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Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: "The best of days on which the sun

has risen is Friday. One this day Adam was created, and on this day he was descended to earth." (al Bukhari)

Abraham by leaving his people & his father after a long hard journey arrived at a place by the Mediterranean Sea, not far from Egypt. There he married a noble woman by the name of Sarah and settled in the land of Palestine. Many years passed but Abraham and his wife were not blessed with any children. In the hope that there would be a child, and in keeping with tradition, Sarah suggested that Abraham should marry Hagar, her Egyptian handmaid. Soon after this took place, Hagar had a little boy named Ishmael. Some time later Allah promised Abraham another son, but this time the mother of the child would be his first wife, Sarah. This second son would be called Isaac. Allah also told Abraham that from his two sonsIshmael and Isaac-two nations and three religions would be founded and because of this he must take Hagar and Ishmael away from Palestine to a new land. These events were an important part of Allah's plan, for the descendants of Ishmael would form a nation from which would come a great Prophet, who would guide the people in the way of Allah. This was to be Muhammad (pbuh), the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). From the descendants of Sarah's child, Isaac, would come Moses and Jesus. So it was that Abraham, Hagar, and Ishmael left Palestine. They traveled for many days until finally they reached the arid valley of Bacca later to be called Mecca), which was on one of the great caravan routes. There was no water in the valley and although Hagar and Ishmael only had a small supply of water left, Abraham left them there knowing Allah would take care of them. Soon all the water was gone. The child began to grow weak from thirst. There were two hills nearby, one called Safa and the other Marwah. Hagar went up one hill and looked into the distance to see if she could find any water, but found none. So she went to the other hill and did the same. She did this seven times. Then sadly she returned to her son, and to her great surprise and joy she found a spring of water bubbling out of the earth near him. This spring, near which the mother and child settled, was later called Zamzam. The area around it became a place of rest for the caravans traveling across the desert and in time grew into the famous trading city of Mecca. From time to time Abraham traveled from Palestine to visit his family and he saw Ishmael grow into a strong young man. It was during one of these visits that Allah commanded them to rebuild the Ka'bah-the very first place where people had worshipped Allah. They were told exactly where and how to build it. It was to be erected by the well of Zamzam and built in the shape of a cube. In its eastern corner was to be placed a black stone that had fallen to earth from heaven. An angel brought the stone to them from the hill of Abu Qubays. Abraham and Ishmael worked har'bah and as they did so they prayed to Allah to send a Prophet from among their descendants. When the Ka'bah was completed, Allah commanded Abraham to call mankind to pilgrimage to His Holy House. Abraham wondered how anyone could hear his call. Allah said, 'You call and I will bring them.' This was how the pilgrimage to the Ka'bah in Mecca was established

and when Muslims make the pilgrimage today they continue to answer the age-old call of Abraham. OVER the years Ishmael's children themselves had children. His descendants increased and formed tribes which spread out all over Arabia. One of these tribes was One of the duties of the leader of Quraysh was to look after those who came on pilgrimage to the Ka'bah. As time passed, however, the Arabs stopped worshipping Allah directly and started bringing idols back with them from the different countries they visited. Also at this time, Qusayy, one of the leaders of Quraysh, became ruler over Mecca. He held the keys of the temple .After Qusayy's death, his son 'Abdu Manaf, who had become famous during his father's lifetime, took over the leadership of Quraysh. After him came his son Hashim. It is said that Hashim was the first to begin the two great caravan journeys of Quraysh, one in the summer to Syria and the north, and one in the winter to Yemen and the south. One summer Hashim went north to buy goods to sell in Yemen. On his way he stopped in Yathrib to trade in the market and there he saw a beautiful woman. She was Salma', the daughter of 'Amr ibn Zeid, who was from a much respected family. Hashim proposed marriage to her and was accepted . In time, Salma' gave birth to a beautiful son and as some of his hair was white they called him Shaybah, which in Arabic means grey-haired'. Mother and son stayed in the cooler, healthier climate of Yathrib, while Hashim returned to Mecca,. During one of these journeys, however, Hashim became ill and died. Shaybah, a handsome, intelligent boy, grew up in his uncle's house in Yathrib. He was proud of being the son of Hashim ibn 'Abdi Manaf, the head of Quraysh, guardian of the Ka'bah and protector of the pilgrims, At Hashim's death his brother alMuttalib took over his duties and responsibilities. He traveled to Yathrib to see his nephew, Shaybah, and decided that as the boy would one day inherit his father's place, the time had come for him to live in Mecca. It was hard for Salma', Shaybah's mother, to let her son go with his uncle but she finally realized that it was for the best. Al-Muttalib returned to Mecca, entering the city at noon on his camel with Shaybah behind him. When the people of Mecca saw the boy they thought he was a slave and, pointing at him, called out Abd al-Muttalib', 'Abd' being the Arabic for 'slave'. Al-Muttalib told them that Shaybah was not a slave but his nephew who had come to live with them. From that day on, however, Shaybah was always affectionately called Abd alMuttalib. On the death of al-Muttalib, who died in Yemen where he had gone to trade, 'Abd al-Muttalib took his place. He became the most respected member of his family, loved and admired by all. He was, however, unlike those Arabs who had given up the teachings of Abraham. THE well of Zamzam, which disappeared when the Arabs placed idols at the Ka'bah, remained buried under the sand.'Abd al-Muttalib had a dream in which he was told to dig up Zamzam. 'Abd al-Muttalib had one son at that time, and together they began to dig. The work was so difficult that Abd al-Muttalib made an oath to Allah that if one day he were to have ten sons to help him and stand by him, in return he would sacrifice one of them in Allah's honor. After working for three days they finally found the well of Zamzam. The years passed by and 'Abd al-Muttalib did have ten sons. They grew into fine, strong men and the time came for him to keep his promise to Allah. He told his sons about the promise and they agreed that he had to sacrifice one of them .To see which one it would be, they decided to draw lots, which was the custom of Quraysh when deciding important matters.. On the arrow he chose was written the name of 'Abd Allah, the youngest and favorite son of 'Abd alMuttalib. Even so, the father took his son near the Ka'bah and prepared to sacrifice him.

Many of the Quraysh leaders were present and they became very angry because 'Abd Allah was very young and much loved by everyone. They tried to think of a way to save his life. Abd Allah was saved and everyone was very happy. 'Abd Allah grew up to be a handsome young man and his father eventually chose Aminah, the daughter of Wahb, as a wife for him. It was a good match for she was the finest of Quraysh women and 'Abd Allah the best of the men. He spent several months with his wife but then he had to leave her and travel with one of the caravans to trade with Syria. On his way back to Mecca from Syria 'Abd Allah became ill and had to stop off in Yathrib to recover. The caravan, however, continued on its way and arrived back in Mecca without him. On hearing of 'Abd Allah's illness, Abd al-Muttalib sent another son, al-Hareth, to bring 'Abd Allah back to Mecca, but he was too late. When he arrived in Yathrib Abd Allah was dead. Aminah was heart-broken to lose her husband and the father of the child she would soon give birth to. Only Allah knew that this orphan child would one day be a great Prophet

Biography (Seera)
The Prophet Muhammad was the son of Abdullah, who was the son of AbdulMuttalib, who was the son of Hashim; whose ancestry reaches the Prophet Ismael son of the Prophet Abraham, peace be upon them. Muhammad was born in the city of Mecca , in Arabia

The life of the Prophet Muhammad (c. 570-632 CE) Muhammad(SAW), son of Abdullah, son of Abdul Muttalib( called as Shaiba because of white hair in his head) , of the tribe of Quraysh(,in the family of Bani Hashim) was born in Makkah fifty-three years before the Hijrah. His father died before he was born, and he was protected first by his grandfather, Abdul Muttalib, and after his grandfathers death, by his uncle Abu Talib. Abdul-Muttalib witnessed two important events in his lifetime, namely digging Zamzam well by him and the Elephant raid. The Event of the Elephant took place in the month of Al-Muharram, fifty or fifty five days before the birth of Prophet Muhammad which corresponded to late February or early March 571 A.D.ABRAHAH, king of Abyssiniah

hated the idea of Mecca being more important than his own country, so he decided to destroy the Ka1bah. He prepared a large army led by an elephant and set off towards Mecca. He put armor on his elephant and drew up his troops for battle. He intended to destroy the Ka'bah and then return to Yemen Suddenly, flocks of birds appeared from over the sea. Each bird carried three stones as small as peas and they dropped them on Abrahah1s army. The soldiers suddenly fell ill. Even Abrahah was hit by the stones and fled in fear with the rest of his army back to Yemen, where he later died After this, Quraysh gained great respect and became known as 'the people of Allah', and the year in which these events took place, 570A.D, was named the 'Year of the Elephant'. In that year Allah had saved the Ka'bah and he would soon bring forth a Prophet from among Quraysh

Abdul-Muttalib chose Amina, the wife for his son, Abdullah. Her father was the chief of Bani Zahra to whom great honour was attributed. They were married in Makkah, and soon after Abdullah was sent by his father to buy dates in Madinah where he died. He was twenty-five years old when he died. Most historians state that his death was two months before the birth of Muhammad . Some others said that his death was two months after the Prophets birth. Abdullah left very little wealth five camels, a small number of goats, a she-servant, called Barakah Umm Aiman who would later serve as the Prophets nursemaid Muhammad , was born in Bani Hashim lane in Makkah on Monday morning, the ninth of Rabi Al-Awwal, the same year of the Elephant Event, Abdul-Muttalib called the baby Muhammad (The praised one), a name not then common among the Arabs. He circumcised him on his seventh day as was the custom of the Arabs. The Prophet was later entrusted to Haleemah & and returned him to his mother with whom he stayed until he was six. Amina died in Abwa on the road between Makkah and Madinah When Muhammad was eight years, two months and ten days old, his grandfather Abdul Muttalib passed away in Makkah. The charge of the Prophet was now passed on to his uncle Abu Talib, who was the brother of the Prophets father

Unlike those around him, Muhammed never worshipped the idols and never swore by them. He also wondered why people were always struggling for power and money, and this saddened him and made him feel lonely, but he kept his feelings to himself. He was a quiet, thoughtful boy, and rarely played with other boys of his age.
Muhammad had no particular job at his early youth, but it was reported that he worked as a shepherd for Bani Sad and in Makkah. At the age of 25, he went to Syria as a merchant for Khadijah (RA). The marriage of prophet took place after he return from Syria. He gave her twenty camels as dowry. She was, then, forty years old and was considered as the best woman of her folk in lineage, fortune and wisdom. Prophets first marriage to Khadeeja (RAA) at age 25 , she was fifteen years older than he was. Marriage life 26 years and after her death, when he took other wives he always mentioned her with the greatest love and reverence. This marriage gave him rank among the notables of Makkah, while his conduct earned for him the surname AlAmin, the trustworthy.

Zaid-bin Haarith was a slave given to Rasulullah by Hazrat Khadeejah (R.A.). One day Zaid's father Haarith and his uncle Ka'ab came to Rasulullah to request the release of Zaid. Rasulullah readily granted Zaid his freedom. But Zaid refused to part from Rasulullah . Seeing this , Rasulullah promptly took Zaid with him to the court-yard of the Ka'bah and proclaimed Zaid as his own son before the people of Makkah
Khadijah bore all his children, except Ibrahim: Al-Qasim, Zainab, Ruqaiyah, Umm Kulthum, Fatimah and Abdullah who was called Taiyib and Tahir. All his sons died in

their childhood and all the daughters except Fatimah died during his lifetime. Fatimah died six months after his death. All his daughters witnessed Islaam, embraced it, and emigrated to Madinah.

The Ka'bah, known as Baitullah (House of Allah) was built by Hazrat Ibra'heem (A.S.) and h is elder son Hazrat Isma'eel (A.S.) They established the rites and usage of the sacred city and the Ka'bah. When the Messenger of Allh was thirty five, Quraish started rebuilding AlKa'baah. The work went on in harmony till the time came to put the sacred Black Stone(Hajre-Aswad) in its proper place. Then strife broke out among the chiefs, and lasted for four or five days, each contesting for the honour of placing the stone in its position. Luckily, the oldest among the chiefs made a proposal which was accepted by all. He said: "Let him, who enters the Sanctuary first of all, decide on the point." It was then Allahs Will that the Messenger of Allah should be the first to enter the Mosque. On seeing him, all the people on the scene, cried with one voice: " Al-Ameen (the trustworthy) has come. We are content to abide by his decision. He asked for a mantle which he spread on the ground and placed the stone in its centre. He then asked the representatives of the different clans among them, to lift the stone all together. When it had reached the proper place, Muhammad laid it in the proper position with his own hands. This is how a very tense situation was eased and a grave danger averted by the wisdom of the Prophet When he was forty, the age of complete perfection at which Prophets were always ordered to disclose their Message, signs of his Prophethood started to appear and he used to experience for six months. The period of Prophethood was 23 years; so the period of these six months of true visions constituted an integral part of the forty-six parts of Prophethood. In Ramadan, in his third year of solitude in the cave of Hira, (Jable-Noor)Allahs Will desired His mercy to flow on earth and Muhammad was honoured with Prophethood, and the light of Revelation burst upon him with some verses of the Noble Qurn. As for the exact date, careful investigation into circumstantial evidence and relevant clues point directly to Monday, 21st. Ramadan at night, i.e. August, 10, 610 A.D. with Prophet Muhammad exactly 40 years, 6 months and 12 days of age . unexpectedly, the Truth (the angel) came to him and said, "Recite." "I cannot recite," he (Muhammad ) said. The Prophet described: "Then he took me and squeezed me vehemently and then let me go and repeated the order Recite. I cannot recite said I, and once again he squeezed me and let me till I was exhausted. Then he said: Recite. I said I cannot recite. He squeezed me for a third time and then let me go and said: "Read! In the Name of your Lord, Who has created (all that exists), has created man from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood). Read! and your Lord is the Most Generous." [96:1-3] The Prophet repeated these verses. He was trembling with fear. At this stage, he came back to his wife Khadijah (RA) and said, "Cover me, ... cover me." They covered him until he restored security. He apprised Khadijah (RA) of the incident of the cave and added that he was horrified. His wife tried to soothe him and reassured him saying, "Allh will never disgrace you. You unite uterine relations; you bear the burden of the weak; you help the poor and the needy, you entertain the guests and endure hardships in the path of truthfulness." She set out with the Prophet to her cousin Waraqa , who had embraced Christianity in the pre-Islamic period, and used to write the Bible in Hebrew. He was a blind old man. Khadijah (RA) said: "My cousin! Listen to your nephew!" Waraqa said: "O my nephew! What did you see?" The Messenger of Allah told him what had happened to him. Waraqa replied: "This is Namus i.e. (the angel who is entrusted with Divine Secrets) that Allh sent to Moses. Waraqa said: "Anyone who came with something similar to what you have brought was treated with hostility; and if I should be alive till that day, then I would support you strongly." A few days later Waraqa died and the revelation also subsided.

The Messenger of Allah said: "The Noble Spirit revealed to me No soul will perish until it exhausts its due course, so fear Allah and gently request Him. Never get so impatient to the verge of disobedience of Allah. What Allah has can never be acquired but through obedience to Him The Muhammadan Call could be divided into two phases distinctively demarcated: 1. The Makkan phase: nearly thirteen years. 2. The Madinese phase: fully ten years The Makkan phase can be divided into three stages: 1. The stage of the secret Call: three years. 2. The stage of the proclamation of the Call in Makkah: from the beginning of the fourth year of Prophethood to almost the end of the tenth year. 3. The stage of the call to Islam and propagating it beyond Makkah: it lasted from the end of tenth year of the Prophethood until Muhammads emigration to Madinah. The Prophet used to meet and teach, the new converts ( Around 40 initial converts), the religion in privacy because the call to Islam was still running on an individual and secret basis. Revelation accelerated and continued after the first verses of "O you wrapped in garments." The verses and pieces of Srah (chapters) revealed at this time were short ones with wonderful strong pauses and quite fascinating rhythms in full harmony with that delicate whispering setting. The central topic running through them focused on sanctifying the soul, and deterring the Muslims from falling prey to the deceptive glamour of life. The early verses used as well to give a highly accurate account of the Hell and the Garden (Paradise), leading the believers down a new course diametrically opposed to the ill practices rampant amongst their compatriots. Truth, unlike falsehood, is bound to stay, whereas falsehood is surely perishable." Seekers of the truth were known as Hunafa (sing. Hanif) For the first three years, or rather less, of his mission, the Prophet preached to his family and his intimate friends, while the people of Makkah as a whole regarded him as one who had become a little mad. The first of all his converts was his wife Khadijah, the mother of believers) the second his first cousin Ali, whom he had adopted, the third his servant Zayd, a former slave. His old friend Abu Bakr also was among those early converts

The influence of Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) was so strong that all his associates embraced Islam at his request. Among them were Hazrat Uthmaan-ibn-Affan (R.A.), and Hazrat Abdul Rahmaan-bin-Auf (R.A.), and Hazrat Zubayr-bin-Awwam (R.A.).
Abu Talib said to prophet: "We love to help you, accept your advice and believe in your words. These are your kinspeople whom you have collected and I am one of them but I am the fastest to do what you like. Do what you have been ordered. I shall protect and defend you, but I cant quit the religion of Abdul-Muttalib." Abu Lahab then said to Abu Talib: " I swear by Allah that this is a bad thing. You must stop him before the others do." Abu Talib, however, answered: "I swear by Allah to protect him as long as I am alive."

The one consideration which prevented Kurishi pagans from killing prophet was fear of the blood-vengeance of the clan to which his family belonged.( Bani Hashim) They tried to bring the Prophet to a compromise offering to accept his religion if he would so modify it as to make room for their gods as intercessors with Allah, offering to make him their king if he would give up attacking idolatry; and, when their efforts at negotiation failed, they went to his uncle Abu Talib offering to give him the best of their young men in place of Muhammad, to give him all that he desired, if only he would let them kill Muhammad and have done with him. Abu Talib refused Prophets opponents describe him as Kahin, i.e., soothsayer; but this suggestion was turned down on grounds that his words were not so rhymed. Others proposed Majnun, i.e., possessed by jinn; this was also rejected because no insinuations peculiar to that state of mind ware detected, they claimed. "Why not say he is a poet?" Some said. Here again they could not reach a common consent, alleging that his words were totally outside the lexicon of poetry. "OK then; let us accuse him of practising witchcraft," was a fourth suggestion. Here also they showed some reluctance saying that the Prophet was known to have never involved himself in the practice of blowing on the knots, and admitted that his speech was sweet tasting root and branch. They, however, found that the most plausible charge to be leveled against Muhammad was witchcraft. The ungodly company adopted this opinion and agreed to propagate one uniform formula to the effect that he was a magician so powerful and commanding in his art that he would successfully alienate son from father, man from his brother, wife from her husband and man from his clan. The idolaters offered that Muhammad worship their gods for a year, and they worship his Lord for a year. In another version, they said: "If you accept our gods, we would worship yours. polytheists, intercepted the Prophet while he was circumambulating in the Holy Sanctuary, and offered him to worship that they worshipped, and they worship that he worshipped so that, according to them, both parties would reach a common denominator. They added "Should the Lord you worship prove to be better than ours, then it will be so much better for us, but if our gods proved to be better than yours, then you would have benefit from it." Allh, the Exalted, was decisive on the spot and revealed the following Chapter: "Say: "O Al-Kfirn (disbelievers in Allh, in His Oneness, in His Angels, in His Books, in His Messengers, in the Day of Resurrection, in Al-Qadar, etc.)! I worship not that which you worship, nor will you worship that which I worship. And I shall not worship that which you are worshipping, nor will you worship that which I worship. To you be your religion, and to me my religion (Islamic Monotheism). [109] At the beginning of the fourth year of the Call, and for a period of some months, the polytheists confined their harassment tactics to the above-mentioned ones. But on realizing the futility of these procedures, they decided to organize a full-scale opposition campaign. They called for a general meeting and elected a committee of twenty-five men of Quraish notables with Abu Lahab, the Prophets uncle, as a chairman. Prophet had, as well, Abu Talib, his uncle, who came from a noble descent and had an aweinspiring clan to support him. This situation was a source of great worry to the infidels,

but they felt that they could no longer exercise patience or show any tolerance before a formidable power marching steadily to annul their religious office and temporal authority Abu Lahab himself took the initiative in the new series of persecutions, and started to mete out countless aspects of harmful deeds, hatred and spite against Muhammad Starting with flinging stones at him, forcing his two sons to divorce their wives Ruqaiya and Umm Kulthum, the Prophets daughters, gloating over him on his second sons death calling him the man cut off with offspring, and then shadowing his step during the pilgrimage and forums seasons to belie him and entice the bedouins against him and his Call. His wife, Umm Jameel bint Harb, the sister of Abu Sufyan had also her share in this ruthless campaign. She proved that she was not less than her husband in the enmity and hatred she harboured for the Prophet . She used to tie bundles of thorns with ropes of twisted palm-leaf fibre and strew them about in the paths which the Prophet was expected to take, in order to cause him bodily injury. She was a real shrew, badtempered with abusive language, highly skilled in the art of hatching intrigues, and enkindling the fire of discord and sedition. She was deservedly stained as the carrie r of firewood in the Noble Qurn. Another victim of the highhandedness of Quraish was Ammar bin Yasir, a freed slave of He, along with his mother and father, embraced Islam in its early phase. They were repeatedly made to lie on the burning sand and were beaten severely. Ammar was at times tossed up on embers. The Prophet was greatly moved by the atrocities which were being perpetrated upon Ammar and his family. He always comforted them and raised his hand in prayer and said: "Be patient, you will verily find your abode in the Paradise." Yasir, the father, died because of repeated tortures. Sumaiyah, Ammars mother was bayoneted to death by Abu Jahl himself, and thus merited the title of the first woman martyr in Islam The series of persecutions started late in the fourth year of Prophethood, slowly at first, but steadily accelerated and worsened day by day and month by month until the situation got so extremely grave and no longer tolerable in the middle of the fifth year, that the Muslims began to seriously think of feasible ways liable to avert the painful tortures meted out to them The Prophet had already known that Negus, king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia), was a fair ruler who would not wrong any of his subordinates, so he permitted some of his followers to seek asylum there in Abyssinia (Ethiopia). In Rajab of the fifth year of Prophethood, a group of twelve men and four women left for Abyssinia (Ethiopia). Among the emigrants were Uthman bin Affan and his wife Ruqaiyah (the daughter of the Prophet ). With respect to these two emigrants, the Prophet said: "They are the first people to migrate in the cause of Allh after Abraham and Lot Quraish could not tolerate the prospect of a secure haven available for the Muslims in Abyssinia (Ethiopia), so they dispatched two staunch envoys to demand their extradition. The pagan envoys claimed that the Muslim refugees should be expelled from Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and made over to them, on the ground that they had abandoned the religion of their forefathers, and their leader was preaching a religion different from theirs and from that of the king. The king was very much impressed on the Muslims on their noble qualities, He then assured the Muslims of full protection. He returned to the envoys of Quraish, the gifts they had brought with them and sent them away. The Muslims lived in Abyssinia (Ethiopia) unmolested for a number of years till they returned to Madinah. Once his uncle Abuthalib said in Frustration Spare me and yourself and put not burden on me that I cant bear." Upon this the Prophet thought that his uncle would let him down and would no longer support him, so he replied: "O my uncle! by Allah if they put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left on condition that I

abandon this course, until Allh has made me victorious, or I perish therein, I would not abandon it." The Prophet got up, and as he turned away, his uncle called him and said, "Come back, my nephew," and when he came back, he said, "Go and preach what you please, for by Allh I will never forsake you." Now that all the schemes and conspiracies of Quraish had failed, they resorted to their old practices of persecution and inflicting tortures on the Muslims in a more serious and brutal manner than ever before. They also began to nurse the idea of killing the Prophet . In fact, contrary to their expectations, this new method and this very idea served indirectly to consolidate the Call to Islam and support it with the conversion of two staunch and mighty heroes of Makkah, i.e. Hamzah bi n Abdul-Muttalib and Umar bin Al-Khattab In a gloomy atmosphere infested with dark clouds of iniquity and tyranny, there shone on the horizon a promising light for the oppressed, i.e. the conversion of Hamzah bin Abdul-Muttalib in Dhul Hijjah, the sixth year of Prophethood. It is recorded that the Prophet was one day seated on the hillock of Safa when Abu Jahl happened to pass by and accused the religion preached by him. Muhammad , however, kept silent and did not utter a single word. Abu Jahl went on unchecked, took a stone and cracked the Prophets head which began to bleed. The aggressor then went to join the Quraishites in their assembly place. It so happened that shortly after that, Hamzah, while returning from a hunting expedition, passed by the same way, his bow hanging by his shoulder. A slavegirl who had noted the impertinence of Abu Jahl, told him the whole story of the attack on the Prophet . On hearing that, Hamzah was deeply offended and hurried to Al-Kabah and there, in the courtyard of the Holy Sanctuary, found Abu Jahl sitting with a company of Quraishites. Hamzah rushed upon him and struck his bow upon his head violently and said: "Ah! You have been abusing Muhammad ; I too follow his religion and profess what he preaches.". In fact, Hamzahs conversion derived initially from the pride of a man who would not accept the notion of others humiliating his relative. Later on, however, Allh purified his nature and he managed to grasp the most trustworthy hand-hold (Faith in Allh). He proved to be a source of great strength to the Islamic Faith and its followers. Another significant addition to the strength of Islam was the conversion of Umar bin Al Khattab in Dhul-Hijjah, the sixth year of Prophethood, three days following the conversion of Hamzah.[] He was a man of dauntless courage and resolution, feared and respected in Makkah, and hitherto a bitter opponent of the new religion. The traditional account reveals that the Prophet once raised his hands in prayer and said: "O Allh! Give strength to Islaam especially through either of two men you love more: Umar bin Al-Khattab or Abu Jahl bin Hisham." Umar, obviously, was the one who merited that privilege.

Umar ibn al-Khattab, one of the nobles of Mecca, decided that the only way to silence the Prophet (pbuh) was to kill him. Having made up his mind, he set out at once to look for him. On his way he understood that his sister Fatimah & her husband is Muslim?' 'Umar was shocked. He could not believe this was true. He went at once to his sister's house. When he arrived outside the house he heard Fatimah and her husband Said reading aloud surah Ta Ha, a chapter from the Koran. As he read, 'Umar suddenly knew that these were the most beautiful words he had ever heard and that this religion must be the true one. With his sword still in hand, he went straight to the Prophet's house The Prophet (pbuh) asked 'Umar why he had come, to which he replied: 'I

have come to swear that there is no god but Allah and that you, Muhammad, are the Messenger of Allah.' As he spoke these words, his hand still held the sword with which he had intended to kill the Prophet (pbuh). This same sword' would now be used to defend the Prophet (pbuh) and the faith of Islam. When Quraysh realized that they could not kill the Prophet (pbuh) because of this protection, they decided instead to avoid him and his followers completely. A declaration to this effect was hung at the Kabah. It stated that no one in the city was allowed to have anything to do with the Prophet (pbuh) and his people, or even to sell them any food or drink whatsoever. During the years of this terrible treatment, a wonderful thing happened. Instead Of Islam becoming weaker, it grew stronger. Allah sent more and more Revelations. It was as though the Muslims were being strengthened and cleansed by the hardships they suffered and were being tested in their faith. Finally, at the end of three years, Quraisies were convinced that the time had come to put an end to the persecution of the Muslims, and they decided to take down the notice hanging at the Kabah. To their astonishment, the sheet of paper had been completely eaten up by worms, all except the words, 'In Your Name, O Allah', which had been written at the top of the paper.
The conversion of Umar was a real triumph for the cause of Islaam. So great and instant was the effect of his conversion on the situation that the believers who had hitherto worshipped Allah within their four walls in secret now assembled and performed their rites of worship openly in the Holy Sanctuary itself. This raised their spirits, and dread and uneasiness began to seize Quraish. Four events of special significance occurred within less than four weeks the conversion of Hamzah, the conversion of Umar, Muhammads refusal to negotiate any sort of compromise and then the pact drawn up between Banu Muttalib and Banu Hashim to immunize Muhammad and shield him against any treacherous attempt to kill him. The polytheists were baffled and at a loss as to what course they would follow to rid themselves of this obstinate and relentless obstacle that had appeared to shatter to pieces their whole tradition of life.

In order to get rid of the Prophet (pbuh) and his followers, his enemies started persecuting those Muslims who were poor or weak, or had no powerful friends. One such person was Bilal, the slave of Umayyah ibn Khalaf. His master would take him out into the desert, tie him up, and leave him in the sun with a large stone on his chest. Fortunately Abu Bakr was passing by one day and saw Umayyah torturing Bilal, so he bought him from his master for a large sum of money and then set him free.

In Rajab, the tenth year of the Prophethood, Abu Talib fell ill and passed away, . when Abu Talib was on the death bed, the Prophet entered the room where he saw Abu Jahl and Abdullah bin Abi Omaiyah. He requested his uncle: "My uncle, you just make a profession that there is no true god but Allh, and I will bear testimony before Allh (of your being a believer)". Abu Jahl and Abdullah bin Abi Omaiyah addressing him said: "Abu Talib, would you abandon the religion of Abdul -Muttalib?" The Messenger of Allh constantly requested

him (to accept his offer), and (on the other hand) was repeated the same statement (of Abu Jahl and Abdullah bin Abi Omaiyah) till Abu Talib gave his final decision and he stuck to the religion of Abdul -Muttalib and refused to profess that there is no true god but Allh. Upon this the Messenger of Allh remarked: "By Allh, I will persistently beg pardon for you till I am forbidden to do so (by Allh)". It was then that Allh, the Magnificent and Glorious revealed this verse: "It is not (proper) for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allhs forgiveness for the Mushrikn (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allh) even though they be of kin, after it has become clear to them that they are the dwellers of the Fire (because they died in a state of disbelief)." Only two months after the death of his uncle, did the Messenger of Allh experience another great personal loss viz., the Mother of believers, his wife Khadijah passed away in Ramadan of the tenth year of his Prophethood,( Year of Sorrow) when she was sixtyfive years old, and he was fifty[]. Khadijah was in fact a blessing of Allh for the Prophet . She, for twenty-five years, shared with him the toils and trials of life, especially in the first ten years of his ministry of Prophethood. He deeply mourned over her death, and once he replied in an honest burst of tender emotions: "She believed in me when none else did. She embraced Islam when people disbelieved me. And she helped and comforted me in her person and wealth when there was none else to lend me a helping hand. I had children from her only." The Death of Khadijah left the Prophet lonely. The name of Sawdah was suggested to him for marriage which he accepted. This lady had suffered many hardships for the sake of Islam. She was an early convert to the Islamic Faith and it was by her persuasion that her husband had embraced Islam. On the second emigration to Abyssinia (Ethiopia), Sawdah had accompanied her husband As-Sakran bin Amr. He died on their way back to Makkah leaving her in a terrible state of destitution. She was the first woman for the Prophet to marry after the death of Khadijah. Some years later she granted her turn with the Prophet to her co-wife, Aishah(RA). Allh said: " It is not you that they deny, but it is the Verses (the Qurn) of Allh that the Zlimn (polytheists and wrong-doers) deny. Alif-Lam-Mim. Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: We believe, and will not be tested. And We indeed tested those who were before them. And Allh will certainly make (it) known (the truth of) those who are true, and will certainly make (it) known (the falsehood of) those who are liars, (although Allh knows all that before putting them to test)." In Shawwal (in the last of May or in the beginning of June 619 A.D.), ten years after receiving his mission from his Lord, the Prophet set out towards At-Taif, about 60 kilometres from Makkah, in the company of his freed slave Zaid bin Haritha inviting people to Islam. But contrary to his expectations, the general atmosphere was terribly hostile .For ten days he stayed there delivering his message to several people, but all to no purpose. Stirred up to hasten the departure of the unwelcome visitor, the people hooted him through the alley-ways, pelted him with stones and obliged him to flee from the city pursued by a relentless rabble. Blood flowed down both his legs; and Zaid, endeavouring to shield him, was wounded in the head. The mob did not desist until they had chased him two or three miles across the sandy plains to the foot of the surrounding hills. There, wearied and exhausted, he took refuge in one of the numerous orchards, and rested against the wall of a vineyard. At a time when the whole world seemed to have turned against him, Muhammad turned to his Lord and betook himself to prayer. He was weary and wounded but confident of the help of his Lord: It was on the return

journey from Taif that the verses from Surah Al Jinn (Chapter 72) were revealed. It indicated that the Quran is a book of guidance to both the Jinns and Humankind. Soon after the terrible disappointment at Taif, the prophet experienced the events of al-Israa and al-Miraaj (621 CE). In the Al-Israa, Gabriel (as) took the Prophet from the sacred Mosque near Kabah to the furthest (al-Aqsa) mosque in Jerusalem in a very short time in the latter part of a night. Here, Prophet Muhammad met with previous Prophets (Abraham, Moses, Jesus and others) and he led them in prayer. After this, in Al-Miraj, the Prophet was taken up to heavens to show the signs of God [More... The Dome of the Rock]. It was on this journey that five daily prayers were prescribed. He was then taken back to Kabah, the whole experience lasting a few hours of a night. Upon hearing this, the people of Makkah mocked at him. However, when his specific description of Jerusalem, other things on the way, and the caravan that he saw on this journey including its expected arrival in Makkah turned out to be true, the ridicule of the nonbelievers stopped. The event of Israa and Miraaj is mentioned in the Quran - the first verse of Chapter 17 entitled The Children of Israel.
The last days of the Makkan phase of the Prophets life are noted for alternate fortunes ranging between two extremes: gradual success and continual persecution. However, glimpses of propitious lights were looming on the distant horizon, to ultimately materialize in the event of the Prophets Night Journey to Jerusalem and then Ascension through the spheres of the heavens.

ONE night as the Prophet (pbuh) lay sleeping in the same spot where 'Abd al-Muttalib used to sleep, next to the Kabah, he was woken by the Archangel Gabriel. He brought prophet to the door of the mosque where there was a white animal. The Prophet (pbuh) , was transported from Mecca to the mosque called al-Aqsa, in far away Jerusalem. Then the Prophet (pbuh) was taken up by the angels, through the seven Heavens. Then he was taken into the Light of the Divine Presence of Allah, and was instructed that Muslims should pray fifty times a day
As for its exact date, it is still controversial and no common consent has been reached. However, the majority of jurists is in favour of a date between 16-12 months prior to migration to Madinah. For the true Muslims, however there was nothing unusual about the Night Journey. The disbelievers on their part went to see Abu Bakr on account of this event, and he readily said: "Yes, I do verify it." It was on this occasion that he earned the title of As-Siddiq (the verifier & Certifyer of the truth).

Twelve important men from Yathrib went to Mecca to meet the Prophet (pbuh) and promised faithfully to serve him and Islam. In return, the Prophet (pbuh) sent one of his friends, Musab ibn 'Umayr, with them to teach the Koran and instruct them in their new religion. Another year passed and still more Muslims came from Yathrib to Mecca for the pilgrimage. On this occasion a secret meeting with the Prophet (pbuh) was arranged to be held at night. Seventy-three men and one woman from Yathrib came, and the Prophet (pbuh) arrived with his uncle, al-Abbas. During this meeting the men from Yathrib offered to protect and defend the Prophet (pbuh) and his followers if they would come to live in Yathrib. This promise of protection came to be known as the Treaty of Aqabah. Quraysh began to fear the Prophet (pbuh) for they realized that he was now strong enough to fight them and had been given leave to do so by Allah. They also knew that he now had the people of Yathrib to help and protect him. Seeing that the Muslims were leaving the city, they decided to kill the Prophet (pbuh), before he, too, left Mecca to join his followers in Yathrib. In this way they hoped to put an end to Islam once and for all.

AFTER his companions had left for Yathrib, the Prophet (pbuh) stayed in Mecca, waiting for permission from Allah to leave the city. Abu Bakr and Ali stayed with him. Before the night fell, on which Muhammad (pbuh) was to be killed, the Archangel Gabriel came to him and said, 'Do not sleep tonight in your own bed.' The Prophet (pbuh) understood what was going to happen, so he told Ali to lie in his bed and wrap himself in the blanket that the Prophet (pbuh) normally used, promising that no harm would befall him. The young men waited the whole night and were furious when, in the morning, they saw Ali instead of the Prophet (pbuh) coming out of the house. I They realized that their plan had failed completely. In the meantime, the Prophet (pbuh) went to Abu Bakr's house and told him,'Allah has told me that now is the time for us to leave Mecca.' Abu Bakr wept for joy, because now he knew that the travelling companion he had been promised was the Prophet (pbuh) himself. Then he said,'O Messenger of Allah, these are the two camels which I have kept ready for this.' And so, the two of them left for a cave in Thawr, a mountain to the south of Mecca where they intended to hide. When they were out of the city the Prophet (pbuh) looked back and said, 'Of all Allah's earth, you are the dearest place to Allah and to me and if my people had not driven me out I would never have left you.' When Quraysh found out that the Prophet (pbuh) and his companion hadgone, they set out after them, searching in every direction. Three days later they finally reached the cave where the Prophet (pbuh) and Abu Bakr were hiding, but a strange and wonderful thing had happened. A spider had woven its web right across the entrance to the cave and a dove was nesting with her mate nearby. As the Meccans stood in front of the cave, with only the spider's web separating them from the fugitives, Abu Bakr began to fear for their safety. He whispered to the Prophet (pbuh), 'They are very close. If one of them turns we will be seen. 'But he was comforted by the Prophet's reply: 'What do you think of two who have with them Allah as their third?' After a few moments the search parry decided that no one could have entered the cave recently, or the spider's web would not have been complete and the dove would not have nested there, and so they left without searching inside. The Prophet's journey from Mecca is called the hijrah, or migration. It was really the first step towards the spread of Islam throughout the entire world, and Muslims begin their calendar from the year of the hijrah.
To insure the peace and tranquility, the Prophet proposed a treaty defining terms of conduct for all inhabitants of Medinah. It was ratified by all - Muslims, non-Muslim Arabs and Jews. After his emigration to Medinah, the enemies of Islam increased their assault from all sides. The Battles of Badr, Uhud and Allies (Trench) were fought near or around Medinah. In these battles until the year 627 CE, the nonbelievers with encouragement from Jews and other Arabian tribes attacked the Prophet and Muslim community. The Muslims while defending their city and religion lost many men, which resulted in many widowed Muslim women and numerous orphaned children. In these circumstances, Prophet Muhammad (s) married several women during fifty-sixth year up to the sixtieth year of his life. He did not contract any marriage in the last three years of his life, following the revelation limiting the number of wives up to a maximum of four. This is the first time in the history of revealed scriptures that a limit on the number of wives was imposed and the terms of conduct were specified. The Prophet was instructed not to divorce any of his wives after this

revelation [Qur'an 33:52]. All of the ladies he took as wives were either widowed or divorced, except Aishah.
Two broad aspects of his life before and after the watershed event of the Migration. It is historically important and marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar.

The Prophet (pbuh) entered the city with his friend Abu Bakr. Most of. The people there had not seen him before and as they gathered around they did not know which of the two was the Prophet (pbuh), until Abu Bakr got up to shield him with his cloak from the burning sun. Yathrib would now be Called al-Medina, which means, The City

After the building a mosque, the Prophet (pbuh) wanted to strengthen the relationship between the people called the Muhajirah or Emigrants, who had left Mecca with him, and the people of Medina, who were known as the Ansar, or Helpers. Each man from Medina took as his brother a man from Mecca, sharing everything with him and treating him as a member of his own family. This was the beginning of the Islamic brotherhood. In the early days of Islam, the times for prayer were not announced and So the Muslims would come to the mosque and wait for the prayer so as not to miss it. The Prophet (pbuh) wondered how to tell the people that it was time for prayers. He discussed it with his friends, and at first two ideas were put forward; that of blowing a horn as the Jews did, and that of using a wooden clapper like the Christians. Then a man called Abd Allah ibn Zayd said a better way to call the people to prayer is to Say: "Allahu Akbar, Allah is Most Great!" four times, followed by "I bear witness that there is no divinity but Allah, I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, Come to prayer, come to prayer, Come to salvation, come to salvation. Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar! There is no divinity but Allah!" When the Prophet (pbuh) heard this, he said it was a true vision from Allah. He sent for Bilal, who had a beautiful, strong voice, and ordered him to call the people to prayer in just this way. Bilal did so and soon after 'Umar came out of his house and told the Prophet (pbuh) that he had seen exactly the same vision himself. The Prophet (pbuh) replied, 'Allah be praised for that.' The adhan, or call to prayer, which came to 'Abd Allah ibn Zayd in his dream and was performed by Bilal on the instruction of the Prophet (pbuh), is the one we still hear today being called from the minarets of mosques all over the world.

The first official compilation of the Qur'an was made in about 650, twenty years after Muhammad's death, and achieved canonical status. Three wars in four years, Badr, Uhad and Ahzab, He consults frequently (Shura) with his companions and follows the majority opinion (Ijma'), even when it sometimes goes against his own judgment. The "Treaty of Hudaybia" needs to be studied and emulated by all who negotiate with their opponents. The peace dividend, following this treaty with the Quraysh, is huge and results in an exponential increase in the number of Muslims. The Quran says about him "Indeed there is for you in the Messenger of Allah an excellent pattern" (Quran 33:21). His wife Ayesha (may Allah be pleased with her) calls him the living embodiment of the Quran Islam means surrender your will to Allah
Aishah (RAA) said: "Whenever the Prophet had to choose between two options, he always opted for the easier choice." (Al-Bukhari)To choose the easiest option means to begin from the possible, and one who begins from the possible will surely reach his goal. Quran was revealed. It said: "With every hardship there is ease, with every hardship there is ease." (94:5-6).This means that if there are some problems, there are also opportunities at the same time. And the way to success is to ignore the problems and avail the opportunities. The prophet of Islam was repeatedly subjected to practices of antagonism by the unbelievers. At that time the Quran enjoined upon him the return of good for evil. And then, as the Quran added, "You will see your direst enemy has become your closest friend" (41:34). It means that a good deed in return of a bad deed has a conquering effect over your enemies. And the life of the Prophet is a historical proof of this principle. After the Battle of Badr, about 70 of the unbelievers were taken as the prisoners of war. They were educated people. The Prophet announced that if any one of them would teach ten Muslim children how to read and write he would be freed. This was the first school in the history of Islam in which all of the students were Muslims, and all of the teachers were from the enemy rank. Here I shall quote a British orientalist who remarked about the Prophet of Islam: He faced adversity with the determination to bring success out of failure.