 3. Due to it program isn’t executed. 3. 2.g. There are three types of characters: 1. Syntax Error. Due to this the program is executed & produces a result. -. For e. Syntax Error: The error found due to some mistake or due to some incorrect placement of some command or statement is called Syntax Error. Error: A flaw or bug in a program is an error.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Expression: An expression is a set of variables. 2.

by sharing out the processor's time so that each program receives some attention some of the time. Mac OS. the same as in parallel processing and in the use of special units called coprocessors. the operating system relies on the task to voluntarily cede control to another task. Multitasking: A form of processing supported by most current operating systems in which a computer works on multiple tasks-roughly. This way of working is in contrast to using the processor to run one program at a time. The objective is increased speed or computing power. Applications access memory through virtual addresses. Virtual Storage: Memory that appears to an application to be larger and more uniform than it is. central processing unit (CPU) time. Windows NT. Online Processing: Processing of transactions (instructions and data) as soon as the computer receives them. OR The practice of storing transactions for a period of time before they are posted to a master file. disk space. and then providing the results to the users. Virtual memory may be partially simulated by secondary storage such as a hard disk. Page 24 . Also called disk memory. and UNIX. Spooling: The feature of the operating system of storing a data document in a queue. the operating system decides which task receives priority. separate "pieces" of work-seemingly at the same time by parceling out the processor's time among the different tasks. The operating system is the foundation software on which applications depend.robin fashion-that is. which are translated (mapped) by special hardware and software onto physical addresses. In the former. each processing unit works on a different set of instructions or on different parts of the same process. In multiproc essing. typically in a separate operation undertaken at night. Popular operating systems include Windows 98. running them one or a few at a time. Acronym: OS Batch System: A system that processes data in discrete groups of previously scheduled operations rather than interactively or in real time. in the latter. and peripheral devices. Multiprocessing: A mode of operation in which two or more connected and roughly equal processing units each carry out one or more processes (programs or sets of instructions) in tandem. Acronym: VM. Batch Processing: The practice of acquiring programs and data sets from users.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Operating Systems Operating System: The software that controls the allocation and usage of hardware resources such as memory. Multiprogramming: A form of processing in which a computer holds more than one program in memory and works on them in round. Multitasking can be either cooperative or preemptive. where it awaits its turn to be printed.

and warn air traffic controllers or pilots while they still have time to react. The system is automatically updated when a change is made due to a transaction occurring. in which the operating system alerts a program or routine to the occurrence of an event by means of an interrupt or message rather than having to check each device in turn. Time Sharing: The feature of a network based operating system by means of which more than on or all the workstations can share the time of processing and accessing the same data at the same time is called time sharing. such as whether a mouse button was pressed or whether new data is available at a serial port. This can be contrasted with event-driven processing. Real Time Operating System: An operating system designed or optimized for the needs of a process-control environment.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide OLTP: Acronym for online t ransaction processing. OLTP is useful in financial record keeping and inventory tracking. detect a possible collision. OR It is the feature of network based operating system in which the operating system assigns equal amount of time to each terminal / workstation to perform a single task in the server. Polling: The process of periodically determining the status of each device in a set so that the active program can process the events generated by each device. Time Slice: A brief period of time during which a particular task is given control of the microprocessor in a time-sharing multitasking environment. airline collision avoidance systems must process radar input. Page 25 . Real Time Systems: A computer and/or a software system that reacts to events before the events become obsolete. A system for processing transactions as soon as the computer receives them and updating master files immediately in a database management system. Turnaround Time: The time between submitting a job and receiving the output is known as turnaround time. For example.

Functions of an operating system It deals with input and output. Applications software will only work on a computer that has the operating system that it was designed to be used with. An operating system provides a means of communication between the user and the computer. Applications software will not run on a computer that has a different operating system to the one that it was designed for. The most widely used operating systems are called Windows 2000. The operating system does this by swapping each program in and out of memory in turn. which involves: • Accepting data from input devices and transferring it to the computer’s memory. • It provides a human computer interface. or HCI. • Preventing unauthorised access to the system. • It manages system resources. or when data is being transferred somewhere. When a program is swapped out of memory it is stored temporarily on disk until it is needed again.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Operating Systems An operating system is a set of programs that controls how the hardware of a computer works. • It manages the transfer of data between the computer’s memory and backing storage devices. It manages system security. It deals with any errors that occur when a program is being run. Novell Netware and UNIX. • Keeping track of which parts of the memory have already been allocated and the parts that are still free. for the user. MacOS (for Apple Mac computers). • Making sure that any output is sent to the correct output device. It also provides a way for applications software to communicate with the computer’s hardware. and multi-user. A multitasking operating system allows two or more programs to run at the same time. and informs the user if necessary. It provides special facilities for multiprogramming. The operating system that a computer has also determines what applications software will run on it. Windows 2000 is an example of a multitasking operating system. or ‘running’ of them. which involves: • Allocating memory space to programs and data. which involves: • Monitoring and restricting access to programs and data. multitasking. A multiprogramming operating system can hold more than one program in memory at the same time. Page 26 . There are two types of multiprogramming operating system. It deals with the loading of applications software into memory and controls the execution. deals with the loading and running of applications programs and manages the transfer of data and files to and from peripheral devices.

transaction and batch processing. input is collected together into a ‘batch’ while the system is off-line. A system where transaction processing is used will always give an up-to-the-minute picture of the current situation.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Backing Storage Program A CPU MAIN MEMORY Program B Program C A multi-user operating system lets many users at different terminals share processing time on a powerful central computer. automatic pilot systems on aircraft and monitoring intensive care patients in a hospital. Examples of applications that use Page 27 . Examples of applications where transaction processing is used include the on-line seat booking systems used by airlines and the stock control systems used by catalogue companies like Argos. It is used for applications where it is essential that the computer responds straight away to input. However if there are a large number of users on such a system the time that it takes the central computer to respond can become more noticeable. The operating system switches so quickly between the terminals that each user appears to have uninterrupted access to the central computer. A batch processing system does not respond to input straight away.interactive. This means that the user cannot get an immediate response to input as they would with an interactive system. When a batch is ready to be processed the system goes on-line to carry out the processing of the data. Instead. The operating system does this by switching rapidly between the terminals giving each one in turn a small amou nt of processor time on the central computer. or on-line. They are used to carry out routine tasks that are often needed by a user such as: • Compressing a file to save space on backing storage • Defragmenting a disk drive • Recovering data from damaged file • Checking a disk for faults and repairing them • Formatting a floppy diskChecking the files on a disk for computer viruses A processing method is the way that a particular operating system deals with input. Examples of applications where real-time processing is used are missile defence systems. Batch processing is non. Real-time processing systems process input data so quickly that the resulting output can affect further input. There are three main types of processing method: real-time. processing. Utility programs Utility programs are usually supplied along with an operating system. Transaction. is used for applications where input needs to be dealt with straight away but it is not critical if there is a slight delay in the time that it takes for the computer to respond to requests.

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide batch processing include producing gas. Page 28 . electricity or water bills and marking OMR sheets from multiple choice examinations.

There are several good reasons for using this type of ready-made software. Computer-aided design (CAD) packages (e. This means. that any one of the many different word processing packages that you could buy will all do the same general sorts of tasks as each other. 2D-Design. PageMaker.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Application Software There are two main types of computer software. Application software caries out user. WordPerfect) are used to produce text-based documents such as letters. MS Excel.g. MS Publisher. Serif Draw. PagePlus) are used to produce professional quality publications such as posters. spreadsheets. MS Word. books.g. newsletters. Lotus Approach.g. Word processing packages (e. AutoCAD. System software includes the operating system and utility programs. Word processors. Desktop publishing (DTP) packages (e.related tasks and can be classified as general-purpose. Most computer users buy application packages ‘off-the-shelf’. Paradox) are used to store and retrieve information. reports and memos. system software and application software. graphics and presentation software are all examples of application packages.g. PaintBrush. newspapers and magazines. Lotus 123) are used for tasks that involve a lot of calculations or for the production of graphs and charts. Paint. specialist or tailor-made. Spreadsheet packages (e. Graphics packages (e.g. Page 29 . for example. • • • • It is relatively cheap It is readily available and can be installed quickly and easily It will have been thoroughly tested so there will be very little chance of it having any serious faults or ‘bugs’ It will be well supported with a lot of books about how to use it available. Corel Draw) are used to produce and manipulate artwork. General purpose packages A general-purpose application package is a type of software that can perform many different related tasks. Common types of general purpose software Database packages (e. as well as online help and discussions on the Internet. databases.g. TurboCAD) are used to produce engineering designs and architectural plans. MS Access. This type of software is sometimes called generic software.

Web page editors (e. Macromedia Dreamweaver) are used to create Web pages. Internet Explorer.g. Microsoft WORKS is an example of an integrated package. Programs to work out driving routes are one common example of specialist application software.g. PowerPoint. Netscape Communicator) is used to access the Internet and send and receive e-mail. spreadsheets. Integrated packages An integrated package combines many different types of application together in one single package. Specialist application software Specialist application software performs a single very specific type of task. MS FrontPage. Presentation graphics packages (e. deal with stock control and handle appointments.g. graphics. This type of software normally offers facilities for word processing. Other examples include programs to work out payroll. calculate accounts. Integrated packages are much cheaper than buying many different application packages but their different applications have a limited number of features compared with individual application packages. databases. presentation and communications.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Communications software (e. Lotus Freelance) are used to create slide shows and presentations like this one which can be viewed on-screen or with a data or overhead projector. Page 30 .

More popular software will have more of these resources. Buying new software What sort of tasks will the software be used for? How much does the software cost and how much money is available to buy it? What operating system does the software need? Software will only work with the operating system that it was designed for. telephone support lines. or bespoke software specially d eveloped for the purpose. Will the software be used on a single computer or on a network? If the software is going to be used on a network a special version of it may be needed. internet sites and printed manuals. How easy is the software to install — can an ordinary user carry out the installation or will an IT expert be needed to do it? Page 31 . The main drawbacks of this approach are the high cost and long time that some programs take to develop.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Tailor-made software Sometimes an organisation finds that ‘off-the-shelf’ software will not do exactly what they want. In this case they might decide to have special tailor-made. What are the minimum system requirements for the software? Every application package has a minimum set of hardware requirements such as how much hard disk space and memory are needed. How much support is available for users? This could be in the form of on-line help.

such as a client computer. 2. T he term is an analogy to the hub of a wheel. A network can be as small as a LAN (local area network) consisting of a few computers. a device. printers. A combination of input. such as cables. A communications device that enables a computer to transmit information over a standard telephone line. A powerful stand-alone computer of the sort used in computer-aided design and other applications requiring a high-end. A microcomputer or terminal connected to a network. and other devices. Topology: The configuration or layout of a network formed by the connections between devices on a LAN (local area network) or between two or more LANsogy: The configuration or layout of a network formed by the connections between devices on a LAN (local area network) or between two or more LANs Bus Topology: A topology (configuration) for a LAN (local area network) in which all nodes are connected to a main communications line (bus). or temporary connections made through telephone or other communication links. output. Messages are detected by all nodes but are accepted only by the node(s) to which they are addressed. that is connected to the network and is capable of communicating with other network devices. Workstation: 1. or ring. Messages in a ring network pass around the ring from node to node in one direction. 3. a device joining communication lines at a central location. a server. A network can involve permanent connections. providing a common connection to all devices on the network. modems are needed to convert digital to analog and vice versa. each node monitors activity on the line. Hub: In a network. from which nodes radiate in a star-shaped pattern. Router: An intermediary device on a communications network that expedites message delivery. Modem Short for modulator/demodulator.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Network & Topologies Network: A group of computers and associated devices that are connected by communications facilities. or it can consist of many small and large computers distributed over a vast geographic area (WAN or wide area network). Ring Topology: A LAN (local area network) in which devices (nodes) are connected in a closed loop. Node: In networking. a router receives transmitted messages and forwards them to their correct destinations Page 32 . On a single network linking many computers through a mesh of possible connections. usually expensive. machine with considerable calculating or graphics capability. or a shared printer. Because a computer is digital (works with discrete electrical signals representing binary 1 and binary 0) and a telephone line is analog (carries a signal that can have any of a large number of variations). and computing hardware that can be used for work by an individual. Star Topology: A network configuration based on a central hub. On a bus network.

Page 33 . enabling messages to be sent from one to another. A gateway both transfers information and converts it to a form compatible with the protocols used by the receiving network Bandwidth: The data transfer capacity. Gateway: A device that connects networks using different communications protocols so that information can be passed from one to the other. or speed of transmission. a router serves the somewhat different function of acting as a link between LANs. On an interconnected set of LANs (local area networks)--including those based on differing architectures and protocols--using the same communications protocols. of a digital communications system as measured in bits per second (bps).O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide over the most efficient available route.

and video. news. IP address: Short for Internet Protocol address. The Wireless Application Protocol. GPRS as such is a data bearer that enables wireless access to data networks like the Internet. the routing of the packets from sender to destination network and station. a fast. 127. WAP: A standard for providing Internet access and other data-based services. 2. application-level protocol widely used for copying files to and from remote computer systems on a network using TCP/IP. The protocol within TCP/IP that governs the breakup of data messages into packets to be sent via IP (Internet Protocol). SMS. yet advanced enough to replace traditionally analog forms of data. for the purposes of communication through the transfer of packets. such as listing files and directories on the remote system. Internet and e-mail). ISDN: Acronym for Integrated Services Digital Network. which requires digital-to-analog conversions. and the reassembly and verification of the complete messages from packets received by IP IP: Acronym for Internet P rotocol. electronic transactions. The applications using GPRS are WAP. including the Internet. and the reassembly of the packets into the original data messages at the destination. sometimes dissimilar. ranging from voice to computer transmissions. The protocol within TCP/IP that governs the breakup of data messages into packets. networks. over wireless networks. The first 1. DNS Server: Short for Domain Name System server. TCP: Acronym for Transmission Control P rotocol. a computer that can answer Domain Name System (DNS) queries.1. A 32-bit (4-byte) binary number that uniquely identifies a host (computer) connected to the Internet to other Internet hosts. TCP/IP: Acronym for Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet P rotocol. An IP address is expressed in "dotted quad" format. or 3 bytes of the IP address identify the network the host is connected to.0. A protocol suite (or set of protocols) developed by the Department of Defense for communications over interconnected. The DNS server keeps a database of host computers and their corresponding IP addresses. Java and the PC dial-up (for example.0. or WAP. MMS. music. with facilities totally devoted to digital switching and transmission. such as the Internet. GPRS technology allows mobile phones to be used for sending and receiving data over an Internet Protocol (IP)-based network. It is built into the UNIX system and has become the de facto standard for data transmission over networks. consisting of the decimal values of its 4 bytes. This protocol also allows users to use FTP commands to work with files. The goal in developing ISDN was to replace the current telephone network. FTP: Acronym for File Transfer P rotocol. Just as the TCP/IP standards make it possible for Page 34 . and weather reports. A high-speed digital communications network evolving from existing telephone services. for example.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Communications/Networks Terminologies GPRS: Acronym for General Packet Radio Service. is designed to provide such services to digital mobile telephones and other wireless terminals. the remaining bits identify the host itself. such as email. separated with periods.

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide many different kinds of computer equipment to communicate through the Internet. The founding members of the WAP forum. are L. Page 35 . the WAP specification is intended to work across different types of wireless network. which introduced the WAP specification in 1998. Nokia and Unwired Planet.M.Ericsson. Motorola.

• ‘Wide Area Network’ or ‘WAN’ . it only has to be loaded onto the server instead of onto every workstation. There are two different sorts of computer network: • ‘Local Area Network’ or ‘LAN’ . radio transmitters or satellite links. This is cheaper than buying a printer for every workstation. If the file server develops a serious fault all the users are affected. Workstations don’t necessarily need their own hard disk or CD-ROM drives which makes them cheaper to buy than stand-alone PC’s. • • Disadvantages of a LAN • • • Special security measures are needed to stop users from using programs and data that they shouldn’t have access to. rather than just one user in the case of a stand-alone machine.the computers are spread over a large geographical area not permanently connected to each other communicate using telephone lines. When a new version comes out. They don’t need to go back to the same workstation all the time. A computer that is not connected to a network is called a stand-alone computer. spreadsheet etc can be loaded onto the file server and shared by all users. Advantages of a LAN • • • Workstations can share peripheral devices like printers.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Computer Networks A computer network is a collection of computers linked together so that they can communicate with each other. Users can save their work centrally on the network’s file server. This means that they can retrieve their work from any workstation on the network. One copy of each application package such as a word processor.the computers are all in the same building or in different buildings on one site permanently connected to each other with special cables. Network security measures • • • • To protect programs and data Main threats come from other users and hackers Data can be kept secure by giving each network user their own user identity and password Unauthorised access can be reduced by allowing different users different levels of access (access rights) Page 36 . Networks are difficult to set up and must be maintained by skilled ICT Technicians. Users can communicate with each other and transfer data between workstations very easily.

a modem is needed at each end of the link. When a computer uses an ordinary telep hone line to connect to another computer.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide • Local area networks can be protected by physically restricting access to the computer room by locking the door or providing users with an entry code or special ‘swipe card’ key. If an entire LAN needs to be connected to a WAN a special gateway needs to be set-up. Wide Area Network (WAN) Computers in a wide area network are often connected to each other using telephone lines. Diagram of a typical WAN Computer digital signal 01001 Modem telephone line analogue signal Modem Computer digital signal 01001 Modems A modem (modulator/demodulator) converts a digital signal to an equivalent analogue signal so that it can be sent down a telephone line. Page 37 .

transmit an image of the document as a bit map. communications involves data transfer from one computer to another through a communications medium.whitehouse. Password: The string of characters entered by a user to verify his or her identity to the network.S. For example. Modem: Short for m odulator/demodulator. The system compares the code against a stored list of authorized passwords and users. Conventional fax machines scan an original document. mechanisms. converts the images of those pages to a digital format consistent with the international facsimile standard. Because a computer is digital (works with discrete electrical signals representing binary 1 and binary 0) and a telephone line is analog (carries a signal that can have any of a large number of variations). satellite link. and media involved in information transfer. the system allows the user access at whatever security level has been approved for the owner of the password. followed by an ‘at’ sign (@) and the host name and domain name of the mail server. or physical cable. the set of valid values for a given attribute. Email: Short for electronic mail. The transmission of text or graphics over telephone lines in digitized form. government. An e-mail address typically consists of a name that identifies the user to the mail server. The exchange of text messages and computer files over a communications network. in the case of computers usually referring to an error-checking procedure in which the number of 1s must always be the sameeither even or odd-for each group of bits transmitted without error. Data consists of facts. www.type.gov identifies the Web server at the White House. which is part of the U. A device that scans pages. Domain: In database design and management. such as a local area network or the Internet. microwave relay. In computer-related areas. which become information when they are seen in context and convey meaning to people. modems are needed to convert digital to analog and vice versa. and transmits the image through a telephone line. and reproduce the received image on a printer. Even Parity: The quality of sameness or equivalence. Fax: Short for facsimile. If the code is legitimate. A communications device that enables a computer to transmit information over a standard telephone line. usually between computers or terminals.organization. A fax machine also receives such images and prints them on paper. Page 38 . Fax Machine: Short for facsimile machine. such as a telephone.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Communication Communication: The vast discipline encompassing the methods. Email Address: A string that identifies a user so that the user can receive Internet e-mail. Ideally a password is a combination of text. Domain Name: An address of a network connection that identifies the owner of that address in a hierarchical format: server. Information: The meaning of data as it is intended to be interpreted by people. and punctuation or other characters that cannot be guessed at or easily cracked by intruders. numbers.

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide

Teletext: All-text information broadcast by a television station to a subscriber's television set. Information Retrieval: The process of finding, organizing, and displaying information, particularly by electronic means. Office Automation: The use of electronic and communications devices, such as computers, modems, and fax machines and any associated software, to perform office functions mechanically rather than manually. Multimedia: The combination of sound, graphics, animation, and video. In the world of computers, multimedia is a subset of hypermedia, which combines the aforementioned elements with hypertext. Hypertext: Text linked together in a complex, non-sequential web of associations in which the user can browse through related topics. Hyperlink: A connection between an element in a hypertext document, such as a word, phrase, sym bol, or image, and a different element in the document, another document, a file, or a script. The user activates the link by clicking on the linked element, which is usually underlined or in a color different from the rest of the document to indicate that the element is linked. E-commerce: Commercial activity that takes place by means of computers connected through a net work. Electronic commerce can occur between a user and a vendor through an online information service, the Internet, or a BBS, or between vendor and customer computers through electronic data interchange (EDI). Internet: Short for internetwork. A set of computer networks that may be dissimilar and are joined together by means of gateways that handle data transfer and conversion of messages from the send ing networks' protocols to those of the receiving network. Gateway: A device that connects networks using different communications protocols so that information can be passed from one to the other. A gateway both transfers information and converts it to a form compatible with the protocols used by the receiving network. Wireless: Pertaining to or characteristic of communications that take place without the use of interconnecting wires or cables, such as by radio, microwave, or infrared. Virtual Reality: A simulated 3-D environment that a user can experience and manipulate as if it were physical. The user sees the environment on display screens, possibly mounted in a special pair of goggles. Special input devices, such as gloves or suits fitted with motion sensors, detect the user's actions. Acronym: VR. ISO: Short for International Organization for Standardization (often incorrectly identified as an acronym for International Standards Organization), an international association of 130 countries, each of which is represented by its leading standard-setting organization-for example, ANSI (American National Standards Institute) for the United States. The ISO works to establish global standards for communications and information exchange. Primary among its accomplishments is the widely accepted ISO/OSI reference model, which defines standards for the interaction of computers connected by communications networks. ISO is not

Page 39

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide

an acronym; rather, it is derived from the Greek word isos, which means "equal" and is the root of the prefix "iso-". Satellite: A satellite stationed in geosynchronous orbit that acts as a microwave relay st ation, receiving signals sent from a ground-based station (earth station), amplifying them, and retransmitting them on a different frequency to another ground-based station. Initially used for telephone and television signals, communications satellites can also be used for high-speed transmission of computer data. Two factors affecting the use of satellites with computers, however, are propagation delay (the time lag caused by the distance travelled by the signal) and security concerns.

Communication One of the most important ways that information technology is used today is to distribute, exchange and share information. Electronic communication systems are what we use to do this. The most widely used forms of electronic communication are Viewdata, e-mail, videoconferencing, computer networks and the Internet. Viewdata Viewdata, or Videotext, looks like teletext but is different because, unlike teletext, it allows two-way communication to take place transmitted along telephone lines via a modem. The most common use of Viewdata is by travel agents to book holidays.

Faxes • • • A fax machine scans paper documents and converts them into digital format. The digital version is then converted into analogue format and sent over an ordinary telephone line to another fax machine. The fax machine at the receiving end converts the analogue information back into digital format and reproduces an exact hard copy of the original document.

Page 40

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide

Faxes are particularly useful for transferring images such as plans, drawings or documents with signatures between remote locations when it is important that an identical copy of the original is received at the other end. E-mail Electronic mail (E-mail) is used to send messages from one computer to another. Can be sent between computers on a local area network or between computers on the Internet. The message is sent and stored on the other person’s network server until he/she accesses their Email. Advantages of e-mail: • Arrives at its destination in at most a few hours • Send and receive e-mail anywhere in the world, at any time • One e-mail message can be sent to a group of people • Registered e-mail can be sent, by asking for a read receipt. • Can be cheaper than sending mail through the post • Can attach a file

Disadvantages of e-mail • • • Some workers receive so many e-mails that they are unable to answer them all Computer viruses are often sent by e-mail Can send junk mail just as with conventional post

Additional hardware/software needed for E-mail. Modem and telephone line for connection to the Internet (individual user) or network card for connection to LAN ( for network user) and both communication software and mail software.

Videoconferencing The use of a computer to send sound and video images from one c omputer to another in real time. To videoconference you need: • A computer with a large memory(*) and a fast processor (*) which can handle the large amount of data that video pictures contain • A digital video camera to capture the video pictures at your end of the link (*) • A microphone or telephone hand-set to capture the sound that goes with your pictures(*) • Access to an ISDN telephone line. This is because ordinary telephone lines weren’t designed to cope with the large amount of data that needs to be sent along them for videoconferencing(*). Or broadband access • Special videoconferencing software.(*)

(*) denotes additional items over and above standard PC.

Page 41

Working at home is less stressful and it is much easier to concentrate. Disadvantages of teleworking • • • Workers may miss the company of their co-workers and feel isolated Having your workplace at home might mean that you end up doing too much work and not having enough time off It is more difficult for mangers to monitor and control the workforce Page 42 . Working hours are more flexible and can be fitted around other things that need doing such as collecting children from school. Businesses need smaller offices and spend less on light and heating. Cars are kept off the roads which helps the environment. Teleworking Telecommuting is when people work from home instead of travelling to work and use methods of electronic communication such as the telephone. the Internet and videoconferencing to communicate with the outside world. People who live large distances away from each other can work together without having to meet in person.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Advantages of videoconferencing • • • • You can communicate with other people over long distances and see them as well as hear them Videoconferencing is more personal than just a telephone call Businesses can use videoconferencing to hold meetings which many people can be involved in There is less need for people to travel Disadvantages of videoconferencing • • • • The hardware and software needed are very expensive Not many people have videoconferencing systems ISDN lines are needed which are expensive to set-up and use There is no substitute for a face-to-face meeting. fax machine. Advantages of teleworking • • • • • • Time isn’t wasted travelling to and from work. e-mail.

The World Wide Web (WWW) World Wide Web is largest part of the Internet. computer software. Faster connection is possible with a special type of digital telephone line called an ISDN line which doesn’t need a modem. Pages are linked together using hypertext. Page 43 . A router is a special piece of hardware which co-ordinates the switching of messages between the computers and the rest of the Internet. As a private individual you will need to find an Internet Service Provider (ISP). Computers on a local area network need to be connected to the Internet using an ISDN or leased line a device called a router. E. This is the equivalent of broadband. Pages of information begin at ‘home page’.simple e-mail text files. It allows computer users to share and exchange information with each other wherever they are in the world. music. Connecting to the Internet A computer with a modem and access to a telephone line is needed. public networks and business networks together using telephone lines to form one vast world-wide network. Very high speed digital lines are available but these cost hundreds of thousands of pounds per year to use. A leased line is a private telephone line which is permanently open 24 hours a day. Information on the Internet comes in many different formats. Larger organisations use a leased line. Browsers To browse or ‘surf’ the Internet a browser program is required.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide The Internet The Internet The Internet links private PCs. Hypertext generated using Hypertext Mark-up language or HTML or a web authoring package such as Microsoft FrontPage. Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator use search engines to search for information by entering keywords. video clips.g.(This what we use in school to connect our 300 PC’s to the Internet).

Data about customers and their buying habits can be collected directly and used to offer a much more personalised service tailored to suit the needs of an individual customer. Money is not tied up in unsold stock or wasted on products that aren’t popular. according to whether they relate to the consumer or the retailer. The use of encryption and smart cards can help to protect against this.ac •Money doesn’t have to be spent on normal business overheads like renting shops and paying employees. Advantages of online shopping • • Money doesn’t have to be spent on normal business overheads like renting shops and paying employees. Most start with http//:www. They also indicate whether the site is commercial with either .com. Some companies do all of their business over the Internet. There is a danger of these numbers being intercepted by hackers during transmission and used to make unauthorised purchases. It is much easier for a business to gather information about its rivals by simply accessing their web sites — this can make it much harder to remain competitive. Customers can be offered a much wider choice of goods because they can be ordered from suppliers as required rather than having to be kept available on the shelves all the time. Cu stomers can be offered a much wider choice of goods because they can be ordered from suppliers as required rather than having to be kept available on the shelves all the time. Criminals can set up fake web sites offering goods or services often using the name of a genuine company. of shopping on the Internet Page 44 . Classify these advantages and disadvantages.gov. •• Online shopping Allow Internet users to buy goods or services online any time day or night without needing to travel anywhere or get pushed around in crowded shops. Advantages.co or . • • • Disadvantages of online shopping Online transactions require users to enter a debit or credit card number before a purchase can be completed. a government organisation with . to the consumer. Money is not tied up in unsold stock or wasted on products that aren’t popular.uk for the United Kingdom. These give the location of individual sites on the World Wide Web. This can lead to people spending money on goods and services that they will never receive as well as damaging the reputation of a genuine business.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide URLs Uniform Resource Locator. or an academic organisation with . They often reveal the country of origin such as .

of shopping on the Internet Advantages. for the consumer. cinema and concert tickets • Seats on coaches. to the retailer.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Disadvantages. Dangers of the Internet • • Hackers o Firewall software Viruses o Often spread via e-mail o Virus checking programs Undesirable material o Software to block sites o Adult supervision o Much of the information isn’t checked and may be incorrect or irrelevant • Page 45 . of shopping on the Internet Disadvantages. of shopping on the Internet Online booking systems Allow Internet users to check the availability of and book things like: • Theatre. for the retailer. trains and flights • Hotel rooms An online booking system is essentially a web site that can be used to access a remote database.

is readily available Messages sent across the Internet can be easily intercepted and are open to abuse by others Large telephone bills can easily be run up Too much time spent on the Internet could result in a lack of face-to-face interaction with others and a loss of social skills Going on-line runs the risk of hackers or viruses being able to damage your computer • Filtered service from ISP Advantages of the Internet • • • • • • • Easy communication with other people Valuable learning resource because Internet skills will be needed for jobs in the future Enables more people to work from home A vast amount of information can be accessed Up-to-date information can be accessed on-line without the need to await publication Publishing documents on the Internet saves paper A valuable resource for companies to advertise and conduct business Page 46 .O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide o o o o o A large amount of undesirable material. such as pornography.

the SUM function could be used. If the numbers were in cells A1 and A2 the formula that you would need to enter would be something like = A1+A2 . Two of the most commonly used functions are used to calculate either the SUM or AVERAGE of a range of cells. A simple formula can be used to add. A spreadsheet is a table which is divided into rows and columns. multiply or divide numbers. a number or a formula.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Spreadsheets A spreadsheet package is a general purpose computer package that is designed to perform calculations. Suppose. subtract. Lines divide the rows and columns up into boxes called cells. the AVERAGE function could be used. To carry out these sorts of calculation these symbols are used in a formula: + * / to add to subtract to multiply to divide Suppose you wanted to add two numbers on a spreadsheet together. to work out the average of the numbers in cells A1 to A10. for example. The result of the calculation is displayed in the cell where the formula has been entered. This formula would add up all of the numbers in cells A1 to A10. To make it easier to enter a longer more complicated formula spreadsheet packages also have special mathematical functions built-in. Column B Row 7 Columns have a letter at the top and rows have a number at the side. Instead of typing in such a long formula. that you had a formula like =A1+A2+A3+A4+A5+A6+A7+A8+A9+A10. Individual cells are identified by their cell reference number which normally contains a column letter and a row number. On most spreadsheets the formula would be something like : = SUM (A1: A10)Similarly. On most spreadsheets the formula would be something Page 47 . A formula is used on a spreadsheet to perform a calculation using the numbers in other cells. A cell can contain text.

This allows the columns or rows of a spreadsheet to be sorted into alphabetical or numerical order of a value in a particular row or column.Spreadsheet packages have built-in formatting options which allow you to change the way a spreadsheet looks. Currency & Date Page 48 .Decimal. Some of the more commonly used cell formatting options are:. If a number of cells need the same formula it can be copied and pasted in the same way as text. Spreadsheet packages have built-in formatting options which allow you to One very useful feature of spreadsheet package is the sort facility. Some of the more commonly used cell formatting options are:- § § § § § § § Changing font size and style Making text bold.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide like: = AVERAGE (A1: A10)Exactly what you need to type in will depend upon the spreadsheet package that you are using. Anything that affects the appearance of a cell is called a cell format. italic or underlined Changing text alignment Adding borders and lines Inserting extra rows and columns Changing column width and row height Adding colour Anything that affects the appearance of numbers in a cell is called a data format.

Record: Categorized information is called a record. Key field: A field in a record structure or an attribute of a relational table that has been designated to be part of a key. In conducting searches. Primary Key: In databases. and other functions. the key field that serves as the unique identifier of a specific tuple (row) in a relation (database table). the rows of a table represent records (collections of information about separate items) and the columns represent fields (particular attributes of a record). Also called database manager. each containing fields together with a set of operations for searching. In a relational database. RDBMS: A database or database management system that stores information in tables-rows and columns of data-and conducts searches by using data in specified columns of one table to find additional data in another table. sorting. Field is also known as column. A search is carried out by a program through comparison or calculation to determine whether a match to some pattern exists or whether some other criteria have been met.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Databases Data: The collection of facts and figures is called data. Page 49 . Database: The collection of files is called a database. to improve or simplify the performance of retrieval and/or update operations. Searching: The process of seeking a particular file or specific data. Any field can be keyed. Table: The collection of records and fields is called table. Field: The category of record is called a field. A record is also known as a row. a relational database matches information from a field in one table with information in a corresponding field of another table to produce a third table that combines requested data from both tables. Information: The processed data is called information. OR To seek specific data within a file or data structure. or indexed. DBMS: A software interface between the database and the user. OR The raw facts and figures are called data. A database management system handles user requests for database actions and allows for control of security and data integrity requirements Acronym: DBMS. A table is also known as a file. OR A file composed of records. OR Unprocessed information is called data. recombining.

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Merging: To combine two or more items. OR The system is automatically updated when a change is made due to a transaction occurring. Sequential access is best used for files in which each piece of information is related to the information that comes before it. Sorting: To organize data. Programs and programming algorithms for sorting vary in performance and application. Sequential Access: A method of storing or retrieving information that requires the program to start reading at the beginning and continue until it finds the desired data. The human equivalent of random access would be the ability to find a desired address in an address book without having to proceed sequentially through all the addresses. in a particular order. A computer's semiconductor memory (both RAM and ROM) provides random access. detect a possible collision. such as lists. Online Processing: Processing of transactions (instructions and data) as soon as the computer receives them. and then providing the results to the users. A system for processing transactions as soon as the computer receives them and updating master files immediately in a database management system. Page 50 . Certain types of files stored on disk under some operating systems also allow random access. Batch Processing: The practice of acquiring programs and data sets from users. Also called serial access. Updating: To change a system or a data file to make it more current Random Access: The ability of a computer to find and go directly to a particular storage location without having to search sequentially from the beginning location. typically in a separate operation undertaken at night. OLTP: Acronym for online t ransaction processing. airline collision avoidance systems must process radar input. For example. such as mailing list files and word processing documents. OLTP is useful in financial record keeping and inventory tracking. typically a set of records. Such files are best used for data in which each record has no intrinsic relationship to what comes physically before or after it. Real Time Systems: A computer and/or a software system that reacts to events before the events become obsolete. OR The practice of storing transactions for a period of time before they are posted to a master file. as in a client list or an inventory. in an ordered way and without changing the basic structure of either. running them one or a few at a time. Also called direct access. and warn air traffic controllers or pilots while they still have time to react.

Related records means that each record in a file will contain the same sort of information as all the other records. Values sometimes can’t be entered because they are too large to fit inside the allowed space in a field. A record must have at least one field. The problems with fixed length records are:• Fields very rarely contains the maximum number of characters allowed which wastes space. records and fields Information in computer-based filing systems is stored in data files. Each student has their own card. A field contains one individual item of data. Files. A file is a collection of related records. such as name and date of birth. Denton High School Pupil Record Card Student Number Forename Surname Date -o f-Birth Form 0125 Lisa Knapper 12 -Jan-198 5 T3 The individual pieces of information recorded on each card. M D B 3 r a o 1 m l o d P a r k L a n e n A set amount of storage space is set aside for each field.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Databases Suppose a school stores information about its students on record cards. Fixed and variable length records A fixed length record is one where the length of the fields in each record has been set to be a certain maximum number of characters long. If the contents of a field don’t fill the space completely it is remains empty and is wasted. • Page 51 . this is their record. are called fields.

only the space needed is ever used. The length of a field depends upon the data that is placed in it. A variable length record is one where the length of a field can change to allow data of any size to fit. The advantage of variable length records is that space is not wasted. The main problem with variable length records is that it is much more difficult to locate the start and end of individual records and fields. When records need to be located the computer must count through the end-of-field markers to locate individual records and fields. M 3 r 1 # D P a a m r o k n # L B a o n l e d # # A special marker (# in this example) indicates where each field ends. This makes it much easier to locate both individual records and fields. Page 52 .O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide The advantage of fixed length records is that they make file processing much easier because the start and end of each record is always a fixed number of characters apart. To separate variable length records each field has a special character to mark where it ends — called an ‘end-of-field marker’. Only the space needed for a field is ever used — so none is wasted.

Searching Searching.running the previous update using the old master and transaction files. If the latest version of the master file is damaged it can be recreated by re. updating and merging. Videos Video number Title Certificate Category Cost per day File operations File operations are the different things that can be done to a computer file. it is inserted. To search a database the user must enter a query.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Members COMPUTERISED DATABASES Loans Member number Video number Date loaned Length of loan Date due Total cost Member number Forename Surname Address line 1 Address line 2 Telephone number A database is a structured collection of related data. Updating The information stored in computer files must be kept up-to-date or it will cause problems for the business or organisation that’s using it. either ascending or descending. sorting. Merging Merging involves combining two files to produce one new file. such as alphabetical order. Records are deleted when they are no longer needed. This can be done by merging a file of new records to be added with another file that contains all of the existing records — called the master file. A relational database stores data in tables that are linked together using common fields. When a new record needs to be added to a file. or interrogating a file. involves looking for an individual record or group of records that match a certain condition. This involves inserting. The query tells the software which fields to look at in each record and what to look for. It can be a single file that contains a large number of records or a collection of files. To keep a file up-to-date it must be regularly updated. Page 53 . The master file is updated by comparing it with the transaction file and making changes to any records that appear in both files. The main types of file operation are searching. Records are amended when the data in one or more of the fields needs to be altered for some reason Details of all the changes that need to be made to a master file are often collected together in a transaction file. Searches are also called queries. Normally at least three ‘generations’ of a master file are kept for backup purposes. Many modern databases are described as being relational. deleting and amending records. Sorting Sorting involves putting the records in a file into a particular order.

To make sure no data is lost in the event of hardware failure special back-up methods are used. RAID Involves keeping more than one copy. a before and after image of each updated record is also saved. Database packages Page 54 . usually two copies.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Master File (Day 1) Transactions for Day 1 grandfather Update Master File (Day 2) Transactions for Day 2 Grandfatherfather-son method of updating files. Two commonly used methods are:• Transaction logging • RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) son Transaction logging Involves keeping the details of each update in a transaction log file. A utility program can be used to repair the database if any part of it becomes corrupted or unusable. Whenever any change is made to the database the same changes are made to the second copy. of a database on different disks. father Update Master File (Day 3) Backing up on-line databases An on-line database is constantly being updated.

A typical database package will allow a user to: • • • • • • • • • • • Create a file by entering their own field definitions. Perform simple searches and complex searches using more than one condition. Link files together using common fields. Create customised menu screens and link them menu together. Import data from other applications software. Page 55 . Create customised report forms for output. Add. Create customised data entry screens. Specify automatic validation checks for fields. edit and delete records in a file. Export data in standard file formats to other applications software. Add new fields to records or delete fields that are no longer needed.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Most databases are set-up using a database package.

Additional hardware can convert the microphone's output into digital data that a computer can process. one or more buttons on the top. A mouse is a relative pointing device because there are no defined limits to the mouse's movement and because its placement on a surface does not map directly to a specific screen location. drum (subject is rotated around a stationary scan head). and a cable connecting the mouse to the computer. and handheld (user passes device over a stationary subject). and styluses. optical mouse. the user presses one of the mouse's buttons. Mouse: A common pointing device. • • • • • • • • Keyboard Pointing devices Joystick Digital camera Touch screen Scanner Concept keyboard Graphics tablet Page 56 . Keyboard: A hardware unit with a set of switches that resembles a typewriter keyboard and that conveys information from a user to a computer or data communications circuit. for example. The basic features of a mouse are a flat-bottomed casing designed to be gripped by one hand. to record multimedia documents or analyze the sound signal. such as the Universal Product Codes found on grocery products and other retail items. Bar code Scanner/Reader: An optical device that uses a laser beam to read and interpret bar codes. the user typically controls an on-screen cursor. Scanners come in a number of types. Scanner: An optical input device that uses light-sensing equipment to capture an image on paper or some other subject. feed (subject is pulled across a stationary scan head). serial mouse trackball. a multidirectional detection device (usually a ball) on the bottom. relative pointing device. Examples of input devices are keyboards." Types of Mice: bus mouse. To select items or choose commands on the screen. Microphone: A device that converts sound waves into analog electrical signals. By moving the mouse on a surface (such as a desk top). including flatbed (scan head passes over a stationary subject). The image is translated into a digital signal that can then be manipulated by optical character recognition (OCR) software or graphics software. producing a "mouse click.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Input and Output Devices Input Devices Input Device: A peripheral device whose purpose is to allow the user to provide input to a computer system. mechanical mouse. optomechanical mouse. joysticks. Manual Input Methods Manual input devices are used by people to enter data by hand. mice.

Paper overlays are placed on top of the keyboard with pictures drawn on them to represent what will happen if the keys in a certain position are pressed. up-anddown and diagonally. Ordinary computer keyboards have their keys arranged in a similar way to those on a typewriter. Pointing devices Touch pads and trackballs are also types of pointing device. Concept keyboard A concept keyboard is a flat board with a grid of programmable keys on its surface. Joystick The main use of a joystick is to play computer games by controlling the way that something moves on the screen. Joysticks can be used to control movement from side-to-side. Touch screens are used in a lot of fast food chains and restaurants because they are easy to keep clean and reprogram if changes need to be made to the menu.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide • Microphone • Light pen Keyboard The keyboard is the most common type of input device. or stylus. Graphics tablet A graphics tablet consists of a flat surface and a pen. Pictures taken using a digital camera are stored inside its memory and can be transferred to a computer by connecting the camera to it. There are two main types of scanner. A joystick will also always have at least one button on it which can be used to make something happen like making a character in a game jump or fire a gun. Hand-held and Flat-bed. A single key or a group of keys can be set up to carry out a particular task. which can be used to produce freehand drawings or trace around shapes. They are often used instead of a mouse on portable computers. Concept keyboards are often used with young children in primary schools who can’t use an ordinary keyboard very well. This way of arranging the keys is called QWERTY because of the order that the keys appear in on the first row of letters. Touch screen A touch screen can detect exactly where on its surface it has been touched. Scanner A scanner can be used to input pictures and text into a computer. A digital camera takes pictures by converting the light passing through the lens at the front into a digital image. When the special pen touches the surface of the graphics tablet data about its position Page 57 . Digital camera A digital camera can store many more pictures than an ordinary camera.

that drives an inked ribbon mechanically against the paper to form marks. or 24. voice recognition will be a much more common input method for all computer users. such as a transparency film. Laser printers. Dot-Matrix Printers: Any printer that produces characters made up of dots using a wire-pin print head.wheel printer. with fully formed characters resembling typewriter quality. Printer: A computer peripheral that puts text or a computer-generated image on paper or on another medium. Page 58 . which then works out the light pen’s exact location on the screen. Daisy Wheel Printers b. Types of Printers: There are two types of printers: 1. Systems like this are very useful for people who can’t use ordinary input devices such as the mouse and keyboard. which contains light sensors. Microphones are often used for voice recognition systems which convert sounds made by a user into commands that the computer can carry out. Examples are: a. Daisy-wheel printers were standard for high-quality printing until being superseded by laser printers. This data is used to produce on the screen an exact copy of what is being drawn on the surface of the graphics tablet. Microphone A microphone is used to input sound into a computer system. stored on disk as a file. The advantage of a light pen is that it doesn’t need a special screen or screen coating. Light pen A light pen is a small ‘pen-shaped’ wand. Dot-matrix printers are often categorized by the number of pins in the print head-typically 9. It is used to choose objects or commands on the screen either by pressing it against the surface of the screen or by pressing a small switch on its side. A signal is sent to the computer. 18. Non-Impact Printers Impact Printers: A printer. whether sent to the screen or printer. Impact Printers 2. such as a wire-pin dot-matrix printer or a daisy. Dot-Matrix Printers Daisy Wheel Printers: Printer that uses a daisy-wheel type element. which might be low enough to show individual dots or might be high enough to approach the look of fully formed characters. The most common types are: a. Non-Impact Printers: Any printer that makes marks on the paper without striking it mechanically. Thermal c. As computers become more powerful in the future.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide is sent to the computer. Ink-jet b. or sent to another computer in a network. Daisy-wheel output is crisp and slightly imprinted. The quality of output from a dot-matrix printer depends largely on the number of dots in the matrix. Output Devices Output: The results of processing.

A video adapter that duplicates all the video modes of the EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter) and adds several more. the electrical charge is removed from the drum.handling steps. Cartridge: Any of various container devices that usually consist of some form of plastic housing. tape cartridge. for example. ROM cartridge. ribbon cartridge. The monitor is attached to the video adapter by a cable.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Ink-Jet Printers: A non-impact printer in which liquid ink is vibrated or heated into a mist and sprayed through tiny holes in the print head to form characters or graphics on the paper. are better handled by line printers or dot-matrix printers. which attracts and holds toner. The color displayed depends on the phosphor of the display (often green or amber). in a single cartridge. but rather than striking the pins against a ribbon to mark the paper as does a wire-pin dot-matrix printer. The special coating on the paper discolors when it is heated. The printer uses pins to produce an image. including toner and the photosensitive drum. Disk cartridge. Laser Printer: An electrophotographic printer that is based on the technology used by photocopiers. Heat is then applied to fuse the toner to the paper. which pulls the toner away from the drum and onto the paper. This image is converted on the drum into an electrostatic charge. the most popular printer engines pack all expendables. A piece of electrostatically charged paper is rolled against the drum. Both multipart forms and wide-carriage printing. The only serious drawback of a laser printer is that it offers less paper-handling flex ibility than do dot-matrix printers. A focused laser beam and a rotating mirror are used to draw an image of the desired page on a photosensitive drum. and the excess toner is collected. By omitting the final step and repeating only the toner-application and paper. as in a gray-scale monitor. The term monitor usually refers to a video display and its housing. Page 59 . Some types of toner cartridge contain toner only. the printer can make multiple copies. OR A display capable of rendering a range of intensities in only one color. Monochrome Display: A video display capable of rendering only one color. Finally. Ink Cartridge: A disposable module that contains ink and is typically used in an ink-jet printer Toner Cartridge: A disposable container that holds toner for a laser printer or other page printer. however. ink cartridge. memory cartridge. Monitor: The device on which images generated by the computer's video adapter are displayed. toner cartridge. Toner cartridges are interchangeable among printers that use the same engine. it heats the pins and brings them into gentle contact with the paper. Thermal Printers: A non-impact printer that uses heat to generate an image on specially treated paper. VGA: Acronym for Video Graphics Adapter.

in rows and columns forming a grid pattern.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Microfiche: A small sheet of film. As with m icrofiche. and a microfiche reader is required to view the documents. Page 60 . such as document pages. a special device magnifies the images so that they can be read. about 4 by 6 inches. The resulting images are too small to read with the naked eye. used for recording photographically reduced images. Microfilm: Thin strip of film stored on a roll and used to record sequential data images.

Inkjet printers are very quiet to operate and can produce good-quality printouts of both graphics and text. They are very suitable for large volume printouts because of their speed. The resolution of a monitor depends on the number of pixels that it can display. If you look closely at a print-out from a dot matrix printer you will see the tiny dots which make up the printout. Laser printers Laser printers give very high-quality printed output of both text and graphics very quickly and quietly. which is output through a speaker. i. Plotters The main difference between a plotter and a printer is that a plotter uses a pen to draw the computer output onto the paper.e. Plotters produce very accurate drawings and are often used in computer aided design or CAD. and the printer. it has both a large screen size and a large number of pixels. Certain applications need to have good quality pictures/drawings on the monitor and use what is called a high resolution monitor. Inkjet printersInkjet printers work like dot matrix printers because the printouts that they produce are made up of patterns of very small dots but the print head has a set of tiny holes rather than pins. The picture on a monitor is made up of thousands of tiny coloured dots called pixels( one example being a screen size of 1024 x 768). Another sort of output that you will have experienced when using a computer is sound. MonitorA monitor or screen is an output device that can display graphics and text and video. Some plotters use a set of coloured pens to produce colour output. or monitor. The print head is made up from pins which are pushed out in different arrangements to form the various patterns of dots needed.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Output Methods Before any output can be produced by a computer it must have an output device connected to it. Dot matrix printers A dot matrix printer forms characters and graphics on the paper by producing patterns of dots. The part of the printer which forms the patterns of dots is called the print head. The quality of the output on a monitor depends on its resolution. As the print head moves across the paper ink is forced out through the holes to form the image. The output devices that you are probably most used to will be the screen. Page 61 . They are generally more expensive to buy than inkjet printers and the toner cartridges are more expensive. Relatively cheap colour graphics can be printed using a colour inkjet.

voices and many other complicated sounds using speakers. To be able to output sound a computer needs to have a special circuit board inside it called a sound card.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Speakers Computers can output music. Page 62 .

Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) • OMR uses an input device called an optical mark reader to detect marks made in certain places on specially printed forms. or DDE for short. Used when very large amounts of data need to be input quickly and accurately. used where large amounts of data need to be input quickly. Sometimes called direct data entry. Used to input data from things like answer sheets for multiple choice exams and registration forms in schools Also National Lottery forms • • • Example of OMR form Page 63 .O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Direct Input Methods Direct Input Methods Methods of capturing and entering data directly without any need for human intervention. A fast input method.

Bar Code Readers are used to input data from bar codes. Used for the reading of typed postcodes. OCR depends on the shape of the marks whereas OMR depends on the position of the marks Bar codes A bar code is a set of lines of different thicknesses that represent a number. Banks use this method of input for processing cheques because it is very secure. Cheque number Sort code Account number Optical Character Recognition (OCR) OCR is the use of an ordinary scanner and special software to convert text in a scanned image into a format that can be edited by word processing software. The equipment needed to print and read characters in magnetic ink is very expensive. Bar codes represent a code number for a product Example of a bar code Page 64 . Banks use MICR to process cheques.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) MICR uses an input device called a magnetic ink character reader to input characters that have been printed in special magnetic ink. Text must be printed or written very clearly. Most products in shops have bar codes on them. Bar code readers work by shining a beam of light on the lines that make up the bar code and detecting the amount of light that is reflected back.

Applications of data logging • • • • Collecting scientific data Monitoring hospital patients Collecting weather data Monitoring air quality Page 65 . Useful when data needs to be collected in remote or inhospitable conditions where it would be difficult for humans to take measurements.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Magnetic stripe readers A magnetic stripe is a thin band of magnetic tape. Often on the back of a credit or debit card. Magnetic stripes can hold only a small amount of data and are quite easy to forge. In the next few years magnetic stripes will be replaced with smart cards which store much more data on a small microchip built into the surface of the card Magnetic stripe Sensors Sensors are used to detect physical quantities outside a computer such as temperature. Data logging Data logging is a way of using a computer to automatically collect data over a period of time without any need for human supervision. store loyalty cards. Used in weather monitoring stations and in science experiments. This device converts signals from sensors into digital data that the computer can process. pressure and light To be able to process input from sensors a device called an analogue-to-digital converter must be connected between the computer and the sensors. identity cards and electronic key cards in hotels and businesses.

The main disadvantage of menu-driven systems is getting to one particular option can often involve working through many different menu screens. which stands for Disk Operating System. Page 66 . the user has to type in special command words.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide User Interfaces User Interfaces The human computer interface is what allows the user to communicate with the computer and is often called simply the user interface. Menu-driven user interfacesMenu-driven systems offer the user lists of options which they can select by pressing a particular key on the keyboard. The main disadvantage of command-driven interfaces is that they are very difficult to use if the user is a beginner or doesn’t know the correct commands. is a very commonly used command-driven user interface. Command-driven user interfaces To use a command-driven system to communicate with the computer.txt a:\ 1 file(s) copied C:\DOS\> The operating system displays a message to confirm that the command has been carried out successfully. The main advantage of menu-driven systems is that they are easy to use. CyberSoft(R) PC-DOS Version 5 (c) Cyber Corp 1987-1996 The correct commands to copy the file are typed in by the user at the keyboard C:\DOS\> copy c:\fred. The three main types of user interface are. • • • Command-driven Menu-driven Graphical User Interface or GUI. DOS. Command-driven systems can be very unfriendly and confusing for non-computer experts use. The main advantage of command driven interfaces is that they can be quick to use as long as the user knows the correct commands.

The main disadvantage is the amount of memory space they need.txt Select drive A C OK CANCEL Graphical user interfaces The most widely used type of graphical user interfaces are WIMP systems. A graphical user interface needs a lot of RAM to run properly and takes up a large amount of hard disk space.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Main Menu F1 Load new program F2 Run program F3 List files on disc F4 Backup options ESC Quit Backup Options F1 Restore a file F2 Make backup copy F3 Main Menu F4 Pressed F2 Pressed In this example a menu-driven user interface has been used to copy a file called fred. WIMP stands for Windows Icons Menu Pointer. Make Backup Copy Enter name of file fred. screen layout etc. Options are represented by small pictures or 'icons ' arranged inside rectangular boxes called windows.g. especially for a beginner.txt to a user’s floppy disk. User interface design • A good user interface should be user-friendly • Consistency in operation. The main advantage of graphical user interfaces is that they are very easy to use. • Colours should be chosen carefully e. that are easy to see • Sound can be used to do things such as alerting the user to problems but it should also be possible to turn it off • •O n-line help is often a useful feature Page 67 .

Information has to be stored about every pixel in an image which produces files that use large amounts of backing storage space. Drawing packages A drawing package produces images that are made up from coloured lines and shapes such as circles. which can be used to recreate it. which means that individual parts can be easily modified. Adobe Photoshop and JASC’s Paint Shop Pro. Examples of drawing graphics packages include CorelDraw. Disadvantages of drawing packages The disadvantage of vector graphics is that they don’t look as realistic as bitmap graphics. Disadvantages of painting packages Individual parts of an image cannot be resized. rectangles and circles using a special ‘tool’. • Each part of an image is treated as a separate object. There are two main types of graphics package: painting packages drawing packages Painting packages A painting package produces images by changing the colour of pixels on the screen. PC Paintbrush. Common features of graphics packages • • Drawing straight lines and ‘freehand’ lines. When an image is saved it is stored in a vector graphics file as a series of instructions. The main advantage offered by this type of graphic is that individual pixels can be changed which makes very detailed editing possible. squares and rectangles. Drawing regular pre-defined shapes like squares. These are coded as a pattern of bits to create a bitmapped graphics file. Bitmapped graphics are used for images such as scanned photographs or pictures taken with a digital camera. Micrographix Designer and computer aided design (CAD) packages such as AutoCAD. Examples of graphics packages that produce bitmapped images include:MS Paint. Page 68 .O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Graphics Packages Graphics packages A graphics package is an application that can be used to create and manipulate images on a computer. only the whole picture can be increased or decreased in size. The main advantages of vector graphics are: • They use less storage space than bitmap graphics.

or scaling Rotating objects in either clockwise or anticlockwise by specifying the direction and angle of rotation. When an exported file is needed in another application it is opened in a special way called importing.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide • • • • • Entering text and changing the style and size of font. Page 69 . In most graphics these features are chosen from a tool bar or tool palette where they are displayed as icons. § Printed circuit board (PCB) design. Exporting is a special way of saving a file produced using a graphics package so that it can be used in another application package. Changing the size of an object. accept any changes to them and calculate and display the results. Special brushes such as an airbrush can be used to achieve different paint effects on the screen. ‘Flipping’ an object either horizontally or vertically. § Designing new aircraft. which include:§ Designing new cars. is the use of a computer to display designs. § Designing fitted kitchens. § Bridge and building design and testing. or CAD. A fill option for colouring in a shape or area on the screen with a colour or pattern from the paint palette. Zoom or magnify is a feature that allows an area of the screen to be seen close up for detailed work. CAD has many different applications. Most graphics packages have a built-in library of clipart pictures. Computer-aided design and manufacture Computer-aided design. Stretching objects either horizontally or vertically. A paint palette from which different colours and patterns can be chosen.

• Drawings can be stored on disk and re-used at any time. A CAD system also needs a high-resolution monitor so that clear close-up detail can be seen on the screen. Very often a CAM process follows directly on from a CAD process. in such cases the complete design and Page 70 .O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide changes to a design requires a large number of complex calculations. Some examples of CAM include the production of printed circuit boards. • Designs can be instantly sent anywhere in the world using electronic communications. car manufacture. Input to CAD systems is normally given using a mouse and keyboard but other input devices such as graphic tablets and scanners are also used. • Designs can be used directly in computer aided manufacturing processes. The advantages of CAD systems are:• Changes to a design can be made quickly and their effects seen straight away. • Designs can be tested without the need to build expensive models or prototypes. or CAM. is the use of a computer to control all or part of a manufacturing process. A powerful processor is required for this. These need to be performed as quickly as possible so that their effect can be viewed straight away. Output from a CAD system is produced using a high quality printer such as a laser printer or a plotter. pattern cutting for clothing manufacture and making postage stamps. • Designs can be viewed from any angle without being re-drawn. Computer-aided manufacture.

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide manufacture process is called CAD/CAM. • Around the clock production is much cheaper. • Waste can be kept to a minimum. The advantages of CAM systems are:• Products can be made very accurately and consistently. The main advantage of this approach is that the CAD design can be used to generate the program which will control the manufacturing process. Page 71 . • A product's design can be modified without the need to bring production to a complete standstill.

Parts of a DTP system Large high resolution monitor Scanner Scanner Laser printer Laser printer for high quality outpu High PC. diagrams and other illustrations. Individual page contents are imported into the desktop publishing package.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Desktop Publishing Desktop publishing Desktop publishing is the use of a desktop publishing package on a computer to produce publications such as newspapers. The DTP process is concerned with designing the layout of the pages in a publication. magazines and books. The contents are normally prepared. which is used to organise their layout and appearance. High specificationspecification computer large RAM & hard disk Page 72 . using a word processing package for text and a graphics package for pictures.

• Once a template has been set up it can be used to create as many individual pages as required each with the same basic layout. In some DTP applications text is placed inside rectangular boxes called ‘frames’. If text doesn't fit on a page it can be automatically ‘overflowed’ onto the next page. Page 73 . • This greatly reduces the time that it takes to organise the layout of each page. • Graphics are prepared using a graphics package to create images ‘from scratch’ or 'tidy up' images from other sources. Frames can have their size adjusted and be linked together if text doesn't fit. • Text is prepared using a word processing package and checked for any mistakes using the spell check facility. Banner headline banner headline text column Text column Graphic graphic The text and graphics are imported and put into place. • A template defines the standard layout for a page such as how many columns of text are needed and where spaces must be left for graphics.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide The stages of desktop publishing The contents of the publication are prepared first. The general layout of the pages is designed and templates are created.

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide text frame Text frame When text overlaps a graphic it can be ‘flowed’ or ‘wrapped’ around the graphic — this is shown below. Page 74 .

the DTP file can be posted to a professional printing company on disk or sent via e-mail. Styles Styles allow the user to define the font style. size and colour of text. Common features of DTP packages Fonts A good DTP package will include a large variety of fonts which can be whatever size the user requires. Once a style has been defined it can be applied to any part of the text whenever necessary. Colour A good DTP package will include a large choice of colours which can be used to fill in areas of a page or make text. Page 75 . shades and patterns of colour are usually offered along with the facility for creating a customised colour scheme for a publication. borders and lines stand out more Various tints. Borders Borders can be used to make objects stand out.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Once the layout has been finalised the completed publication is printed and 'proof read' to check for any errors. Alternatively. Further copies can be made on a photocopying machine. Any necessary corrections or changes to the layout can then be made before a final high quality ‘master copy’ is printed using a laser printer. This saves time when text is being formatted and helps to keep its appearance consistent throughout a publication.

Design wizards A design wizards provides step-by-step help when creating common types of publication such as newspapers. Page 76 . flyers and greetings cards. All DTP packages offer this facility along with options to shrink and stretch text Line spacing The spacing between lines can be changed by adjusting the leading.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Clipart DTP packages often have a library of artwork supplied with them from which graphics can be copied and pasted into a publication. Character spacing The spacing between characters can be adjusted by using a feature called kerning. Text columns DTP packages all offer a facility which allows the user to set up the pages of a publication to have a certain number of text columns.

and save this information. letters. such subsystems frequently require their own controlling software. the states of various circuit components change continuously to move. rather than based on discrete units. Within such a computer. Printers. and disk drives are often referred to as devices. microcomputers have nevertheless evolved into very powerful machines capable of complex tasks." represented by two voltage levels. Microcomputer: A computer built around a single-chip microprocessor. such as speed or temperature. operate on. such as voltage or audio. excluding peripherals. Analog Computer: A computer that measures data varying continuously in value. Digital Computer: computer in which operations are based on two or more discrete states. at a fraction of the cost. printer. a device. Binary digital computers are based on two states. graphics symbols. Technology has progressed so quickly that state-ofthe-art microcomputers—essentially. all the pieces. Analogue: Pertaining to or being a device or signal that is continuously varying in strength or quantity. such as a disk drive. A modern microprocessor can have several million transistors in an integrated-circuit package that can easily fit into the palm of one's hand. Peripheral: In computing. arrangements of which are used to represent all types of informationnumbers. that is connected to a computer and is controlled by the computer's microprocessor. modem. a desktop PC —are as powerful as mainframe computers of only a few years ago. in today's terms. such as the binary digits 1 and 0. or joystick. called device drivers Microprocessor: A central processing unit (CPU) on a single chip. Less powerful than minicomputers and mainframes. and program instructions. serial ports.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Microprocessor & Microcomputer Microprocessor & Microcomputer Digital: A reference to something based on digits (numbers) or their representation. logical "on" and "off. required for a computer are present. Device: A generic term for a computer subsystem. Page 77 . Microprocessors are at the heart of all personal computers. When memory and power are added to a microprocessor. A lighting dimmer switch is an analog device because it is not based on absolute settings.

When programs and data are needed they are copied into main memory but also still remain on backing storage. RAM temporarily stores programs and data that are being used at a given time. A single unit in binary is called a bit which stands for binary digit. The contents of RAM can be changed and are lost when the computer is turned off. megabytes (Mb) or gigabytes (Gb). The table below shows some of the main units of size that we use to measure computer memory. Read Only Memory (ROM)The main use of ROM memory chips in a computer is to store the program that runs when the computer is turned on which loads the operating system (e. 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 The eight bit binary code in this byte represents the letter A The size of a computer’s memory is normally measured in kilobytes (Kb). The contents of ROM can’t be changed and aren’t lost when the computer is switched off. Magnetic tape drives. This type of memory can be programmed and then changed whenever necessary. A hard disk is a circular metal disk coated with magnetic material and usually sealed in a hard disk drive inside the computer. Computer memory is measured in bytes. floppy disk drives and hard disk drives are all examples of backing storage devices. EPROM stands for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. Memory which isn't wiped clean when the computer is turned off is called non.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Storage Storing data Data storage devices can be divided into 2 main categories: Backing storage is used to store programs and data when they are not being used or when a computer is switched off. PROM stands for Programmable Read Only Memory.g. The Main Memory co ntains two types of memory chip called ROM and RAM which hold program instructions and data. Memory which is wiped clean when the computer is turned off is called volatile memory. PROM and EPROM PROM and EPROM are both special types of programmable read only memory. Windows 2000) from disk. Page 78 . Random Access Memory (RAM) RAM is the computer’s ‘working memory’. This type of memory can be programmed once but can’t be changed again afterwards. One byte is made up of eight bits. BITS and BYTES Computers store and process data using binary numbers. One byte can store one character.volatile memory.

44 Mb of data. CD-ROMs can store approximately 650 megabytes of data which is four hundred times more data than an ordinary 3½ inch floppy disk. The main advantage of using magnetic tape as backing storage is that it is relatively cheap and can store large amounts of data. Data stored on a hard disk can be accessed much more quickly than data stored on a floppy disk. Magnetic tape allows only serial access to data. Page 79 . A DVD disc can store up to 17 gigabytes of data. DVD discs are expected to replace ordinary compact discs and video tapes in the future. Floppy disks A floppy disk a circular piece of plastic coated with a ma gnetic material and protected by a hard plastic cover. CD-ROM disks come with information already on them and are read only. A CD-ROM looks just like an ordinary compact disk. Digital versatile disk (DVD) DVD is the latest way of storing data. tape reels. and cassettes or cartridges. The size of a floppy disk is measured in inches. Hard disks can store much more data than a floppy disk. Modern floppy disks are 3½ inches wide. When a compressed file on backing store needs to be used it must be decompressed.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Some hard disk drives are not permanently fixed inside the computer but are removable. hard disks and CDs all allow direct access to data. To locate data on a magnetic tape it has to be searched from the beginning until the required data is found. This can be done using decompression software or by setting files up to be self-extracting which means that they can automatically decompress themselves. Direct access means that the required data can be found straight away without having to read through all the data on the disk. A standard floppy disk can store up to 1. File compression File compression soft ware can be used to make files smaller so that more data can be stored in the same amount of space on backing store.Writeable CDs Writeable compact disks are supplied blank and can have data put onto them using a special read/write CD drive. WORM (Write-Once. Read-Many) disks which can have data written to them just once. A typical hard disk inside a personal computer can hold several gigabytes of data. Direct and serial accessFloppy disks. Large tape reels are used to make backup copies of programs and data on large mainframe computers. Before any type of magnetic disk can be used it must be formatted. This is enough storage space for at least four full. Cartridges are used to make backup copies of the programs and data on personal computers and networks. This means that the information on a CD-ROM cannot be erased or changed. and no new information can be saved.length feature films! Magnetic tape Magnetic tape comes in two forms. CD-ROMCD-ROM stands for compact disk read only memory.

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Winzip is an example of software that can be used to compress and decompress files. Each address in the index contains a track and sector number for an individual data segment. Setting up a root directory where the list of files that are on the disk will be kept. The formatting process involves: Dividing the surface of the disk into invisible circles called tracks and sectors. Data on a magnetic disk is located by finding the address of its location from an index in the root directory. Page 80 .

Duplication Check: It is to check if the data already exists. Transposition Errors: Errors occurred due to the misplacement of characters of a data item. Page 81 . Source Code: Source codes are the actual programming codes that are produced before the translation of the program into machine codes. Validation: Validation is the checking of data before the main processing to see that it is acceptable for the process. Object Code: Object codes are the codes that are produced after the translation of the program into machine codes. Source code needs to be compiled into object code before it can be executed by a computer. The term most commonly refers to machine code that can be directly executed by the system's central proc essing unit (CPU). Verification: Verification is the checking of data which has been copied from one medium to another to see that it still represents the original data. Type Check: It is the checking of the type of data. Length/Range Check: It is to check the no. Compatibility Check: It is the check of compatibility. OR The process of checking mistakes is called verification. of characters in data. the checking if the data is in the same type/format as it is required or not. Verification: To confirm either that a result is correct or that a procedure or sequence of operations has been performed. This check is validated to prevent duplication and replication of data. OR Human-readable program statements written by a programmer or d eveloper in a high-level or assembly language that are not directly readable by a computer. OR The code. Source Document: The main document from which the data is to be taken. but it can also be assembly language source code or a variation of machine code. that whether the data that is to be entered may be allowed on the basis of terms and conditions of the system or not. whether it is according to the requirements less than or more than the actual limit. generated by a compiler or an assembler that was translated from the source code of a program.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Data Validation & Verification Validation: The process of analyzing data to determine whether it conforms to predetermined completeness and consistency parameters.e. i.

If the two checksums do not match. 6. 6. Due to this the program is executed & produces a result. the computer may be asked to divide by 0 or 1 of the numbers produced may be too large to fit in memory location. Check Digit: A digit added to an account number or other identifying key value and then recomputed when the number is used. 5. Syntax Error. Logical Error: Logical errors are the errors that are found due to the incorrect flow of program. This error comes after the execution of program if we enter wrong entries. and they cannot be used to correct erroneous data. Addition Errors: Errors occurred when some character(s) that is not in the actual data/source document is added by mistake during transferring data into the computer. This process determines whether an error occurred when the number was entered. For e. OR Runtime Error: The error that comes b/c of the mistakes of the user is a Runtime Error. Runtime Error. Check Sum: A calculated value that is used to test data for the presence of errors that can occur when data is transmitted or when it is written to disk. 5. The checksum is calculated for a given chunk of data by sequentially combining all the bytes of data with a series of arithmetic or logical operations.Special Symbols. Page 82 . Random Errors: When the characters/units of the data item are misplaced from their actual place. There are 3 kinds of error: 4.Numeric Characters / Numbers. Syntax Error: The error found due to some mistake or due to some incorrect placement of some command or statement is called Syntax Error. Character: Character is a unit of representing some message. but that result isn’t the expected & desired result.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Transcription Errors: Errors occurred while typing the data / data entry / copying data from source document into computer. a new checksum is calculated in the same way using the (possibly faulty) transmitted or stored data.g.Alphabetic Characters / Alphabets. and the data should be transmitted or stored again. Logical Error. Runtime Error: These are also called execution errors. Checksums cannot detect all errors. Omission Errors: Errors occurred due to the loss of character(s) or data item while transferring data from source to computer. There are three types of characters: 4. an error has occurred. Due to it program isn’t executed. Program Errors Error: A flaw or bug in a program is an error. After the data is transmitted or stored.

It is important to check data when it is entered to make sure that it is both sensible and correct.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Checking data Data stored on a computer is only useful as long as it is correct and up-to-date. an error message would be given to the user. Data that is not sensible or allowed is rejected by the computer. Once both users have entered the data the two sets of data are compared to check that they match up. such as key Page 83 . For example if numeric data is being input a type check could be used to make sure that text data isn’t entered by accident. These are called verification and validation. for example. Presence check A presence check is used to make sure that a value has actually been entered in a field. Range check Range checks are used to check that data is within a certain range of numbers or a specific set of values. If both entries don't match up the data is rejected. Verification Verification is checking to make sure that data has been entered correctly. Verification is often carried out by getting two users to enter the same set of data at different computers. We will now look at some of these in more detail. Verification can also be carried out by software which might. For example if a value in a certain field had to contain five digits and only four digits were input. Type check Type checks are used to check that the correct type of data has been entered in a field. For example if the examination marks for a group of students was being input a range check could be used to make sure that each mark was greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to the maximum possible mark. Any data that does not match up is rejected. Validation Validation checks are carried out by software to make sure that data which has been entered is allowable and sensible. If data is not checked before it is processed any errors could cause the final output to be nonsense. In some database files entering data in certain fields can be optional. There are many different types of validation check that software can make on data. ask for the same data to be entered twice. Length check Length checks are used to check that input data contains a certain number of characters. There are two methods that can be used to check data when it is input. Other fields.

The hash total is input along with the numbers. are compulsory and must have values entered in them. The computer calculates a hash total for the numbers that have been input. Parity check Sometimes when data is being transferred electronically from one place to another it can become corrupted. A parity check involves adding an extra 0 or 1. A parity check is used to make sure that data has not been corrupted during transmission. This calculation gives Page 84 . In even parity the parity bit is set to either 0 or 1 so that the total number of 1s adds up to an even number. If the hash total calculated by the computer does not match the hash total that was input with the numbers then one or more of the numbers have either not been entered or have been entered incorrectly. this is called odd parity. 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 In odd parity the parity bit is set to either 0 or 1 so that the total number of 1s adds up to an odd number. In this example there are two 1s so the value 1 is needed in the parity bit to make the number of 1s odd. A presence check makes sure that data is present in a field where it is compulsory that a value is needed. to the binary pattern so that the total number of 1s in the pattern is either an even number. The value of a check digit is worked out by performing a calculation using the individual digits that make up a number. A check digit is an extra digit placed at the end of long number that can be used to check if the number has been input correctly. A hash total is the sum of a group of numbers that are going to be input. 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Hash total Hash totals are used to check that groups of numbers have been input correctly. or an odd number. this is called even parity.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide fields for example. Check digit Check digits are used to validate long numbers that have a lot of digits in them. Data is transmitted as a binary pattern of 0s and 1s. called a parity bit. Check digits are often used to check numbers that have been input using direct data entry devices such as bar code scanners or light pens. excluding the actual check digit itself. In this example there are four 1s so the value 0 is needed in the parity bit to keep the number of 1s even.

this is called a transposition error. Coding data When data is input using a manual input device such as a keyboard. The two exceptions are: If the remainder is 0 and the result is 11 the check digit is 0. § The results of these calculations are added together to give a total. If the remainder is 1 and the result is 10 the check digit is X. not 11. not 10. Calculating check digits using the modulus-11 method § Each digit is assigned a weight starting at 2 with the right hand digit. Suppose that a field could contain one of three possible values. • Time is saved when entering data because there is less to type in each time. § The total is divided by 11. Instead of typing in the full word each time we could instead type S. errors often occur due to values being entered incorrectly. small. • Database packages allow automatic validation checks to be set up to make sure that only the allowed codes have been input in a field. If the two check digits differ then the data is rejected. One method that can be used to cut down on errors like this is to use coded values for data. M or L The advantages of coding values are: • Fewer key presses are needed when entering a value in the field so there is less chance of the wrong keys being pressed. § Each digit is multiplied by its weight. § The remainder is subtracted from 11 to give the check digit. A common mistake is to swap two letters or digits around.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide the value of the check digit which is then compared to the check digit as it was input. Page 85 . medium or large.

to which a program might respond-for example. and variables. C++. Currently. key presses. interactive objects. Active X Control: A reusable software component based on Microsoft's ActiveX technology that is used to add interactivity and more functionality. Event: An action or occurrence. that usually performs a single task. the program carries out the instructions of the macro. is built on Microsoft's Component Object Model (COM). A procedure can usually be called (executed) by other procedures. such as animation or a popup menu. When the key code is typed or the macro name is used.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Coding Coding: Writing a program in programming language codes/reserved words is called coding. and Visual Basic. series of strokes with a shorter version. applications. a collection of routines and data structures that performs a particular task or implements a particular abstract data type. ActiveX. likely to be used in reference to shorter. a set of keystrokes and instructions recorded and saved under a short key code or macro name. An ActiveX control can be written in any of a number of languages. Users can create a macro to save time by replacing an often-used. Routine: Any section of code that can be invoked (executed) within a program. Module: In programming. which was developed by Microsoft in the mid 1990s and is currently administered by the Open Group. and sophisticated applications. a named sequence of statements. including Java. data types. frequently called routines. often with associated constants. general. as well as by the main body of the program. or mouse movements. ActiveX is used primarily to develop interactive content for the World Wide Web. Procedure: In a program. button clicks. sometimes lengthy. often generated by the user. ActiveX controls can be embedded in Web pages to produce animation and other multimedia effects. and software development tools. regardless of the language in which the components were created. Page 86 . Sub-routine: A common term for routine. although it can be used in desktop applications and other programs. Macro: In applications. Active X: A set of technologies that enables software components to interact with one another in a networked environment. A routine usually has a name (identifier) associated with it and is executed by referencing that name. to a Web page.

Modular Programming: Modular programming is an approach to writing programs which divides up a task into separate sections or modules (sub programs) to perform a specific job. setup instructions. OR The block diagrammatic representation of the flow of program is known as Flowchart. Structured Programming: Programming that produces programs with clean flow. and ovals represent various operations. and then translate it line by line into the actual language being used. transparent notation in which a program or algorithm description is written. OR To execute a group of statements repeatedly. In theory amendments are easier to make because individual sections can be corrected without having to work through the whole program. and a degree of modularity or hierarchical structure. Dry Run: Running a program intended to have a dramatic effect.handling system. Loops: A set of statements in a program executed repeatedly. Pseudo codes: Any informal. Conditional Jump: In a program. Jump: An instruction that transfers the flow of execution from one statement or instruction to another. Documentation: The set of instructions shipped with a program or a piece of hardware. diamonds. such as C or Pascal. a jump instruction that occurs when a particular condition code is true or false. Many programmers write their programs first in a pseudo code that looks much like a mixture of English and their favourite programming language. and instructions on the use and maintenance of the product. either a fixed number of times or until some condition is true or false.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Problem Solving Algorithm: A finite sequence of steps for solving a logical or mathematical problem or performing a task. Robust: Able to function or to continue functioning well in unexpected situations. clear design. These symbols are connected by lines and arrows to indicate the flow of data or control from one point to another. Symbols such as squares. Page 87 . OR A sequenced set of instructions in general English which is used to solve a problem is called an Algorithm. such as formatting a disk or printing a book. Flowchart: A graphic map of the path of control or data through the operations in a program or an information. thus avoiding formatting a disk with data on it or wasting paper. with the effect disabled. Documentation usually includes necessary information about the type of computer system required.

and even inferences regarding the data. creative response. Loaders: A utility that loads the executable code of a program into memory for execution. relationships. A linker can also have other functions. and easy to use. either spoken or written. by using knowledge and analytical rules defined by experts in the field. Intelligent Database: A database that manipulates stored information in a way that people find logical. detects or measures light by converting it to electrical energy. An intelligent database conducts searches relying not only on traditional data-finding routines but also on predetermined rules governing associations. which enable the system to justify or explain its conclusions as well as allowing developers to run checks on the operating system. The reasoning ability or problem-solving approach that a specialist would use is contained in the inference engine. which forms another crucial part of an expert system. On most microcomputers. Knowledge Base: A form of database used in expert systems that contains the accumulated body of knowledge of human specialists in a particular field. Natural-Language Processing: A field of computer science and linguistics that studies computer systems that can recognize and react to human language. Sensor: A device that detects or measures something by converting nonelectrical energy to electrical energy. Additional tools include user interfaces and explanation facilities. the loader is an invisible part of the operating system and is automatically invoked when a program is run. for example. Inference Engine: The processing portion of an expert system. a knowledge base and an inference engine. and the ability to make inferences given incomplete information. natural. A photocell. It matches input propositions with facts and rules contained in a knowledge base a nd then derives a conclusion. It uses two components. to form conclusions. the ability to learn from experience. Linkers: program that links compiled modules and data files to create an executable program.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Expert System & Data Logging Expert System: An application program that makes decisions or solves problems in a particular field. on which the expert system then acts. Acronym: AI. Two common areas of artificial-intelligence research are expert systems and natural-language processing. inference. such as creating libraries. Page 88 . such as finance or medicine. Artificial Intelligence: The branch of computer science concerned with enabling computers to simulate such aspects of human intelligence as speech recognition. deduction. Data Logging: the automatic capture of data (by means of sensors) over a certain period of time.

expertsystems. § No feedback of further experiences § Difficulties in initial setting up Web Sites § www.com/pcai/New_Home_Page/ai_info/expert_systems.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Expert Systems § Definition § How it works § Examples § Limitations Definition § also known as Knowledge-Based system § a software system which attempts to simulate human knowledge and suggest solutions to a given problem How It Works § The computer is programmed with a set of questions and a given set of rules.expertsystems. § Could become out of date as knowledge improves.html Page 89 .com/projects.html § www.com § www.primenet. The questions and answers are provided by human ‘experts’ § The user’s answers to those questions are processed according to these rules and a course of action is suggested Examples § medical diagnosis § engine diagnostics § energy conservation § commodity prices § share dealing Limitations § Training needed to operate the system § Knowledge base is only as good as the ‘experts’ who set up the system.

Other legislation applied to non-computer storage of data. A law which obliges data users to register with the Data Registrar Compels data users to follow a set of 8 principles.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide The Data Protection Act Data Protection Act • Why ? • Who Are The Data Users ? • What Is In The Dpa ? • Misuse Of Data • Principles • Responsibilities Of Data Users • Personal Rights • Exemptions WHO ARE THE DATA USERS? Schools Police Banks Employers Businesses Government departments Why ? • • • • More personal data being stored on computers. Need to protect people from the misuse of data. storage and processing of personal data about living ind ividuals. What Is In The Dpa? • • • A law which applies to the collection. Other EU countries already had legislation. Page 90 .

relevant and not excessive in relation to the intended purpose Data shall be accurate and kept up-to-date Data not be kept for any longer than necessary An individual has a right to know that data is being held and have access to that data Appropriate security shall protect the data against unauthorised access. Responsiblities Of Data Users • Register the following details with the Data Registrar: • • • • • • Details to be held Why data is being held How data was obtained To whom the data will be passed Names of any countries where the data may be transferred Pay the registration fee. alteration.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Misuse of Data • • • • Easier to cross reference Hacking Easier to alter Easier and faster to access Principles • • • • • • • • Information shall be obtained and processed fairly and lawfully Data shall be held only for the specified and lawful purpose Data shall not be disclosed to non authorised users Data shall be adequate. deletion. Exemptions • • data related to national security data required by law to be made public Page 91 . Personal Rights You have the right to • • see your details. with some exceptions have t he data amended where you can prove it is wrong.

gov.bsi.org. pensions & wages data relating to crime detection data relating to immigration data relating to tax data not held on a computer Web Sites • • www.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide • • • • • • data concerning personal and family held within the family some data relating to salaries.htm Page 92 .open.uk/dpr/dprhome.uk/disc/PD12 www.

Installation: To run the system after making it to accomplish task of making or updating of the system is called Installation. the production of documentation and all other sources is called Design. Problem Definition 3. the durability of the new system and the costs and benefits of the new system is called feasibility study. Implementation: All the designing of the system is to be worked out in order to make or update a system.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide The System Life Cycle System: A system is a set of components that work as a unit. Installation Problem Definition: To find out the actual problem by studying and investigating the system is called problem definition. Feasibility Study: The study of system to find out all the possible solution within available sources. Investigation 2. Page 93 . system study and using system is called Investigating. Investigation: The process of finding the problem and the causes of problem by conducting interviews. Design: After the investigation of the system. The System Life Cycle is based of the following steps: 1. the program is yet to be structured properly i. OR A system is a set of units that work in a particular direction of flow in order to fulfil a task. which is known as Implementation. understand and investigate a system in order to find out the actual problem is called System Analysis. Design 5.e. An information processing system consists of everything required to carry out a particular processing task. System Analysis: To study. Implementation 6. Analysis 4.

A description of some alternative solutions.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide The System Life Cycle The system life cycle is a series of stages that are worked through during the development of a new information system. legal and social factors that have been considered. A new system is much more likely to be successful if it is carefully planned and developed. Feasibility report contents A description of the existing system outlining what is being done and how it is being done. A description of the technical. Analysis During the analysis stage systems analysts investigate the existing system to identify exactly what the problems are with the existing system Systems analysts will use a variety of factfinding methods to gather information e. This is an investigation that is carried out by a systems analyst to find out what the main problems are with the existing system and if it is technically possible and cost-effective to solve these problems by developing a computer based solution.g. A lot of time and money can be wasted if a system is developed that doesn’t work properly or do exactly what is required of it. A set of problem statements describing exactly what the problems are with the existing system. A recommended course of action. Feasibility study Analysis Maintenance Design Implementation Feasibility Study The first stage of the system life cycle. A set of system objectives which describe what the new system must be able to do. economic. • Questionnaires • Interviews • Observation • Examining documents Page 94 .

g.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Data Flow diagrams and systems flowcharts Once the systems analysts have completed their investigation they produce a detailed description of how the existing system works. The arrow should be labelled to describe what data is involved. Disk or Tape A systems flowchart Transactions Tape Sort Sorted Transactions Tape New Master Old Master Update Design Tape Tape • Alternative possible solutions are identified • Alternative solutions evaluated • The best solution is identified • A design specification is produced containing information about: • Input • Output Page 95 . or Printer Display Any storage e. Symbols used in Flowcharts Process Any Input or Output e. the bottom to say where the process takes place. the middle to give a brief explanation. Data store – such as a file held on disk or a batch of documents Data flow – the arrow represents movement between entities. The two lines are optional. Methods used to help describe the system include data flow diagrams and systems flowcharts Symbols used in DFDs External entity – data source or data destination. or receive information such as an invoice. processes or data stores.g. for example people who generate data such as a customer order. the top section of the box can be used to label the process. Process – an operation performed on the data.

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide • • • • • Data storage User interface Backup and recovery procedures Security procedures Test plan Typical format for a test plan Test number 1 2 Test data Purpose Expected Result Mark rejected Mark accepted ‘David Cooke’ added to the student database Actual Result Enter incorrect mark ‘–1’ Enter incorrect mark ‘45’ Enter new student with Student_number ‘100’ forename ‘David’ surname ‘Cooke’ Test input mark function Test input mark function Test ‘Add new student’ function 3 Page 96 .

this is within the range Enter a mark of ‘0’ . • systems flowcharts.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Implementation This stage involves: • Setting up the system so that it matches the design specification • Testing carried out using the plan to make sure that all the parts of the system work correctly with normal.this is on the limit of the range Enter a mark of ‘101’ . Page 97 . this is on the limit of the range Enter a mark of ‘100’ .this is out of the range Purpose Test input mark function Expected Result Mark accepted Actual Result Test input mark function Mark accepted Mark accepted 2 Test input mark function Mark accepted 3 4 Test input mark function Mark rejected Installing the new system Might include: • Installing any new hardware and software • Transferring data from the existing system to the new one • Training users how to operate the new system Producing documentation Technical documentation • the system design specification. extreme and erroneous data Test number 1 Test data Enter a mark of ‘50’ . extreme and erroneous data • Normal test data is used to check that a system can handle the sort of data that would be expected during day-to-day use • Extreme test data is used to check that a system can cope with data that lies on the boundaries of what is acceptable • Erroneous (or exceptional) test data is used to check that a system can identify data that is wrong and reject it Testing using normal. • data flow diagrams.

such as telephone support lines and on-line tutorials. • screen layouts and user interface designs. • Where to get more help. • minimum hardware and software requirements of the system. • the test plan.O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide • description of the various parts of the system and what each one does. Maintenance A new • • • information system may need to be changed due to: Change in needs of user Problems not found during testing Improvements required in the way the system works Page 98 . • Error messages. User documentation • a description of what the system is designed to do. • instructions on how to load and run the system. their meaning and how to deal with them. • detailed instructions on how to operate each part of the system.Postimplementation review Carried out after the new system has been running for a few weeks or months to identify any modifications that may need to be made.

O Level Computer Studies 7010/01 Study Guide Past Y ear Papers Page 99 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful