DOMS-NITT

QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT
TQM ASSIGNMENT
KARTHIK 215110052 8/26/2011

Quality function deployment and its origin and how to form the house of quality explained with the help of a case study

......................................... ................ .................. ...... ................................. ............... ...................................................................................... 6 3. .. 7 7......................................................... 8 9.. ......... .... 5 2...................Contents Quality Function Deployment (QFD) ............ 8 8............ ................ ......... ............... ........... ..... ............................................................................................. .............................. ............................... Construct the QFD series of matrices................ Check your work........ ...................... ..................................................... ............. ................................ 11 Quality Function Deployment Case Study ............................................................ ............................. ............. ................................................... ..................... 7 6......... Define customer expectations.............. Define the requirements that will satisfy your customers expectations....... 9 10.......... 10 CASE STUDY: TenStep Supplemental Paper.. ..... ................................. Develop the first relationship matrix............................................. Define the project..................... ........... .. ..... ....... .... .......................................................... ........... ........ 15 2|Page ................ ........... Get buy-in.... 9 11............................... ......................................................... ............................................. ................................. .......................... ....... 6 5....... ............... ........ ................................................................ ........................................ 3 Past ....... 6 4... 4 What can it do for you? ......... ... Establish targets........... .......................... ........ ............... 5 1...................... ..................................... Create the team.............. Construct the next QFD matrix. .................... ... .............. Prioritize your requirements..... 5 How do you do it?.......................................................................................... 11 Reference ..... .......... ...................................................................................

Comprehensive Quality System for Customer Satisfaction 5. QFD links the needs of the customer (end user) with design. where the growing distance between producers and users is a concern. sales. Quality Systems Thinking + Psychology + Knowledge/Epistemology 3. and service functions. aligning the entire company toward achieving a common goal. from the customer's perspective how customers or end users become interested. choose. Maximizing Positive Quality That Adds Value 4. manufacturing. development. quality.Quality Function Deployment (QFD) QFD was developed to bring this personal interface to modern manufacturing and business. and are y Understanding satisfied y Analyzing y Deciding how do we know the needs of the customer what features to include level of performance to deliver y Determining what y Intelligently linking the needs of the customer with design. 3|Page . QFD is: 1. design. engineering. manufacturing. QFD provides a system of comprehensive development process for: y Understanding 'true' customer y What needs from the customer's perspective 'value' means to the customer. engineering. and service functions y Intelligently linking Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) with the front end Voice of Customer analysis and the entire design system QFD is a comprehensive quality system that systematically links the needs of the customer with various business functions and organizational processes. production.. development. Understanding Customer Requirements 2. such as marketing. etc. manufacturing. Strategy to Stay Ahead of The Game As a quality system that implements elements of Systems Thinking with elements of Psychology and Epistemology (knowledge). In today's industrial society.

Past Quality Function Deployment (QFD) was conceived in Japan in the late 1960s. but how it could be done was not found in any books available in those days. SQC was transformed into TQC in Japan during this transitional period between 1960 and 1965. and translating these into actions and designs by using transparent analytic and prioritization methods. who spearheaded the Company Wide Quality Control movement by convincing the top management of companies of the importance of having every employee take part. QFD was born in this environment as a method or concept for new product development under the umbrella of Total Quality Control. government. who during his 1954 visit to Japan emphasized the importance of making quality control a part of business management. the following two issues became the seeds out of which QFD was conceived. identifying positive quality and business opportunities.It does so by seeking both spoken and unspoken needs. (1) People started to recognize the importance of design quality. during an era when Japanese industries broke from their post-World War II mode of product development through imitation and copying and moved to product development based on originality. healthcare. (2) Companies were already using QC process charts. primarily in the area of manufacturing. Juran. environmental initiatives. 4|Page . As a result. After World War II. service industry. IT projects. Kaoru Ishikawa. business process development. and many other applications. including manufactured goods. but the charts were produced at the manufacturing site after the new products were being churned out of the line. and the teaching of Dr. This evolution was fortified also by the 1961 publication of TotalQuality Control by Dr. statistical quality control (SQC) was introduced to Japan and became the central quality activity. Later. The QFD methodology can be used for both tangible products and non-tangible services. empowering organizations to exceed normal expectations and provide a level of unanticipated excitement that generates value. Feigenbaum. software products. it was integrated with the teachings of Dr.

critical part requirements. The effort and discipline of Quality Function Deployment produces the greatest results in situations in which customer requirements have not or cannot be sharply defined. Normally. The application of QFD can range from one person constructing a simple matrix to classic Quality Function Deployment in which a formal team generates a systematic flow down of customer expectations to technical requirements. In almost all instances.What can it do for you? The payoff of a Quality Function Deployment is the creation of more robust designs and processes that work together to assure customer satisfaction. this level of detail is not necessary. or the elements of the business that must work together to deliver the requirements have divergent or conflicting goals. but the requirements are not. Define the project. or you want to clarify the link between customer requirements and process requirements. Quality Function Deployment is especially useful in Define. a simplified Quality Function Deployment might be appropriate. A full-blown application of the Quality Function Deployment discipline produces a complexlooking series of matrices. critical process requirements. An added benefit is that QFD is able to document key decisions in a form that can become a template for future improvement efforts. The most practical application of Quality Function Deployment is usually somewhere between these two strategies. an abbreviated version of QFD with only one or two matrices is enough to do the job of resolving a problem. and process controls. Although Quality Function Deployment is a disciplined tool. customer expectations can be logically and practically linked to almost any business process. The first step is to define the project and describe the intended results. those requirements cannot be met through conventional processes or practices. Virtually any cause-and effect relationship can be adapted to the Quality Function Deployment discipline. How do you do it? 1. defining Critical-To-Quality (CTQs) characteristics or implementing actions to reduce costs. 5|Page . it is also a flexible and adaptable one. y If the approach is clear. Measure and Improve phases of Lean Six Sigma methodology. Through QFD. This will enable you to decide if Quality Function Deployment is the right tool.

y Once the team is defined. Group the expectations into meaningful clusters that share a common theme. a fundamental part of the QFD discipline is to listen to the voice of the customer. team ground rules and a regular meeting schedule. find a suitable replacement. it is necessary to prioritize them to help resolve any conflicts over what to do first. The next step is to bring together a team. Create the team. Consider creating an affinity diagram with everyone¶s input. y Identify team members who represent the defined areas and who would also have ownership for implementing the results. as well. 2. Make sure you have commitment from the proposed team members. y y List the organizations that have an interest in or an influence on the result. y y Clearly state each expectation as a customer would perceive it. Consolidate representation as necessary to get the list down to two or three for a simple Quality Function Deployment or five to eight for a complex one. Get buy-in.) 6|Page . y Validate your collection of customer expectations and their relative importance by talking with your customer or sources close to your customer. Think of this as answering the question. a more complex Quality Function Deployment is probably a good idea. agree on a team leader. with 1 being the least important and 5 being the most. Rate each customer expectation from 1 to 5. Ensure you have the commitment of management in each of the interested areas. 4.y If the objective is a significant challenge or there are many conflicting requirements. 3. (Always remember. Define customer expectations. y Although each customer expectation is important. ³What does the customer want or need?´ y Generate your own ideas through brainstorming if direct customer involvement or surveys are impractical. y y If anyone is not interested.

Remember that you are looking for requirements that will cause the customer¶s expectations to be satisfied. ‡ After you have a list of requirements.y When you are satisfied with your list transfer your rated customer requirements to the left side of your first matri 5. 6. 7|Page ¢ ¢ £ ¢ £ ¡  . Develop the first rel tionship m trix. Think of this as answering the question. This matrix will compare each customer expectation (the whats) against your list of identified product or service requirements (the hows). they are also controllable and measurable.) ‡ You could try brainstorming or create a cause-and-effect diagram to generate requirements. D ine the requirements th t will s tisfy your customers expect tions. ³How can we meet each customer expectation?´ ‡ Work on each expectation. one at a time. screen them until you have identified the critical few. you might use the discipline to show a customer why an expectation cannot be met or to consider what may be possible beyond the customer¶s expectation. (Alternately. Good requirements for QFD are not only relevant.

3 for moderate and 9 for strong) times the priority number (1 to 5) for each corresponding customer expectation. and a triangle for a weak one. ‡ In your matrix. Here are some tips to help calibrate that judgment to make the most useful matrix. The numeric quantities have no real meaning. Determining the strength of a relationship is a team judgment. ask. Be sure that there are no obvious holes or underrated relationships. use a double circle to symbolize a strong relationship. a single circle for a moderate one. avoid making a matrix that shows every requirement related in some way to each customer expectation. ³If we meet this product or service requirement. 8. ‡ Try to avoid making a matrix that contains mostly weak or moderate relationships. Prioritize your requirements. prioritize the requirements ‡ Multiply the strength of each relationship (1 for weak. You should normally have at least one strong relationship under each requirement. a moderate one or a weak one. ‡ On the other hand. 8|Page . but they do help you to prioritize the relative importance that meeting each of the identified requirements would have in satisfying the package of identified customer expectations. 7. would the customer perceive this as an improvement in satisfying this need or expectation?´ ‡ If there would be a perceived improvement in satisfaction.‡ To help decide if the customer would feel that the product or service expectation would be met if the requirement were met. ‡ Complete the matrix for all the possible relationships. When you are satisfied that your matrix is complete and accurate. A reality check is usually a good idea at this point. Check your work. decide if the relationship between meeting the requirement and improving the customer¶s satisfaction is a strong one. ‡ A good general rule is that only one-third to one-half of the intersections in the matrix should have symbols in them. ‡ Add the results and enter the sum for each requirement at the bottom of the matrix. Ask if the customer would really be satisfied if you delivered a product or service that met your list of requirements.

the team would generate a list of design features to satisfy them. They are often able to be handled by practices other than QFD. ‡ By completing and evaluating this second matrix in the same way as the team did the first one. ³Would meeting this requirement help or hurt meeting each of the other requirements?´ ‡ The roof matrix is constructed and read diagonally. The team must decide which are the most important for entry into the second matrix to keep the focus sharp. develop target values for the requirements. ‡ Using the highest priority and most challenging requirements as a starting place. Take into account whether the goal is to maximize or minimize a value or condition or to hit a specific target value. 10. formal correlation analysis may not be necessary.9. In our house-of-quality example. Pay attention in this step to the effect that optimizing one requirement has on the ability of the process to meet the other requirements. they arrive at a prioritized list of design features and Critical To Quality characteristics (CTQs). Establish targets. ‡ Symbols in the correlation matrix respond to the question. controllable and relevant?´ 9|Page . The matrix scoring helps keep the focus tied to what is most important in ultimately satisfying the customer. ‡ Completing the roof matrix that gives the first matrix the name house of quality is the way that this is done in a formal QFD study. Through team discussion. reducing weight has a strong positive correlation with reducing fuel burn and a strong negative correlation with increasing thrust. Construct the next QFD matrix. ‡ For simpler QFD projects. ‡ In selecting those most important CTQs. The other requirements are not forgotten. ‡ The requirements output of the first matrix is usually used as the input to the second matrix. it is helpful to ask. The roof records correlations between the requirements. however. If the team wants to look at correlations. The relative importance of each requirement from the previous matrix would be rescaled to fit in a 1 to 5 range to keep calculations easy. it may be enough to compare the requirements against one another informally and note whether optimizing one would compromise another. ³Is this measurable.

‡ Using the CTQs as the starting point for the next matrix. the selected KCCs must be measurable. 10 | P a g e ¥ ¤ . 11. Construct the FD series of m trices. will the customer perceive this as an improvement?´ As with CTQs. ‡ Completion of this matrix generates a list of the important process characteristics (KCCs) that must receive special attention to ensure that design features (CTQs) are met. controllable and relevant. ³If we reduce the variation in this key control characteristic (KCC). ‡ Fill in the matrix using the same kind of weighting process as you used before. the team should apply their understanding of the process to create a list of the process characteristics that must be controlled to reduce variation in the CTQs. Ask.‡ A characteristic should be all three to be considered as a CTQ. ‡ The classic form of Quality Function Deployment then converts the KCCs into a prioriti ed quality plan (process controls) using a variation of the relationship matrix.

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a technique used to optimize the process of developing and producing new products on the basis of customer need. Companies need to exceed these expectations. but abandoned due to high development and production costs. problems with the RTN often caused delays. It would often fall during this process. among others. design. This tube had to be detached from the RTN during the removal process. from the CEO to the person who directly interacts with the customer. to renew its efforts. Employees were selected and trained in QFD techniques. Failing to quickly make repairs when they are needed can lead to a steep escalation in costs. and a special tool would have to be used to lift it. This project had been undertaken once before. and time would be wasted in retrieving it. The development team started off by first getting insights from the previously conducted QRTN development process. Because of this. The company decided to develop a new Quick Release Top Nozzle (QRTN) to minimize the repair time. When the RTN worked correctly. In simple terms. The RTN is an expensive piece of equipment used in the manufacture process to repair products. an independent part of the machine. Then the team attempted to identify the needs of the customers. However. Another problem with the RTN involved the locking tube. The general feeling was that it could not be counted on to behave predictably during critical times. the company decided to use the principles of Quality Function Deployment. These employees. process. Sometimes the product would fail to detach from the nozzle.CASE STUDY: TenStep Supplemental Paper Quality Function Deployment Case Study For today¶s manufacturers. formed the development team. 11 | P a g e . along with a QFD expert. with pressure from its customers. The following is a comprehensive case study featuring a company that developed a Quick Release Top Nozzle (QRTN) to replace the Removable Top Nozzle (RTN) that was currently in use. it is used to transform customer requirements into company requirements. and production. However. The RTN experienced many other problems as well. must be aware of the customer¶s needs. It is a team-based methodology used to identify and translate customer requirements into technical specifications for product planning. Everyone in the organization. listening to customers has taken on a new importance. it was capable of getting the repair done within an acceptable time frame. meeting customer expectations is no longer sufficient.

Because they were so familiar with the RTN. This helped to prevent repetition of the same requirement from different customers. The team noted the time spent by the service personnel to do the various servicing tasks and compared it with the values that had been set for the new QRTN. The servicing division was often involved in the process of installation. the development team analyzed the requirements and placed them in the appropriate categories. Team members attempted to get to know this group by handing out questionnaires. the requirements were summarized with short phrases. The team identified three important customers who would be affected by the QRTN and made efforts to find out what they expected in the product. Some of them are shown below. Engineers within the customer organization were constantly updated about the development process. and replacement of the RTN. After they had gotten their customer input.Voice of the Customers A crucial part of QFD involves listening to customers¶ requirements. it was clear that the end user required a QRTN that would consistently deliver the shortest repair time possible. These activities enabled the team to gain valuable customer input. Then. 12 | P a g e . adjustment. and visiting their work sites. they were able to make some valuable suggestions regarding the QRTN. It also helped members better understand the interrelationships between the various requirements. Apart from gathering verbal information from the service division personnel. repair. and a glossary was created to aid in the understanding of these phrases. In the end. the development team watched the personnel complete service and repair work and videotaped the process so that they could study it further. The first group identified was the end user. The team then studied QRTN alternatives being provided by the competitors and the alternatives developed by the customers themselves. The third customer voice was that of the design engineer. Personnel from the servicing division comprised the second group of customers. The design engineer was able to provide guidelines for developing the QRTN in compliance with regulatory and other standard requirements. This glossary became invaluable as the development process progressed. The analysis and categorization enabled the development team to reduce the 33 identified customer needs into twelve broad requirements. scheduling meetings with various groups within the end user organization.

The team also compared their allotted points with those of their c ompetitors¶ designs and performed a critical evaluation. the next step was to translate customer requirements into key product definitions. This information was place on the right side of the House of Quality diagram. The development team had set numeric goals for each of the key product definitions that. These product definitions were added to the top of the House of Quality. Comparisons were made to four other designs. along with the actual value from adding up the rows for each 13 | P a g e . including a customerbuilt design and the current RTN design. if met. These points were placed in the center of the matrix between customer requirements (rows) and product definitions (columns). the requirements were placed on the left side of the House of Quality d iagram. Once the product-planning matrix was created. The goals were placed on the bottom of the House of Quality. Once the key product definitions were made. The development team then created a product-planning matrix. on scale from 1 to 5.After condensing the 33 customer identified needs into 12 broad requirements. The points were assigned on a 1 to 5 scale. they allotted points to each customer requirement. since n they should neither be constricting nor unrealistic. Here. The team then collected customer feedback on the product matrix and incorporated the suggested modifications. would mean that the requirement had been met. based on the priorities of the customer. with 5 meaning a close match and 1 a poor one. The key product definitions ca be challenging to develop. the development team created a point system to mea sure how closely the product definitions matched the stated customer requirements.

Many ideas for incorporating the product specifications into design were generated and recorded. and then the best ideas were developed further.column. Slightly positive influence between the various product definitions was ignored. planning. the next step was product design. prioritizing and stabilizing customer requirements into the appropriate technical requirements for every stage of product/service development and production. The QFD process is time consuming. Summary Industry experiences reveal that short-term benefits of QFD include reduction in crossfunctional barriers associated with product development teams and increased interdepartmental interactions. These relationships were noted on the roof of the House of Quality. However. This required detailed discussions among the various development team members about how to turn the product definitions into a design reality. the preliminary design phase of the QRTN was launched. especially with regard to recording and analyzing customer input and using these inputs in actual engineering design. production process development. It also requires the involvement of several key people across various functional areas and expertise. QFD is a very powerful concept as far as new product development and meeting customer requirements are concerned. Customers will certainly be willing to pay for this as it provides a better solution. The previous effort to develop a QRTN was scrapped because it exceeded existing RTN costs by 85%. both as one big group and in smaller sub-groups. while any significant negative influences were noted. However. it requires the complete backing of management. the development team studied the effects that the definitions had on each other. Then. production and sales. as the process progressed. the QRTN developed by the team using QFD concepts managed to keep it at just 15% more than the RTN costs. 14 | P a g e . Finally. The results have so far been quite satisfactory. The design team had an extensive brainstorming session. Based on all of these factors. the many ideas were narrowed down to one. However. Long-term tangible benefits include reduction in cycle times and development costs along with increased productivity. prototype evaluation. the development team determined the optimum numerical specifications for each of the product definitions. The most important benefit of QFD has been its effectiveness in capturing. These include marketing strategies. After the optimum numerical specifications were set for the key product definitions. Having developed this µbest possible design solution¶. product design and engineering. these values were modified to be more realistic.

wikipedia.npd-solutions.org/wikipedia/en/3/3e/A1_House_of_Quality. J Praveen Paul http://upload.casde.google.ac.ht ml http://www.png www.com/q_know01.iitb.org/wiki/Quality_function_deployment http://thequalityportal.com/methods_akao_quality_function_deployment.org/what_is_qfd/what_is_qfd.wikimedia.htm Quality management-Mr.qfdi.search.12manage.html http://www.html http://www. B Senthil Arasu / Mr.com/whyqfd.html 15 | P a g e .com http://www.co.in http://en.yahoo.in/springschool/school.Reference www.

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