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Presented by

Joe Ryan

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of Newcastle, Australia

Incidence matrices

Let G be a graph without loops, with n vertices labelled 1,2,…,n, and m edges labelled 1,2,3,…,m. The incidence matrix I(G) of G is the nxm matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is 1 if the vertex i is incident with the edge j, and 0 otherwise.

2

Incidence matrices

Problem Write down the incidence matrix of each of the following graphs.

3

Incidence matrices

Problem Draw the graph represented by each of the following incidence matrices.

4

Incidence matrices

Let D be a digraph without loops, with n vertices labelled 1,2,…,n, and m arcs labelled 1,2,3,…,m. The incidence matrix I(D) of D is the nxm matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is 1 if the arc j is incident from vertex i, -1 if the arc j is incident to vertex i, and 0 otherwise.

5

Incidence matrices

Problem Write down the incidence matrix of each of the following digraphs.

6

Incidence matrices

Problem Draw the digraph represented by each of the following incidence matrices.

7

Null graphs

A null graph is a graph with no edges. The null graph with n vertices is denoted by Nn. The graph Nn is regular of degree 0.

8

Regular graphs

A graph is regular if its vertices all have the same degree. A regular graph is r-regular, or regular of degree r, if the degree of each vertex is r.

9

Regular graphs

Exercise: Draw an r-regular graph with 8 vertices when r = 3,4,5.

Theorem: Let G be an r-regular graph with n vertices. Then G has nr/2 edges. Proof. Let G be a graph with n vertices, each of degree r. Then the sum of the degrees is nr. By the Handshaking Lemma, the number of edges is half of this sum.

10

Regular graphs

Exercise: Verify that the Theorem holds for each of the following regular graphs:

Exercise:

(a) Prove that there are no 3-regular graphs with 7 vertices; (b) Prove that, if n and r are both odd, then there are no r-regular graphs with n vertices.

11

Cycle graphs

A cycle graph is a graph consisting of a single cycle of vertices and edges. The cycle graph with n vertices is denoted by Cn. The graph Cn is regular of degree 2 and has n edges.

**Exercise: Draw the graphs K7, N7 and C7.
**

12

Petersen graph

Petersen graph was discovered by Julius Petersen in 1898. Petersen graph is a 3-regular graph with 10 vertices and 15 edges. It may be drawn in many ways, for example:

13

Platonic graphs

Platonic solids and the corresponding Platonic graphs:

14

Cubes

Cubes: vertices are all binary words of a given length k, and two vertices are joined whenever the vertices differ in exactly one bit. k-cube or k-dimensional cube is based on words of length k; it is denoted by Qk.

15

Bipartite graphs

A bipartite graph is a graph whose set of vertices can be split into 2 subsets A and B in such a way that each edge of the graph joins a vertex in A and a vertex in B.

**Exercise: Prove that in a bipartite graph every cycle has an even number of edges.
**

16

**Complete bipartite graphs
**

A complete bipartite graph is a bipartite graph in which each vertex in A is joined to each vertex in B by exactly one edge. Kr,s denotes a complete bipartite graph with r vertices in A and s vertices in B.

Exercise: (a) Draw the graphs K2,3, K1,7 and K4,4. How many vertices and edges does each have? (b) Under what conditions on r and s is Kr,s a regular graph?

17

Path graphs

A path graph is a tree consisting of a single path through all its vertices. Path graph with n vertices is denoted by Pn. The graph Pn has n-1 edges and can be obtained from the cycle graph Cn by removing one edge.

18

Trees

A tree is a connected graph with no cycles.

Note that in a tree there is exactly one path between any two vertices. Exercise: There are 8 unlabelled trees with 5 or fewer vertices. Draw them. Exercise: Explain why every tree is a bipartite graph. Explain why a tree with n vertices has n-1 edges.

19

Complete graphs

A complete graph is a graph in which each vertex is joined to each of the others by exactly one edge. The complete graph with n vertices is denoted by Kn. The graph Kn is regular of degree n-1, and has n(n-1)/2 edges.

20

Complete graphs

Every graph on n vertices is a subgraph of Kn. |V(G)| = n ⇒ G ⊆ Kn So we also know that Δ(G) ≤ n-1, |E(G)| ≤ n(n-1)/2 and radius(G) ≥ 1. And, of course, |V(G)| = n ⇒ G ⊆ Km, m ≥ n.

21

Complement of a graph

The complement of a graph G (written G) is a graph on the same vertex set as G containing all edges not in G.

G

G

22

Complement of a graph

If |E(G)| = e, then |E(G)| = n(n-1)/2 - e

+

=

G

G

Kn

23

Self Complementary Graphs

C5

C5

P4

P4

24

Converse of a Digraph

For a digraph G, the converse of G is obtained by simply reversing the direction of the arrows.

B B

A

D

A

D

C

C

25

Self Converse Digraphs

K3 is the same as K3. C6 is isomorphic to C6.

26

**Cartesian Products of Graphs
**

1

The Cartesian Product of G1 and G2 is the graph obtained by placing a copy of G2 at each vertex of G1 and then joining corresponding vertices of G2 for copies that are placed at adjacent vertices of G1.

a

2 3

b

c

G2

G1

a1 a2

b1 b2 c2

c1

G1 × G2

a3

b3

c3

27

Duality

Let G be a connected planar graph. Then a dual graph G* is constructed from a plane drawing of G as follows. Draw one new vertex in each face of the plane drawing: these are the vertices of G*. For each edge e of the plane drawing, draw a line joining the vertices of G* in the faces on either side of e: these are the edges of G*.

28

Duality

Consider the graph of the cube. If we place a new vertex within each face (incl. the infinite face) and join the pairs of new vertices in adjacent faces, we obtain the graph of the octahedron and vice versa.

29

Duality

Problem Draw the dual of each of the following plane drawings of planar graphs.

Problem The following diagrams show two different plane drawings of a planar graph. Show that their duals are not isomorphic.

30

Duality

Different plane drawings of a planar graph G may give rise to non-isomorphic dual graphs G*. If G is a plane drawing of a planar connected graph then so is its dual G*, and so we can construct (G*)*, the dual of G*.

Note that (G*)* is isomorphic to G.

31

Connectivity

G1 is a tree – removal of any edge disconnects it (all edges are cut-edges or bridges). G2 cannot be disconnected by removing an edge. but it can be disconnected by removing a vertex (the cut-vertex). G3 cannot be disconnected by removing an edge or a vertex but is not as strongly connected as G4.

32

Vertex Connectivity

A graph is called k connected if the removal of k vertices is required to disconnect the graph.

3 connected

2 connected

33

Edge Connectivity

A graph is called k edge connected if the removal of k edges is required to disconnect the graph.

**The above graph is 3-edge connected Problem: Identify the cut set.
**

34

Clustering

A graph shows high clustering if neighbours of points are connected.

This graph is locally connected. All neighbours of each point are connected. Many social network graphs display high clustering

35

Clustering

Most graphs with high clustering have large diameter.

**Small world networks show high clustering but have small diameter.
**

36

6 degrees of separation

Stanley Milgram (1967) sent 160 letters from Omaha, Nebraska to Boston – not by post!

What is the degree of Facebook?

37

Tree structures

A tree is a connected graph that has no cycles. Trees are relatively simple structures but very important for many practical applications.

38

Tree structures

Example of an artificial object that can be modeled as a tree.

39

Tree structures

Example of a conceptual tree: family tree.

40

Tree structures

Another example of a conceptual tree: hierarchical tree representing the responsibilities in a company.

41

**Mathematical properties of trees
**

A tree is a connected graph that has no cycles.

42

**Mathematical properties of trees
**

Problem Draw the 6 unlabelled trees with 6 vertices. Each unlabelled tree with n vertices can be obtained from an unlabelled tree with n-1 vertices by adding an edge joining a new vertex to an existing one. For example, from we can obtain

43

**Mathematical properties of trees
**

Theorem: Equivalent Definitions of a Tree. Let T be a graph with n vertices. Then the following statements are all equivalent. •T is connected and has no cycles. •T has n-1 edges and has no cycles. •T is connected and has n-1 edges. •T is connected and the removal of any edge disconnects T. •Any two vertices of T are connected by exactly one path. •T contains no cycles, but the addition of any new edge creates a cycle. Prove the equivalences.

44

Spanning trees

Let G be a connected graph. Then a spanning tree in G is a subgraph of G that includes every vertex of G and is also a tree.

The number of spanning trees in a graph can be very large. For example, the Petersen graph has 2000 labelled spanning trees.

45

Spanning trees

Two methods for constructing a spanning tree in a connected graph: Building-up method: Select edges of the graph one at a time in such a way that no cycles are created; repeat this procedure until all vertices are included. Cutting down method: Choose any cycle and remove any one of its edges; repeat this procedure until no cycles remain.

46

Spanning trees

Problem Use each method to construct a spanning tree in the complete graph K5.

47

Rooted trees

A particular type of a tree structure that appears often is the rooted tree.

48

**Rooted trees: Experiments
**

Possible outcomes of experiments can be represented by a branching tree. Example: tossing a coin.

**Problem Draw the branching tree representing the outcomes of 2 throws of a six-sided die.
**

49

**Rooted trees: Games of strategy
**

Branching trees can be used in the analysis of games, esp. games of strategy such as chess or tic-tac-toe, and for strategic manoeuvres such as those arising in military situations.

50

Decision Tree

Adequate Income Adequate Assets Adequate Income Steady Job Adequate Income Adequate Assets Adequate Income Approve the Loan Not Approve the Loan Approve the Loan Not Approve the Loan Approve the Loan Not Approve the Loan Not Approve the Loan Not Approve the Loan

51

**Pruned Decision Tree
**

Adequate Income Approve the Loan Not Approve the Loan

Steady Job Adequate Income Adequate Assets

Approve the Loan Not Approve the Loan

Not Approve the Loan

52

**Revision (and terms to know)
**

Incidence matrices Types of graphs – null, regular, cycles, Platonic, Petersen, bipartite, path graphs, trees Complement of a graph Converse of a digraph Cartesian product (of two graphs) Dual of a graph Connectivity

53

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