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Pattern Language 3.

0 Methodological Advances in Sharing Design Knowledge

Takashi Iba, Faculty of Policy Management, Keio University, Japan, In this paper, I show an emerging new innovation around pattern languages, which is a method to describe design knowledge in a certain domain from the viewpoint of problem finding and problem solving (Alexander, 1979). We call the new stage Pattern Language 3.0 (PL3.0), distinguishing from the previous stages, which we call here Pattern Language 1.0 (PL1.0) and Pattern Language 2.0 (PL2.0). In what follows, I will presents the evolution of pattern languages and clarifying the difference among these stages. In order to understand the evolution of pattern languages, the following three aspects are considered: the object of design which pattern languages help, why to make pattern languages, and how to make pattern languages. First, the object of design with the PL1.0 is physical form like architecture; the object of design with the PL2.0 is non-physical form such as software, interface, and organization; and the object of design with the PL3.0 is form of human action such as learning, collaboration, facilitation, and change agents. The PL3.0 is quite different from others, since the object of design is same to the subject of design only in the PL3.0; there is a self-referential circulation for designing, and accordingly the meta-cognition for designing becomes more important than before. The second aspect is why to make pattern languages. In the PL1.0, a pattern language was used as media for bridging the gap between designers and users: in the case of Alexanders case, architects and residents; He considered his pattern language helps residents to participate their community development. In the PL2.0, pattern languages were used as media for bridging the gap between expert and non-expert designers: in the case of software design, expert software engineers and non-expert software engineers; It has been common use of pattern languages for software development that non-expert engineers learn the knack of good practice by reading the book. In the PL3.0, a pattern language was used as a media for connecting people who have different experiences: in the case of the Learning Patterns, the workshop are held, where participants talk about their experiences in the light of patterns each other. The third aspect is why to make pattern languages. In the PL1.0, mining and writing of design knowledge are done by expert designers; for example, Alexander made the pattern language in architecture with his fellow architects, and then published as a book. In the PL2.0, collaborative improvement of patterns is introduced: shepherding system and writers workshop; while the improvement process is opened, the process of mining and writing is still closed in the expert designers. In the PL3.0, pattern languages are made through collaborative mining, writing, and improvement; finally, all process is opened. Thus, the history of development process of patterns is the history of involving otherness. In this paper, I focus on the innovation on the use of pattern languages in PL3.0, connecting people who have different experiences. The workshop is designed for that participants talk about their experience in the light of patterns. Through the workshop, participants acquire a new vocabulary and deeper understanding of the patterns. Furthermore, the workshop provides shared experience in using the pattern language in their community, and thus the participants become to have no hesitation in talking their experience and knowledge in their community. Whenever we hold the workshop explained above several time, we are surprised at the excitement of participants. Based on our observation and survey, the pattern language was used as a medium for reflecting their experience, and the workshop provide a good opportunity to understand the meaning of each pattern and to talk about how to learn with others. 1

To understand what happens in the workshop, I analyze it with the Social Systems Theory (Luhmann, 1996), where communication is defined as an event that is emerged when understanding both the meaning of information (what is uttered) and the intention of utterance (why it is uttered). As a result, it is figured out that each pattern in the pattern language implies what is appropriate as information for communications at the workshop, and the rules of workshop decreases the uncertainty of utterance. Thus, both a pattern language and workshop are necessary to facilitate the dialogue about the experiences.

References Alexander, C. (1979). The Timeless Way of Building: Oxford University Press. Iba, T., & Miyake, T. (2010). "Learning Patterns: A Pattern Language for Creative Learners II," in 1st Asian Conference of Pattern Language of Programs. Luhmann, N. (1996), Social Systems: Stanford University Press.

Proposed Length of paper: 10 pages