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**This cycle consists of two
**

isentropic and two constant pressure processes.

Thermal efficiency is:

t h

Heat added - Heat rejected

=

Heat added

η

( ) ( )

( )

p 3 2 p 4 1

4 1

t h

p 3 2 3 2

mC T - T - mC T - T

T - T

= = 1 -

mC T - T T - T

η

For isentropic processes:

-1

2 2

1 1

T p

T p

γ

γ ⎛ ⎞

=

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

and

-1

3 3

4 4

T p

T p

γ

γ ⎛ ⎞

=

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

But, p

2

= p

3

& p

1

= p

4

= >

3 2

1 4

T T

T T

=

Therefore:

4 1

t h

3 2

T T

= 1 - = 1 -

T T

η

4 1 2

- 1

3 2 1

T T v 1

= = =

T T v

r

γ

( )

- 1

1

- 1

- 1

2 2

p

- 1

1 1

v p 1

= = r

v p

r

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

⎧ ⎫

⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞

⎪ ⎪

⎨ ⎬ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

⎪ ⎪

⎩ ⎭

t h

- 1

p

1

= 1 -

r

γ

γ

η

Ther mal ef f i ci ency f or id e a l Br ay t on Cy cl e

Open cycle

Closed cycle

Opt i mum pr essur e r at i o f or i deal Br ay t on Cy cl e

Net Work for cycle = Compressor Work required + Turbine work output

( ) ( )

3 4 1 2

T T C m T T C m W

W W W

P P net

turb comp net

− − − − =

+ =

& &

&

& & &

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− −

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− − =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− −

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− − =

+ − −

1 1

1 1

1

3

1

1

3

4

3

1

2

1

γ

γ

γ

γ

p P p P net

P P net

r T C m r T C m W

T

T

T C m

T

T

T C m W

& &

&

& &

&

Differentiating net work with respect to pressure ratio and setting derivative to

zero to determine the optimum pressure ratio for maximum net work :

γ

γ γ

γ

γ γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

− + − − −

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ + −

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

− =

1

3

1

1

1 1

p P p P

P

net

r T C m r T C m

dr

W d

& &

&

( ) 1 2

1

3

,

1

3

1

,

1 2

,

1 2

, 3

1

, 1

1

, 3

1

, 1

1 1

0

1 1

0

−

−

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛ + −

−

+ −

−

− + − − −

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

= ⇒

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ + −

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

−

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ + −

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

− ⇒

=

γ

γ

γ γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ γ

γ

γ γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

T

T

r

T

T

r r

r T r T

r T r T

dr

W d

opt p

opt p opt p

opt p opt p

opt p opt p

P

net

&

For ideal Brayton cycle, when:

• r

p

= r

p,opt

ÎT

4

= T

2

• r

p

< r

p,opt

ÎT

4

> T

2

• r

p

> r

p,opt

ÎT

4

< T

2

Max i mum net w or k f or i deal Br ay t on Cy cl e

The maximum net work using this optimum pressure ratio can be determined by

using the optimum pressure ratio in the expression for the net work :

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− −

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− − =

+ − −

1 1

1

3

1

1

γ

γ

γ

γ

p P p P net

r T C m r T C m W & &

&

1 2

1

1 1

1 1

2

1

1

3

1

3

1

3

2

1

1

3

2

1

1

3

2

1

1

3

1

3

2

1

1

3

max,

1

2

1

1

3

3

2

1

1

3

1 max,

+

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− =

+

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− +

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− =

⎟

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

⎟

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− = ⇒

⎟

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

⎟

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− =

−

−

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T C m

W

T

T

T C m

T

T

T C m W

opt

P

P P opt

&

&

& &

&

2

1

3

max,

1

1

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− = ⇒

T

T

T C m

W

opt

P

&

&

Opt i mum t her mal ef f i ci ency f or i deal Br ay t on Cy cl e

The cycle optimum efficiency can be determined by using the optimum pressure

ratio in the air standard efficiency for the Brayton cycle :

( )

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

η

η

1

1 2

1

3

,

1

1

1

1

1

−

−

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− = ⇒

− =

T

T

r

opt cycle

p

3

1

,

2

1

1

3

1

1

1

T

T

T

T

opt cycle

− = ⇒

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− =

η

Ther mal ef f i ci ency f or Br ay t on Cy cl e w i t h r egener at i on.

For the ideal case with regeneration, where the effectiveness is unity, ε = 1, the

thermal efficiency can be derived as follows :

.

2 4

2 5

max ,

,

T T

T T

q

q

regen

act regen

−

−

= = ε

When the effectiveness is unity, then T

4

= T

5

and

T

6

= T

2

.

Hence the thermal efficiency becomes:

4 3

1 2

5 3

1 6

1 1 1

T T

T T

T T

T T

q

q

in

out

th

−

−

− =

−

−

− = − = η

Hence, as

4

3

1

2

P

P

P

P

r

p

= = , the efficiency becomes:

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

−

−

−

−

− =

−

−

− =

γ

γ

γ

γ

η

1

3 3

1

1

1

4 3

1 2

1 1

p

p

th

r T T

T r T

T T

T T

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

−

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

−

−

−

−

− = ⇒

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

η

1

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

p

p

p th

r

r

r

T

T

γ

γ

η

1

3

1

1

−

− = ⇒

p th

r

T

T

For the more general case, where ε ≠ 1, thermal efficiency can be written as:

5 3

1 6

1 1

h h

h h

q

q

in

out

th

−

−

− = − = η .

Using the definition of the effectiveness, obtain expressions for h

5

and h

6

in

terms of ε, h

2

and h

4

.

2 4

6 4

2 4

2 5

h h

h h

h h

h h

−

−

=

−

−

= ε hence,

( )

( )

2 4 4 6

2 2 4 5

h h h h

h h h h

− − =

+ − =

ε

Substituting in the expression for thermal efficiency gives

( )

( )

ε

ε

η

ε

ε

η

ε

ε

η

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

−

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

−

− ≅

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

−

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

−

− = ⇒

− − −

− − −

− =

−

−

− =

2 4

2 3

2 4

1 4

2 4

2 3

2 4

1 4

2 2 4 3

1 2 4 4

5 3

1 6

1 1

1 1

T T

T T

T T

T T

or

h h

h h

h h

h h

h h h h

h h h h

h h

h h

th th

th

Min im is in g t h e Co m p r e s s o r Wo r k in p u t .

The work input required for three different ideal processes are compared:

1) Isentropic process – involves no cooling; 2) Polytropic process –

involves some cooling; 3) Isothermal process – involves maximum cooling.

If each of the three processes are all executed between the same pressures, P

1

and

P

2

, in an internally reversible manner using an ideal gas as the working fluid with

constant specific heats, the compression work can be determined by performing:

Isentropic: . const Pv =

γ

2

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

1

1

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

= = =

−

∫ ∫

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

P C

P

dP

C dP v w

comp

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

=

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

= ⇒

−

− −

1

1 1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

2

1

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

P

P

RT P P v P w

comp

Polytropic: . const Pv

n

=

2

1

1 1

2

1

1

1

2

1

1

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

= = =

−

∫ ∫

n

n

n

n

n

comp

P

n

n

C

P

dP

C dP v w

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

= ⇒

−

1

1

1

1

2

1

n

n

comp

P

P

n

n

RT w

Isothermal: const Pv =

[ ]

2

1 1

2

1

2

1

ln P RT dP

P

RT

dP v w

comp

= = =

∫ ∫

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

= ⇒

1

2

1

ln

P

P

RT w

comp

.

Three processes illustrated on P-v diagram (see Fig). Area to left of each curve is

equivalent to the integral of vdP and hence represents the work input required for

each process. Of these cases, the adiabatic compression (Pv

γ

= const) requires the

most work input, and the isothermal compression (T = const or Pv = const)

requires the least work. The work input for the polytropic process (Pv

n

= const) is

between these two, and the work input decreases as the exponent, n, is decreased

by increasing the amount of heat rejected in the compression process. If sufficient

heat is rejected in the compression process, then n approaches unity and the

process becomes isothermal.

page 11

Ma x im is in g t h e Tu r b in e Wo r k Ou t p u t .

The work output for three different ideal processes are compared :

1) Isentropic process – involves no heating; 2) Polytropic process – involves some

heating; 3) Isothermal process – involves maximum heating.

If each of the three processes are all executed between the same pressures, P

1

and

P

2

, in an internally reversible manner using an ideal gas as the working fluid with

constant specific heats, the expansion work can be determined by performing:

Isentropic: . const Pv =

γ

2

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

1

1

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

− = − = − =

−

∫ ∫

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

P C

P

dP

C dP v w

exp

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

=

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

− = ⇒

−

− −

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

γ

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1 1 P

P

RT P P v P w

exp

Polytropic: . const Pv

n

=

2

1

1 1

2

1

1

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

− = − =

−

∫

n

n

n

exp

P

n

n

C dP v w

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

= ⇒

−

n

n

exp

P

P

n

n

RT w

1

1

2

1

1

1

Isothermal: . const Pv =

[ ]

2

1 1

2

1

2

1

ln P RT dP

P

RT

dP v w

exp

− = − = − =

∫ ∫

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− = ⇒

1

2

1

ln

P

P

RT w

exp

.

P

V

Isentropic

Polytropic

Isothermal

P

1

P

2

P

V

Isentropic

Polytropic

Isothermal

P

1

P

2

The three processes are illustrated on a P- v diagram (see Fig.) for the same inlet

and exit pressure. The area to the left of each curve is equivalent to the integral of

vdP and hence represents the work output obtained from each process. Of these

cases, the adiabatic expansion (Pv

γ

= const) produces the least work output, and

the isothermal expansion (T = const or Pv = const) generates the most work. The

work output from the polytropic process (Pv

n

= const) is between these two, and

the work output increases as the exponent, n, is decreased by increasing the

amount of heat input to the expansion process. If sufficient heat is added in the

expansion process, then n approaches unity and the process becomes isothermal.

Op t im u m P r e s s u r e fo r I n t e r - c o o lin g

When using multistage compression, cooling the working fluid between the stages will reduce the

amount of compressor work required. The compressor work is reduced because cooling the working

fluid reduces the average specific volume of the fluid and thus reduces the amount of work on the fluid

to achieve the given pressure rise. For the adiabatic, steady-flow compression process, the work

input to the compressor per unit mass is:

4 3

2 4

1 3

1 2

= =

comp

w v dP v dP v dP v dP + +

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

For isentropic compression process:

| |

2 2 1 1 4 4 3 3

2 1 4 3

1 2 1 3 4 3

( 1) / ( 1) /

2 4

1 3

1 3

= ( ) ( )

-1 -1

( ) ( )

-1 -1

( / 1) ( / 1)

-1

1 1

-1

comp

k k k k

k k

w Pv Pv Pv Pv

k k

k kR

R T T T T

k k

k

R T T T T T T

k

k P P

R T T

k P P

− −

− + −

= − + −

= − + −

( | | | |

| | | |

( | | = − + −

| |

| |

(

\ . \ .

\ . \ . ¸ ¸

Notice that the fraction kR/(k-1) = C

p

.

For two-stage compression, assume that inter-cooling takes place at constant pressure and the gases

can be cooled to the inlet temperature for the compressor, such that P

3

= P

2

= P

i

and T

3

= T

1

. Then:

To find the unknown pressure P

i

(= P

2

= P

3

) that gives the minimum work input for fixed compressor inlet

conditions T

1

, P

1

, and exit pressure P

4

, set:

dw P

dP

comp

( )

i

i

0 =

This yields: P PP

i 1 4

=

or, the pressure ratios across the two compressors are equal.

2

3

Compressor

stage 1

Compressor

stage 2

W

·

c

1

4

Intercooler

p

v

T

s

4

4

3

2

2

1

1

p

i

p

i

p

2

p

1

s = constant

3

s = constant

Gas Power Cycles

Brayton Cycle with Intercooling, Reheating, and Regeneration

The net work output of the cycle can be increased by reducing the work input to the

compressor and/or by increasing the work output from turbine (or both).

Using multi-stage compression with intercooling reduces the work input the compressor.

As the number of stages is increased, the compression process becomes nearly isothermal

at the compressor inlet temperature, and the compression work decreases.

Likewise utilizing multistage expansion with reheat (in a multi-turbine arrangement) will

increase the work produced by turbines.

T

s

1

3

4a

5

6

8

9s

7s

10

9a

7a

4s

2s

2a

Gas Power Cycles

Air c r a ft Ap p lic a t io n s - a e r o d e r iva t ive s

( a ) Turboprop, ( b) Turbofa n & ( c) Ra mje t a pplica t ions

(

- 1

3 2 p 1 p

T = T r = T r r

γ

)

( )

( ) ( )

v 3 2

p 4 1

v 3 2 p 4 1

Heat supplied = C T - T

Heat rejected = C T - T

Net workdone = C T - T - C T - T

( ) ( )

( )

v 3 2 p 4 1

th

v 3 2

C T - T - C T - T

=

C T - T

η

( )

- 1 - 1 - 1 - 1

- 1

1 3 3 3 3 2 2

p p

4 4 1 2 1 1

T P P P P P

= = = . = r . = r . r

T P P P P P

γ γ γ γ

γ

γ γ γ γ

γ− γ

⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

since,

( )

2 1

1 2

P v

= = r

P v

4 1

3 2

T - T

1 -

T - T

γ

=

Let,

γ

γ

1

2

v

r = = CR

v

- 1

2 1

T = T r

⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

and

γ

3 3

p

2 2

T P

= = r = Pressure ratio

T P

1

- 1

1 p

3

4 1 p

- 1 - 1

- 1 - 1

p p

T r r

T

T = = = T r

r r r r

γ

γ

γ γ

γ γ γ γ

( )

1

p

th

- 1

p

r - 1

= 1 -

r - 1 r

γ

γ

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

η γ

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦

At k in s o n Cy c le :

Atkinson cycle is an ideal cycle for Otto engine exhausting to a gas turbine. In this cycle

the isentropic expansion (3-4) of an Otto cycle (1-2-3-4) is further allowed to proceed to

the lowest cycle pressure so as to increase the work output.

Gas Power Cycles

Cooling an Aircraft Cabin

Advantages:

a) Air is a cheaper refrigerant and available easily compared to other

refrigerants.

b) No danger of fire or toxic effects due to leakage.

c) Total weight of the system per ton of refrigerating capacity is less.

Disadvantages:

(a) Quantity of air required per ton refrigerating capacity is far greater than

other systems.

(b) COP is low and hence maintenance cost is high.

(c) Danger of frosting at the expander valves is more as the air taken into the

system always contains moisture.

2

1

3

4

T

s

1

3

4a

4s

2

Gas Power Cycles

Air standard refrigeration (reverse Brayton) cycle

Derive the expression for COP using 'cold air standard properties'

.

Definition of COP =

q

L

w

net

=

q

L

q

H

- q

L

=

1

q

H

q

L

- 1

From the refrigeration cycle we get the ratio of the heat transfers as

q

H

q

L

=

C

p

(T

2

- T

3

)

C

p

(T

1

- T

4

)

=

T

2

(1 - T

3

/T

2

)

T

1

(1 - T

4

/T

1

)

The pressure ratios are the same and we have isentropic compression/expansion

P

2

P

1

=

P

3

P

4

=

T

2

T

1

k/(k-1)

=

T

3

T

4

k/(k-1)

so now we get

T

2

T

1

=

T

3

T

4

or

T

4

T

1

=

T

3

T

2

The heat transfer ratio simplifies to

q

H

q

L

=

T

2

T

1

and so the COP reduces to

COP =

1

T

2

T

1

- 1

COP =

1

P

2

P

1

(k-1)/k

- 1

COP =

1

r

P

(k-1)/k

− 1

Gas Power Cycles

Air standard refrigeration cycle with regenerator

Definition of COP: =

q

L

w

net

=

q

L

q

H

- q

L

=

1

q

H

q

L

- 1

Assuming an ideal heat exchanger h

4

= h

6

and h

1

= h

3

so q

L

= w

E

From the refrigeration cycle we get the ratio of the heat transfers as

q

H

q

L

=

C

p

(T

2

- T

3

)

C

p

(T

6

- T

5

)

=

T

2

- T

1

T

4

- T

5

=

T

1

T

5

(T

2

/T

1

) − 1

(T

4

/T

5

) − 1

The pressure ratios are the same and we have isentropic compression/expansion

P

2

P

1

=

P

4

P

5

=

T

2

T

1

k/(k-1)

=

T

4

T

5

k/(k-1)

so now we get

T

2

T

1

=

T

4

T

5

so

q

H

q

L

=

T

1

T

5

=

T

1

T

4

T

4

T

5

=

T

1

T

4

r

P

(k-1)/k

and the COP reduces to

COP =

1

T

1

T

5

− 1

=

1

T

1

T

4

r

P

(k-1)/k

− 1

The formula for the coefficient of performance when we use cold air properties is

Derive the expression for COP using 'cold air standard properties' as function of the

compression ratio similar to how the Brayton cycle efficiency was found.

Expander Compressor

q

H

q

L

5

4

6

3 2

1

1

2a

3

s

T

4

5a

6

2

S

5

S

Regenerator

Heat Exchanger

Heat Exchanger

when: • rp = rp.Optimum pressure ratio for ideal Brayton Cycle Net Work for cycle = Compressor Work required + Turbine work output & & & Wnet = Wcomp + Wturb & & & Wnet = −mC P (T2 − T1 ) − mCP (T4 − T3 ) ⎞ ⎛T ⎛T ⎞ & & & Wnet = −mCPT1 ⎜ 2 − 1⎟ − mCPT3 ⎜ 4 − 1⎟ ⎜T ⎟ ⎟ ⎜T ⎝ 1 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ γ −1 −γ +1 & & Wnet = −mCPT1 ⎛ rp γ − 1⎞ − mCPT3 ⎛ rp γ − 1⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ & ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ Differentiating net work with respect to pressure ratio and setting derivative to zero to determine the optimum pressure ratio for maximum net work : & ⎛ γ − 1 ⎞ γ −1−γ γ ⎛ − γ + 1 ⎞ −γ +1−γ γ dWnet & & = −mCPT1 ⎜ − mCPT3 ⎜ ⎜ γ ⎟rp ⎟ ⎜ γ ⎟rp ⎟ drP ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ & dWnet =0 drP −γ +1−γ γ −1−γ ⎛ γ −1 ⎞ ⎛ − γ +1⎞ γ −T ⎜ γ =0 ⇒ −T1 ⎜ ⎟rp .opt ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ −1 T −⎛ − 2γ +1 ⎞ ⎜ γ ⎟r γ = 3 ⎠ rp .opt T1 ⎛T ⎞ ⇒ rp .opt = T3 ⎜ γ ⎟rp .opt = ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎜T ⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ γ 2 (γ −1) For ideal Brayton cycle.opt 3⎜ ⎜ γ ⎟rp .opt T4 > T2 • rp > rp.opt T4 < T2 .opt T4 = T2 • rp < rp.opt ⎟ ⎟ γ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ −2γ +1 −1 ⎛ γ −1 ⎞ ⎛ − γ +1⎞ γ γ − T1 ⎜ ⎜ γ ⎟rp .opt ⎝ p .

opt = 1 − T1 T3 .opt = − mCPT1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜⎜ T ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ T1 ⎠ ⎟ ⎜⎝ 1 ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ & W ⇒ & mC PT1 ⎛T ⎞ = −⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎜T ⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ 1 2 max.opt ⎛ T ⎞ = ⎜ 3 − 1⎟ ⎜ T ⎟ ⎝ 1 ⎠ 2 Optimum thermal efficiency for ideal Brayton Cycle The cycle optimum efficiency can be determined by using the optimum pressure ratio in the air standard efficiency for the Brayton cycle : η = 1− rp 1 γ −1 γ ⇒ η cycle.Maximum net work for ideal Brayton Cycle The maximum net work using this optimum pressure ratio can be determined by using the optimum pressure ratio in the expression for the net work : γ −1 − γ +1 & & Wnet = −mC PT1 ⎛ rp γ − 1⎞ − mC PT3 ⎛ rp γ − 1⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ & ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ −1 ⎛ ⎛ T ⎞ 12 ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎜ 3 ⎟ − 1⎟ − mC T ⎜ ⎛ T3 ⎞ − 1⎟ & & & P 3 ⎜ ⎟ Wmax.opt = 1 − 1 γ ⎛ T ⎞ ⎜ ⎛ 3 ⎞ 2(γ −1) ⎟ ⎜ T⎟ ⎜⎝ ⎟ 1⎠ ⎝ ⎠ γ −1 γ = 1− 1 ⎛ T3 ⎞ ⎜ T⎟ 1⎠ ⎝ 1 2 ⇒ η cycle.opt ⎛ ⎛ T ⎞ 12 ⎞ T ⎛ ⎛ T ⎞ − 12 ⎞ ⎜ = −⎜ ⎜ 3 ⎟ − 1⎟ − 3 ⎜ ⎜ 3 ⎟ − 1⎟ ⎜⎜ T ⎟ ⎟ T ⎜ T ⎟ ⎟ ⎜⎝ 1 ⎠ ⎟ 1 ⎜⎝ 1 ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎛T ⎞ 2 T +1− ⎜ 3 ⎟ + 3 ⎜T ⎟ T1 ⎝ 1⎠ 1 2 ⎛T ⎞ T = 3 − 2⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎜T ⎟ T1 ⎝ 1⎠ & W ⇒ & mC PT1 +1 max.

max = T5 − T2 . where ε ≠ 1. ε = 1. the thermal efficiency can be derived as follows : ε= qregen. where the effectiveness is unity. T4 − T2 When the effectiveness is unity. as rp = qout qin =1− T6 − T1 T3 − T5 =1− T2 − T1 T3 − T4 P2 P3 = . then T4 = T5 and T6 = T2. (h4 − h2 ) + h2 h6 = h4 − ε (h4 − h2 ) h5 = Substituting in the expression for thermal efficiency gives ηth = 1 − h6 − h1 h3 − h5 = 1− h4 − ε (h4 − h2 ) − h1 h3 − ε (h4 − h2 ) − h2 ⎛ h4 − h1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ h − h ⎟ −ε ⎟ ⇒ ηth = 1 − ⎝ 4 2 ⎠ ⎛ h3 − h2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ h − h ⎟ −ε ⎟ ⎝ 4 2⎠ or ⎛ T4 − T1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜T −T ⎟ −ε ⎟ ηth ≅ 1 − ⎝ 4 2 ⎠ ⎛ T3 − T2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜T −T ⎟ −ε ⎟ ⎝ 4 2⎠ . the efficiency becomes: P P4 1 =1− T1 rp γ −1 γ T −T ηth = 1 − 2 1 T3 − T4 − T1 − ⎛ γ −1 ⎞ ⎜ γ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ T3 − T3 rp ⎜ ⎟ T1 γ −1γ 1 − rp ⎝ γ ⎠ ⇒ ηth = 1 − rp −⎛ γ −1 ⎞ T3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 − rp ⎜ γ ⎟ −⎛ γ −1 ⎞ ⇒ ηth = 1 − T1 γ −1γ rp T3 For the more general case. h2 and h4. For the ideal case with regeneration. ε= h5 − h2 h4 − h2 = h4 − h6 h4 − h2 hence.Thermal efficiency for Brayton Cycle with regeneration. qin h3 − h5 Using the definition of the effectiveness.act qregen. thermal efficiency can be written as: ηth = 1 − qout h −h =1− 6 1 . Hence the thermal efficiency becomes: ηth = 1 − Hence. obtain expressions for h 5 and h6 in terms of ε.

2) Polytropic process – involves some cooling. γ wcomp = ∫ v dP = C 1 2 1 2 γ ∫ 1 dP 1 P γ =C 1 γ ⎡⎛ γ ⎞ γ −1γ ⎤ ⎟P ⎥ ⎢⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎣⎝ γ − 1 ⎠ ⎦1 2 ⇒ wcomp γ −1 ⎡⎛ γ ⎞ ⎛ γ −1γ −P γ = P γ v ⎢⎜ 1 ⎟⎜ ⎜ γ − 1 ⎟ ⎝ P2 ⎠ ⎣⎝ 1 γ −1 ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎛ γ ⎞ ⎢⎛ P2 ⎞ γ ⎥ ⎞ = RT ⎜ −1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎥ 1⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎝ γ − 1 ⎠ ⎢⎝ P ⎠ 1 ⎦ ⎣ Polytropic: Pv = const . the adiabatic compression (Pvγ = const) requires the most work input. Area to left of each curve is equivalent to the integral of vdP and hence represents the work input required for each process. 3) Isothermal process – involves maximum cooling. If sufficient heat is rejected in the compression process. The work input for the polytropic process (Pvn = const) is between these two. n. the compression work can be determined by performing: Isentropic: Pv = const . P1 and P2. is decreased by increasing the amount of heat rejected in the compression process. and the isothermal compression (T = const or Pv = const) requires the least work. and the work input decreases as the exponent. The work input required for three different ideal processes are compared: 1) Isentropic process – involves no cooling. ⎜P⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ Three processes illustrated on P-v diagram (see Fig). If each of the three processes are all executed between the same pressures.Minimising the Compressor Work input. Of these cases. . n wcomp = ∫ v dP = C 1 2 1 n ∫P 1 2 dP 1 n ⎡⎛ n ⎞ n−1n ⎤ = C ⎢⎜ ⎟P ⎥ ⎣⎝ n − 1 ⎠ ⎦1 1 n 2 ⇒ wcomp n −1 ⎡ ⎤ n ⎛ n ⎞ ⎢⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = RT1 ⎜ − 1⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ n − 1 ⎠ ⎢⎝ P ⎠ ⎣ 1 ⎦ Isothermal: Pv = const 2 wcomp = ∫ v dP 1 2 =∫ 1 RT 2 dP = RT1 [ln P ]1 P ⎛P ⎞ ⇒ wcomp = RT1 ln⎜ 2 ⎟ . in an internally reversible manner using an ideal gas as the working fluid with constant specific heats. then n approaches unity and the process becomes isothermal.

The area to the left of each curve is equivalent to the integral of vdP and hence represents the work output obtained from each process. and the isothermal expansion (T = const or Pv = const) generates the most work. in an internally reversible manner using an ideal gas as the working fluid with constant specific heats. P 2 n −1 ⎤ 1 ⎡⎛ n ⎞ wexp = − ∫ v dP = −C n ⎢⎜ ⎟ P n⎥ ⎣⎝ n − 1 ⎠ ⎦1 1 2 P1 Isentropic ⇒ wexp ⎡ ⎛ n ⎞ ⎢ ⎛ P2 ⎞ = RT1 ⎜ ⎟ 1− ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ n − 1 ⎠⎢ ⎝ P ⎠ 1 ⎣ n −1 n ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Isothermal P2 Polytropic . P1 and P2. and the work output increases as the exponent. . The work output for three different ideal processes are compared : 1) Isentropic process – involves no heating. Isothermal: Pv = const V 2 2 wexp = − ∫ v dP 1 = −∫ 1 RT 2 dP = − RT1 [ln P ]1 P ⎛P ⎞ ⇒ wexp = − RT1 ln⎜ 2 ⎟ . is decreased by increasing the amount of heat input to the expansion process. then n approaches unity and the process becomes isothermal. the adiabatic expansion (Pvγ = const) produces the least work output. The work output from the polytropic process (Pvn = const) is between these two. 2) Polytropic process – involves some heating. the expansion work can be determined by performing: Isentropic: Pv = const . γ 2 1 2 wexp = − ∫ v dP = −C 1 γ ∫ 1 dP 1 P γ = −C 1 γ ⎡⎛ γ ⎞ γ −1γ ⎤ ⎟P ⎥ ⎢⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎣⎝ γ − 1 ⎠ ⎦1 2 ⇒ wexp γ −1 ⎡⎛ γ ⎞ ⎛ γ −1γ −P γ = − P γ v ⎢⎜ 1 ⎜ γ − 1 ⎟ ⎜ P2 ⎟⎝ ⎠ ⎣⎝ 1 γ −1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎛ γ ⎞ ⎢ ⎛ P2 ⎞ γ ⎞ = RT ⎜ ⎟ 1− ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎥ 1⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎠⎦ ⎝ γ − 1 ⎠⎢ ⎝ P ⎠ 1 ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Polytropic: Pv n = const . If sufficient heat is added in the expansion process. n. If each of the three processes are all executed between the same pressures. 3) Isothermal process – involves maximum heating. Of these cases. ⎜P⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ The three processes are illustrated on a P-v diagram (see Fig.Maximising the Turbine Work Output.) for the same inlet and exit pressure.

set: dwcomp ( Pi ) dPi =0 This yields: Pi = P P4 or. and exit pressure P4. The compressor work is reduced because cooling the working fluid reduces the average specific volume of the fluid and thus reduces the amount of work on the fluid to achieve the given pressure rise. Then: To find the unknown pressure Pi (= P2 = P3) that gives the minimum work input for fixed compressor inlet conditions T1. 1 . cooling the working fluid between the stages will reduce the amount of compressor work required. assume that inter-cooling takes place at constant pressure and the gases can be cooled to the inlet temperature for the compressor. the work input to the compressor per unit mass is: wcomp = ∫ v dP = ∫ v dP + ∫ v dP + ∫ v dP 1 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 For isentropic compression process: wcomp = k k ( P2 v2 − Pv1 ) + ( P4 v4 − P3v3 ) 1 k -1 k -1 k kR R(T2 − T1 ) + = (T4 − T3 ) k -1 k -1 k R [T1 (T2 / T1 − 1) + T3 (T4 / T3 − 1)] = k -1 ( k −1) / k P ( k −1) / k k P2 R T1 = − 1 + T3 4 − 1 P3 k -1 P 1 Notice that the fraction kR/(k-1) = Cp.Optimum Pressure for Inter-cooling 4 Compressor stage 1 Compressor stage 2 p 4 s = constant · Wc 3 2 pi T p2 4 2 3 pi p1 1 2 Intercooler 3 s = constant 1 v 1 s When using multistage compression. steady-flow compression process. such that P3 = P2 = Pi and T3 = T1. P1. For two-stage compression. the pressure ratios across the two compressors are equal. For the adiabatic.

As the number of stages is increased. and Regeneration The net work output of the cycle can be increased by reducing the work input to the compressor and/or by increasing the work output from turbine (or both).Brayton Cycle with Intercooling. Using multi-stage compression with intercooling reduces the work input the compressor. the compression process becomes nearly isothermal at the compressor inlet temperature. Reheating. and the compression work decreases. Likewise utilizing multistage expansion with reheat (in a multi-turbine arrangement) will increase the work produced by turbines. T 6 8 5 4s 4a 7s 10 7a 9s 9a 2s 2a 3 1 s .

Aircraft Applications .aeroderivatives (a) Turboprop. (b) Turbofan & (c) Ramjet applications .

1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) .T1 ) ηth = C v ( T3 .1 ⎥ p ⎥ =1-γ ⎢ ⎢ rp . 2 ⎟ ⎝ P1 ⎠ γ -1 γ = γ -1 rp γ .Atkinson Cycle: Atkinson cycle is an ideal cycle for Otto engine exhausting to a gas turbine.1 r γ .T2 ) Let. Heat supplied = C v ( T3 . 2⎟ ⎝ P2 P1 ⎠ γ γ -1 γ ⎛ P ⎞ = ⎜ rp . r γ−1 ⎛v ⎞ P2 = ⎜ 1 ⎟ = rγ P1 ⎝ v2 ⎠ and T4 = γ -1 rp γ T3 rγ .Cp ( T4 . In this cycle the isentropic expansion (3-4) of an Otto cycle (1-2-3-4) is further allowed to proceed to the lowest cycle pressure so as to increase the work output. γ -1 γ ⎛P ⎞ = ⎜ 3⎟ ⎝ P1 ⎠ γ -1 γ ⎛P P ⎞ = ⎜ 3.1 = T1 rp r γ .T2 ) γ ( T4 .1 T3 P = 3 = rp = Pressure ratio T2 P2 T3 = T2 rp = T1 r γ .T2 ) .1 rp ⎛P ⎞ T3 =⎜ 3⎟ T4 ⎝ P4 ⎠ since.T1 ) = 1- ( T3 .1 γ -1 rp γ = 1 T1 rpγ rγ .T1 ) C v ( T3 .T2 ) Heat rejected = Cp ( T4 .T1 ) Net workdone = C v ( T3 .Cp ( T4 .T2 ) .1 ηth 1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ rγ . r = v1 = CR v2 T2 = T1 r γ .

.

b) No danger of fire or toxic effects due to leakage. (b) COP is low and hence maintenance cost is high. c) Total weight of the system per ton of refrigerating capacity is less. Disadvantages: (a) Quantity of air required per ton refrigerating capacity is far greater than other systems.Cooling an Aircraft Cabin 1 T 2 2 3 3 4a 4s 4 s 1 Advantages: a) Air is a cheaper refrigerant and available easily compared to other refrigerants. (c) Danger of frosting at the expander valves is more as the air taken into the system always contains moisture. .

qL qH -1 qL From the refrigeration cycle we get the ratio of the heat transfers as qH Cp(T2 .Air standard refrigeration (reverse Brayton) cycle .T4/T1) The pressure ratios are the same and we have isentropic compression/expansion P2 P3 T2k/(k-1) T3k/(k-1) = = = P1 P4 T1 T4 so now we get T2 T3 T4 T3 = or = T1 T4 T1 T2 The heat transfer ratio simplifies to qH T2 = qL T1 and so the COP reduces to T2 -1 T1 1 COP = (k-1)/k P2 -1 P 1 COP = 1 COP = 1 rP (k-1)/k −1 .T4) T1(1 .T3) T2(1 . Derive the expression for COP using 'cold air standard properties' Definition of COP = qL qL 1 = = wnet qH .T3/T2) = = qL Cp(T1 .

Air standard refrigeration cycle with regenerator The formula for the coefficient of performance when we use cold air properties is Derive the expression for COP using 'cold air standard properties' as function of the compression ratio similar to how the Brayton cycle efficiency was found.T5) = T4 . Definition of COP: qL qL 1 = w =q -q =q net H L H qL .T5 = T5 (T4/T5) − 1 The pressure ratios are the same and we have isentropic compression/expansion P2 P4 T2k/(k-1) T4k/(k-1) = T P1 = P5 = T1 5 so now we get T2 T4 T1 = T5 and the COP reduces to COP = 1 = T T1 1 (k-1)/k − 1 T rP −1 T5 4 1 so qH T1 T1 T4 T1 (k-1)/k qL = T5 = T4 T5 = T4 rP Regenerator Heat Exchanger 1 Compressor 2 3 6 Heat Exchanger q L 5 4 Expander q H 2a T 3 4 2S 1 6 5a 5S s .1 Assuming an ideal heat exchanger h4 = h6 and h1 = h3 so qL = wE From the refrigeration cycle we get the ratio of the heat transfers as qH Cp(T2 .T1 T1 (T2/T1) − 1 qL = Cp(T6 .T3) T2 .

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