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Formulae to find out radius of
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a given curve or curve section
By
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Jayesh Jaiswal
jayeshjaiswal@yahoo.com
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Formulae to find out radius of a given curve or curve
section

Formulae to find out radius of a given curve or
curve section
By

Jayesh Jaiswal

jayeshjaiswal@yahoo.com

Page 2

Formulae to find out radius of a given curve or curve
section

Figure 1

Here, r = radius of curve
c = chord passing through curve ( 0 < c ≤ 2r )
p = perpendicular distance between curve and chord c ( 0 < p ≤ r )
k = angle inscribed inside the curve ( 90º ≤ k ≤ 180º )

[A] k in terms of c and r
From graphical observations:

For 0 ≤ c ≤ r or c ∈ (0, r]
k = 180º - [(c/r)30º] -------------------------------------------------(1)

For r ≤ c ≤ 7r/4 or c ∈ [r, 7r/4]
k = 180º - [(c/r) (30º + 10º)] + 10º
k = 190º - [(c/r)40º] -------------------------------------------------(2)

For 7r/4 ≤ c ≤ 2r or c ∈ [7r/4, 2r]
k = 180º - [(c/r) (30º + 90º)] + 150º
k = 330º - [(c/r)120º] -----------------------------------------------(3)

Considering figure (2)
k1 = 180º - ½ (α)
Therefore, k1 = 180º - k2 --------------------------------------------------(4)
Hence,
• for c ∈ (0, r]
½(α) = (c/r)30º ------------------------------------------------------(5)

for c ∈ [r, 7r/4]

jayeshjaiswal@yahoo.com

Page 3

Formulae to find out radius of a given curve or curve
section
½(α) = [(c/r)40º] - 10º ---------------------------------------------(6)

for c ∈ [7r/4, 2r]
½(α) = [(c/r)120º] - 150º ------------------------------------------(7)

For 0 ≤ c ≤ r or c ∈ (0, r]
k2 = [(c/r)30º] or [c(30º) – r(0º)]/r ------------------------------(8)

For r ≤ c ≤ 7r/4 or c ∈ [r, 7r/4]
k2 = [c(40º) – r(10º)]/r --------------------------------------------(9)

For 7r/4 ≤ c ≤ 2r or c ∈ [7r/4, 2r]
k2 = [c(120º) – r(150º)]/r ----------------------------------------(10)

If,

Deviation θ degree [of (2), (3) from (1)]

For 0 ≤ c ≤ r or c ∈ (0, r]
θ = 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------(11)

For r ≤ c ≤ 7r/4 or c ∈ [r, 7r/4]
θ = 180º - [(c/r)30º] - 190º + [(c/r)40º]
therefore, θ = 10º[(c/r) – 1] --------------------------------------(12)

For 7r/4 ≤ c ≤ 2r or c ∈ [7r/4, 2r]
θ = 180º - [(c/r)30º] - 330º + [(c/r)120º]
therefore, θ = [(c/r)90º] – 150º
therefore, θ = 30º[(3c/r) – 5] ------------------------------------(13)

Deviation θ’ degree [of (3) from (2)]
θ' = 190º - [(c/r)40º] - 330º + [(c/r)120º]
therefore, θ’ = [(c/r)80º] – 140º
therefore, θ’ = 20º[(4c/r) – 7] --------------------------------------------(14)

[B] k in terms of p and r

for p ∈ (0, r/8]
k = 180º - [(p/r)240º] ---------------------------------------------(15)

for p ∈ [r/8, r/2]
k = 160º - [(p/r)80º] ----------------------------------------------(16)

for p ∈ [r/2, r]

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Page 4

Formulae to find out radius of a given curve or curve
section
k = 150º - [(p/r)60º] ----------------------------------------------(17)
Deviation θ degree [of (16), (17) from (15)]

For 0 ≤ p ≤ r/8 or p ∈ (0, r/8]
θ = 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------(18)

For r/8 ≤ p ≤ r/2 or p ∈ [r/8, r/2]
θ = 160º - [(p/r)80º] - 180º + [(p/r)240º]
therefore, θ = [(p/r)160º] – 20º
therefore, θ = 20º[(8p/r) – 1] -----------------------------------(19)

For r/2 ≤ p ≤ r or p ∈ [r/2, r]
θ = 150º - [(p/r)60º] - 180º + [(p/r)240º]
therefore, θ = [(p/r)180º] – 30º
therefore, θ = 30º[(6p/r) – 1] -----------------------------------(20)

Deviation θ’ degree [of (17) from (16)]
θ' = 150º - [(p/r)60º] - 160º + [(p/r)80º]
therefore, θ’ = [(p/r)20º] – 10º
therefore, θ’ = 10º[(2p/r) – 1] -------------------------------------------(21)
Correlating c and p:

For 0 ≤ c ≤ r or c ∈ (0, r] & for p ∈ (0, r/8]
180º - [(p/r)240º] = 180º - [(c/r)30º]
therefore [(p/r)240º] – [(c/r)30º] = 0
therefore (8p/r) – (c/r) = 0
c/p = 8 -------------------------------------------------------------(22)

For r ≤ c ≤ 7r/4 or c ∈ [r, 7r/4] & for p ∈ [r/8, r/2]
160º - [(p/r)80º] = 190º - [(c/r)40º]
therefore, [(c/r)40º] – [(p/r)80º] = 30º
therefore, (c/r) – (2p/r) = ¾
therefore, c-2p = 3r/4
therefore, c = (3r+8p)/4 -----------------------------------------(23)

For 7r/4 ≤ c ≤ 2r or c ∈ [7r/4, 2r] & for p ∈ [r/2, r]
150º - [(p/r)60º] = 330º - [(c/r)120º]
therefore, [(c/r)120º] – [(p/r)60º] = 180º
therefore, (2c/r) – (p/r) = 3
therefore, 2c = 3r + p
therefore, c = (3r+p)/2 ------------------------------------------(24)

jayeshjaiswal@yahoo.com

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Formulae to find out radius of a given curve or curve
section
[D] Clarifying (22) and Finding r:

For 7r/4 ≤ c ≤ 2r or c ∈ [7r/4, 2r] & for p ∈ [r/2, r]
r = (2c – p)/3 -----------------------------------------------------(25)

For r ≤ c ≤ 7r/4 or c ∈ [r, 7r/4] & for p ∈ [r/8, r/2]
r = (4c – 8p)/3 ---------------------------------------------------(26)

For 0 ≤ c ≤ r or c ∈ (0, r] & for p ∈ (0, r/8]
Assuming, r = (xc – yp)/3 -------------------------------------(27)
Putting c = r and p = r/8
y – 8x + 24 = 0 --------------------------------------(27a)
Putting c = 3r/4 and p = r/16
y – 12x + 48 = 0 -------------------------------------(27b)
Multiplying (27b) by (-1)
-y + 12x – 48 = 0 ------------------------------------(27c)
Now, adding (27b) and (27c)
4x – 24 = 0
therefore, x = 6 ---------------------------------------(27d)
Putting (27c) in (27a)
y = 24 -------------------------------------------------(27e)
Putting (27d) and (27e) in (27)
r = (6c – 24p)/3
therefore, r = 2(c-4p), for c ∈ (0, r] and p ∈ (0, r/8]-------(28)


For c = 0 and p = 0, value of r is indefinite.
Here, c/p ∈ [2, ∞)
Hence one can always select c and p for a given curve or curve section such that
c/p ≥ 2

Some Interesting Observations
Suppose,
r = radius of curve,
c = chord passing through curve
p = perpendicular distance between curve and curve section
k = angle inscribed inside the curve
d=r–p
-r ≤ d ≤ r
0 ≤ k ≤ 180º
0 ≤ p ≤ 2r
jayeshjaiswal@yahoo.com

Page 6

Formulae to find out radius of a given curve or curve
section
0 ≤ c ≤ 2r
d = 0 p = r k = 90º
d = r p = 0 k = 180º
d = -r p = 2r k = 0º
If p increases by r k decreases by 90º
If p decreases by r k increases by 90º
If d increases by r k increases by 90º
If d decreases by r k decreases by 90º
If p increases by r/p k decreases by 90º/p
If p decreases by r/p k increases by 90º/p
p = r k = 90º
p = (r + r) k = 0º
p = (r – r) k = 180º
c = 2p k = 90º
c = (0)p k = 180º
c = 3p k = 120º
c = 6p k = 150º
c = (0)r k = 180º
c = r/2 k = 165º
c = r k = 150º
k = 180º- (c/r)30º, [r ≤ c ≤ 2r]
Deviation θ,
c
r
5r/4
3r/2
7r/4

θ

2.5º

7.5º

jayeshjaiswal@yahoo.com

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Formulae to find out radius of a given curve or curve
section

Double Circle Concept

Figure 2

Some Interesting Graphs
C→K

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P→K

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Formulae to find out radius of a given curve or curve
section

C → deviation θ

P→C

Some Interesting Data
K1°
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300

C
P
α°
0
2r
360
r
15r/8 300
7r/4 3r/2 240
2r
r
180
7r/4 r/2 120
r
r/8
60
0
0
0
r
r/8
7r/4 r/2
2r
r
7r/4 3r/2

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Figure 3

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Formulae to find out radius of a given curve or curve
section
330
360

r
0

15r/8
2r

Figure 4

C

0
30
60
90
12
0
15
0
18
0
21
0
24
0
27
0
30
0
33
0
36
0

0

r

P Q
2r 0

0

3r/20

0

3r/20 23r/80 21r/80
0

11r/20

0

P

3r
4r/5
0
2r/5

Q

4r
9r/5
r
3r/5

7r/10

3r/10

r

0

3r/10

3r/20 13r/16 21r/80 13r/10 3r/10

9r/20

3r/10 43r/40 21r/40

13r/20

2r

2r

P
Q
P
Q




37r/20
2r
59r/20 7r/2
15r/20 9r/10 41r/40 63r/40
7r/20
r/2 13r/40 7r/8
3r/20 3r/10 r/40 21r/40
0

0

7r/4

r/2

8r/5

3r/5

57r/40

7r/8

2r

r

21r/20 9r/10

17r/8

63r/40

14r/5

9r/5

43r/20

2r

81r/20

7r/2

5r

4r

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