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Long Carbon Europe
Sections and Merchant Bars
Earthquake
Resistant Steel Structures
Aim of this document
This document aims to present in a straightforward manner the essentials of seismic
design of steel structures, which is a ﬁeld of engineering and construction to which
ArcelorMittal contributes by continuous research efforts that bring better steel products
and original design solutions to the market. These include the widely used Reduced
Beam Section concept (RBS or ‘dogbone’) for moment resisting frames (Section 10),
INERD dissipative connections for braced frames (Section 12), and the use of composite
columns to mitigate soft storey failures in reinforced concrete structures (Section 18).
Contents
1. What is an Earthquake? 4
2. Why are Steel Structures Good at Resisting Earthquakes? 8
3. A Tool to Evaluate the Effects of Earthquakes: the Response Spectrum 11
4. Design Response Spectra 15
5. Characterisation of Structures Speciﬁc to Seismic Design 20
6. Aspects of Seismic Analysis and Design Checks Common to all Structural Types 25
7. Approximate Method for Seismic Analysis and Design 30
8. Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings 34
9. Designing Dissipative Structures 40
10. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames 47
11. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing 60
12. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing and Dissipative Connections 65
13. Seismic Design of Frames with Eccentric Bracing 68
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures 73
15. Composite Steel Concrete Moment Resisting Frames 89
16. Composite Steel Concrete Frames with Bracing 91
17. Composite Steel Concrete Walls and Systems with Walls 94
18. Improving Reinforced Concrete Structures by using Composite Columns 99
19. Design Example 102
Annex A Deﬁnition of Eurocode 8 Design Response Spectra 122
Annex B Steels available from ArcelorMittal 122
References 123
Technical advisory & Finishing 124
Your Partners 125
1
ArcelorMittal Technical Brochure:
Earthquake Resistant Steel Structures
1. What is an Earthquake?
The physical phenomenon. Action applied
to a structure by an earthquake.
Characterisation of seismic action.
2. Why are Steel Structures Good at
Resisting Earthquakes?
The paramount importance of ductility.
Flexibility and low weight.
3. A Tool to Evaluate the Effects of
Earthquakes: the Response Spectrum.
Response of structures subjected to an
earthquake. How is an Elastic Response
Spectrum established? Code elastic
response spectrum. Elastic displacement
response spectrum.
Multimodal response.
4. Design Response Spectra.
From one elastic response spectrum to
design response spectra. Importance of the
structure. Remote or near ﬁeld earthquake.
Soil and site. Ductility of the structure.
Example of design spectra.
5. Characterisation of Structures Speciﬁc
to Seismic Design.
Behaviour factors. Ductility Classes. Plastic
redistribution parameter.
6. Aspects of Seismic Analysis and
Design Checks Common to all Structural
Types.
Seismic mass. Methods of analysis. Torsion.
Displacements in dissipative structures.
Resistance condition. Limitation of second
order effects.
7. Approximate Method for Seismic
Analysis and Design.
Choice of units. Simple elastic analysis
method. Estimation of the fundamental
period T1of a building.
8. Architecture of Earthquake Resistant
Buildings.
Basic features of an earthquake resistant
building. Primary structure and secondary
structure. Objectives of conceptual design.
Principles of conceptual design of an earth
quake resistant structure.
9. Designing Dissipative Structures.
Principle. Designing reliable dissipative
zones. The many local dissipative mecha
nisms available in steel structures. Non
dissipative local mechanisms. Design of
non dissipative elements in a dissipative
structure. Capacity design applied to con
nections. Capacity design applied to bars
with holes. Design criteria for dissipative
structures. Selecting a Ductility Class for
design. Selecting a typology of structure for
design.
10. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting
Frames.
Design objective for moment resisting
frames (or MRFs). US and European Ductility
Classes. Design criteria. Redistribution of
bending moments in beams. Other require
ments. Plastic hinges. Recommended
designs for beam to column connections.
Design of reduced beam sections. Connec
tions of columns to foundations.
11. Seismic Design of Frames with
Concentric Bracing.
Design objective. Analysis of X bracing.
Design Criteria for X bracing. Other require
ments for X bracing. Design of connections.
Analysis of V or ȁ bracing. Design Criteria
for V or ȁ bracing. Other requirements for V
or ȁ bracing. US and European design rules
for frames with concentric bracing.
12. Seismic Design of Frames with
Concentric Bracing and Dissipative
Connections.
Interest of dissipative connections in frames
with concentric bracings. Analysis of frames
with X, V or ȁ bracing and dissipative con
nections for the diagonals. Design Criteria
for frames with X, V or ȁ bracing and dis
sipative connections for the diagonals.
13. Seismic Design of Frames with
Eccentric Bracing.
General features of the design of frames
with eccentric bracing. Short links and long
links. Selection of a type of eccentric bracing.
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures.
Introduction. How can composite structural
elements be dissipative? A basic choice in
the design of dissipative composite struc
tures; the degree of composite ‘character’.
Design concepts and behaviour factors q
in the context of the Eurocodes. Materials.
Stiffness of sections. Plastic resistance of dis
sipative zones. Ductility in bending of com
posite beams. Detailing rules for composite
connections in dissipative zones. Favour
able inﬂuence of concrete encasement on
local ductility. General rules for the design
of dissipative and non dissipative elements.
Anchorage and splicing of reinforcement
bars. Fully encased composite columns.
Partially encased members. Steel beams
acting composite with the slab. Effective
width of slab.
15. Composite Steel Concrete Moment
Resisting Frames.
Design objective. A basic choice; the degree
of composite ‘character’. Analysis.
16. Composite Steel Concrete Frames
with Bracing.
Composite frames with concentric bracing.
Composite frames with eccentric bracing.
17. Composite Steel Concrete Walls and
Systems with Walls.
Deﬁnition of the various composite wall
systems and the design objectives. Analy
sis. Detailing rules for composite walls
of ductility class DCM. Detailing rules for
coupling beams of ductility class DCM. Ad
ditional detailing rules for ductility class DCH.
Composite steel plate shear walls.
18. Improving Reinforced Concrete
Structures by using Composite Columns.
Problem deﬁnition and design conditions of
composite columns. Behaviour of compos
ite columns subjected to compression and
cyclic bending.
19. Design Example.
Presentation. Checking moment resistance
and deﬂection limits for beams. Weak
BeamStrong Column checks. Interior col
umn. Check in compression. Plastic resis
tance in bending at basement level. Evalua
tion of the seismic mass. Design spectrum.
Evaluation of seismic design shear by the
‘lateral forces’ method. Gravity load to
combine with earthquake effects. Dynamic
analysis by spectral response and modal
superposition method. Results of the analy
sis. Design of beam to column connection
at an interior joint in line X2. Comments on
design options. Design of a reduced beam
section. Economy due to RBS.
Annex A.
Deﬁnition of Eurocode 8 Design Response
Spectra.
Annex B.
Steels available from ArcelorMittal.
References.
3
1. WHAT IS AN EARTHQUAKE?
The physical phenomenon.
Action applied to a structure by an earthquake.
Characterisation of seismic action.
555
The physical
phenomenon
The most important earthquakes are located
close to the borders of the main tectonic plates
which cover the surface of the globe. These
plates tend to move relative to one another
but are prevented from doing so by friction
until the stresses between plates under the
‘epicentre’ point become so high that a move
suddenly takes place. This is an earthquake.
The local shock generates waves in the ground
which propagate over the earth’s surface,
creating movement at the bases (foundations)
of structures. The importance of the waves
reduces with the distance from the epicentre.
Therefore, there exist regions of the world with
more or less high seismic risk, depending on
their proximity to the boundaries of the main
tectonic plates (the red lines in Figure 1).
Figure 1
World map showing the main tectonic plates
(from Bristol University website: www.ideers.bris.ac.uk
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Tectonic_plates_boundaries_detaileden.svg).
1. What is an Earthquake?
Alps
Persia  Tibet  Burma
Ninety East  Sumatra
Philippines
Laptev Sea
western Aleutians
Alaska  Yukon
Gorda
California
Nevada
Rivera
Cocos
west central Atlantic
Peru
Puna
Sierras
Pampeanas
New Hebrides  Fiji
Africa (AF)
Arabia (AR)
Eurasia (EU)
India (IN)
Somalia (SO)
Antarctica (AN)
Australia (AU)
Sunda (SU)
Philippine Sea (PS)
Caroline (CL)
Pacific (PA)
Yangtze (YA)
Amur (AM)
Okhotsk (OK)
Eurasia (EU)
Pacific (PA)
Pacific (PA)
Pacific (PA)
Pacific (PA)
Antarctica (AN)
MS
BS
BH
MO
WL SB
SS TI
ON
Okinawa
Mariana
MA
CR
BR
NH
FT
NI
TO
Tonga
Kermadec
KE
Aegean Sea
AS
AT
Anatolia
BU
Burma
NB
Manus (MN)
Juan de Fuca
JF
North America (NA)
Caribbean (CA)
Cocos (CO)
Rivera
RI
Galápagos (GP)
North Andes
ND
PA
Panama
Nazca (NZ)
Easter
EA
JZ Juan Fernandez
Antarctica (AN)
Scotia (SC)
Shetland
SL
SW
Sandwich
South America (SA)
Altiplano
AP
Antarctica (AN)
Eurasia (EU)
Africa (AF)
14
15
37
21
7
11 13
29
20
26
13
13
12
59
36
14
14
10
15
48
54
71
69
84
51
39
87
14
92
70 96
58
70
69 68
10
12
66
56
78
62
55
100 83
86
26
102
92
13
18
16
59
90
103
62
119
44
82
14
14
102
51
51
83
95
69
25
26
19
22
10
67
40
19
51
53
14
13
25
31
31
34
26
32
27
11
24
19
15
8
5
47
34
6
11
46
17
57
44
15
76
18
23
10
14
10
96
70
14
14
32
Equator
OCEAN
PACIFIC
OCEAN
ATLANTIC
INDIAN
OCEAN
AUSTRAL OCEAN AUSTRAL OCEAN
continental / oceanic convergent boundary
continental rift boundary / oceanic spreading ridge
continetal / oceanic transform fault
subduction zone
velocity with respect to Africa (mm/y)
orogeny Alps
30
1. What is an Earthquake?
Figure 2
World and European Peak
Ground Acceleration Maps
(From GFZPotsdam website
http://seismohazard.gfz
potsdam.de/projects/en/).
Besides the major earthquakes which take
place at tectonic plate boundaries, others
have their origin at the interior of plates at
fault lines. Called ‘intraplates’ earthquakes,
these release less energy, but can still be
destructive in the vicinity of the epicentre.
Maps of ‘seismic hazard’ (peak ground
accelerations at the bedrock level) show the
distribution of earthquake levels in the world
and in Europe (see Figure 2). They show that
earthquakes may occur in places other than
those near the tectonic plate boundaries.
7
1. What is an Earthquake?
Action applied to
a structure by an
earthquake
The action applied to a structure by an
earthquake is a ground movement with
horizontal and vertical components. The
horizontal movement is the most specific
feature of earthquake action because of
its strength and because structures are
generally better designed to resist gravity than
horizontal forces. The vertical component of
the earthquake is usually about 50% of the
horizontal component, except in the vicinity of
the epicentre where it can be of the same order.
Characterisation of
seismic action
Earthquakes can be characterised in different
ways. The magnitude M (Richter scale)
expresses the total energy liberated and
does not give direct information about the
earthquake action at a given site.
The intensity I (for example the Mercalli
scale) describes the effects on structures
at a given place and relates these to a given
number; for instance 7 corresponds to serious
cracks in masonry. Other characterisations
may be more useful for designers.
The ground acceleration a
g
(t) at a given
location, or its equivalent the ground
displacement d
g
(t), are recorded as a
function of time. They are the most
explicit data and as such can be used in
timehistory analysis of structures.
Two subproducts of the ground
acceleration a
g
(t) are the most commonly
used data in earthquake engineering:
¬ The maximum value of acceleration a
g
(t)
at the bedrock level, or Peak Ground
Acceleration (PGA, symbol a
gR
in Eurocode
8), is the parameter used to define the
seismic hazard in a given geographic
area. National seismic zone maps are
usually presented in terms of Peak Ground
Accelerations (see Figure 2). PGAs range
from 0,05 g in very low seismic zones
to 0,4 g in highly seismic zones (for
example California, Japan or Turkey).
¬ The acceleration response spectrum is the
standard representation of earthquake
action considered in building design. Its
meaning is explained in Section 3.
2. WHY ARE STEEL STRUCTURES GOOD
AT RESISTING EARTHQUAKES?
The paramount importance of ductility.
Flexibility and low weight.
999
du du
Concept a Concept b
V
d
Concept a: lowdissipative
structure
Concept b: dissipative
structure
V elastic response
Structure designed to remain
elastic under design earthquake
V reduced
Structure designed to yield under
design earthquake
du
Ultimate displacement
The paramount
importance of ductility
Experience shows that steel structures
subjected to earthquakes behave well.
Global failures and huge numbers of
casualties are mostly associated with
structures made from other materials.
This may be explained by some of the
specific features of steel structures.
There are two means by which the
earthquake may be resisted:
¬ Option 1; structures made of
sufficiently large sections that they
are subject to only elastic stresses
¬ Option 2; structures made of
smaller sections, designed to
form numerous plastic zones.
Figure 3
Examples of ‘Dissipative’ and ‘non dissipative’ global
behaviours of structures. The ‘non dissipative’ structure
fails in a single storey mechanism. (From [13]).
A structure designed to the first option will
be heavier and may not provide a safety
margin to cover earthquake actions that are
higher than expected, as element failure is
not ductile. In this case the structure’s global
behaviour is ‘brittle’ and corresponds for
instance to concept a) in a Base Shear V Top
Displacement d diagram, as shown in Figure 3.
In a structure designed to the second
option selected parts of the structure are
intentionally designed to undergo cyclic plastic
deformations without failure, and the structure
as a whole is designed such that only those
selected zones will be plastically deformed.
2. Why are Steel Structures Good at Resisting Earthquakes?
The structure’s global behaviour is ‘ductile’
and corresponds to concept b) in the Base
Shear V Top Displacement d diagram of
Figure 3. The structure can dissipate a
significant amount of energy in these plastic
zones, this energy being represented by the
area under the Vd curve. For this reason,
the two design options are said to lead to
‘dissipative’ and ‘nondissipative’ structures.
A ductile behaviour, which provides extended
deformation capacity, is generally the better
way to resist earthquakes. One reason for
this is that because of the many uncertainties
which characterise our knowledge of real
seismic actions and of the analyses we make,
it may be that the earthquake action and/
or its effects are greater than expected. By
ensuring ductile behaviour, any such excesses
are easily absorbed simply by greater energy
dissipation due to plastic deformations of
structural components. The same components
could not provide more strength (a greater
elastic resistance) when option 1 is adopted.
Furthermore, a reduction in base shear V
(V
reduced
< V
elastic
) means an equal reduction in
forces applied to the foundations, resulting in
lower costs for the infrastructure of a building.
Steel structures are particularly good at
providing an energy dissipation capability, due to:
¬ the ductility of steel as a material
¬ the many possible ductile mechanisms in
steel elements and their connections
¬ the effective duplication of plastic
mechanisms at a local level
¬ reliable geometrical properties
¬ a relatively low sensitivity of the bending
resistance of structural elements to the
presence of coincident axial force
The variety of possible energy dissipation
mechanisms in steel structures, and the
reliability of each of these possibilities, are
the fundamental characteristics explaining
the excellent seismic behaviour of steel
structures. Furthermore, steel structures tend
to have more reliable seismic behaviour than
those using other materials, due to some of
the other factors that characterise them:
¬ guaranteed material strength, as
result a of controlled production
¬ designs and constructions
made by professionals
Flexibility and low weight
There are other advantages for steel structures
in a seismic zone, namely their flexibility and
low weight. Stiffer and heavier structures
attract larger forces when an earthquake hits.
Steel structures are generally more flexible
than other types of structure and lower in
weight (as discussed below). Forces in the
structure and its foundations are therefore
lower. This reduction of design forces
significantly reduces the cost of both the
superstructure and foundations of a building.
Steel structures are generally light in comparison
to those constructed using other materials. As
earthquake forces are associated with inertia,
they are related to the mass of the structure
and so reducing the mass inevitably leads to
lower seismic design forces. Indeed some steel
structures are sufficiently light that seismic
design is not critical. This is particularly the
case for halls/sheds: they create an envelope
around a large volume so their weight per
unit surface area is low and wind forces, not
seismic forces, generally govern the design.
This means that a building designed for gravity
and wind loads implicitly provides sufficient
resistance to earthquakes. This explains
why in past earthquakes such buildings have
been observed to perform so much better
than those made of heavy materials.
2. Why are Steel Structures Good at Resisting Earthquakes?
11
3. A TOOL TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF
EARTHQUAKES: THE RESPONSE SPECTRUM
Response of structures subjected to an earthquake.
How is an Elastic Response Spectrum established?
Code Elastic Response Spectrum.
Elastic Displacement Response Spectrum.
Multimodal Response.
d
Fmax=M.b (T1)
d
M
H
dg(t)
Modes: global flexure storey in shear floor vibration
3. A Tool to Evaluate the Effects of Earthquakes: the Response Spectrum
Response of
structures subjected
to an earthquake
The ground movement d
g
(t) displaces the
structure horizontally and dynamically. If the
structure is infinitely stiff all its points are
displaced equally by the amount of ground
movement d
g
(t), so there is no displacement of
the structure relative to its base. In a flexible
structure, the movement of every point
depends on the mechanical characteristics of
all the structural elements (stiffness) and on
the distribution of masses in the structure (a
structure without mass would be submitted
to zero force). There is therefore a dynamic
response, which involves all the vibration modes
of the structure. Some modes are global and
involve the whole structure whereas other modes,
like floor vibrations, are local (see Figure 4).
Each vibration mode is characterised by its
period T (in s) and the portion of the total mass
associated with that mode (modal mass).
How is an Elastic
Response Spectrum
established?
By making a set of timehistory analyses of
dynamic responses of structures, it is possible
to produce a ‘response spectrum’. This is said
to be ‘elastic’ if it corresponds to a structure
responding with purely elastic deformations.
The elastic response spectrum is of interest to
designers as it directly provides the peak value of
the dynamic response of a given structure under
a given accelerogram characteristic of a given
seismic area. The process by which a spectrum
is built up is sketched in Figures 5 and 6.
The most simple form of structure representing
a building is considered; it is a vertical cantilever
of stiffness k ( k = EI/H) with a concentrated
mass M at level H above ground (see Figure 5).
Such a structure has a single natural period of
vibration T
1
related to its mass and stiffness.
The period can be observed by displacing the
mass M and releasing it; the structure vibrates at
its natural period T
1
, which can be calculated as:
Figure 4
Example of vibration modes.
Figure 5
Definition of pseudo acceleration ȕ(T
1
)
for a cantilever of given properties.
EI
MH
T
3
2
3
1
=
13
Se(T)
T(s) TB
0
TC
Computed spectrum 1
Elastic acceleration
spectrum "average"
Computed spectrum 2
b T1)
T1(s) T1i
ag
b i
0
3. A Tool to Evaluate the Effects of Earthquakes: the Response Spectrum
The mathematics of elastic structural dynamics
are used to make timehistory analyses of
the movement of this cantilever subjected to
one ground movement characterised by d
g
(t)
or by one accelerogram a
g
(t). The mass M
moves relative to its base by a displacement
d (see Figure 5). It is possible to define a
force F(t) which generates a displacement
d similar to the one generated by d
g
(t). By
selecting the maximum value Fmax of F(t)
and expressing the fundamental law of
dynamics F
max
= mass x acceleration, a ‘pseudo
acceleration’ ȕ(T
1
) is defined: ȕ(T
1
) = F
max
/ M
By varying the parameters defining the
cantilever (other masses M, other stiffnesses
k, resulting in other fundamental periods T = T
1
,
T
2
, etc), a set of values (T, ȕ(T)) is determined.
This set is known as an ‘acceleration response
spectrum ȕ’ (see Figure 6). Once established, a
direct evaluation of the maximum deformation
and stresses in a cantilever structure of
mass M and stiffness EI/H is deduced:
¬ the period T
1
is given by
Figure 6
Establishing an elastic response
spectrum as a function of ȕ(T
1
)
¬ the pseudoacceleration ȕ(T
1
)
is read from the spectrum
¬ the maximum force F
max
= Mȕ(T
1
)
equivalent to the earthquake is then
determined and the deformation and
stresses in the cantilever deduced
In the analysis described above, the amplitude
of the displacement d of the mass relative
to the base is influenced by the damping of
the system: if there was no damping, d might
become infinite. The damping which can be
related to a material working elastically is low,
of the order of 1% of the “critical” damping,
which is a damping such that the cantilever at
Figure 5, when displaced of d from its position at
rest, would come back to that position without
oscillating. But in the structures submitted
to earthquakes, there are other sources of
damping, like friction in the connections,
friction between partitions and structure,
etc…Those influences have been evaluated
and led to a standard value of “structural”
damping equal to 5% in the seismic context.
Figure 7
Construction of a code elastic
response spectrum
Code Elastic Response
Spectrum
There will inevitably be uncertainties about
the accelerogram that would apply at a
given site for a future earthquake, and the
‘acceleration response spectrum ȕ’ constructed
as explained above, which is related to one
single accelerogram, is certainly too specific.
Uncertainties about future earthquakes
are addressed by considering several
accelerograms, deriving response spectra
ȕ(T
1
) corresponding to these accelerograms,
and then establishing for the design code an
‘average’ of all these spectra ȕ(T
1
) . In this
way, a code ‘elastic acceleration response
spectrum S
e
(T)’ is established (see Figure 7).
EI
MH
T
3
2
3
1
=
The ‘averaging’ process described above is in
part statistical and in part based on practical
engineering judgment, so that the shape of
the code reference elastic response spectrum
S
e
(T) is more schematic than that of each
individual response spectrum ȕ(T
1
). Eurocode 8
defines one single shape as a reference elastic
acceleration response spectrum S
e
(T) and
that shape is represented at Figure 8. But the
formulation of the spectrum takes into account
a series of parameters and it allows generate
local spectra which can be very different. The
spectrum at Figure 8 is normalised by a
g
in order
to be valid independently of a
g
. The spectrum
is related to a factor S, which depends on the
site, and to a factor Ș, which is different from
1 if the damping can be proved to be different
from the standard value of 5% explained above
(see the formulation of spectra in Annex A). The
elastic acceleration response spectrum S
e
(T)
has ‘break points’ T
B
, T
C
and T
D
which are also
related to local values of site and soil parameters.
The evaluation of the maximum deformation
and stresses in a cantilever structure of mass M
and stiffness EI/H is made as indicated above,
resulting in a maximum force: F
max
= M S
e
(T)
For an infinitely stiff structure (period T=0), the
pseudo acceleration S
e
(T) is equal to the ground
acceleration a
g
S and F
max
= M a
g
S. For flexible
structures, there is a ‘dynamic amplification’
up to approximately F
max
= 2,5 M a
g
S.
Elastic Displacement
Response Spectrum
A mathematical process similar to the one
used to define an elastic acceleration response
spectrum can be applied to define an ‘elastic
displacement spectrum S
De
(T)’. S
De
(T) is the
displacement d of the mass M relative to the
cantilever base (see definition of d in Figure
5). In the elastic single degree of freedom
oscillator, accelerations S
e
(T) and displacements
S
De
(T) are linked by the expression:
Multimodal Response
For a structure characterised by several vibration
modes, the response spectrum allows calculation
of the maximum effects corresponding to each
mode (‘spectral response’). The maximum
effects then have to be ‘superimposed’ to
assess the maximum response. Taking into
consideration the fact that the different maxima
are not simultaneous, a square root of the
sum of the squares (SRSS) combination of the
earthquake effects E
Ei
(bending moments, etc)
found in each mode is most often adopted
because it provides the most probable value
of the maximum multimodal response:
3. A Tool to Evaluate the Effects of Earthquakes: the Response Spectrum
Figure 8
Eurocode 8 reference shape of the elastic
acceleration response spectrum S
e
(T)
2
e De
2
) ( ) (
]
]
]
,
¸
,
r
T
T S T S
De
2
E
E E Z
Ei =
S
e
/a
g
2,5S
S
T
B
T
C
T
D
T
15
4. DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRA
From one Elastic Response Spectrum to Design Response Spectra.
Importance of the structure.
Remote or near field earthquake.
Soil and site.
Ductility of the structure.
Example of Design Spectra.
4. Design response spectra
From one Elastic
Response Spectrum to
Design Response Spectra
Many factors in addition to those considered in
the definition of an elastic acceleration response
spectrum S
e
(T) are relevant in the response of
structures to earthquakes. Design response
spectra S
d
(T) are obtained by modifying
this elastic response spectrum S
e
(T) to take
into account all these factors, and produce
spectra which can be used in elastic analysis of
structures. The factors influencing the design
spectra are defined in the following paragraphs.
Importance class Buildings Ȗ
I
I Buildings of minor importance for public
safety, for example agricultural buildings.
0,8
II Ordinary buildings not belonging
in the other categories.
1,0
III Buildings whose seismic resistance is of
importance in view of the consequences
associated with a collapse, for example schools,
assembly halls, cultural institutions, etc.
1,2
IV Buildings whose integrity during earthquakes is of
vital importance for civil protection, for example
hospitals, fire stations, power plants, etc.
1,4
Table 1
Importance classes for buildings
and recommended values of Ȗ
I
(EN19981:2004).
Importance of
the structure
The definition of a ‘design’ Peak Ground
Acceleration a
g
is statistical and corresponds
to the acceptance of a certain level of risk,
therefore the design value of a
g
should be
greater for structures of greater importance.
In Eurocode 8 a reference peak ground
acceleration a
gR
corresponding to a standard
level of risk is defined. The design PGA value
of a
g
is obtained by multiplying a
gR
by Ȗ
I
, which
is a ‘coefficient of importance’ of the designed
structure: a
g
= Ȗ
I
a
gR
. Ȗ
I
is equal to 1 for standard
buildings (Class II) and up to 1,4 for structures
whose structural performance is vital during
an earthquake (Class IV). Table 1 gives the
values recommended for Ȗ
I
in Eurocode 8 for
different categories of importance of buildings.
17
4. Design response spectra
Remote or ‘near
field’ earthquake
A reference peak ground acceleration a
gR
at
a given location can result from different
types of earthquakes; a stronger, but more
remote earthquake or a smaller earthquake
in the vicinity. This is a matter of geology
and geography, but the response spectra
corresponding to these two types differ because
the wave propagations from remote locations or
locations in the vicinity generate results which
are different. In Eurocode 8, the possibility of
different seismic events is taken into account
by defining spectral shapes Type 1 and Type 2.
¬ A Type 1 shape should be considered if remote
earthquakes are strong enough (magnitude
M
S
≥ 5,5) to generate significant accelerations
at the proposed construction site, and these
contribute most to the seismic hazard.
¬ A Type 2 spectral shape applies if
earthquakes of magnitude M
S
< 5,5
contribute most to the seismic hazard.
In some regions the design spectrum can
be a combination of Types 1 and 2. The
data to define Type 1 and Type 2 spectral
shapes are given in Table 2, combined with
those due to soil and site effects explained
hereunder. The schematic influence of the
earthquake type can be seen at Figure 9.
Type 2 spectrum.
Earthquakes of magnitude M
S
< 5,5
Figure 9
Elastic acceleration response spectra S
e
(T) of
Eurocode 8 for Type 1 and Type 2 earthquakes
and for various natures of site conditions.
Type 1 spectrum.
Remote earthquakes of magnitude M
S
≥ 5,5
S
e
/
a
g
4
3
2
1
0
A
B
C
D
E
0 1 2 3 4
T (s)
S
e
/
a
g
0
A
B
C
D
E
0 1 2 3 4
T (s)
1
2
3
4
5
Soil and site
The layers of soil between the bedrock and
the foundation level of a building modify the
shape and amplitude of the elastic response
spectrum, or ‘hazard’, established at the bedrock
level. A soil parameter S takes this influence into
account so that the Peak Ground Acceleration
at the foundation level is equal to S
ag
. Sites are
classified as types A, B, C, D, and E described by
stratigraphic profiles and parameters. Different
values of S are related to these different site
types, as indicated in Table 2. The site type
has a significant influence on the action applied
at the base of a structure since S ranges from
1 (rock) to 1,8 (very loose soil). Different
values are also attributed to the ‘break point’
periods T
B
and T
C
of the spectra corresponding
to different sites and soils, as can be seen in
Figure 9. It is clear from these graphs that
ignoring the soil and site conditions can lead to
serious underestimations of the design forces.
Table 2
Eurocode 8 values of parameters S, T
B
, T
C
and T
D
defining
the elastic response spectra Type 1 and Type 2.
Type 1 Earthquake Type 2 Earthquake
Soil S T
B
(s) T
C
(s) T
D
(s) S T
B
(s) T
C
(s) T
D
(s)
A Rock or rocklike formation, including at
most 5 m of weaker material at the surface.
1,0 0,15 0,4 2,0 1,0 0,05 0,25 1,2
B Deposits of very dense sand, gravel, or very stiff
clay, several tens of metres in thickness, gradual
increase of mechanical properties with depth.
1,2 0,15 0,5 2,0 1,35 0,05 0,25 1,2
C Deep deposits of dense or mediumdense
sand, gravel or stiff clay with thickness from
several tens to many hundreds of metres.
1,15 0,20 0,6 2,0 1,5 0,10 0,25 1,2
D Deposits of loosetomedium cohesionless soil
or of predominantly softtofirm cohesive soil.
1,35 0,20 0,8 2,0 1,8 0,10 0,30 1,2
E A surface alluvium layer of soil similar to C
or D with thickness varying between about 5
m and 20 m, underlain by stiffer material
1,4 0,15 0,5 2,0 1,6 0,05 0,25 1,2
S
1
Deposits consisting, or containing a layer at
least 10 m thick, of soft clays/silts with a high
plasticity index (PI > 40) and high water content
Special studies
S
2
Deposits of liquefiable soils, of sensitive clays, or
any other soil profile not included in types A – E or S1
Special studies
Ductility of the structure
If a structure submitted to an earthquake is
able to deform plastically and cyclically without
loss of resistance, it is said to be ‘ductile’.
As explained in Section 2 and expressed by
Figure 3, ductility is a positive attribute for
the economy of the project, because:
¬ the structure can undergo the same
displacements as a structure which
would remain elastic, but with smaller
sections for the structural elements
¬ forces applied to the foundations are reduced.
The ability to deform plastically without loss of
resistance is taken into account by attributing
to structures a ‘force reduction’ or ‘behaviour’
factor, q in Eurocode 8. This factor reduces the
elastic spectrum S
e
(T) into a design spectrum
S
d
(T). The value of q ranges from a minimum
1,5 (low dissipation) up to 6 or more (high
dissipation). The merit of using this behavioural
factor is that the ability of a structure to
deform in the plastic range is taken into account
in a purely elastic analysis of the structure
under S
d
(T). More detailed explanations of
behaviour factors are given in Section 5.
4. Design response spectra
19
T1=0,0 s
H=5 m
concrete
bunker
T1=0,7 s
H=17 m
T1=1,5 s
H=50 m
T1=2,7 s
H=100 m
0 1 2 3 4 5
1
2
3
4
T (s)
Soil A  q = 1,5
Soil C  q = 1,5
Soil C  q = 4
Sd(T)
)
Figure 10
Top. Examples of design spectra for
different sites and behaviour factors q.
Bottom. Periods (T) of structures related to
height H (estimated by T=C
t
H
3/4
from Table 6).
Example of Design
Spectra
When considering the factors listed above, a
family of design spectra S
d
(T) is derived from
one elastic response spectrum S
e
(T). S
e
(T) is
a function of a
gR
, Ȗ
I
and T. S
d
(T) is a function
of S
e
(T), q and the site and soil conditions.
The expressions defining the Eurocode 8
design spectra S
d
(T) are given in Annex A.
Figure 10 shows examples of the design
spectra in a seismic area where a
g
= 2 m/s
2
and earthquakes of Type 1 define the seismic
hazard, for structures characterised by q=1,5
built on soil types A and C and for structures
characterised by q=4 built on soil Type C.
4. Design response spectra
5. CHARACTERISATION OF STRUCTURES
SPECIFIC TOSEISMIC DESIGN
Behaviour factors.
Ductility Classes.
Plastic redistribution parameter.
21
dmax
H
A
T max
MEP
MEL
EP
EL
MA
T max
T max
T y
T
Behaviour factors
As explained in Section 3, a behaviour factor
reflects the capacity of a structure to deform
plastically. The energy dissipated in plastic
mechanisms can contribute significantly to the
energy absorption in a structure submitted
to an earthquake. The total earthquake input
energy E
input
is absorbed in different ways
by a structure; elastic deformation energy
E
ELdef
, kinetic energy E
kin
, viscous energy E
viscous
and plastic deformation energy E
EPdef
:
E
input
= E
kin
+ E
viscous
+ E
ELdef
+ E
EPdef
E
EPdef
corresponds to energy permanently
absorbed by the system and can be substantially
more important than the other terms, as it
can be shown by comparing the behaviour
of two cantilevers submitted to cyclic
displacements between +d
max
and d
max
.
5. Characterisation of structures specific to seismic design
The first cantilever deforms elastically and its
behaviour is represented by the EL line in the
M – ș diagram of Figure 11. At a displacement
+d
max
, the base moment M
A
reaches M
A
=M
EL
.
The energy of elastic deformation E
ELdef
is
represented by the triangle with vertical
lines in the graph and is equal to: E
ELdef
= 0,5
M
EL
ș
max
. That energy is never dissipated
into the structure; when the structure is
displaced back to d = 0, the energy of elastic
deformation E
ELdef
of the system is equal to 0.
The second cantilever is charaterised by a
plastic moment M
EP
= 0,5 M
EL
. That plastic
moment M
EP
is obtained at the base A of the
cantilever for ș = ș
y
= ș
max
/2 and a plastic hinge
is formed. The displacement d
max
is reached
after elastic and plastic deformations. If an
earthquake induces cyclic displacements from
+d
max
to  dmax which is the effect represented
by the curve EP at Figure 11, the energy E
EPdef
permanently dissipated into the system in one
cycle (+ d
max
,  d
max
) is represented by the area
marked with horizontal lines at Figure 11 and
it is equal to: E
EPdef
= 2 E
ELdef
. An earthquake
generally induces several large cycles and,
for instance, 4 cycles from +d
max
to  d
max
,
correspond to a total energy: E
EPdef
= 8 E
ELdef
.
This shows that the energy absorbed in alternate
plastic deformations in the cantilever with a
plastic resistance M
EP
is largely greater than the
maximum elastic deformation energy in a 2
times more resistant cantilever. The conclusion
is that the required section for the EP cantilever
can be much smaller than the one needed to
withstand elastically M
EL
, provided that the
ductility ș
max
/ș
y
of the elastoplastic cantilever
is greater than 2. This should not present a
problem when adequate structural steel is used.
Figure 11
Comparison of elastic EL and
elastoplastic EP behaviour.
5. Characterisation of structures specific to seismic design
It is possible to achieve very dissipative
steel structures if they are designed to form
numerous and reliable energy dissipative zones.
Reliability of the dissipative zones results
from compliance with a certain number of
design conditions, amongst which is ‘capacity
design’ as explained in Section 8. Numerous
dissipative zones will form in well designed
types of earthquake resisting structures.
All seismic codes characterise the ability
of structures to dissipate energy through
plastic mechanisms by means of a factor.
This is the ‘force reduction factor R’ in AISC
documents, and the ‘behaviour factor q’
in Eurocode 8. These factors are high for
dissipative structures (see Figure 12).
The behaviour factor q is an approximation
of the ratio of the seismic forces F
EL
that the
structure would experience if its response
was completely elastic, to the seismic
forces F
EP
that may be used in the design
(with a conventional elastic analysis model)
to still ensure a satisfactory response of
the structure. The design seismic action
is thus reduced in comparison to the one
that would need to be considered in the
analysis of a structure designed to sustain
the seismic action in a purely elastic manner.
The values of q associated to a typology
of structure reflect its potential to form
numerous dissipative zones (see Figure 12).
Estimating behaviour factors is a complex
problem which can however be resolved by
adopting sophisticated approaches. A simple,
although approximate, evaluation can be made
in the example of Figure 11. If q = M
E
/ M
EP
=
2 is used, the ordinates of the “design response
spectrum S
d
(T)” used to analyse the ductile
cantilever in an elastic analysis are equal to
1/2 of the ordinates of the elastic acceleration
response spectrum S
e
(T), and the action effect
M found in the cantilever is M = M
E
/ 2 . If the
section of the cantilever is designed such that
its design resistance M
Rd
≥ M
E
/ 2, then it can
withstand the earthquake, provided its ductility
is 2 or more. This shows exactly the meaning
of the behaviour factor q of Eurocode 8.
In practical terms, the resultant design shear F
EP
applied to a structure is derived from an elastic
resultant shear F
EL
= F
max
using: F
EP
= F
EL
/q
(Note: only valid in the range T>T
B
, as
from T
B
, the influence of q decreases
down to q=1 at T = 0).
Figure 12
Behaviour factor q reflects the energy
dissipation potential of a structural type.
4 plastic hinges 1 plastic diagonal no plastic mechanism
q=6 q=4 q=1 (1,5)
* Stability of a K bracing depends on slender diagonal in compression, which fails in a brittle way.
F
P
F
P
F
P
23
Design Concepts for
Structural Behaviour
Ductility Class Reference
behaviour
factor q
Required cross
sectional class for
dissipative elements
Non dissipative DCL or Low
Ductility
q ≤ 1,5 No requirement
Non dissipative DCL or Low
Ductility
1,5 < q ≤ 2 Class 1, 2 or 3
Dissipative DCM or Medium
Ductility
2 < q ≤ 4 Class 1 or 2
Dissipative DCH or High
Ductility
q > 4 Class 1
5. Characterisation of structures specific to seismic design
The maximum values of q for design to
Eurocode 8 are given in Table 3. These values
depend on the Ductility Class DC chosen
for a given design, and are influenced by
the plastic redistribution parameter Į
u
/Į
1
which characterises the structural typology.
Ductility classes and Į
u
/Į
1
are defined
hereafter. A designer is free to choose values
of q lower than those indicated in Table 3.
Ductility classes
At the outset of a project, the designer can
choose to design structures ‘as usual’ (non
dissipative) or to design ‘dissipative’ structures.
All modern seismic design codes, for instance
[1] [7] [8] [13], leave the choice between
these two concepts open and define several
‘Ductility Classes’. In Eurocode 8 there are
three Ductility Classes, namely DCL (Low
Ductility, non dissipative structures), DCM
(Medium Ductility) and DCH (High Ductility).
Designing a structure to be class DCL means
taking into consideration the highest design
forces, but only performing the usual static
design checks (for example using Eurocode
3). Designing for class DCH the highest
possible behaviour factor q is considered, and
this approach results in the smallest possible
design earthquake actions and seismic
action effects. This means that the bending
moments etc are reduced, often significantly,
in comparison to those considered in the
design of a non dissipative structure (note
this is not the case for the displacements,
see Section 6). However, choosing a higher
Ductility Class also means complying with
certain other requirements (Eurocode 8). One
of these requirements is the class of section
required for the dissipative structural elements,
which is related to q as indicated in Table 4.
Guidance on the selection of an appropriate
Ductility Class for design is given in Section 8.
STRUCTURAL TYPE Ductility Class
DCL DCM DCH
Moment resisting frames (MRF) 1,5 (2*) 4 5Į
u
/Į
1
Concentric diagonal bracings
Concentric Vbracings
1,5 (2*) 4
2
4
2,5
Eccentric bracings 1,5 (2*) 4 5Į
u
/Į
1
Inverted pendulum 1,5 (2*) 2 2Į
u
/Į
1
MRF with concentric bracing 1,5 (2*) 4 4Į
u
/Į
1
MRF with unconnected concrete or
masonry infills in contact with the frame
MRF with infills isolated from the frame
1,5 (2*) 2
4
2
5 Į
u
/Į
1
Table 3
Behaviour factors q (maximum values)
* the National Annex can allow q = 2 in class DCL
Table 4
Design concepts, Ductility Classes and reference
values of the behaviour factor q.
Plastic redistribution
parameter Į
u
/Į
1
The parameter Į
1
is the multiplier of the
horizontal seismic design action needed to
reach the plastic resistance in one part of the
structure. Į
u
is the multiplier of the horizontal
seismic design action needed to form a global
mechanism. Į
u
/Į
1
may be obtained from
nonlinear static ‘pushover’ global analysis,
but is limited to 1,6 . Values of Į
u
/Į
1
taken
from Eurocode 8 are provided in Figure 13.
5. Characterisation of structures specific to seismic design
Figure 13
Location of dissipative zones defined
as a design objective in order to
form global plastic mechanisms,
and associated standard values of
parameter Į
u
/Į
1
(from Eurocode 8)
X or V concentric bracings and eccentric bracings designed to Eurocode 8: Į
u
/Į
1
= 1,2
25
6. ASPECTS OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND
DESIGN CHECKS COMMON TO ALL
STRUCTURAL TYPES
Seismic mass.
Methods of analysis.
Torsion.
Displacements in dissipative structures.
Resistance condition.
Limitation of second order effects.
Seismic mass
As the periods T are function of the masses
M, a correct evaluation of the masses present
in a structure at the time of the earthquake
is necessary. A ‘seismic mass’ is defined,
based on a weight W calculated as:
W = ȈG
k,j
+ Ȉȥ
E,i
.Q
ki
The coefficient ȥ
E,i
is used to estimate a
likely value of service loads and to take into
account that some masses do not follow
perfectly the moves of the structure,
because they are not rigidly connected
to the structure. ȥ
E,i
is computed as:
ȥ
E
= ĳȥ
2,i
= 0,5x0,3 = 0,15
Values of ȥ
2,i
and ĳ are listed at Table 5. It can
be noticed that the coefficient ȥ
E,i
which is used
to define the mass of the service load present
on average over the building height can be much
lower than 1. For example, in an office buildings
in which all levels are occupied independently:
6. Aspects of seismic analysis and design checks common to all structural types
Table 5
Coefficients Ȍ
2
,
i
et ĳ.
Specific use Ȍ
2,i
Storey ĳ
Cat.A : residence 0,3 Roof 1,0
Cat.B : office 0,3 Storeys with correlated occupancies 0,8
Cat.C: meeting rooms, places
where people congregate
0,6 Independently occupied storeys 0,5
Cat.D : shopping area 0,6 1,0
Cat.E : storage,
accumulation of goods
0,8
Cat. F : traffic (vehicle≤30 kN) 0,6
The seismic mass is used to determine:
¬ the global effects due to an earthquake
at a given level of the structure, in
particular at the foundations
¬ the forces P
tot
and V
tot
used in the verification
of limitation of second order effects
¬ the seismic action effects A
Ed
generated in
the structural elements by the earthquake;
for the resistance checks of these elements
values of A
Ed
are combined to the other
action’s effects in order to establish the
design value of the action effect E
d
:
E
d
= ȈG
k,j
« + » P « + » Ȉ
2i
.Q
ki
« + » A
Ed
27
6. Aspects of seismic analysis and design checks common to all structural types
Table 6
Structural regularity and
permissible simplifications in
seismic analysis (Eurocode 8).
Methods of analysis
Several methods can be used to analyse
the response of a structure subjected
to an earthquake. The choice of
method depends on the structure and
on the objectives of the analysis.
1) The standard method used in design is the
modal response using a design spectrum.
This is a linear method in which the inelastic
behaviour is considered in the definition of
the design spectrum, through the use of a
behaviour factor. This method is applicable
to all types of buildings, be they regular
or irregular in plan and/or elevation.
2) The ‘lateral force’ method is a simplified
version of the modal response method and is a
static analysis which can only be employed for
regular structures which respond essentially in
one single mode of vibration. Similarly to the
‘equivalent’ force F applied to the mass m of
the simple cantilever, it is possible to define in
multistorey buildings a set of ‘storey’ forces
F
i,
which are applied at each storey level and
which induce the same deformed shape as
the earthquake. Details are given in Section 7
(Approximate method for seismic analysis and
design).The modal response method and the
lateral force method of analysis can be applied
to planar models of the structure, depending
on certain regularity criteria (see Table 6).
3) The ‘Pushover’ analysis is a nonlinear
static analysis carried out under constant
gravity loads and monotonically increasing
horizontal loads. It is applied essentially:
¬ to verify or revise the overstrength
ratio values Į
u
/Į
1
¬ to estimate the expected plastic
mechanisms and the distribution of damage
¬ to assess the structural performance
of existing or retrofitted buildings
4) Nonlinear timehistory analysis is a
dynamic analysis obtained through direct
numerical integration of the differential
equations of motion. The earthquake
action is represented by accelerograms
(minimum 3). This type of analysis is used
for research and code background studies.
Regularity Permissible Simplification Behaviour factor
Plan Elevation Model Linearelastic
Analysis
q
Yes Yes 2 planar Lateral force Reference value
Yes No 2 planar Modal response Reference value /1,2
Limited Yes 2 planar Lateral force Reference value
No Yes 1 model 3D Lateral force Reference value
No No 1 model 3D Modal response Reference value /1,2
& reduced Į
u
/Į
1
Fe = M.Se(T)
C D
E
M
Fd=M.Sd(T)
Fd = Fe/q
d
ds=q.dy
de = dy
the CMCR distance and on the accidental
eccentricity in either a + or  sense. In irregular
structures, the computation of torsional effects
resulting from the non – coincidence of CM
and CR can only be done in a 3D model. The
effects of accidental eccentricity can be found
applying at every level a torque computed as
the product of the storey force by the CMCR
distance. The effects of those two terms of
torsion are then “combined”, which means that
effects of accidental eccentricity have to be
considered with + and – signs. In structures
symmetrical in plan in which CM and CR have
the same position, the effects of accidental
eccentricity can be approximated by amplifying
the translational action effects by a factor į:
X is the distance in plan between the seismic
resisting structure considered and centre of
mass CM of the building in plan, measured
perpendicularly to the seismic action
under consideration, and L
e
is the distance
between two extreme seismic resisting
structures, also measured perpendicularly to
the seismic action under consideration. In
symmetrical buildings with peripheral resisting
structures, į is of the order: į = 1,3.
6. Aspects of seismic analysis and design checks common to all structural types
Displacements in
dissipative structures
A modal response considering a design
earthquake is a conventional linear analysis
in which the action is reduced by a behaviour
factor q. The displacements found are the
elastic part d
e
of the real elastoplastic
displacements (Figure 14). Given that the
definition of behaviour factors is based on
the hypothesis of equal displacements in
the real (elastoplastic) structure and in the
reference elastic structure (Figures 11 and
14), real displacements ds are found by simply
multiplying values of de by q : d
s
= q d
e
.
Figure 14
Computation of real displacement d
s
.
d
e
: elastic displacement from the elastic analysis under response spectrum, reduced by q factor
d
s
: real displacement
Torsion
Earthquakes generate torsional movements
of structures for three reasons:
¬ an eccentricity can exist at every
storey between the storey’s resultant
force, which coincides with the mass
centre CM of the storey, and the
centre of rigidity CR of that storey.
¬ ground movement has rotation aspects
which affect very long structures
(several hundred meters)
¬ even in a symmetrical building, there is an
uncertainty on the exact location of the CM
and design codes impose consideration in the
analysis of an ‘accidental’ eccentricity equal
to 5% of the building length perpendicular to
the earthquake direction being considered, in
addition to the computed CMCR distance.
The centre of rigidity CR is the point where the
application of a force generates only a translation
of the building parallel to that force. The effects
of torsion have to be determined based on
e
6 , 0 1
L
x
+ =
29
N
V
N
V
Ptot
dr = q.dre
h
Vtot
P
tot
= Ȉ N
gravity
V
tot
= Ȉ V
seismic
6. Aspects of seismic analysis and design checks common to all structural types
Resistance condition
The resistance condition for all structural
elements including connections is:
d d
R E s
R
d
is the design resistance of the element,
and E
d
is the design value of the action
effect due to the seismic design situation:
Ed = Ȉ G
k,j
« + » P « + » Ȉȥ
2i
.Q
ki
« + » Ȗ
1
A
Ed
If necessary, second order effects are taken
into account in the value of E
d
(see below), and
redistribution of bending moments is permitted.
Figure 15
Parameters used in the control
of 2nd order effects.
Limitation of second
order effects
The uncertainties of seismic design require
the limitation of second order (or Pǻ)
effects. In Eurocode 8, second order
moments P
tot
d
r
are compared to the first
order moments V
tot
h at every storey. P
tot
is
the total gravity load at and above the storey,
determined considering the seismic mass
i k, i E, j k,
" " Q G + ¢ Z Z
d
r
is the difference in lateral displacements
(drift) d
s
at the top and bottom of the storey
under consideration (d
s
= q d
e
). V
tot
is the total
seismic shear at the storey under consideration
(which is the sum of all the storey forces at
and above the level under consideration),
and h is the storey height (see Figure 15).
If ,
then Pǻ effects are assumed to be negligible.
If 0,1 < ș ≤ 0,2 then the second order effects
may be taken into account by multiplying the
action effects by 1/(1  ș), noting that ș should
never exceed 0,3. Checking this at every storey
mitigates the risk of a ‘soft storey’
(see Section 8).
tot r
tot
= 0,10
P d
V h
s
Choice of units.
Simple elastic analysis method.
Estimation of the fundamental period T1 of a building.
7. APPROXIMATE METHOD FOR SEISMIC
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
31
7. Approximate Method for Seismic Analysis and Design
Choice of units
The units used in a dynamic analysis must
belong to a coherent system of physical units
to void errors that can easily be of the order
of 1000%! For instance using the International
System of Units, masses are defined in kg
(not in kN), forces in N, lengths in m, Young’s
modulus in N/m
2
and time (periods T
1
) in s.
Static elastic analysis or
the ‘lateral force’ method
A structure that is regular in both plan and
elevation, in which the masses are regularly
distributed and in which stiff horizontal
diaphragms are present can be modelled by
means of two planar models; one in the x
direction, the other in the y direction. Each
model represents one of the n resisting frames
parallel to the direction of the earthquake
being considered. The seismic mass m
allocated to that frame is 1/n of the total
seismic mass of the building. For the regular
structure described above, the contribution of
vibration modes higher than the fundamental
one is negligible and the structure responds
like a vertical cantilever of period T
1
. The
fundamental period T
1
can be assessed by
considering the physical relationships of single
degree of freedom systems, or ‘statistical’
relationships deduced from the analysis
of many existing designs (see Table 7).
The resultant seismic horizontal
force F
b
, can be evaluated as:
( ) i m T S F
1 d b
m is the seismic mass allocated to the
analysed frame; S
d
(T) is the design spectrum
(see Section 4). The factor Ȝ expresses the
fact that part of the mass of the structure
vibrates into local modes and does not
contribute to the mass involved in global
modes. Example: a vertical mode of vibration
of a floor in a structure submitted to the
horizontal component of the earthquake.
Taking the total mass into consideration
would be penalising in the evaluation of the
global shear F
b
and one considers Ȝ = 0,85.
Based on the above, a ‘lateral force method’
can be applied to the earthquake action
and to the analysis of the action effects on
the structure. Such a method comprises
steps S1 to S7 as described below:
S1: evaluate the period T
1
of the
fundamental vibration mode using
an expression from Table 7.
S2: read the design pseudo acceleration
S
d
(T
1
) from the design spectrum
S3: compute the seismic resultant
design base shear F
b
:
Ȝ = 0,85; m is the seismic mass allocated
to the frame being considered; S
d
(T) is
a design spectrum (spectrum reduced
by a behaviour factor q selected by
the designer, see Section 5). As noted
above, care is needed to ensure current
use of units for m, F
b
, and S
d
(T
1
)
W4
W3
W2
W1
F4
h2
F3
F2
F1
Fb
7. Approximate Method for Seismic Analysis and Design
S4: distribute F
b
over the height of the
structure into a number of ‘storey forces’
S5: establish internal forces and displacements
of the structure under the force
F
b
, by using a static analysis
S6: combine those seismic action effects
to other action effects (gravity loading
in the seismic situation, etc)
S7: carry out all seismic checks required for
the structural elements and connections,
with consideration of P∆ effects etc.
(See Sections 6 and 10 to 14).
Steps S5, S6 and S7 can only be
carried out once the dimensions of the
structural elements are defined.
The storey forces F
i
are related to the
accelerations that each storey in the structure
undergoes. The accelerations increase with
height and are distributed in accordance with
the deformed shape of the structure; if this
shape is approximated by a triangle (See Figure
16) then the horizontal storey force F
i
at each
storey i situated at a level z
i
above ground is:
In this expression m
i
, m
j
are the storey
seismic masses. If all the storey
seismic masses are equal:
N = 4 storeys
Running this type of analysis requires a
first guess of the ‘sizes’ of the structural
components, namely the beams and columns.
The analysis then provides all the action effects;
bending moments, shear, displacement d
e
. This
means that all the design checks can be made;
resistance of structural elements, limitation
of displacements and of P∆ effects etc.
Provided that the structure falls within the
limits of compliance of the regularity criteria,
then the ‘lateral force method’ is one of
the analyses accepted by seismic codes.
Figure 16
Lateral force method.
j j
i i
b i
m z
m z
F F
=
j
i
b i
z
z
F F
E
=
33
7. Approximate Method for Seismic Analysis and Design
Estimation of the
fundamental period
T
1
of a building
For structures that can be ‘represented’ by a
simple cantilever, the use of physical (exact)
formulae is possible because their structural
form corresponds well to the hypotheses
behind these formulae. For more complicated
structures, ‘statistical’ studies have defined
empirical relationships between the height
of the structure, the form of the structural
system and its fundamental period T
1
(see
Table 7). Figure 10 shows the relationship
between building height H and period T
1
as
deduced from Table 7 for a steel moment
frame. Designers should of course not forget
that these are only approximate relationships.
One safesided approach consists of considering
for S
d
the ordinate of the horizontal plateau of
the response spectrum S
d
(T
B
) = S
d
(T
C
), which
is an upper bound value for most structures.
Such an approach may result in earthquake
effects and therefore the sizes of structural
elements being somewhat overestimated, but
this may be preferred as a first design approach.
Period T
1
Reference structure
Exact formula for Single Degree of Freedom Oscillator.
Mass M lumped at top of a vertical cantilever
of height H. Cantilever mass M
B
= 0
Exact formula for Single Degree of Freedom Oscillator.
Vertical cantilever of height H and of total mass M
B
Exact formula for Single Degree of Freedom Oscillator.
Mass M lumped at top of a vertical cantilever
of height H and of total mass M
B
.
H building height in m
measured from foundation
or top of rigid basement.
Approximate Relationship (Eurocode 8).
C
t
= 0,085 for moment resisting steel space frames
C
t
= 0,075 for eccentrically braced steel frames
C
t
= 0,050 for all other structures
Approximate Relationship (Eurocode 8).
d : elastic horizontal displacement of top of building
in m under gravity loads applied horizontally.
Table 7
Formulae for the estimation of the
fundamental period T
1
of a building.
EI 3
MH
2 T
3
1
t =
EI 3
H M 24 , 0
2 T
3
B
1
t =
EI 3
H ) M 24 , 0 M (
2 T
3
B
1
+
t =
4 / 3
t 1
H C T =
d 2 T =
1
8. ARCHITECTURE OF EARTHQUAKE
RESISTANT BUILDINGS
Basic features of an earthquake resistant building.
Primary structure and secondary structure.
Objectives of conceptual design.
Principles of conceptual design of an earthquake resistant structure.
35
8. Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings
Figure 17
How structures work as ‘boxes’
(from reference [18])
Storey forces are ‘attracted’ by the diaphragms…
which distribute them to the vertical resisting structures…
which transfer the forces down to the foundations.
Basic features of
an earthquake
resistant building
All buildings are ‘boxes’ and when subjected
to earthquakes they work in the way
sketched in Figure 17. Stiff and resistant
horizontal structures, called diaphragms,
allow the horizontal forces at each storey
to be distributed into the vertical resisting
structures; their connections to the vertical
frames must be designed to carry the storey
forces. Vertical resisting structures in the x
and y directions attract the horizontal storey
forces and transmit them to the foundations.
Secondary
structure
Primary
structure
Primary structure –
Secondary structure
The vertical load resisting structure may
comprise a main or ‘primary’ system designed
to carry the total earthquake effects, and a
‘secondary’ structure which is designed to carry
only gravity loads (see Figure 18). The physical
reality of the frame must reflect this distinction;
the contribution to lateral stiffness and
resistance of the secondary structure should not
exceed 15% of that of the primary structure.
Furthermore, the members of the secondary
structure and their connections must be able to
accommodate the displacements of the primary
structure responding to an earthquake, whilst
remaining capable of carrying the gravity loading.
8. Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings
Figure 18
Primary and secondary structures.
Objective of
conceptual design
A good conceptual design will enable the
development of a structural system to resist
earthquakes that has low additional costs in
comparison to a nonseismic design. The
principles of this conceptual design only apply
to the ‘primary’ resisting system (as this
alone resists earthquakes), allowing much
more architectural freedom in the form of
the building. In particular, there will be almost
total freedom in the design of the ‘secondary’
structure, which may be the more important
for the exterior aspects of the building.
37
action
reaction
torsion
Don't do
Do
8. Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings
Figure 19
Symmetrical inplan shapes reduce
torsion. Structural systems distributed
close to the periphery are the most
effective at resisting torsion.
Principles of conceptual
design of earthquake
resistant structures
The guiding principles governing conceptual
design for resistance to earthquakes are;
structural simplicity, uniformity, symmetry,
redundancy, bidirectional resistance and
stiffness (torsional resistance and stiffness),
use of strong and stiff diaphragms at storey
levels, and use of adequate foundations.
Structural simplicity is characterised by
the presence of clear and direct paths for
the transmission of the seismic forces. It
is an important principle, because the
modelling, analysis, designing, detailing
and construction of simple structures are
subject to many less uncertainties, so that
the prediction of their seismic behaviour
structurally is much more reliable.
Uniformity in plan is obtained by an even
distribution of the structural elements, which
allows short and direct transmission of the
inertia forces created by the distributed masses
of the building. If necessary, uniformity may
be realised by subdividing the entire building
by seismic joints into dynamically independent
units. These joints should be wide enough to
prevent pounding of the individual units during
a seismic event. If the building configuration
is either symmetric or quasisymmetric, a
symmetric layout of vertical structures providing
the earthquake resistance is appropriate
for the achievement of uniformity. A close
relationship between the distribution of masses
and the distribution of resistance and stiffness
eliminates large eccentricities between mass
and stiffness, and minimises the torsional
moments applied to the building (see Figure 19).
Favourable inplan shapes
action
d
reactions
Small lever arm of reactions
Don't do
action
d
reactions
Great lever arm of reactions
Do
Small lever arm of reactions Great lever arm of reactions
infills
soft storey
plastic
hinges
Uniformity over the height of the building
avoids the occurrence of sensitive zones
where concentrations of stress and large
ductility demands might cause premature
collapse. Uniformity over the height also
requires that non structural elements do not
interfere with the structural elements to localise
the plastic deformations, such as in the so
called ‘soft storey’ mechanism (Figure 20).
8. Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings
Figure 20
Regularity over the height reduces
risk of ‘soft storey’ failure.
Figure 21
Redundancy and wide bases better
redistribute the seismic action
effects at the foundation level.
The use of evenly distributed structural
elements increases redundancy and facilitates
more redistribution of the action effects
and widespread energy dissipation across
the entire structure. Its use also spreads the
reactions at the foundations (Figure 21).
39
8. Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings
Horizontal seismic motion is a bidirectional
phenomenon and the building structure must
be able to resist horizontal actions in any
direction. The structural elements should
ensure similar resistance and stiffness in
both main directions. When considering
the stiffness of the structure a balance has
to be made. The action effects in terms of
forces may be reduced in a more flexible
structure, as can be directly concluded from
the acceleration response spectrum. However,
displacements will be greater and the design
must prevent excessive displacements that
might lead to either instabilities due to second
order effects under the design earthquake,
or instabilities due to excessive damage
(cracks) under more frequent earthquakes.
The building structure should possess adequate
torsional resistance and stiffness in order
to limit torsional movements, which tend to
stress the different structural elements in a
nonuniform way. Arrangements in which
the structural systems resisting the seismic
action are distributed close to the periphery
of the building are the most effective.
The general importance of diaphragms in
the resistance of buildings is explained above.
The presence of floor and roof diaphragms is
especially relevant in cases of complex and
nonuniform layouts of the vertical structural
systems, or where systems with different
horizontal deformation characteristics are
used together (for example in dual or mixed
systems). Particular care should be taken
in cases with very elongated inplan shapes
and large floor openings, especially those
located near vertical structural elements.
The foundations should ensure that the
whole building is subjected to a uniform seismic
excitation. They should also be designed
to reduce problems in case of differential
settlement under seismic action. A rigid,
boxtype or cellular foundation, containing a
foundation slab and a cover slab, achieves this
objective. If individual foundation elements like
footings or piles are used, they should be tied
together by the foundation slab or by tiebeams.
9. DESIGNINGDISSIPATIVE STRUCTURES
Principle.
Designing reliable dissipative zones.
The many local dissipative mechanisms available in steel structures.
Non dissipative local mechanisms.
Design of non dissipative elements in a dissipative structure.
Capacity design applied to connections.
Capacity design applied to bars with holes.
Design criteria for dissipative structures.
Selecting a Ductility Class for design.
Selecting a typology of structure for design.
41
9. Designing Dissipative Structures
Design criteria for
dissipative structures
The general design objective when
considering dissipative structures is to form
numerous and reliable dissipative zones.
The aimed for global plastic mechanisms
for different structural systems will have
specific features related to these systems.
The design criteria are also specific to each
type of frame, but they encompass the
following three generic requirements:
¬ the resistance R
d
of the dissipative zones
should be greater than the calculated
action effects E
d
, in order to give enough
resistance to the structure: R
d
≥ E
d
¬ the ductility of the dissipative zones should
be high enough to accommodate the
formation of a global plastic mechanism
which is stable up to the displacements
that will be imposed by the earthquake
¬ the other structural elements should
be designed to remain elastic and
stable. This will be achieved by the
application of the ‘capacity design’
method, as explained in this paragraph.
¬ there should be an homogeneous
overstrength of the dissipative zones,
to ensure a global plastic mechanism
forms rather than a partial one.
Other requirements are formulated for each type
of structure, related to the structural elements
or connections that are specific to the structure.
In conclusion, the following three
‘conditions’ must be addressed:
Condition 1: define the intended global
plastic mechanism and its dissipative zones.
Condition 2: design and ensure reliable
dissipative zones at the selected places.
Condition 3: avoid plastic deformations,
brittle failures and/or elastic
instabilities at places in the structure
other than the dissipative zones.
The global mechanism selected as the
overall design objective will depend on the
type of structure. They are considered in
Sections 10 to 17. Conditions 2 and 3 are
more general and are discussed below.
Designing reliable
dissipative zones
Dissipative zones have to be made of a ductile
material. If correct structural steel grades
are used then the material elongation will
be over 15 % and the ductility, defined as
İ
y, max
/ İ
y
, will be over 15. The adequacy of
the steel is related to the properties needed to
achieve ductility of the structural elements; a
need for high elongation requires f
u
/ f
y
>1,10,
and other requirements are correct toughness
at working temperature (minimum 27 J in a
Charpy V notch test) and weldability. In addition
to the steel itself, clearly the weld material and
bolts must also be adequate. ArcelorMittal
steels complying with the necessary
requirements are described in Annex B.
9. Designing Dissipative Structures
Figure 22
Dissipative and non dissipative
local plastic mechanisms.
The many local
dissipative mechanisms
possible in steel
structures
The design must ensure the development
of local plastic mechanisms that are known
to be dissipative, and avoid non dissipative,
plastic or brittle, mechanisms. This requires
the designer to be aware of the dissipative
and non dissipative local mechanisms that
are possible. Various dissipative and non
dissipative local mechanisms possible in
steel structures are shown in Figure 22.
Reliable energy dissipation within
elements can be achieved by:
¬ bars yielding in tension, with the design
avoiding local stress concentrations
or excessive section reductions. The
elements must be in pure tension.
High strength bolts in tension
Ê should not be used as dissipative
components, because they are not made of
a very ductile material and may be subjected
to bending when a connection deforms.
¬ bars yielding in compression, if
premature buckling is prevented.
Stocky elements with Ȝ < 0,2 can
develop plasticity in compression.
¬ plastic bending, provided flange
buckling takes place at large enough
deformations. An adequate class of
section must be chosen, and plates
will bend in order to form yield lines.
¬ plates yielding in shear, which provide
a stable ductile mechanism.
LOCAL MECHANISMS
DISSIPATIVE NON DISSIPATIVE
N
Compression or tension yielding
V
V
Yielding in shear
M
Plastic hinge
F
Ovalization of hole
F
F
Slippage with friction
Plastic bending or shear of components
of the connection
Failure of bolt in tension
M
Plastic deformations in narrow zone
exhaust available material ductility
M
M
Local buckling (elastic)
M
43
M
200
200
20 mm
M
M
D
...
Du,b Du,a
9. Designing Dissipative Structures
¬ ovalisation of bolt holes. This occurs when
local plastic compression strains are applied
by bolts to a plate made of ductile structural
steel, and is a very stable and ductile
mechanism (indeed the opposite of failure
of the bolts themselves in shear, or failure of
the welds). For bolted shear connections,
it is recommended that the design shear
resistance of the bolts is more than 1,2
times the design bearing resistance, because
even if the bolted connection is designed
to be ‘nonslip’ there is always relative
movement between the two assembled
plates in an earthquake condition. Bearing
resistance will then be the true mode
of failure of the bolted connection.
¬ friction between plates. Friction
dissipates energy and prevents
destructive shocks in the bolts between
loose parts of a connection. For this
reason, pretensioning of bolts is
prescribed for seismic applications.
¬ in the connections, if they are designed
to develop one or more of the
dissipative mechanisms listed above.
Figure 23
Localisation of plastic strains in a small
zone leads to low ductility failures.
Non dissipative local
mechanisms
Non dissipative behaviour of potentially
dissipative zones can result from:
 premature local or global buckling
plastic strains occurring in a region that is
too small (see below); this is a ‘localisation of
strains’ or ‘stress concentration’ situation. Even
when appropriate materials and construction
are adopted, a design that generates high
elongations over a short zone will result in
very low deformation of the component, and
these may be below the expectations of the
designer and the requirements of the code.
This problem is illustrated in Figure 23 for the
case of bending applied to a bar either without
(Figure 23a) or with cover plates which are
not connected to the column (Figure 23b).
If the ultimate strain İ
u
of the steel beam is
equal to 20 times the yield strain
İ
y
(İ
y
= f
y
/ E and the minimum value of
İ
u
/ İ
y
prescribed for structural steel in seismic
applications is 15), then, for an S355 steel:
İ
u
= 20 İ
y
= 20 x 355/210000 = 3,38 %
In the beam without cover plate, yielding
of the flange takes place over the length
of a plastic hinge, which is of the order of
the beam depth, that means equal to 200
mm  Figure 23a. The ultimate elongation
of that 200 mm zone is equal to:
D
u,a
= 0,0338 x 200 = 6,76 mm
In the beam with a cover plate –Figure
23b, yielding of the flange only take place
on a 20 mm length, the rest of the beam
remaining elastic due to a significantly
greater plastic modulus W
pl,Rd
in the section
reinforced by the cover plates. The ultimate
elongation of that 20 mm zone is equal to:
D
u,b
= 0,0338 x 20 = 0,67 mm
Those elongations D
u,a
and D
u,b
can be translated
into ultimate rotation capacity ș
u
, as:
ș
u
= D
u
/( d
b
/2)
Design ‘a’ corresponds to a plastic rotation
capacity ș
u,a
= 6,76 /100 = 67,6 mrad, which is
greater than US or European code requirements
for dissipative zones in bending(25 to 40 mrad).
Design ‘b’ corresponds to a plastic rotation
capacity ș
u,a
= 0,676 /100 = 6,76 mrad,
which is far less than US or European code
requirements and its failure will be said ‘brittle’.
Design of non
dissipative elements in
a dissipative structure
To avoid plastic deformations, and indeed brittle
failures and/or elastic instabilities, at places in the
structure other than the dissipative zones the
components adjacent to a dissipative mechanism
have to be designed so that they have greater
resistance than the dissipative mechanism. This
will ensure that they remain elastic and stable
when overall deformations are taking place.
This concept is known as ‘capacity design’.
To highlight the concept, the chain shown in
Figure 24 is often presented. The strength
of a chain is the strength of its weakest link,
therefore one ductile link may be used to
achieve ductility for the entire chain. The
tensile strength of the ductile link is subject
to uncertainties of material strength, because
real and nominal strengths are different, and
because of strain hardening effects at high
strains. Whilst the other links are presumed to
be brittle, their failure can be prevented if their
strength is in excess of the real strength R
di
of
the ductile weak link at the level of ductility
9. Designing Dissipative Structures
envisaged. Figure 24 shows how the minimum
resistance required for the brittle links is
established using the ‘capacity design’ principle.
If a standard elastic analysis is adopted for a
structure, using a reduced response spectrum,
the capacity design involves the following steps:
¬ The potential dissipative zones are
defined as part of a global dissipative
mechanism (which is prescribed as a design
objective by the code for each type of
structure (see Sections 10 to 17)).
¬ The structure is analysed and the action
effects E
d
in sections are computed
¬ In every potential dissipative zone I,
the dissipative element is designed
such that its resistance R
di
is greater
than the action effect E
di
: R
di
≥ E
di
¬ The J potential failure modes of the
elements adjacent to the dissipative
mechanism are identified, for example
buckling of an adjacent structural
element, or failure of bolt in tension.
¬ The sizes of those adjacent elements
are defined such that their resistance
R
dJ
is greater than the plastic resistance
of the component intended to be
dissipative (the weak link or ‘fuse’).
Figure 24
Principle of Capacity Design.
ductile link Other links
Calculated action eIIect: ʊʊ~ E
di
E
dj
Required resistance: ʊʊʊ~ R
di
~ E
di
Ȗ(R
di
/ E
di
) E
dj
(Ȗ =1,2)
¬ To achieve adequate sizing, R
dJ
of the J non
dissipative elements of dissipative zone
i has to be greater than the computed
action effects E
dJ
amplified to take into
account the fact that the real action effect
in the dissipative element is the plastic
resistance R
di
and not the action effect
E
di
determined from the conventional
elastic analysis of the structure. The
resistances R
dJ
of the non dissipative
elements should thus comply with:
in which Ȗ is a safety factor. In that
expression, + means “combined with” in the
sense of seeking the realistic worst case
situation. S
dj,G
is the action effect resulting
from the other actions included in the
seismic combination.
If
Figure 30 shows the influence of capacity
design in the case of a beam to column
connection in a moment resisting frame.
Figure 45 shows the influence of capacity
design in the case of the connection of a
diagonal in a concentrically braced frame.
dJ
R >
G dj, dJ
di
di
S E
E
R
J in which
action effect resulting from the other actions included
If E
dj
=E
di
:
G dj, di dJ
S R R t J
P P
45
9. Designing Dissipative Structures
Correct application of the capacity
design principle requires:
G the identification of all
possible failure modes
G a correct evaluation of the stresses and
strains sustained by the various components
of the plastic zones; steel sections, welds,
bolts, and plates. In this context, an
underestimation of the plastic resistance
of the dissipative zone reduces safety,
because R
di
/ E
di
is underestimated.
G a correct estimation of the yield
strength of the plastic zones and of
the adjacent zones. Providing material
with excessive yield strength f
y
for the
dissipative zones may be unsafe.
A correct estimation of the yield strength
of the plastic zones is enforced by seismic
codes, which compel the designer to evaluate
the real plastic resistance by means of a
coefficient indicating the ratio between real
and nominal (that is ‘design’) yield strength
of the steel; Ȗ
ov
in Eurocode 8, R
y
in US or
Canadian codes. As an indicative value,
Ȗ
ov
= 1,25 from Eurocode 8 means that
the estimation is: R
d,real
= 1,25 R
d,nominal
.
A strict application of capacity design is
essential to ensure the reliability of dissipative
structures in seismic areas. Many design
rules related to specific structures are direct
consequences of this principle. Some rules,
like those explained in the following two
paragraphs, are of a more general nature.
Capacity design applied
to connections
The design rule for rigid full strength connections
is common to all types of structures, and
says that the resistance R
d
of non dissipative
connections should satisfy: R
d
≥ 1,1Ȗ
ov
R
fy
R
fy
is the plastic resistance of the connected
dissipative member, based on the
design yield strength. Ȗ
ov
is the material
overstrength factor explained above.
The rule applies to non dissipative connections
using fillet welds or bolts. When full penetration
butt welds are used they automatically
satisfy the capacity design criterion.
Dissipative zones may be located in the
connections, but it must be demonstrated that
they have adequate ductility and resistance.
When this is the case the connected members
should have sufficient overstrength to allow
the development of cyclic yielding in the
connections. An example of a dissipative
connection developed with the support
of ArcelorMittal is presented in 12.
Capacity design applied
to bars with holes
There is one case of possible localisation of
strains in a structural element for which an
explicit design rule is provided in the codes.
This concerns bars in tension, in which holes are
drilled for connection purposes. The rule says
that in order to achieve a plastic mechanism
using the bar in tension, the failure resistance
of the section with holes Anet (net section)
must be higher than the yield resistance of
the section A without holes (gross section):
A f
y
/Ȗ
M0
< A
net
f
u
/ Ȗ
M2
Ȗ
M0
and Ȗ
M2
are partial safety coefficients
respectively for the gross section and forthe
net section ; the recommended values are:
Ȗ
M0
= 1,0 et Ȗ
M2
= 1,25 (EN199311: 2004).
This condition can only be satisfied if the ratio
f
u
/ f
y
is high enough, which is however the
case with structural steels (f
u
/ f
y
> 1,10).
Selecting a Ductility
Class for design
At the start of a project the designer is free
to choose the Ductility Class which he/she
wants to achieve with the structure. A non
dissipative or low ductility class DCL structure
is designed following the basic design codes,
with checks for resistance to gravity and wind
loads etc. The seismic code defines the seismic
action, and the behaviour factor is minimal
(q equal to 1,5). Requirements on the materials
and classes of section are also minor, and
none of the checks from the seismic code
need be applied because the expectation is
that all the structural components will behave
elastically in an earthquake condition, with
some eventual minor local plastic zones.
A dissipative structure (Ductility Class DCM or
DCH) is designed for a seismic action which is
lower than that used in a DCL design, because
the behaviour factor q is greater (in the range of
3 to 6). The weight of the structural elements
can be substantially reduced, although the
design process itself is more onerous, and there
are restrictions on the classes of sections, on
the connections, on the materials and on the
control of the material properties. Designing
a ‘dissipative’ structure normally results in a
more competitive solution. However, this
is not always the case because the seismic
checks may not be critical; a seismic design also
has to comply with all ‘classical’ requirements
(such as limitation of beam deflection under
gravity loading) and these may govern the size
of sections needed. In such a case, capacity
design results in dissipative sections which
have greater overstrength, which then lead to
overstrength and more weight for the other
structural elements and the foundations. This
situation is more likely to occur in areas of low
seismic activity, and for flexible structures
for which the serviceability limit states can
be the most important. It can be concluded
qualitatively that class DCH solutions would in
general be best in zones of high seismic activity,
while DCM and DCL would be most appropriate
for medium and low zones respectively.
9. Designing Dissipative Structures
The choice of a Ductility Class for a given
design also depends on the mass/volume ratio
of the structure. If the structure is essentially
empty, for example an industrial shed, the wind
resultant force F
w
can be greater than the design
base shear F
b
determined with the behaviour
factor of a non dissipative structure (q = 1,5),
so designing for high ductility is of no interest.
Conversely, if a structure is of high mass and
stiff, a DCH or DCM design can be the best
option, even in areas of low seismic activity.
Another situation concerns the use of
industrialised ‘system building’, where thin
walled sections and/or partial strength
connections may be used. In such cases,
providing greater resistance is probably
simpler than providing more ductility,
therefore a DCL design is favourable.
Selecting a typology of
structure for the design
All types of structure can be designed
to resist earthquakes and fulfil all other
design requirements, but the most cost
effective solutions satisfy all design criteria
more or less equally. To help select an
appropriate structure type for design,
the following typology may be useful.
Moment resisting frames are flexible structures,
and their design is most often governed by the
limitation of deformations. This generally results
in significant overstrength as far as resistance
to an earthquake is concerned. One way to
avoid this situation consists of designing stiff
façade frames as the primary structures, while
the interior frames are secondary structures
essentially carrying gravity loading alone.
Frames with concentric bracing are stiff by
nature, but their behaviour factors q are
not the highest possible (see Table 3).
Frames with eccentric bracing combine
the high energy dissipation capacity and
behaviour factors q associated with moment
resisting frames, with stiffness that is similar
to that of frames with concentric bracing.
Frames with bracing are rather invasive as
the bracing may cut into free space, so they
should be placed around the periphery of the
building as stiff primary structures to resist
earthquakes, while the interior secondary
structures carry the gravity loading.
47
10. SEISMIC DESIGN OF MOMENT
RESISTING FRAMES
Design objective for moment resisting frames (or MRFs).
US and European Ductility Classes.
Design criteria.
Redistribution of bending moments in beams.
Other requirements.
Plastic hinges.
Recommended designs for beam to column connections.
Design of reduced beam sections.
Connections of columns to foundations.
\
D D
a) b)
\
\
\
\
Design objective for
dissipative moment
resisting frames (MRF)
The global design objective for dissipative
moment resisting frames is to form plastic
hinges in either the beams or their connections
to the columns, but not in the columns. Such
an objective leads to a solution that is often
called a ‘weak beamstrong column’ (WBSC)
frame, as shown in Figure 25 a). It does allow
plastic hinges in the columns at the base of
the frame and at the top of columns at roof
level. It has several positive features:
¬ Partial mechanisms of the ‘soft storey’
type are avoided (see Figure 20).
¬ Whereas plastic hinges in beams take
advantage of the full plastic moment
resistance of the section, this is not
the case with hinges in columns due to
the interaction of moments and axial
forces. Furthermore, plastic hinges in
columns would create problems in terms
of both column and global stability.
¬ P∆ effects are less important if hinges are
not in the columns (Figure 25 a and b).
¬ A partial failure at a beam end does not
necessarily lead to collapse of the beam,
and even if it does then collapse may be
limited to that beam alone. However, a
partial failure in a column can easily be
catastrophic for the complete structure.
10. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames
Figure 25
a) A frame with ‘weak beamsstrong columns’
b) Plastic hinges in columns result
in larger P∆ effects.
c) Parameters used in the definition of
the capacity of rotation in Eurocode 8.
(EN199811:2004).
c)
0.5 L 0.5 L
s
49
10. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames
U.S. and European
Ductility Classes for
moment resisting frames
U.S. and European Ductility Classes for
moment resisting frames are defined in Table
8, which shows the maximum value of the
behaviour factor associated with each class
and some of their respective requirements.
(Figure 25 c)
MRF Ductility
Classes
Country Designation Of
Moment Frame
Force Reduction
Factor R (US)
Behaviour
Factor q (EU)
Req. Plastic
Rotation
Capacity
mrad *
Capacity Design
of Connections
Low Ductility
U.S. OMF
Ordinary Moment Frame
3,5 ____ Yes
Europe DCL
Ductility Class Low
1,5 – 2,0** ____ No
Medium Ductility
U.S. IMF
Intermediate Moment Frame
4,5 20 Yes
Europe DCM
Ductility Class Medium
4 25 Yes
High Ductility
U.S. SMF
Special Moment Frame
8 40 Yes
Europe DCH
Ductility Class High
6 35 Yes
Table 8
U.S. and European Ductility Classes
for moment resisting frames.
* The rotation capacity provided by a given combination of beam, connection and column is evaluated by tests followed by data
processing. The definitions of rotation capacity are slightly different in Europe and in the U.S. In Europe, the rotation șp is defined
as: șp = ∂ / 0,5L in which ∂ is the deflection at midspan of the beam and L the beam span shown at Figure 25 c). In the USA, the
effect on ∂ of the elastic deformation of the column on a storey height is added and thus included in the capacity of rotation.
** the National Annex can allow q = 2 in class DCL
Design criteria for
dissipative moment
resisting frames
The moment resistance M
pl,Rd
at
beam ends should be greater than the
applied moments M
Ed
: M
pl,Rd
≥ M
Ed
M
Ed
results from the seismic combination
defined for the check of resistance of structural
elements (see 6.), that is by the combination of:
¬ the moment M
Ed,E
established by the
analysis of the structure submitted
to seismic action, which is an elastic
analysis under an earthquake action
reduced by a behaviour factor q
¬ the moment M
Ed,G
established by the
analysis of the structure submitted to the
maximum local gravity loads G + ȥ
2i
Q
Equilibrium at beam to column intersections
means that the sum of the beam moments
M
Eb
due to seismic action must be equal to
the sum of the column moments M
Ec
. If the
beams are weaker than the columns they yield
first and behave like ductile ‘fuses’. The design
criterion is that at all the beam to column
joints the sum ȈM
Rb
of the design values of
the moments of resistance of the beams and
the sum ȈM
Rc
of the moments of resistance
of the columns framing a joint should satisfy:
In this expression the moments of resistance
of the columns take into account interaction
between moments and axial forces, and
the most unfavourable combination
of these should be considered.
When partial strength beam to column
connections are used then ȈM
Rb
represents the sum of the moments of
resistance of these connections.
The coefficient 1,3 is chosen to ensure
that the beams are sufficiently weaker
than columns to always ensure the
formation of a global mechanism.
10. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames
Redistribution of bending
moments in beams
Under a combination of gravity loading and
seismic loading effects, the values of the
maximum positive and negative bending
moments in the beams can be very different.
The choice of steel sections must be related
to the absolute maximum values. However,
following a general statement in Eurocode
8, bending moments in the beams may be
redistributed according to and within the limits
prescribed by Eurocode 3. A redistribution
of moments consists in changing the level of
the reference line of the diagram of bending
moments, which provides another distribution
of moments in equilibrium with the external
applied actions. Figure 26 (top) shows such
a redistribution of bending moments (but
for clarity of the graph, the limitation of
redistribution to the prescribed 15% is not
respected). Redistribution can bring about a
reduction in the design moments of the beams,
allowing the use of smaller steel sections
and indeed the column sections may also be
reduced, due to the capacity design condition:
Any reductions in section size will clearly
make the structure more flexible than the
original design, and its response will be
changed. A further analysis of the structure,
considering the modifications made, has to
be performed in order to validate its design.
¦ ¦
t
Rb Rc
3 , 1 M M
In this expression the moments of resistance
¦ ¦
t
Rb Rc
3 , 1 M M
In this expression the moments of resistance
51
Original reference line
MEd,right before redistribution
MEd,right after redistribution
Modified reference line
MEd,left before
redistribution
MEd,E
Mpl,Rd,left
Mpl,Rd,right
VEd,M
MEd,left after redistribution
MEd
MEd,G
10. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames
Other requirements
In order to achieve the full plastic
moment in beams, compression and
shear forces should not be high.
They are restricted to:
and
to avoid interaction effects.
N
Ed
is the design axial force and V
Ed
the
design shear, calculated as V
Ed
= V
Ed,G
+ V
Ed,M
.
This expression reflects a capacity design
requirement; the seismic component V
Ed,M
of the design shear V
Ed
in a beam is related
to the situation in which the moments at the
beam ends are the plastic moments M
pl,Rd
,
left and M
pl,Rd
, right and not the bending
moments M
Ed
given by the consideration of
seismic action effects in the elastic analysis.
V
Ed,M
= (M
pl,Rd, left
+ M
pl,Rd, right
) / L in which
L is the beam span, as shown
in Figure 26 (bottom).
V
Ed,G
is a result of the gravity loads
G + ȥ
2i
Q , which are the loads
present in the seismic situation.
Preventing lateral torsional buckling of
beams in M
RFs
is also necessary in order to
achieve the full plastic moment in beams.
Connections between top and bottom flanges
of beams and floors (slabs etc) can provide
effective lateral restraint to the beam sections.
Columns are capacity designed relative to
the beams. In this case, the element being
considered (a column) is not the same as
the element in which the plastic zone will
develop (a beam). As the yield stress of
the beam may be higher than the design
yield stress, the axial force N
Ed
in the column
corresponding to the formation of the plastic
hinge in the beam may be higher than the
value N
Ed,E
computed in the elastic analysis.
N
Ed
, M
Ed
and V
Ed
should be computed as:
Ȗ
ov
is a material overstrength factor and
Ω is the minimum value of Ω
i
= M
pl,Rd,i
/
M
Ed,i
for all beams in which dissipative zones
are located. M
Ed,i
is the design value of the
bending moment in beam i in the seismic
design situation and M
pl,Rd,i
is the corresponding
plastic moment. The factor 1,1 Ȗ
ov
Ω takes
into account the possible overstrength of
the plastic hinge in comparison with the
Figure 26
Action effects due to seismic action. Top:
seismic moment M
Ed,E
, gravity moment
M
Ed,G
, combined moments M
Ed
= M
Ed,E
+
M
Ed,G
with and without redistribution of
moments. Bottom: seismic shear V
Ed,M
value M
Ed,i
determined from the analysis.
Columns must be verified in compression,
considering the most unfavourable combination
of axial force and bending moments.
The panel zone of the column has to be
checked for shear resistance. If the plastic
hinges are formed in the beam sections
adjacent to the column on its left and right
sides, the horizontal design shear V
wp,Ed
in
the panel zone is equal to (Figure 27):
V
wp,Ed
= M
pl,Rd, left
/ (d
left
– 2t
f,left
) +
M
pl,Rd, right
/ (d
right
– 2t
f,right
) + V
Ed, c
V
Ed,c
is the shear in the section of the column
above the node, obtained as the combination
of V
Ed,E
, established by the analysis of
the structure submitted to the seismic
action, with V
Ed,G
, effect of maximum local
gravity loading found under G + ȥ
2i
Q
If the plastic hinges are formed at a distance
D from the column face, the moments M
pl,Rd,
left
and M
pl,Rd,right
in the formula above should
be replaced by M
Sd,left
and M
Sd,right
defined as:
M
Sd,left
= M
pl,Rd, left
+ V
Ed,M,left
x D and
M
Sd,right
= M
pl,Rd, right
+ V
Ed,M,right
x D
For column web panels of low slenderness,
which are able to develop their full plastic
strength, the design check is: V
wp,Ed
≤ V
wp,Rd
They are restricted to: 15 , 0
Rd pl,
Ed
d
N
N
and
is the design axial force and V the design shear, calculated as
and 5 , 0
Rd pl,
Ed
d
V
V
to avoid interaction effects.
the design shear, calculated as
E Ed, ov G Ed, Ed
E Ed, ov G Ed, Ed
E Ed, ov G Ed, Ed
1 , 1
1 , 1
1 , 1
V V V
M M M
N N N
: J
: J
: J
A Section AA
"Doubler plate"
A
MSd,sup
h
dc
dleft
tf,left
tf,right
MPl,Rd,right
MSd,inf
MPl,Rd,left
Columnd panel zone
h
tf
tf
Vwp,Ed
Vwp,Ed
For slender webs, in which buckling limits
the capacity in shear, the design check is:
V
wp,Ed
< V
wb,Rd
Due to the presence of plastic bending moments
of opposite signs at the beam ends adjacent to
a column, as indicated in Figure 27, the design
shear V
wp,Ed
applied to the panel zone tends to
be high. The design checks for web panel shear
allow the design action effect to be equal to the
shear resistance. This reflects the acceptance
by codes of some plastic shear deformation
of column web panels, which is justified by the
ductility of such a mechanism. However, the
design shear V
wp,Ed
can often exceed the shear
resistance V
wp,Rd
when columns use standard
rolled sections and low grade steel, requiring
reinforcing plates to be installed. They may be
either in the form of a ‘doubler’ plate welded
onto the column web, or two plates welded
to the flanges. Stiffeners transverse to the
column may also be needed (see Figure 28).
However, doubler plates and transverse
stiffeners are costly items due to the
fabrication involved, and they can be
avoided by using other design options:
¬ A higher steel grade for the column,
for instance ArcelorMittal HISTAR®
S460 steel (Grade 65 following
ASTM 913), can eliminate the need
for additional shear plates.
¬ A higher steel grade and the use of column
sections with thicker flanges can eliminate
the need for transverse stiffeners.
¬ Beams with a reduced crosssection close
to the connection (known as Reduced
Beam Sections, RBS, or ‘dogbones’, see
details further in text) reduce the bending
moments at the beam ends and therefore
minimise the demand on the column web
and flanges. They may therefore enable the
need for doubler plates and/or transverse
stiffeners to be avoided (Figure 29).
Figure 27
Panel zones of columns are subjected
to shear corresponding to the
plastic moments in the beams.
Figure 28
‘Doubler’ plates to improve the shear
resistance of column panel zone.
Figure 29
Reduced Beam Sections minimise
requirements for column section,
column stiffeners and demands on
beam to column connections
(By Courtesy of Prof.C.M.Uang)
10. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames
53
Figure 30
Design of an extended end plate
connection close to a dissipative zone.
Impact of seismic design in comparison
to a design for gravity loading alone.
10. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames
Plastic hinges and
connections in Moment
Resisting Frames
Due to the shape of the bending moment
diagram under seismic action, dissipative zones
in MRFs are the plastic hinges activated at
the beam ends (see Figure 25 a). Normally
connections are chosen to be of a full strength
rigid type because unbraced MRFs tend to
be flexible by their very nature, so additional
flexibility due to the connections can create
problems with drift limitations and P∆ effects.
Whilst plastic hinges can be developed in
connections that are of a partialstrength
type, by taking advantage of the deformation
capacity of components such as end plates and
cleats (angles), it must be shown that their
resistance is ‘stable’ under cyclic conditions and
this is not yet practical. Another problem with
partial strength connections is that because
MRFs tend to be flexible structures then any
flexibility in connections has to be compensated
by using stiffer sections for the beams and
columns. This may mean that globally a ‘partial
strength’ design is not the most economical one.
Nonseismic design Seismic design: t2 >> t1 a2 > a1
Plastic hinges in unbraced MRFs acting as
primary structures for resisting earthquakes
are thus classically developed in the beams.
The resistance of the connections must be
such that R
di
> M
pl,Rd,beam
in order to avoid
yielding of components of the connection.
All connections are thus capacity designed
to the beam, such that in bending:
M
Rd,connection
≥ ±1,1 Ȗ
ov
M
pl,Rd,beam
This requirement is considerably more
demanding than the static design condition
and it influences significantly the size and the
cost of the connections (see Figure 30).
In shear the design check is:
The definition of symbols is the same
as for the design of the columns.
In shear the design check is:
Rd,connection Ed Ed,G ov Ed,E
1,1 V V V ȍV J t
M
Sd
t1
n1
a1
t2
n2
a2
+1,1 Ȗ
ov
M
pl,Rd,beam
1,1 Ȗ
ov
M
pl,Rd,beam
The nature of the design checks for moment
and shear resistance of the connections is worth
emphasising, because they may be critical for
the design of connections in which the beam
flanges are welded to the column flange, and
the beam web is connected to the column by
means of shear tabs (as shown in Figure 31).
The design condition for the connection
is: M
Rd,connection
≥ 1,1 Ȗ
ov
M
pl,Rd,beam
The plastic bending resistance of the beam
M
pl,Rd,beam
is the sum of the plastic resistance
moment of the flanges alone M
pl,flanges
=
b
f
t
f
f
y
(d+ t
f
) and the plastic resistance
moment of the web, M
pl,web
= t
w
d
2
f
y
/ 4
Whilst butt welds connecting the beam flanges
to the column flange, or to an end plate, transmit
the plastic resistance moment M
pl,flanges
without
problem, the web connection must also transmit
the plastic resistance moment of the beam web
in order to fulfil the condition: M
R,web,connection
≥ 1,1 Ȗ
ov
M
pl,web
= 1,1 Ȗ
ov
t
w
d
2 fy
/ 4
10. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames
Figure 31
Beam to column connection with
beam flanges welded to column flange
and beam web welded to a shear tab
that is welded on column flange.
Figure 32
The strengthening strategy.
When the connection detailing involves
a shear tab welded to the column
flange, this condition requires:
¬ use of a shear tab with more
resistance than the beam web
¬ welding the tab along its top and bottom
sides, in addition to the vertical fillet welds
down the vertical sides that carry the shear.
There are three options for the design
of rigid beam to column connections,
each one of which results in a different
location for the plastic hinge:
1. ‘classical’ connection design, as shown in
Figure 31, which does not increase the
bending resistance of the beam locally.
The plastic hinge then forms in the beam
section adjacent to the column flange;
2. other connection design options, such as
those shown in Figures 32, 35 and 37,
involve increasing the bending resistance of
the beam from the column face to a point
a short length into the span. The plastic
hinge is then developed away from the
column face, which has the beneficial effect
of separating the stress concentrations
in the connection from the plastic strains
that develop in the plastic hinge.
Bracket Cover plate
55
10. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames
Figure 33
The weakening strategy using ‘dog
bones’ or Reduced Beams Sections
(RBS), a concept originally developed
and patented by ArcelorMittal.
3. the beam may be deliberately weakened
at some distance from the column, by
trimming the flanges. The plastic hinge
is then displaced away from the column
flange, and the stress concentrations
in the connection are separated from
the plastic strains that develop in
the plastic hinge (see Figure 33).
This last concept, which is known as Reduced
Beam Sections (RBS) or ‘dogbone’, was
originally developed as part of an ArcelorMittal
(ARBED) promoted research programme in
1988. After the Northridge earthquake in
1994 and the Kobe earthquake in 1995,
poor connection behaviour was observed in
many moment resisting frames and the RBS
concept became more widely considered as a
smart design option to obviate such problems.
ArcelorMittal then gave free use of its patent
and the concept was further developed, with
radius cuts becoming apparent as the most
economical option. Design guidance on RBS
is now provided in many documents, for
example in FEMA2002 and ICCA2002 [6, 7].
Whilst removing material may seem
something of a paradox and indeed potentially
uneconomical, in fact beam sections are normally
sized to meet deformation requirements under
gravity and earthquake loadings, often providing
more resistance than is needed (‘overstrength’).
The only effect of adopting RBS is therefore
to consume part of this excess. It also:
¬ reduces very slightly the stiffness of
the structure (between 4% and 9%),
because sections are only reduced over
very short lengths of the beams
¬ normally does not require any change
in the section sizes of the structural
elements in order to compensate
this minor stiffness reduction
¬ reduces the ultimate strength of the
structure, but not significantly because,
as noted above, there is normally a
high excess of resistance anyway
¬ allows column section sizes to be
reduced, assuming they have been
sized by the ‘strong columnsweak
beams’ capacity design condition
¬ allows the dimensions of any stiffeners
needed in the columns for the
transmission of bending moments and
shear in the connection zone to be
reduced, which can result in a significant
reduction in fabrication costs.
The research effort after the Northridge and
Kobe earthquakes also showed that factors
other than simply the connection design caused
poor behaviour of the connection zones. Some
issues concerned welds, for example low
toughness of the weld material, some weld
preparations resulting in stress concentrations
and defects (V preparation with cope hole,
welding on a backing bar, details required for on
site welding), and inadequate weld protection.
The base material was also questioned;
toughness and weldability characteristics
were in many cases far inferior to what
ArcelorMittal had long been advising specifiers.
The achievement of appropriate quality explains
why the numerous experiments undertaken
between 1988 and 1997 on ‘classical’ welded
connections (that is connections that were
not strengthened, or using RBS) showed that
plastic rotation capacities greater than the 25
or 35 mrad now required by the code could be
achieved without difficulty [2][10][11]. These
tests were based on H and IPE profiles from
ArcelorMittal production, with beam depths of
up to 450 mm. The standards adopted for the
materials and fabrication procedures complied
with the current international requirements,
namely weld preparation in K, choice of weld
metal, welding from one side followed by
welding from the other, appropriate base
and weld material toughness and weldability.
Developments of new ASTM A913 and A992
steels by ArcelorMittal extended the validity
of these results to deep beams and thick
walled sections, with depths up to 1100
mm and flange thicknesses up to 125 mm.
The applicability of these steels to seismic
applications was further enhanced by the ability
of ArcelorMittal to accurately control the grades
of the steel produced, and to keep strengths
within upper and lower limits. If a higher
strength grade is prescribed for the columns,
namely U.S. Grade 65 (65 ksi or 450 MPa),
while a more traditional Grade 50 (50 ksi or 345
MPa) is adopted for the beams, the designer
can be sure that the ‘weak beam – strong
column’ design condition will be effectively
achieved, because an upper yield strength
of 65 ksi (450 MPa), can be guaranteed for
the Grade 50 steel (50 ksi or 345 MPa).
10. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames
Recommended design
for beam to column
connections
Explicit design guidance for beam to column
connections in moment resisting frames is now
available as a result of the huge international
research effort made since 1995. It is
presented in documents such as references
[6][7][14]. In the context of Eurocode 8,
whilst explicit information cannot be found
in the main document [1], reference should
be made to the National Annexes. Designs
in which the plastic hinges are assumed to
occur in the beam sections adjacent to the
column flanges are allowed, as well as design
solutions that adopt either strengthening or
weakening strategies. Table 9 relates some
connection details to the ductility class for
which they are allowed, and Figures 31 to
39 show schematics of these connections.
It should be noted that:
¬ some connection types other than
those indicated in Table 9 are mentioned
in some of the references [6][7][14],
including partial strength connections
and proprietary connections
¬ references [6][7][14] give detailed
guidance on choice of base & weld
material, weld types, access hole design
(see example in Figure 39), etc. This
information is not reproduced here
¬ some references define a very small
number of connections, namely those
which are best able to provide high
ductility (for example only 3 connection
types are given in reference [6])
¬ there are some minor variations in the
connection to class correspondence
from one reference to another,
even within a given country.
This is particularly the case with connections
in which the beam flanges are welded to
the column flange whilst the beam web is
bolted to a shear tab welded on the column
flange (types marked with an * in Table 9).
Because there are both bolted and welded
components in the connection, which means
a mix of ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ mechanisms, there
may be an overloading of the ‘hard’ welds
resulting in premature failure without much
rotation capacity. This is the reason why such
connection detailing should be considered as
only valid for low ductility DCL or OMF design.
Table 9
Connection Types and
corresponding ductility classes
Connection Type Maximum Ductility Class allowed
Europe US
Beam flanges welded, beam web bolted to a
shear tab welded to column flange. Fig. 34
DCL * OMF*
Beam flanges welded, Beam web welded to a
shear tab welded to column flange. Fig. 31
DCH SMF
Beam flanges bolted, beam web bolted to a
shear tab welded to column flange. Fig. 35
DCH SMF
Unstiffened end plate welded to beam and bolted
to column flange by 4 rows of bolts. Fig.36
DCH SMF
Stiffened end plate welded to beam and bolted
to column flange by 8 rows of bolts. Fig. 37
DCH SMF
Reduced beam section. Beam flanges
welded, beam web welded to shear tab
welded to column flange. Fig.38
DCH SMF
Reduced beam section. Unstiffened end
plate welded to beam and bolted to column
flange by 4 rows of bolts. Same as Fig.36,
but with reduced flange sections.
DCH SMF
* May be considered for DCM (equivalent to IMF) in some countries
57
10. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames
Figure 34
Beam flanges welded, beam web bolted
to shear tab welded to column flange.
Figure 35
Beam flanges bolted; beam web bolted
to shear tab welded to column flange.
Above: with bolted flange plates. Below:
with double split T connection.
Figure 36
Unstiffened end plate welded
to beam and bolted to column
flange by 4 rows of bolts.
b
p
p
t
d
O
t
pl
t
p
f
d
b
p
f
p
f
d
l
t
w
c
q
Figure 37
Stiffened end plate welded to
beam and bolted to column
flange by 8 rows of bolts.
Figure 39
Weld access hole details in FEMA 350 [7].
Figure 38
Reduced beam section. Beam flanges
welded, beam web welded to shear
tab welded to column flange.
10. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames
Radius =
4c
2
+ s
2
8c
a s
c
Reduced beam
section
50
59
N
M
V
FHS
FHI
L'
L
x
VEd,E
Mpl, Rd,RBS
RBS
x'
VEd,E
Mpl, Rd,RBS
RBS
hc
Figure 40
Calculation of design moment and shear
in the connection in presence of a RBS.
Figure 41
Column to foundation connection
using a pocket in the concrete.
10. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames
Design of reduced
beam sections
The best form of beam flange reduction
corresponds to a shape with circular cuts as
shown at Figure 38. Their form should respect
the geometrical conditions defined hereunder.
A design example is given in Section 19.
The length s of the circular cuts and the
distance a from the cuts to the face of
the column flange should comply with:
0.5 b ≤ a ≤ 0.75 b 0.65h ≤ s ≤ 0.85h
in which b is the beam flange width
and h the beam depth.
The depth of the cut c should
satisfy: 0.20 b ≤ c ≤ 0.25 b
The plastic bending resistance M
pl,Rd,RBS
of the reduced section can then be
calculated, the beam flange width at the
reduced section being: b
e
= b – 2c
As the plastic hinge forms at a distance
X = a + s/2 from the column face,
the bending moment applied to the
beam to column connection is:
M
Ed,connection
= M
pl,Rd,RBS
+ V
Ed,E
x X
with V
Ed,E
= 2 M
pl,Rd, R BS
/L’
L’ is the distance between the plastic
hinges at the left and right hand ends
of the beam (see Figure 40).
If M
Rd,connection
≥ 1,1 Ȗ
ov
M
Ed,connection
,
then the design is acceptable.
If the critical section is at the column axis
(for example a connection with a weak panel
zone), then the bending moment is taken as:
M
Ed,column
= M
pl,Rd,RBS
+ V
Ed,E
x X’
With: X’ = X + h
c
/2
The design check for shear at the connection is:
V
Rd,connection
≥ V
Ed
= V
Ed,G
+ 1,1 Ȗ
ov
Ω V
Ed,E
The panel zone is designed for the
action effects M
Ed,connection
and V
Ed
.
Connection of columns
to foundations
The global mechanism for a MRF involves the
development of plastic hinges at the interface
between the columns bases and the foundations.
This can be achieved by a ‘classical’ design using
a base plate connected by anchor bolts to the
foundation. However, transferring the column
plastic moment resistance is difficult with such
a detail. It usually requires very thick plates,
large butt welds and big bolts. Past experience
has often demonstrated poor behaviour, with
anchorages broken under the concrete surface.
A better option consists of placing the
column in a pocket formed in the concrete
(Figure 41). None of the components of
a ‘classical’ connection are then needed,
the bending moment in the column being
equilibrated by two horizontal compression
forces F
HI
and F
HS
in the foundation block.
11. SEISMIC DESIGN OF FRAMES WITH
CONCENTRIC BRACING
Design objective.
Analysis of X bracing.
Design Criteria for X bracing.
Other requirements for X bracing.
Design of connections.
Analysis of V or ȁ bracing.
Design Criteria for V or ȁ bracing.
Other requirements for V or ȁ bracing.
US and European design rules for frames with concentric bracing.
61
F2
NEd,G
NEd 2
NEd 1
NEd 3
F1
Design objective
The global design objective for energy
dissipation in the ‘classical’ design of frames with
concentric bracing is to form dissipative zones in
the diagonals under tension, and to avoid yielding
or buckling of the beams or columns. Diagonals
in compression are designed to buckle. The
expected for global mechanism in the case of a
frame with X bracing is shown in Figure 42 a).
The standard analysis process and the design
criteria are slightly different for a frame
with X bracings compared with one that
has V or ȁbracings. They are presented
separately below. The design of K bracings
to achieve energy dissipation (DCM or
DCH) is not allowed (see Figure 12).
Analysis of frames
with X bracings
The standard analysis is made assuming that:
¬ under gravity loading, only the beams
and columns are present in the model
¬ under seismic loading, only the diagonals in
tension are present in the model (Figure 43).
As only the diagonals in tension, which are
stable dissipative elements, contribute to frame
stability the behaviour factor q associated with
X bracing is high: q = 4. Refined analysis of
the X bracings also considering the diagonals
in compression is possible, but needs a non
linear static or nonlinear time history analysis
in which both prebuckling and postbuckling
behaviour of diagonals are considered.
11. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing
Figure 42
a) Global plastic mechanism which is the
design objective for frames with X bracings.
b) Storey mechanism prevented
by the resistance homogenisation
condition for the diagonals.
Figure 43
Models used for the analysis a) under
gravity loading. b) under seismic loading.
Design criteria
for X bracings
The yield resistance N
pl,Rd
of the
diagonals should be greater than the
axial tension force N
Ed
computed under
the seismic action effect: N
pl,Rd
≥ N
Ed
For each diagonal, the ratio of the resistance
provided N
pl,Rd
to the resistance required
N
Ed
is determined: Ω
i
= N
pl,Rd,
i / N
Ed,i
.
These ratios Ω
i
represent the excess capacity
of the sections with respect to the minimum
requirement and are therefore called ‘section
overstrength’. In order to achieve a global plastic
mechanism the values of Ω
i
should not vary
too much over the full height of the structure,
and a homogenisation criterion is defined; the
maximumΩ
i
should not differ from the minimum
by more than 25%. Practically, this means
that diagonals cannot be made of the same
section from top to bottom of the building.
Ω is the symbol reserved for the minimum Ω
i
.
11. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing
As the diagonals are effectively ductile
‘fuses’, the beam and column design
forces are a combination of:
¬ the axial force N
Ed,G
due to gravity
loading in the seismic design situation
¬ the axial force N
Ed,E
due to seismic action
amplified by the ‘overstrength’ of the
diagonal, which is found by multiplying
the section ‘overstrength’ factor Ω by
the material ‘overstrength’ Ȗ
ov
(when
applying socalled capacity design).
The axial load design resistance N
pl,Rd
of the
beam or the column, which takes into account
interaction with the design bending moment M
Ed
in the seismic design situation, should satisfy:
Other requirements
for X bracings
The nondimensional slenderness Ȝ of the
diagonals should be limited to: 1,3 < Ȝ ≤ 2,0.
This limitation is justified by the fact that at the
first application of force by the earthquake the
compression N
Ed,E
in the diagonals increases up
to the buckling strength N
b,Rd
; in other words
it is quite significant, and certainly not equal to
zero as indicated by the simple analysis model
proposed (which only includes the diagonals in
tension). Then, after the first loading cycle by
the earthquake, due to permanent deformation
resulting from buckling the resistance of the
diagonals in compression will have decreased
sharply, justifying the simple model (which
ignores them completely). The 1,3 limit for Ȝ
is intended to avoid overloading the columns
in the prebuckling stage, when both the
compression and tension diagonals are active.
If the pairs of diagonals are not positioned as
an X, but are decoupled as in Figure 44, then:
¬ the only limitation for slenderness is: Ȝ ≤ 2,0
¬ the design should take into account
the tension and compression forces
which develop in the columns adjacent
to the diagonals in compression, the
compression forces in these diagonals
being equal to their buckling resistance.
For structures of up to two storeys no limitation
applies to Ȝ , and diagonals could be cables.
Figure 44
Bracing in which the pair of diagonals
of each X brace are decoupled.
satisfy:
E Ed, ov G Ed, Ed Rd pl,
. 1 , 1 ) ( N N M N : J t
63
G
F1
Npl,Rd
b
c
11. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing
Design of connections
The design of the connections between the
diagonals and the beams or columns is made
considering the capacity design condition
explained in Section 9. The ductility condition
explained in the same Section is applied if holes
are made for connection purposes. Capacity
design of the connections generally results in
huge components, due to the fact that the steel
sections used for the diagonals have several
‘elements’ (2 for L sections, 3 for U sections,
etc) in which full plastic yielding under tension
is developed. As all these ‘elements’ cannot
be directly connected to a gusset plate, either
a local increase in the section of the ‘element’
in contact with the plate (by means of a
welded cover plate as shown in Figure 45 b),
or the use of an intermediate piece of angle
through which part of the force in the diagonal
is transmitted (Figure 45 c), is necessary.
Analysis of V or ȁ bracings
A standard analysis is made assuming that:
¬ under gravity loading, only the beams
and columns are present in the model
¬ under seismic loading, both the diagonals
in tension and the ones in compression are
present in the model (see Figure 46).
As the diagonals in compression contribute to
the overall stability, but do not provide a means
of stable energy dissipation, the behaviour
factor q is low: q = 2 in DCM q = 2,5 in DCH .
Figure 45
Comparison between a ‘classical’
connection design (a) and a connection
that is ‘capacity designed’ relative to the
diagonal plastic resistance (b or c).
Figure 46
Design action effects applied to a beam
in an inverted V (or ‘chevron’) bracing.
1,1 Ȗ
ov
N
pl, Rd
0,3 (1,1 Ȗ
ov
O N
Ed, E)
Design Criteria for
V or ȁ bracing
The criteria for bracing design are
similar to those for X bracings:
¬ Resistance of diagonals in
tension: N
pl,Rd
≥ N
Ed
¬ The compression diagonals are designed
for compression resistance: N
b,Rd
≤ N
Ed
¬ Homogenisation of diagonal section
overstrengths Ω
i
over the height of
the building: Ω
i
= N
pl,Rd,i
/ N
Ed,i
.
The maximum value of Ωi should not differ
from the minimum one by more than 25%.
Ω is the minimum of all the values of Ω
i
¬ Resistance N
pl,Rd
of non dissipative
elements (beams and columns)
11. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing
Other requirements
for V or ȁ bracing
The only limitation for the nondimensional
slenderness is that: Ȝ ≤ 2,0.
The beams are designed to resist:
¬ nonseismic actions whilst
neglecting the intermediate
supports given by the diagonals;
¬ the vertical seismic action effect applied
to the beam by the two diagonals of each
V brace after buckling of the compression
diagonals has taken place. This action
effect is calculated using N
pl,Rd
=1,1 Ȗ
0v
Ω N
Ed,E
as the axial tensile force (diagonal
in tension) and considering the post
buckling resistance for the diagonals in
compression. The latter is estimated as:
Ȗ
pb
N
pl,Rd
= 0,3 N
pl,Rd
U.S. and European design
rules for frames with
concentric bracing
U.S. and European design rules for frames with
concentric bracing differ significantly in several
aspects; models used for simple analysis, force
reduction or behaviour factors, required capacity
design of connections, and homogenisation
of diagonal member overstrengths. Table
10 indicates some different cases of
frames with concentric X bracing.
Table 10
Some aspects of Ductility Classes in
U.S. and European design rules for
frames with concentric bracing.
*the National Annex can allow q = 2 in class DCL.
 Resistance N
pl,Rd
of non dissipative elements (beams and columns)
E Ed, ov G Ed, Ed Rd pl,
. 1 , 1 ) ( N N M N : J t
Duct. Class Country Designation
Of Frame
Force
Reduction R,
or Behaviour
Factor q
Limit To
Diagonal
Slenderness
Ȝ
Capacity Design
of Connect.
Rule for homog.
of diag. overstrs
Low Ductility U.S. OCBF
Ordinary
Concentrically
Braced Frame
5 No No No
Europe DCL
Ductility Class Low
X bracings
1,5 (2,0*) No No No
Medium Or High Ductility U.S. SCBF
Special
Concentrically
Braced Frame
6 ≤ 1,87 Yes No
Europe DCM or DCH
Ductility Class
Medium or High
X bracings
4 1,3< ≤2,0 Yes Yes
65
12. SEISMIC DESIGN OF FRAMES WITH
CONCENTRIC BRACING AND DISSIPATIVE
CONNECTIONS
Interest of dissipative connections in frames with
concentric bracings.
Analysis of frames with X, V or ȁ bracing and
dissipative connections for the diagonals.
Design Criteria for frames with X, V or ȁ bracing and
dissipative connections for the diagonals.
Interest of dissipative
connections in frames
with concentric bracing
Dissipative semirigid and/or partial
strength connections are permitted by
codes, provided that the adequacy of design
(strength, stiffness, ductility) is supported by
experimental evidence. Several reasons justify
the interest in partial strength connections:
¬ Partial strength connections can be
designed to have a resistance that
is lower than the buckling strength
of the diagonal, thereby preventing
yielding and buckling of the latter.
¬ As no buckling takes place, the analytical
difficulties that result when diagonals in
compression buckle, with consideration
of their buckling resistance at the pre and
postbuckling stages, are avoided. All
12. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing and Dissipative Connections
frame members are therefore represented
in the model for simple analysis. All
the results of the analysis may be used
directly, with no distinct rules for X and
V braces, or for decoupled braces.
¬ As all diagonals are represented in the model
for simple analysis, they provide additional
stiffness in comparison to the ‘tension
diagonal only’ model. This compensates
for the additional flexibility resulting from
the use of semirigid connections.
¬ Partial strength connections can be
developed as ‘standardised’ components
with calibrated strength obviating the
problems of considering the diagonal
overstrength in the design of beams and
columns. Ȗ
ov
can be taken equal to 1,0.
¬ After an earthquake, replacement
of deformed components of
connections is easier than replacement
of complete diagonals.
Dissipative connections must be able to deform
significantly, and without loss of strength, for
the structure to achieve the drifts of up to
3% that may be imposed by the earthquake.
With dissipative diagonals, the drift is achieved
with a low strain İ over the total length of the
diagonals. With dissipative connections, the
deformation is concentrated in the connection.
In 2001 ArcelorMittal, aware of the considerable
potential of partial strength connections in
the seismic design of frames with concentric
bracing, initiated the INERD research project
with a team of five European Universities
[9]. This resulted in the development of two
designs, namely the ‘pin’ connection and the ‘U
shape’ connection. A pin connections consists
of two external eyebars welded or bolted
to the adjacent member (column or beam),
one or two internal eyebars welded to the
diagonal brace and a pin running through the
Figure 47
Rectangular pin connection with
two internal eyebars.
a) 3D view. b) in test.
Figure 48
Two designs with a U connection.
a) b)
67
12. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing and Dissipative Connections
eyebars (see Figure 47). In this type of
connection the pin dissipates energy through
inelastic bending. A ‘U shape’ connection
consists of one or two bent Ushaped thick
plates that connect the brace to the adjacent
member (see Figure 48). The energy
dissipation takes place in the bent plate(s).
Numerous tests have been undertaken on
connections and frames. Numerical modelling
of structures submitted to earthquakes has
also been performed. This research has
demonstrated the validity of the design
approach. Both types of connection show
potential in terms of ductility, offering an
elongation capacity similar to that of a
dissipative diagonal; more than 50mm for an
individual connection, meaning a total of 100mm
for one diagonal. The pin connection also shows
potential in terms of its strength and stiffness,
and can readily be put into practical use.
The behaviour factor q of frames with
concentric bracing and partial strength
connections is higher (q = 6) than that of
a ‘classical’ design (2 to 4), due to a better
control of the global plastic mechanism.
Analysis of frames with
X, V or ȁbracing and
dissipative connections
for the diagonals
A standard analysis is carried out assuming that:
¬ under gravity loading, only the beams
and columns are present in the model
¬ under seismic loading, all
diagonals are in the model
Design Criteria for
frames with X, V
or ȁ bracing and
dissipative connections
for the diagonals
The following criteria should be applied:
¬ Resistance R
pl,Rd
of the dissipative
connections: R
pl,Rd
≥ N
Ed
¬ Resistance N
b,Rd
of the diagonals established
by capacity design to the dissipative
connections resistance: N
b,Rd
> R
pl,Rd
≥ N
Ed
¬ Homogenisation of the dissipative
connections overstrengths over the
height of the building: Ωi = R
pl,Rd,i
/ N
Ed,i
The maximum value of Ω
i
should not
differ from the minimum by more than
25%. Ω is the minimum value of Ω
i
¬ If R
pl,Rd
of the dissipative connections
is known (controlled production of
standard connections), Ȗ
ov
= 1.0
¬ Resistance in tension N
pl,Rd
or in
compression N
b,Rd
of the non dissipative
elements (beams and columns):
or
There are no other specific requirements
for frames with X, V or ȁ bracing and
dissipative connections for the diagonals.
) or
b,Rd Ed Ed,G ov Ed,E
( ) 1,1 . N M N ȍ N J t
There are no other specific requirements for frames with X, V or ȁ bracing and dissipative
and columns): ) (
Ed Rd pl,
M N or
There are no other specific requirements for frames with X, V or
13. SEISMIC DESIGN OF FRAMES WITH
ECCENTRIC BRACING
General features of the design of frames with eccentric bracing.
Short links and long links.
Selection of a type of eccentric bracing.
69
e e
e
e
General features of the
design of frames with
eccentric bracing
The geometry of frames with eccentric
bracing is close to that of frames with
concentric bracing, except that some
intentional eccentricities e in the layout of the
elements (see Figure 49) generate bending
moments and shears. These structures resist
horizontal forces essentially by axial load in
the members, but they are designed to yield
first in shear or bending in localised ‘seismic
links’. These are zones created by positioning
the ends of the braces away from the ‘usual’
intersection points with other elements.
The analysis of frames with eccentric bracing
does not require the approximations made for
frames with concentric bracing, because none
of the diagonals is designed to buckle under
seismic actions. The diagonals themselves are
non dissipative zones that are ‘capacity designed’
relative to the strength of the links, in order to
ensure they remain elastic and do not buckle.
13. Seismic Design of Frames with Eccentric Bracing
Figure 49
Examples of frames with eccentric bracing
There are several reasons for selecting
a frame with eccentric bracing as an
earthquake resistant structure:
¬ such frames combine stiffness with a
q factor that is higher than for a frame
with concentric bracing: q = 6 instead
of a maximum of 4 (see Table 3).
¬ connections are made between three
elements, not four as in frames with
concentric bracings. This results in less
complicated connection details which
reduce fabrication costs and may also
simplify the erection of the structure
¬ diagonals are parts of the structural
system that supports the gravity loads,
providing an increase in stiffness.
Link
Link M
V
Shear V
in link
Moment
M in link
Link
M
V
Moment M and
Shear V in link
Short links and long links
Seismic links are designed to carry the
calculated seismic action effect in either
shear or bending, by satisfying V
Ed
≤ V
p,link
and M
Ed
≤ M
p,link
, in which V
p, link
and M
p,link
are the plastic shear and bending resistance
of the link respectively. For H sections:
V
p,link
= ( f
y
/√
3
) t
w
(d t
f
) and
M
p,link
= f
y
b t
f
(d t
f
)
Depending on the frame typology, the
shear and bending moment diagrams in the
link are symmetrical (as shown in Figure
50), or not (as shown in Figure 51).
The plastic mechanism achieved in seismic
links depends on their length e. Short links
yield essentially in shear, and the energy
dissipated in the plastic mechanism is:
W
V
= V
p,link
ș
p
e
Long links yield essentially in bending.
Figure 50
Eccentric braces in which the shear
and bending moment diagrams
in the link are symmetrical.
Figure 51
Eccentric braces in which the shear
and bending moment diagrams in
the link are unsymmetrical.
13. Seismic Design of Frames with Eccentric Bracing
71
L
e e
Mpl
F1
F2
e
T
pst
T
p
T
p
T
p
Figure 52
Energy W dissipated in plastic
mechanisms a) in shear b) in bending.
In a link submitted to a symmetrical action effect
M, as in Figure 52 b), the energy dissipated in
the plastic mechanism is: W
M
= 2 M
p,link
ș
p
The limit between long and short links
corresponds to the situation in which yielding
could equally take place in shear or bending:
W
M
= W
V
=> 2 M
p,link
ș
p
= V
p,link
ș
p
e
=> e = 2 M
p,link
/ V
p,link
For values of e around this limit, significant
bending moments and shear forces exist
simultaneously and their interaction has to
be considered. In Eurocode 8, the value of e
for considering a plastic mechanism in shear
(short links) is: e < e
s
= 1,6 M
p,link
/ V
p,link
The value of e for considering only a plastic
mechanism in bending (long links) is :
e > e
L
= 3 M
p,link
/ V
p,link
Between these two values e
s
and e
L
,
links are said to be ‘intermediate’ and the
interaction between shear and bending has
to be considered. If the typology of the
structure is such that the shear and bending
moment diagrams are not symmetrical,
only one plastic hinge will form if the link is
long, so that: W
M
= M
p,link
ș
p
. In this case,
the limiting length between long and short
links corresponds to: e = M
p,link
/ V
p,link
See the example of vertical shear
links shown in Figure 51.
The criteria that must be satisfied in order to
form a global plastic mechanism are similar in
frames with eccentric or concentric braces,
because they correspond to the same concept.
There should be homogenisation of the
dissipative connections’ overstrengths Ω
i
over
the height of the building ( Short links:
Ω
i
= V
pl,Rd,i
/ V
Ed,i
; Long Links: Ω
i
= M
pl,Rd,i
/ M
Ed,i
).
The maximum value of Ω
i
should not differ
from the minimum by more than 25%. Ω
is the minimum value of Ω
I
that will ensure
that yielding occurs simultaneously at several
places over the height of the building, and
a global mechanism is formed. The beams,
columns and connections are ‘capacity
designed’ relative to the real strengths of the
seismic links. This is achieved by satisfying:
N
Rd
(M
Ed
,V
Ed
) ≥ N
Ed,G
+ 1,1 Ȗ
ov
Ω N
Ed,E
E
d
≥ E
d,G
+ 1,1 Ȗ
ov
Ω
i
E
d,E
13. Seismic Design of Frames with Eccentric Bracing
a) W
V
= V
p,link
ș
p
e b) W
M
= 2 M
p,link
ș
p
13. Seismic Design of Frames with Eccentric Bracing
Selection of a type of
eccentric bracing
There are many potential types of
eccentric bracings. The choice between
short and long links is partly determined
by the following considerations:
¬ short links provide more
stiffness than long links
¬ shear deformations are essentially
inplane deformations of the webs
of sections, without any marked
tendency to lateral torsional buckling
¬ long links mean strong bending effects take
place with a potential for lateral torsional
buckling, which has to be prevented by
strong lateral restraints of the upper and
lower flanges of the steel sections.
The choice between various typologies
is influenced by many factors, including
the openings required by the architecture,
and by structural considerations:
¬ The distribution of resistance over the
height of the building should follow the
shear distribution, in order to distribute
yielding over the height of the structure.
¬ If the seismic links are in the beams, whilst
the beam sections are determined by
design checks other than those of ULS
under seismic conditions, the requirement
for homogenizing the section overstrength
ratios Ωi of the dissipative zones may
require an important overstrength of
the beams and consequently of all other
structural components due to ‘capacity
design’. Frames with V or inverted V
eccentric braces in which the Vs have a flat
horizontal tip correspond to this situation.
¬ One way to overcome this penalty is to
select a frame typology which forces all
the seismic links to yield simultaneously,
like the frame shown in Figure 53.
¬ Vertical seismic links as shown in Figure
51 can more easily be designed as specific
‘ductile fuses’, because gravity loading
subjects them essentially to axial forces
which do not interact significantly with
their bending and/or shear resistance.
Frames with eccentric bracing making were
originally designed to dissipate energy through
seismic links and not in partial strength
connections. But frames with eccentric bracings
can make use of partial strength connections.
Figure 53
Typology of eccentric bracing in which
seismic links yield simultaneously.
73
14. COMPOSITE STEEL CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
Introduction.
How can composite structural elements be dissipative?
A basic choice in the design of dissipative composite structures;
the degree of composite ‘character’.
Design concepts and behaviour factors q in the context of the Eurocodes.
Materials.
Stiffness of sections.
Plastic resistance of dissipative zones.
Ductility in bending of composite beams.
Detailing rules for composite connections in dissipative zones.
Favourable influence of concrete encasement on local ductility.
General rules for the design of dissipative and non dissipative elements.
Anchorage and splicing of reinforcement bars.
Fully encased composite columns.
Partially encased members.
Steel beams acting composite with the slab.
Effective width of slab.
Introduction
There are a lot of opportunities for the
use of composite steel concrete design in
buildings. Besides the ‘classical’ types of steel
structures, such as moment resisting frames
and frames with concentric or eccentric
bracing,, composite structures can be:
¬ Composite wall structures, of Types
1 and 2 as shown in Figure 54.
¬ Mixed design systems involving
concrete walls or columns and steel or
composite beams; Type 3 in Figure 54.
¬ Composite steel plate shear walls
consisting of a vertical steel plate
that is continuous over the height of
the building, with structural steel or
composite vertical boundary members
and with reinforced concrete encasement
on one or both faces of the plate.
Sections 14 to 17 present the main aspects
of composite design in the context of
earthquake resistant structures. Readers
should refer to references [1][2][13][17]
for more detailed information. Section 14
considers general aspects of composite steel
concrete structures, whilst Sections 15 to
17 address peculiarities of various structural
types, for example moment resisting frames,
braced frames, composite steel concrete
walls and composite systems with walls.
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
Figure 54
Composite walls (Type 1 and 2).
Composite or concrete walls coupled by
steel or composite beams (Type 3).
TYPE 1 TYPE 2 TYPE 3
Steel or composite
moment frame with
concrete infill panels.
Concrete walls
reinforced by encased
vertical steel sections.
Concrete shear walls
coupled by steel or
composite beams.
75
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
How can composite
structural elements
be dissipative?
Composite beams, columns or connections
are made of two materials, namely steel and
concrete. Steel is a ductile material, and if
correct steel grades are selected then the
material elongation at failure is greater than
15% (that is 150x10
3
) and the ductility
İ
y, max
/ İ
y
is above 15. Concrete is characterised
by a very limited deformation capacity İ
cu2
at
failure, of the order of 3,5x10
3
. Deformation
at failure İ
cu2
is in fact only about twice the
maximum deformation İ
c2
of concrete in
the elastic range, so that material ductility is
only about 2. This is clearly much less than
the value of 15 that can be achieved by
structural steel. İ
cu2
can be raised by a factor
of 2 to 4 if the concrete is well confined
by transverse reinforcement, although this
improvement is only valid for the section of
concrete situated within the confining bars.
The ductility needed in composite structural
elements or in composite connections is
achieved, as in reinforced concrete, by detailing
the design so that the steel yields while the
concrete remains elastic. In this way, the
integrity of the concrete is maintained during
the seismic event, and energy dissipation
is achieved by yielding taking place in the
steel sections and/or in the rebars.
A basic choice in the
design of dissipative
composite structures;
the degree of
composite ‘character’
Dissipative composite structures need reliable
dissipative zones. Two design options exist:
1. either achieve ductile composite
elements/connections by complying
with certain specific conditions
2. or rely on the steel sections only and
ignore any contribution of concrete in
the resistance of dissipative zones.
The second option can ease the analysis and
the execution, but if the analysis model is
to correctly represent the behaviour of the
real structure then the latter must have an
effective disconnection of concrete from steel
in potential dissipative zones. In seismic design
this correspondence between model and reality
is essential, as underestimating the resistance
and stiffness is not a safe approximation. If
the analysis model underestimates stiffness it
will predict smaller action effects due to the
decreasing branch of the response spectrum.
Underestimating resistance means that
elements sized using capacity design may be
incorrect, leading to an underestimation of
the sections needed adjacent to dissipative
zones, and to a risk of unintentionally
creating plasticity in the wrong places.
STRUCTURAL TYPE Ductility Class
DCM DCH
Moment resisting frames
Frames with concentric
or eccentric bracing
Inverted pendulum
As for steel structures.
See Table 3.
Composite structural systems
Default value: Į
u
/Į
1
= 1,1
Composite walls (Type 1 and Type 2) 3 Į
u
/Į
1
4 Į
u
/Į
1
Composite or concrete walls coupled
by steel or composite beams (Type 3)
3 Į
u
/Į
1
4,5 Į
u
/Į
1
Composite steel plate shear walls
Default value: Į
u
/Į
1
= 1,2
3 Į
u
/Į
1
4 Į
u
/Į
1
Design concepts and
behaviour factors q in the
context of the Eurocodes
Earthquake resistant composite buildings can
be designed to one of the following concepts:
¬ Concept a): lowdissipative structural
behaviour and reference only to Eurocode 4
(static design) for the analysis and design.
¬ Concept b): dissipative structural
behaviour with composite dissipative
zones and reference to Eurocodes 4 and
8 for structural analysis and design.
¬ Concept c): dissipative structural
behaviour with steel dissipative zones
and reference to Eurocodes 3, 4 and
8 for structural analysis and design.
The design concepts are related to structural
ductility classes and behaviour factors
q in the ways indicated in Table 11.
Behaviour factors q corresponding to different
structural types are given in Table 12. Structural
types that are similar to pure steel structures
have the same behaviour factors. Structures
belonging to Ductility Classes DCM or DCH
have to meet certain requirements for the
steel sections, connections and detailing.
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
Design concept Structural
Ductility Class
Range of the
reference values
of the behaviour
factor q
Concept a)
Low dissipative structural behaviour
DCL q ≤ 1,5 (2*)
Concepts b) or c)
Medium or High Dissipative
structural behaviour
DCM q ≤ 4
+ Limits of Table 12
DCH Limits of Table 12
Table 11
Design concepts, structural ductility
classes and upper limit of reference
values of the behaviour factor q
Table 12
Upper limit reference values of
behaviour factor q for systems
that are regular in elevation
* the National Annex can allow q = 2 in class DCL.
77
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
Materials
Concrete classes lower than C20/25 or higher
than C40/50 are not permitted. Reinforcing
steel, bars and welded meshes that are
considered to contribute to the plastic resistance
of dissipative zones have to satisfy requirements
on the ratio f
u
/f
y
and the available elongation,
which are those of steel Class B or C (EN1992
11:2004, Table C.1) in Class DCM and those
of steel Class C in Class DCH. The requirements
are recalled at Table 13. Furthermore, in Class
DCH, the upper characteristic value (95%
fractile) of the real yield strength, f
yk,0,95
,
should not be above the nominal value by
more than 25%. Except for closed stirrups or
cross ties, only ribbed bars are permitted as
reinforcing steel. In slabs that form the flanges
of composite beams, welded mesh that does
not comply with the ductility requirements may
be used in dissipative zones provided ductile
reinforcing bars are present to duplicate the
mesh. Such duplication is necessary because
in moment frames subjected to earthquakes a
reliable negative plastic moment resistance in
the connection zones requires the presence of
ductile reinforcement, while the beam plastic
Table 13
Properties of the reinforcements.
moment resistance used in the capacity design
of the columns considers all contributions from
reinforcement, be it ductile or not. When there
is duplication of non ductile reinforcement
the capacity design of the columns therefore
results in their overdesign, because safety
requires consider both ductile and non ductile
reinforcements for the reference strength in
the capacity design. In practice, an economical
solution is obtained either by using ductile
welded mesh or by avoiding the continuity
of non ductile reinforcement in dissipative
zones. This can be done by using standard
ductile rebars at these locations and by placing
the overlap between ductile and non ductile
reinforcement away from the dissipative zone.
Type of product Bars and decoiled rods. Wire fabrics
Class B C
Characteristic yield strength
f
yk
or f
0,2k
(MPa)
400 to 600
Minimum value of k = (f
t
/ f
y
)
k
k ≥ 1,08 1,15 ≤ k < 1,35
Characteristic strain at maximum force (%) ≥5,0 ≥ 7,5
Plastic resistance of
dissipative zones
Two different plastic resistances of the
dissipative zones are considered in the design
of composite steel concrete structures:
¬ the lower bound plastic resistance
(index pl, Rd) of the dissipative
zones is the one considered in design
checks concerning the sections of the
dissipative elements, for example.
This resistance is calculated considering the
concrete and only the steel components
of the section which are ductile.
¬ the upper bound plastic resistance (index
U, Rd) of the dissipative zones is the one
considered in the capacity design of the
elements that are adjacent to the dissipative
zones. This resistance is established
considering the concrete and all the
steel components present in the section,
including those that are not necessarily
ductile, for example welded meshes.
Stiffness of sections
The stiffness of composite sections in which the
concrete is in compression should be calculated
using a modular ratio
n = E
a
/ E
cm
= 7
For composite beams that incorporate a
concrete flange the second moment of
area of the section, referred to as I
1
(slab
in compression) or I
2
(slab in tension),
should be calculated taking into account the
effective width of slab defined at Table 16.
The stiffness of composite sections in which
the concrete is in tension should be calculated
assuming that the concrete is cracked and
that only the steel parts of the section are
structural. The structure should be analysed
taking into account the presence of concrete
in compression in some zones and concrete in
tension in other zones or making use of the
average value of I or EI mentioned in 15.
example
Ed pl,Rd
M M . This resistance is calculate
only the steel components of the section which are ductile.
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
79
x
d
s,steel
s,composite
T
T
H
H
c,composite
H
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
Ductility in bending
of steel beams acting
compositely with slabs
The general concept used to define the
condition for ductility of composite sections
is exactly the same as that used for reinforced
concrete sections. The strain diagram must
indicate that strains in the steel reach the yield
strain İ
y
while strains in the concrete are still
below İ
cu2
(the ultimate strain of concrete in
compression). This may be translated into
a geometrical condition on the position of
the neutral axis (Figure 55). The ratio x/d
of the distance x between the top concrete
compression fibre and the plastic neutral axis,
Table 14
Limiting values of x/d for ductility
of composite beams (with slab)
Figure 55
Strains obtained at the same rotation ș in a
symmetrical steel beam and in a composite
beam made from the same steel section.
Ductility class q f
y
(N/mm
2
) x/d upper limit
DCM 1,5 < q ≤ 4 355 0,27
1,5 < q ≤ 4 235 0,36
DCH q > 4 355 0,20
q > 4 235 0,27
to the depth d of the composite section,
should satisfy to the following requirement:
x/d < İ
cu2
/ (İ
cu2
+ İ
a
)
where İc
u2
is the ultimate compressive strain
of the concrete and İ
a
is the total strain in
the steel at the Ultimate Limit State.
Table 14 indicates limits of x/d of sections
for which the condition is satisfied.
It should be noted that a composite beam (with
concrete flange) has a reduced ductility in
comparison to that of same steel section alone.
This is because the neutral axis is raised towards
the upper part of the section (it is typically
located in the steel flange), and strains
İ
s,composite
in the bottom flange of the steel
section are increased in comparison to the
strains İ
s,steel
developed for the same rotation
in a symmetrical steel section (Figure 55).
These higher strains result in a faster strength
degradation due to buckling, and accordingly
reduce the ductility of the sections. In order
to achieve in all cases a sufficient ductility, the
limits imposed to the value of wall slenderness
c/t of webs are more restrictive for webs
that are fully in compression (for example as
found in composite beams with slab) than
for webs in bending (as found in symmetrical
steel sections as shown at Figure 55). The
limiting values imposed to c/t are defined
in Eurocode 3 (EN199311 : 2004, Table
5.2). Limiting values of the wall slenderness
c/t
f
for flanges remain unchanged.
+1,1 Ȗ
ov
M
pl,Rd,trave
1,1 Ȗ
ov
M
pl,Rd,trave
+1,1 Ȗ
ov
M
pl,Rd,trave
1,1 Ȗ
ov
M
pl,Rd,trave
+1,1 Ȗ
ov
M
pl,Rd,trave
1,1 Ȗ
ov
M
pl,Rd,trave
bb
bc
hb
hc
t
A
C
B
B
A
D
Detailing rules for
composite connections
in dissipative zones
Local design of the reinforcing bars used in the
joint region has to be justified using equilibrium
models. Annex C of Eurocode 8 provides
complete information for the design of the
‘seismic’ reinforcement in slabs (see Section
15). When the web panels of beam/column
connections are fully encased, the panel zone
resistance can be calculated as the sum of the
contributions from the concrete and steel shear
panel, provided the aspect ratio h
b
/b
p
of the
panel zone satisfies the following conditions:
a) 0,6 < h
b
/h
c
< 1,4
b) V
wp,Ed
< 0,8 V
wp,Rd
V
wp,Ed
is the design shear force in the web panel
due to the action effects, taking into account
the plastic resistance of the adjacent composite
dissipative zones in beams or connections.
V
wp,Rd
is the shear resistance of the composite
steelconcrete web panel in accordance
with Eurocode 4. The dimensions h
b
and h
c
are as defined in Figure 56.
For partially encased stiffened web panels a
similar assessment is permitted if straight links,
of the type shown in Figure 57, are provided
at a maximum spacing s
1
= c in the panel.
These links must be oriented perpendicularly
to the longer side of the column web panel,
and no other reinforcement of the panel is
required. These links are not required if h
b
/
b
b
< 1,2 and h
c
/b
c
< 1,2. Figure 57.
Figure 56
Beam to column composite connections.
A steel beam
B face bearing plates
C reinforced concrete column
D composite encased column
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
81
s
1
c
<
c
b
b
b
p
= h
c
s1 s1 s1 s1 s1
h
b
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
Figure 57
Confinement of the composite web panel.
When a dissipative steel or composite beam
frames into a reinforced concrete column
(see Figure 56), it is necessary to realise
the transfer of bending moment and shear
present at beam end into the column, which is
realised by a couple of vertical reaction forces
into the concrete, similarly to those shown
in the case of a beam framing into a wall at
Figure 68. To maintain the integrity of the
column, the following should be checked:
¬ the capacity of the column to
bear locally those forces without
crushing, which requires confining
(transverse) reinforcement
¬ the capacity of the column to resist locally
tension mobilised by those vertical forces,
which requires vertical reinforcements.
Indeed, because of the reversal of signs of the
plastic moment at beam end, the reaction is
alternatively directed upwards and downwards,
depending on the direction of the moves of
the frame ; this can put the column under
tension. For that reason, a rule in Eurocode
8 prescribes to place in the column, in the
vicinity of the beam stiffeners or « face
bearing plates » adjacent to the beam plastic
hinge, vertical reinforcements with a design
axial strength equal to the shear strength of
the coupling beam. It is allowed to consider
part or total of reinforcement present in the
column for other reasons as part or total of
the reinforcements so required. These vertical
reinforcing bars should be confined by the
transverse reinforcement already mentioned. To
ensure a good behaviour of the steel coupling
beam and of the concrete at the support, the
mentioned face bearing plates should be placed
in the exterior plane of the concrete. Figure 56.
When a dissipative steel or composite beam is
framing into a fully encased composite column
(see Figure 56), the beam/column connection
may be designed either as a beam/steel column
connection or as a beam/composite column
connection. In the latter case, vertical column
reinforcements may be calculated either as
explained above or by distributing the shear
strength of the beam between the column
steel section and the column reinforcement.
The presence of face bearing plates and
transverse reinforcements is equally required.
c
b
=
b
c
h
=
h
c
tw
t
f
c
b
=
b
c
tw
t
f
h
=
s s s s s s s
h
c
Favourable influence of
concrete encasement
on local ductility
Concrete used to encase a steel section, or
placed between its flanges, prevents inward local
buckling of the steel walls/flanges and therefore
reduces strength degradation due to buckling.
For this reason, some of the limits for wall
slenderness of composite sections are higher
than those for pure steel sections. These limits
can be increased by up to 50% if the following
details are placed with certain densities:
¬ confining hoops, for fully encased sections
¬ additional straight bars welded to the
inside of the flanges, for partially encased
sections as shown in Figure 58a.
Table 15 presents values of acceptable wall
slenderness for H or I sections in compression.
The connection of concrete to web refers
to design details defined in Eurocode 4: the
concrete is connected to the web of the steel
section, either by stirrups welded to the web
(see Figure 58b)) or by means of bars of at
least 6 mm diameter placed through holes,
and/or by studs of at least 10 mm diameter
welded to the web. Further guidance on ‘+
hoops’ and ‘straight links’ is provided below
under the subtitles ‘Fully encased composite
columns’ and ‘Partially encased members’.
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
Ductility Class of Structure DCM DCH
Reference value of behaviour factor q
FLANGE outstand limits c/t
f
1,5 < q ≤ 2 2 < q ≤ 4 q > 4
Reference: H or I Section in steel only
EN199311:2004 Table 5.2
14 İ 10 İ 9 İ
FLANGE outstand limits c/t
f
H or I Section, partially encased,
with connection of concrete to web
as in Figure 57 b) or by welded studs.
EN199411:2004 Table 5.2
20 İ 14 İ 9 İ
FLANGE outstand limits c/t
f
H or I Section, partially encased
+ straight links as in Figure 57
a) placed with s/c ≤ 0,5
EN199811:2004
30 İ 21 İ 13,5 İ
FLANGE outstand limits c/t
f
H or I Section, fully encased
+ hoops placed with s/c ≤ 0,5
EN199811:2004
30 İ 21 İ 13,5 İ
WEB depth to thickness limit c
w
/t
w
c
w
/t
w
= h – 2t
f
Reference: H or I Section, in steel only,
web completely in compression
EN199311:2004 Table 5.2
42 İ 38 İ 33 İ
WEB depth to thickness limit c
w
/t
w
H or I Section, web completely in
compression, section partially encased
with connection of concrete to web
or fully encased with hoops.
EN199311:2004 Table 5.2,
EN199411, cl.5.5.3(3)
38 İ 38 İ 33 İ
Table 15
Limits of wall slenderness for steel and
encased H and I sections, for different
design details and behaviour factors q.
note: İ = (f
y
/235)
0.5
with f
y
in MPa
Figure 58
Partially encased sections.
a) Additional straight bars (links)
welded to the flanges.
b) Concrete connected to the web of the steel
section by means of welded stirrups.
c) Steps s of the stirrups.
a) b) c)
83
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
General rules for the
design of dissipative and
non dissipative elements
An earthquake resistant structure is designed
in order to achieve a global plastic mechanism
involving local dissipative zones. The mechanism
identifies the members in which dissipative
zones are located, and therefore indirectly the
members in which there are no dissipative zones.
Columns can be designed to be dissipative in
regions where the global mechanism indicates
that plastic deformations will take place,
for example in moment frames at the:
¬ bases of all types of columns at ground level
¬ tops of columns in the upper storey
Specific rules apply to these zones, as well
as to other regions of the columns in which
uncertainties exist, for example at the top and
bottom of any storey with fully encased columns
(these are the ‘critical zones’ of reinforced
concrete structures). In such ‘critical zones’
confining reinforcement is required for both
dissipative and non dissipative columns. In
the design of both types of composite column
the resistance in bending of the steel section
may be considered either alone or combined
with the resistance of the concrete section.
When the concrete encasement or infill is
assumed to contribute to the axial and/or
flexural resistance of a non dissipative column,
the design rules for dissipative columns that are
intended to ensure full shear transfer between
the concrete and the steel parts in a section
should nevertheless be applied. However,
because of the cyclic character of seismic
action effects, it is necessary to consider
reduced design shear resistances in order to
ensure the effectiveness of the transmission
of forces; they are obtained by dividing by 2
the shear resistances indicated in Eurocode 4.
When, for capacity design purposes, the full
composite resistance of a column is employed,
complete shear transfer between the steel and
reinforced concrete parts should be ensured. If
insufficient shear transfer is achieved through
bond and friction, shear connectors should
be provided to ensure full composite action.
In essentially axially loaded non dissipative
members, sufficient shear transfer should be
provided to ensure that the steel and concrete
parts share the loads applied to the column at
connections to beams and bracing members.
In the design of non dissipative composite
columns, the resistance in shear of the steel
section may be considered either alone or
combined with the resistance in shear of
the concrete section. In this latter case it
should be determined according to Eurocode
4. In dissipative members, the shear
resistance should be determined considering
the steel section alone, unless special
details are provided to mobilise the shear
resistance of the concrete encasement.
For fully encased columns that are
assumed to act compositely, the minimum
crosssectional dimensions b and h
should be not less than 250 mm.
Anchorage and splices
of reinforcement bars
The following requirements apply to reinforcing
bars used for both earthquake resistant
reinforced concrete structures and composite
structures. For hoops used as transverse
reinforcement in beams, columns or walls, closed
stirrups with 135° hooks and extensions 10 d
bw
in length should be used, d
bw
being the diameter
of the transverse reinforcement. Figure 59.
In DCH structures, the anchorage length of
beam or column bars anchored within beam to
column joints should be measured from a point
on the bar at a distance 5d
bL
inside the face of
the joint, to take into account yield penetration
due to cyclic postelastic deformations. d
bL
is
the diameter of longitudinal reinforcement.
When calculating the anchorage or lap length
of column bars which contribute to the flexural
strength of elements in critical regions, the ratio
of the required area of reinforcement to the
actual area of reinforcement A
s,req
/A
s,prov
should
be assumed to be 1,0. If, in the seismic design
situation, the axial force in a column is tensile,
the anchorage lengths should be increased to
50% longer than those specified in Eurocode 2.
hC
s
bo bc
ho
hc
1
0
d
b
w
Fully encased
composite columns
In dissipative structures, there are critical
regions at both ends of all column ‘clear
lengths’ in moment frames, and in the
portions of columns adjacent to links in
eccentrically braced frames. The lengths l
cr
of these critical regions (in metres) are:
for ductility class M
for ductility class H
Where h
c
is the largest crosssectional
dimension of the column – Figure 59 
and l
cl
is the ‘clear length’ of the column.
To satisfy plastic rotation demands and to
compensate for loss of resistance due to spalling
of the cover concrete, the following expression
should be satisfied within the critical regions:
Where Ȧ w
d
is the mechanical volumetric
ratio of the confining hoops within
the critical regions, defined as:
Figure 59
Definition of symbols for fully
encased composite column.
ȝ
ĳ
is the required value of the curvature
ductility factor; İ
sy,d
is the design value of the
tension steel strain at yield; h
c
is the gross
crosssectional depth (parallel to the horizontal
direction in which the ȝ
ĳ
applies); h
o
is the
depth of the confined core (to the centreline
of the hoops); b
c
is the gross crosssectional
width; b
o
is the width of the confined core (to
the centreline of the hoops). The symbols
h
o
, h
c
, b
o
, b
c
are defined at Figure 59.
A
c
is the area of the section of concrete; A
s
is
the area of the longitudinal rebars; A
a
is the area
of the steel profile; f
cd
is the concrete design
strength; f
yd
is the design yield strength of
the profile; f
ys
is the design yield strength of
the rebars; Į is the confinement effectiveness
factor, which is equal to Į =Į
n
· Į
s
, with:
For rectangular crosssections:
n is the total number of longitudinal bars laterally
engaged by hoops or cross ties and b
i
is the
distance between consecutive engaged bars.
The spacing s of confining hoops in
critical regions should not exceed
s = min (b
o
/2, 260, 9 d
bL
) mm
for ductility class DCM
s = min (b
o
/2, 175, 8 d
bL
) mm
for ductility class DCH
The spacing s of confining hoops in
the lower part of the lower storey for
ductility class DCH should not exceed:
s = min(b
o
/2, 150, 6d
bL
)
where d
bL
is the minimum diameter
of the longitudinal rebars.
The diameter of the hoops
d
bw
should be at least
d
bw
= 6 mm for ductility class DCM
d
bw
= max( 0,35 d
bL,max
[f
ydL
/f
ydw
]
0,5
, 6)
mm for ductility class DCH
d
bL,max
is the maximum diameter of the
longitudinal rebars. f
ydL
et f
ydw
respectively
the design yield strength of the longitudinal
and transverse reinforcement.
In critical regions, the distance between
consecutive longitudinal bars restrained
by hoops or crossties should not exceed
250 mm for ductility class DCM, or
200 mm for ductility class DCH.
In the bottom two storeys of a building,
hoops in accordance with the indications
above should be provided beyond the critical
regions for an additional length equal to
half the length of the critical regions.
The diameter dbw of confining hoops used to
prevent flange buckling should be not less than
in which b and t
f
are the width and thickness of
the flange and f
ydf
and f
ydw
are the design yield
strengths of the flange and reinforcement.
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
the cover concrete, the following expression should be satisfied within the critical regions:
D
.
Z
wd
t 30
.
P
I
035 , 0
o
c
d sy, d
b
b
H Q
Q = N /N = N /(A f + A f +
o
Q
d
= N
Ed
/N
pl,Rd
= N
Ed
/(A
a
f
yd
+ A
c
f
cd
+ A
s
f
sd
)
Where Z is the mechanical volumetric ratio of
»
¼
º
«
¬
ª
cd
yd
wd
core concrete of volume
hoops confining of volume
f
f
Z ;
P is the required value of the curvature ductility factor
frames. The lengths l
cr
of these critical regi
^ ` m 45 0, ; 6 / ; max
cl c cr
l h l for ductility class M
^ ` m 6 0, ; 6 / ; 5 , 1 max l h l for ductility class H
^ `
^ ` m 6 0, ; 6 / ; 5 , 1 max
cl c cr
l h l for ductility class H
Where h is the largest crosssectional di
o o s
2 / 1 2 / 1 h s b s D
with:
For rectangular crosssections:
o o
n
2
i n
6 / 1 h b b
¦
D
> @
5 , 0
ydw ydf f bw
/ 8 / f f t b d
in which b and t are the width and thickne
85
D
10°<D<80°
Figure 60
Values of the rib shape
efficiency factor k
r
.
Partially encased
members
In zones where energy is dissipated by
plastic bending of a composite section,
the longitudinal spacing of the transverse
reinforcement s should satisfy:
s = min (b
o
/2, 260, 9 d
bL
) mm
for ductility class DCM
s = min (b
o
/2, 175, 8 d
bL
) mm
for ductility class DCH
on a length greater or equal to:
¬ l
cr
for dissipative zones at
the end of a member
¬ 2l
cr
for dissipative zones within a member.
As previously explained, straight links
welded to the inside of the flanges as
shown in Figure 58a), in addition to the
reinforcement required by Eurocode 4, can
delay local buckling in the dissipative zones.
The diameter dbw of the additional straight
links should be a minimum 6 mm or
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
in which b and t
f
are the width and thickness of
the flange and f
ydf
and f
ydw
are the design yield
strengths of the flange and reinforcement.
The additional straight links should be welded
to the flanges at both ends, and the capacity
of the welds should be not less than the
tensile yield strength of the links. A clear
concrete cover of between 20 mm and 40
mm should be provided to these links.
The design of partiallyencased members
in which only the steel section is assumed
to contribute to member resistance may be
carried out as for steel structures, although
the capacity design should consider the entire
composite section, as explained previously.
Steel beams composite
with a slab
Beams intended to behave as composite
elements in dissipative zones of an earthquake
resistant structure may be designed for full or
partial shear connection, although the minimum
degree of connection Ș (as defined in Eurocode
4) should not be less than 0,8 and the total
resistance of the shear connectors within any
hogging moment region should be not less than
the plastic resistance of the reinforcement.
Because of the cyclic character of earthquake
action effects which can cause a degradation
of concrete around the connectors or excessive
bending of the connectors, it is necessary
to consider reduced design strength for the
connectors in dissipative zones. This reduced
design resistance of the connectors is that of
Eurocode 4 multiplied by a factor of 0,75. Full
shear connection is required when nonductile
connectors are used. The minimum thickness of
concrete poured on site, assumed in the design
to act as a structural diaphragm, is 70 mm.
When profiled steel sheeting with ribs transverse
to the supporting beam is used and the “waves”
in those sheeting are characterised by angle
Į, as defined at Figure 60, between 10° et
80°, the concrete tends to be pushed up by
the shear force, which correspond to additional
effects on the head of the connectors and which
can generate a brittle failure of the concrete
around those connectors. In order to avoid this
detrimental effect, it is prescribed in Eurocode
8 that the reduction factor k
t
for the design
shear resistance of the connectors given by
Eurocode 4 should be further reduced by a rib
shape efficiency factor k
r
(see Figure 60).
k
r
= 1 k
r
= 1 k
r
= 0,8
> @
5 , 0
ydw ydf f bw
/ 8 / f f t b d
A
T
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
A
T
`
A
T
`
A
T
`
C C C
C
D
E
A A B
Ductility in plastic hinges is achieved by
designing the section such that the ratio x/d
is limited to the values indicated at Table 14.
In the dissipative zones of beams, specific
ductile steel reinforcement of the slab, ‘seismic
rebars’ (see Figure 61), should be placed in
the connection zone. Detailed design guidance
is given in Annex C of Eurocode 8 [1][17].
Effective width of slab
The total effective width b
eff
of concrete
flange associated with each steel beam should
be taken as the sum of the partial effective
widths b
e1
and b
e2
on either side of the
centreline of the steel web (Figure 62). The
partial effective width on each side should
be taken as b
e
, given in Table 16, but not
greater than the available widths b
1
and b
2
.
The available width b of each portion should be
taken as half the distance from the web of the
beam being considered to the adjacent web,
except that at a free edge the actual width is
the distance from the web to the free edge.
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
Figure 61
Layout of ‘seismic rebars’
Figure 62
Definition of effective widths
b
e1
, b
e2
and b
eff
C Steel beam D Façade steel beam
E Reinforced concrete cantilever edge strip
A Exterior Node B Interior Node A Exterior Node
87
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
Figure 63
Definition of elements
in moment frames.
The partial effective widths b
e
of the slab to
be used in the determination of the elastic and
plastic properties of the composite beam (T
section comprising a steel beam connected to
a slab forming a concrete flange) are defined
in Tables 16 and 17 and at Figures 62 and
63. These values of the partial effective
widths b
e
are valid for beams positioned as
shown for beams C in Figure 63, and if the
design of the slab reinforcement and of the
connection of the slab to the steel beam and
column are in accordance with Annex C of
Eurocode 8. In Table 16, those moments which
induce compression in the slab are considered
as positive and those which induce tension
in the slab are considered as negative.
A: Exterior column B: Interior column C: Longitudinal beam
D: Transverse beam or steel façade beam
E: Cantilever concrete edge strip F: Extended bearing G: Concrete slab
Symbols b
b
, b
e
, b
eff
and l used in Tables 16
and 17 are defined in Figures 62 and 63. h
c
is the depth of the column section. b
b
is the
bearing width of the slab concrete on the
column in the horizontal direction, perpendicular
to the beam for which the effective width
is determined. This bearing width may
include additional details aimed at increasing
the bearing capacity, like the additional
plates sketched as Detail 4 at Figure 63.
D
E
A
B
A
D
D
C
C
I
b
e1
b
e2 b
eff
A
b
b
G
Detail 1 Detail 2
G
b
b
A
Detail 3
b
b
G
A
Detail 4
b
b
G
A
F
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
Table 16
Partial effective width b
e
of slab
for the computation of the second
moment of area I used in the elastic
analysis of the structure.
Table 17
Partial effective width b
e
of slab for
evaluation of plastic moment resistance.
b
e
Transverse element b
e
for I (Elastic Analysis)
At interior column Present or not present For negative M : 0,05 l
At exterior column Present For positive M : 0,0375 l
At exterior column Not present,
or rebars not anchored
For negative M : 0
For positive M : 0,025 l
Sign of
bending
moment M
Location Transverse element b
e
for M
Rd
(Plastic
resistance)
Negative M Interior
column
Seismic rebars 0,1 l
Negative M Exterior
column
All layouts with rebars anchored
to façade beam or to concrete
cantilever edge strip
0,1 l
Negative M Exterior
column
All layouts with rebars not
anchored to façade beam or to
concrete cantilever edge strip
0,0
Positive M Interior
column
Seismic rebars 0,075 l
Positive M Exterior
column
Steel transverse beam with connectors
Concrete slab up to exterior face
of column of H section with strong
axis oriented as in Figure 63 or
beyond (concrete edge strip).
Seismic rebars.
0,075 l
Positive M Exterior
column
No steel transverse beam or steel
transverse beam without connectors.
Concrete slab up to exterior
face of column of H section with
strong axis oriented as in Figure
63, or beyond (edge strip).
Seismic rebars
b
b
/2 +0,7 h
c
/2
Positive M Exterior
column
All other layouts. Seismic rebars b
b
/2 ≤ b
e,max
b
e,max
=0,05l
89
15. COMPOSITE STEEL CONCRETE
MOMENT RESISTINGFRAMES
Design objective.
A basic choice; the degree of composite ‘character’.
Analysis.
Design objective
The global design objective for dissipative
composite steel concrete moment resisting
frames is to form plastic hinges in the beams,
or in their connections to the columns, but not
in the columns themselves. This is the same
as for pure steel structures, and the aimed
for global mechanism is often called a ‘weak
beamstrong column’ or WBSC solution (see
Figure 25a)). Such a design does however
allow plastic hinges to form in the columns at
the base of the frame, and at the top of the
columns in the uppermost storey. The design
should be such that plastic rotation capacity at
the beam ends is at least 25 mrad for ductility
class DCM, and 35 mrad for ductility class DCH.
15. Composite steel concrete moment resisting frames
A basic choice; the
degree of composite
‘character’
In moment resisting frames, dissipative zones are
normally formed at the beam ends. Two design
options exist to achieve ductility in those zones:
1. form ductile composite dissipative
zones, by satisfying certain conditions
concerning seismic rebars, etc
2. use only the steel sections for the
beam end dissipative zones
The second option simplifies the design, but the
real structure must correctly reflect the model
used in the analysis. There must be an effective
disconnection of the slabs from the steel
sections. If the disconnection is not effective,
the real stiffness of the structure will have been
underestimated by the model, as will therefore
the earthquake action effects given that
pseudo acceleration increases with stiffness.
Also, the capacity design of columns will have
been based on an underestimation of the beam
plastic resistance, leading to an underestimation
of the design forces in the columns.
An effective disconnection between steel and
concrete may be realised if there is no contact
between the slabs and any vertical side of a steel
element (columns, shear connectors, connecting
plates, corrugated flanges, omega steel deck
nailed to the flange of steel sections etc) within
a circular zone around each column of diameter
2b
eff
. b
eff
is the greater of the effective width
of the beams connected to that column.
Analysis
For beams, two different forms of
flexural stiffness should be taken
into account in the analysis:
¬ EI
1
for the parts of spans subjected
to positive (sagging) bending
(uncracked section)
¬ EI
2
for the parts of spans
subjected to negative (hogging)
bending (cracked section).
Alternatively, the analysis may be performed
assuming an equivalent second moment of area
Ieq which is constant over the entire span:
I
eq
= 0,6 I
1
+ 0,4 I
2
For composite columns, the
flexural stiffness is given by:
(EI)
c
= 0,9( EI
a
+ r E
cm
I
c
+ E I
s
)
E and E
cm
are the modulus of elasticity for the
steel and concrete respectively; r is a reduction
factor that is a function of the type of column
crosssection and has a recommended value
of r = 0,5. I
a
, I
c
and I
s
denote the second
moments of area of the steel section, the
concrete and the rebars respectively.
Beams should be checked for lateral and lateral
torsional buckling in accordance with Eurocode
4, assuming the presence of a negative
plastic moment at one end of the beam.
Composite trusses should not be
used as dissipative beams.
In columns where plastic hinges will form,
it should be assumed that M
pl,Rd
will occur
in these hinges. The following expression
should apply for all composite columns:
N
Ed
/N
pl,Rd
< 0,30
91
16. COMPOSITE STEELCONCRETE
BRACED FRAMES
Composite frames with concentric bracing.
Composite frames with eccentric bracing.
16. Composite steelconcrete braced frames
Composite frames with
concentric bracing
The nondissipative structural elements, namely
the beams and columns, can be either steel
alone or composite steelconcrete. However,
the dissipative elements, namely the braces,
have to be structural steel alone. There are
two reasons behind this requirement:
¬ prior to their buckling, composite
braces would tend to overload
the beams and columns,
¬ composite braces have not been the subject
of indepth study and consequently there
are uncertainties with regard to their cyclic
behaviour in both tension and compression.
The design procedure for the braces is identical
to that for steel concentrically braced frames.
Composite frames with
eccentric bracing
In principle, it would be possible to use
composite elements for all frame members.
However, there are some uncertainties
associated with composite elements that make
them unacceptable for use is the dissipative
zones of eccentrically braced frames, where
large deformations are needed (rotations up
to say 80 mrad). An underestimated ‘link’
capacity would lead to an underdesign
of the braces and columns and possibly to
their failure. The gap in knowledge is similar
concerning the ‘disconnection’ of the slab in
these areas, making it difficult to evaluate
‘links’ working in bending in composite beam
elements. For this reason composite frames
with eccentric bracing are designed such that
the dissipative behaviour occurs essentially
through yielding in shear of the links. All other
members should remain elastic and failure
of the connections should be prevented.
The behaviour of horizontal beam links which
yield in shear can be well predicted, because the
contribution of the slab in tension to the shear
resistance is negligible. This means that such
links should be either short or of intermediate
length, with a maximum length e equal to:
¬ when plastic hinges would form at
both ends: e = 2M
p, link
/ V
p, link
.
¬ when a plastic hinge would form at
only one end: e < M
p, link
/ V
p, link
The definitions of M
p,link
and V
p,link
are given in
13. For M
p,link
, only the steel part of the link
section is taken into account in the evaluation.
The links may not be formed from encased
steel sections, because of uncertainties
about the contribution of the concrete to
shear resistance. Figure 64. As for moment
resisting frames, the analysis of the structure
has to consider two different stiffness for the
zones under sagging and hogging moments.
Vertical steel links are also acceptable.
93
A : seismic link
B : face bearing plate
C : concrete
D : additional longitudinal rebars
E : confining ties
T
C
A
B
B
E
D
16. Composite steelconcrete braced frames
Specific construction details shown at
Figure 64 should be realised for:
¬ face bearing plates for links framing
into reinforced concrete columns
(similar to those defined for
connections in Section 14).
¬ transverse reinforcement in ‘critical
regions’ of fully encased composite
columns adjacent to links.
Figure 64
Detail of zone T, beam –
column – link connection
zone in a composite frame
with eccentric bracings.
Besides these aspects, the philosophy for
the design of composite eccentrically braced
frames is similar to that for steel eccentrically
braced frames presented in Section 13.
17. COMPOSITE STEELCONCRETE WALLS
AND SYSTEMS WITHWALLS
Definition of the various composite wall systems and the design objectives.
Analysis.
Detailing rules for composite walls of ductility class DCM.
Detailing rules for coupling beams of ductility class DCM.
Additional detailing rules for ductility class DCH.
Composite steel plate shear walls.
95
Definition of the
various composite
wall systems and their
design objectives
Composite wall systems, when properly
designed, have shear strength and stiffness
comparable to those of pure reinforced concrete
shear wall systems. The structural steel sections
in the boundary members do however increase
the flexural resistance of the wall and delay the
onset of flexural plastic hinges in tall walls. As
for reinforced concrete structures, two levels of
ductility and two values of the behaviour factor
are defined for dissipative walls, depending
on the requirements of the detailing rules.
Structural Type 1 and 2 solutions (Figure
54 and 65) are designed to behave as shear
walls and dissipate energy in both the vertical
steel sections and in the vertical reinforcing
bars. Structural Type 3 solutions (Figure
54) are designed to dissipate energy in the
shear walls and in the coupling beams.
Composite steel plate shear walls are designed
to yield through shear of the steel plate.
17. Composite steelconcrete walls and systems with walls
Analysis
The analysis of the structure is based on section
properties defined for concrete walls and for
composite beams. In structural systems of
Type 1 or Type 2, when vertical fully encased
(or partially encased) structural steel sections
act as the boundary members of reinforced
concrete infill panels, the analysis should be
made assuming that the seismic action effects
in these boundary members are axial forces
only. These axial forces should be determined
assuming that the shear forces are carried by
the reinforced concrete wall, and that the entire
gravity and overturning forces are carried by
the concrete shear wall acting compositely
with the vertical boundary members.
In structural systems of Type 3, if composite
coupling beams are used, two different
forms of flexural stiffness should be taken
into account in the analysis ,(as explained for
beams in moment resisting frames in 15).
Figure 65
Mechanical behaviour
of shear walls, Type
1 and 2 solutions.
concrete
compression
struts
steel ties
in tension
connection between
horizontal steel tie,
concrete and vertical
steel profile
˜ 2/3 l
e
V
M
C
B
D
A
l
e
h min = 2h
C
D
min = 2h h
Detailing rules for
composite walls of
ductility class DCM
The reinforced concrete infill panels in Type 1
systems, and the reinforced concrete walls in
Types 2 and 3, should meet the requirements
for reinforced concrete wall of class DCM.
Partially encased steel sections used as
17. Composite steelconcrete walls and systems with walls
Figure 66
Details of partially encased composite
boundary element; transverse
reinforcement for ductility class DCH.
Figure 68
Details of coupling beam
framing into a wall; detail
for ductility class DCH.
Figure 67
Details of fully encased composite
boundary element; details of transverse
reinforcement for ductility class DCH.
A: bars welded to column
B: transverse reinforcement
C: shear connectors
D: cross tie
A: Additional wall confining ties
at embedment of steel beam
B: Steel coupling beam;
C: Face bearing plates;
D: vertical reinforcement.
boundary members of the reinforced concrete
panels should belong to a class of cross
section related to the behaviour factor of the
structure, as indicated in Table 13. Fully encased
and partially encased steel sections used as
boundary members in reinforced concrete
panels are designed as explained in 15.
Headed shear studs or tie reinforcement
(which should be either welded to the steel
member, anchored through holes in it, or
anchored around it) should be provided to
transfer vertical and horizontal shear forces
between the structural steel of the boundary
elements and the reinforced concrete.
97
17. Composite steelconcrete walls and systems with walls
Detailing rules for
coupling beams of
ductility class DCM
The “Detailing rules for composite connections
in dissipative zones” presented in 14. apply.
When a dissipative steel or composite beam
frames into a reinforced concrete wall (see
Figure 68), it is necessary to realise the transfer
of bending moment and shear present at
beam end into the column, which is realised
by a couple of vertical reaction forces into
the wall. To maintain the integrity of the
concrete, the following should be checked:
¬ the wall should have the capacity to bear
locally those forces without crushing,
which can require confining reinforcement
in the wall and a sufficient embedment
length of the beam into the wall. A longer
embedment length reduces the reaction
forces and allows the wall to better resist
the most adverse combination of moment
and shear applied by the beam. That
combination has to consider as applied
forces the plastic moment resistance M
pl,Rd
and the plastic shear resistance V
Ed
of the
beam, which are the action effects in the
global plastic mechanism. The embedment
length l
e
should be assumed to begin inside
the first layer of confining reinforcement
in the wall boundary member (see Figure
68) and should not be less than 1,5
times the depth of the coupling beam.
Confining hoops or bars forming hoops
placed horizontally are not compulsory in
class DCM, but may be required over the
embedment length by design checks.
¬ the wall should have the capacity to resist
locally to the tension mobilised by those
vertical forces, which requires vertical
reinforcements. Indeed, because of the
reversal of plastic moments at beam
end under seismic action, the reaction
forces are successively oriented upwards
and downwards, which can put the wall
in tension. For this reason, Eurocode 8
prescribes that vertical wall reinforcement,
with a design axial strength equal to the
shear strength of the coupling beam,
should be placed over the embedment
length of the beam, with twothirds of
the steel located over the first half of this
length. This wall reinforcement should
extend a distance of at least one anchorage
length above and below the flanges of
the coupling beam. It is acceptable to
consider vertical reinforcement that is
present for other purposes as part of
the contribution to this requirement.
To ensure the correct behaviour of the beam
and the concrete at the support, stiffeners
of the steel beam are required in the plane
of the exterior concrete face. Installed at
that place, those stiffeners, also called “face
bearing plates”, contribute to the confinement
of the concrete. Figures 56 et 68.
Additional detailing rules
for ductility class DCH
Transverse reinforcement should be used for
confinement of the composite boundary zones
of the wall, be they partially or fully encased.
This reinforcement should extend a distance 2h
into the concrete walls, where h is the depth of
the boundary element in the plane of the wall
(see Figures 66 and 67). The requirements
for the seismic links in frames with eccentric
bracing also apply to the coupling beams.
Composite steel
plate shear walls
Composite steel plate shear walls are designed to
yield through shearing of the plate itself, which
should be stiffened by concrete encasement on
one or both sides. The concrete thickness should
not be less than 200 mm when it is provided on
one side and 100 mm when on both sides, with
a minimum reinforcement ratio of 0,25% in both
directions. The encasement must be suitably
attached in order to prevent buckling of steel.
The analysis of the structure should be based
on the material and section properties defined
in 14. Checks should be made that: V
Rd
≥ V
Ed
The shear resistance V
Rd
is given by:
where f
yd
is the design yield strength of the
plate and A
pl
is the horizontal area of the plate.
The connections between the plate and the
boundary members (columns and beams) as
well as the connections between the plate and
its concrete encasement, must be designed
such that the full yield strength of the plate
can be developed. The steel plate should be
continuously connected on all its edges to
structural steel boundary members with welds
and/or bolts to develop the yield strength
of the plate in shear. Openings in the steel
plate should be stiffened as necessary.
17. Composite steelconcrete walls and systems with walls
14. Checks should be made that:
Rd
V
Ed
is given by: 3 /
yd pl Rd
f A V u
rength of the plate and A is the horizontal area of the plate.
99
18. IMPROVING REINFORCED CONCRETE
STRUCTURES BY INCORPORATING
COMPOSITE COLUMNS
Problem definition and design conditions of composite columns.
Behaviour of composite columns subjected to compression and cyclic bending.
after earthquake
plastic
hinges
soft storey
18. Improving Reinforced Concrete Structures by incorporating Composite Columns
Definition of the problem
As an alternative to complete composite design
of structures, an ArcelorMittal promoted
research study has recently considered the use
of ‘local’ composite elements in what remains
essentially a reinforced concrete building in
order to improve safety. The justification for
this new development is explained below.
The most frequent failure mode of reinforced
concrete (RC) moment frame buildings is
a ‘soft storey’ mechanism in which failure
takes place in the bottom storey of the
building (Figure 69). This phenomenon
is caused by the following factors:
¬ large openings present in the bottom
storey but not elsewhere weaken the
structure; openings are due to use of
the ground floor level for offices, shops,
lobby etc, with slender columns present;
¬ bending combined with compression
results in the crushing of concrete;
¬ alternate inclined cracks due to shear
result in decohesion of the concrete
¬ bending and shear of ground storey columns
induces the collapse of the building
Figure 69
The ‘soft storey’ mechanism which
composite columns can mitigate.
Design of composite
columns used to
improve the behaviour
of RC buildings
Research has demonstrated that composite
columns in the lower levels of RC buildings
do provide reliable shear, bending and
compression resistance. Design criteria for
encased steel members have been defined:
¬ the steel section alone should be able to
resist the design axial force of the seismic
loading case:
N
Rd
> N
Sd
(Ȗ
q
. G + Ȗ
q
. Q)
with Ȗ
g
= 1 and Ȗ
q
= 0,3
¬ the steel section alone should be
able to compensate for the deficient
concrete section under applied bending
moment and shear at collapse:
M
Rd,steel
> M
Rd,concrete
and V
Rd,steel
> V
Rd,concrete
¬ the steel sections should not overly modify
the local stiffnesses EI of the RC columns,
in order to maintain the stiffness of the
original RC structure, as any increase in
stiffness would mean an increase in the
seismic forces, which is clearly not desirable.
¬ these criteria should be checked for
both weak and strong axis bending.
Two designs for anchorage of the steel
members into the concrete structure were
tested; C1 with anchorage extending up to
mid height of the second storey columns,
and C2 with anchorage stopped within the
depth of the first storey beams (Figure 70).
Columns are assumed to be subject to constant
compression and to alternate cyclic bending.
The moment rotation diagrams obtained show
that composite columns provide significantly
more resistance and ductility than the original
reinforced concrete elements (Figure 71).
101
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
150 125 100 75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150
Rotation (mrad)
Moment
(kNm)
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
150 125 100 75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150
Rotation (mrad)
Moment
(kNm) Reinforced
Concrete
alone
Rotation
ĬBA(mrad)
Composite:
Reinforced Concrete
+ Steel Section
Rotation
ĬBA(mrad)
18. Improving Reinforced Concrete Structures by incorporating Composite Columns
Figure 70
Left: Composite section. Right:
Anchorage types C1 and C2.
Figure 71
MomentRotation
curves showing the
improved capacity
of a composite
column in
comparison to the
original reinforced
concrete column.
Behaviour of composite
columns subjected
to compression and
cyclic bending
The conclusions of the aforementioned
research were very positive for composite
columns, which were shown to provide much
more capacity to resist earthquakes than RC
columns of the same dimensions. In summary;
¬ the full composite plastic moment
resistance is developed (M
pl,exp
= M
pl,th
.)
¬ in dissipative zones, the shear resistance of a
composite column is that of the steel profile.
¬ the rotation capacity ș
comp
of a composite
element, defined as the rotation at which
the composite elements still present
a resistance equal to the maximum
resistance of an R.C. element, is on
average two times greater than ș
R.C.
¬ the composite elements resisted on average
1,5 times more cycles before the end of
the test (corresponding to a 50% resistance
drop) and dissipated on average 3 times
more energy than the RC elements.
¬ there is no significant influence of the
anchorage type (C1 or C2) on results,
but this conclusion may result from
the high strength of the concrete
and have no general character.
¬ the stiffnesses of the reinforced
concrete and composite elements
are similar, as wished.
¬ the improvements due to using composite
sections should be relatively greater for
lower concrete strengths, but a C1 type of
anchorage should be preferred in that case.
More technical details and design
considerations are given in reference [12].
t
W
t
f
C1 C2
19. DESIGNEXAMPLE
Presentation.
Checking moment resistance and deflection limits for beams.
Weak BeamStrong Column checks.
Interior column.
Axial Compression check.
Plastic resistance in bending at basement level.
Evaluation of the seismic mass. Design spectrum.
Evaluation of seismic design shear by the ‘lateral forces’ method.
Gravity load to combine with earthquake effects.
Dynamic analysis by spectral response and modal superposition method.
Results of the analysis.
Design of beam to column connection at an interior joint in line X2.
Comments on design options.
Design of a reduced beam section.
Economy due to RBS.
103
19. Design example
Definition
The example presented here is a preliminary
design of the building shown in Figure
72. The aim of this design is to obtain
in a straightforward way, making certain
approximations, ‘sizes’ for the structural
elements which are close to a final design.
Carrying out such a preliminary process is a
normal step in seismic design, because the
dynamic action effects are a function of
the member stiffness which the designer
is trying to determine, so iterations are
inevitable. The example presented is thus an
initial step. A more refined definition of the
section sizes, complete 3D calculations etc,
can only be made once the ‘reasonable’ design
presented hereafter has proved its validity.
The example considers a building in which
the seismic resistance is provided by both
peripheral and interior moment resisting
frames (MRF), in both the x and y directions.
MRFs are known to be flexible structures and
their design is often governed by the need
to satisfy deformation criteria under service
earthquake loading, or limitation of P∆ effects
under design earthquake loading. For this
reason, rigid connections are preferred.
It is wise in a preliminary design to select
sections that will satisfy, with some reserve,
the design criteria under gravity loading alone,
and to select a value below the maximum
authorised one for the behaviour factor q.
The maximum allowed is
q = 5 x Į
u
/ Į
1
= 5 x 1,3 = 6,5.
In order to quickly arrive at the final design a
value of q = 4 will be chosen for the analysis.
The preliminary design consists of:
¬ Firstly define minimum beam sections,
checking deflection and resistance
criteria under gravity loading.
¬ Then follow an iterative process,
going through the following steps
until all design criteria are fulfilled.
The iterative process can make use of either the
‘lateral force’ method or the ‘spectral response
modal superposition’ method. If the ‘lateral
force’ method is used, the calculation steps are:
1) selection of beam sections
2) definition of column sections checking
the ‘Weak Beam Strong Column’ criteria
3) check compression/buckling
resistance of columns at ground
floor level under gravity loading
4) calculation of the seismic mass
(G + ȥ
Ei
Q) of the structure
5) evaluation of the period of the structure by
means of a code formula (see Section 7)
6) evaluation of the resultant base shear F
b
and distribution of F
b
into lateral forces
7) static analysis of one plane frame under
‘lateral loads’, magnified by a factor to
take into account torsional effects
8) static analysis under gravity
loading (G + ȥ
Ei
Q
)
9) stability check, considering P∆
effects (parameter ș) in the seismic
loading situation (in which the
gravity loading is G + ȥ
Ei
Q
)
10) deflection check under ‘service’
earthquake loading (a fraction of the
design earthquake, generally 0,5)
11) static analysis under gravity
loading (G + ȥ
2i
Q
)
12) combination of action effects
determined in step 7) and gravity loading
determined in step 11).
If the ‘spectral responsemodal
superposition’ method is used, steps
5), 6) and 7) are replaced by:
5) ‘spectral responsemodal superposition’
analysis of one plane frame to evaluate
the earthquake action effects. Torsional
effects are included by magnifying the
design spectrum by the amplification
factor į as indicated in 7.
The ‘spectral responsemodal superposition’
method is a dynamic analysis which allows
several vibration modes to be taken into account.
4
3
2
1
5
6
2,9m
Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4
8m 8m 8m
x6
x5
x4
x3
x2
x1
6
m
6
m
6
m
6
m
6
m
Both the ‘lateral force’ and the ‘spectral
responsemodal superposition’ methods
are used below in order to compare the
results of those methods in terms of
fundamental period and base shear.
The site and building data are as follows:
¬ Seismic zone ; a
gR
= 2,0 m/s
2
¬ Importance of the building; office building,
Ȗ
I
=1,0 => a
g
= 2,0 m/s
2
¬ Service load Q = 3 kN/m
2
¬ Design spectrum; type 1
¬ Soil B => from code: S = 1,2
T
B
= 0,15s T
C
= 0,5s T
D
= 2s
¬ Behaviour factor: q = 4
The building dimensions are shown
in Figure 72. The orientation of the
columns is chosen in order to have:
¬ a similar percentage of strong
and weak axis column bending in
both the x and y directions.
¬ columns presenting their strong axis where
this is mostly needed in order to satisfy
the ‘weak beamstrong column’ condition
with respect to the deepest beams used in
the structure, that is for the beams in the x
direction (longer spans) at interior nodes.
19. Design example
Figure 72
Example structure for design.
105
19. Design example
Beam sections; checking
moment resistance
and deflection limits
Beams in x direction. Deflection check.
Beams are assumed to be fixed
at both ends. Span l = 8m.
Frame on line X2 supports a width of floor = 6m
Floor weight is estimated at
5 kN/m
2
, all included.
G floor : 6m x 5 kN/ m
2
= 30 kN/ m
G walls : 3 kN/ m
Q service : 6m x 3 kN/ m
2
= 18 kN/ m
G + Q = 30 + 3 + 18 = 51 kN/m
Deflection limit: f = l /300
under G + Q = 51 kN/m
f = pl
4
/ 384 EI = l/300
=> I
required
= 300 pl
3
/384E = (300 x 51 x 83)
/(384 x 0,2 x 109)= 10199.10
4
mm
4
Minimum beam section in x direction:
IPE 330 (I = 11770.10
4
mm
4
)
Beams in x direction.
Moment resistance check.
1,35G + 1,5Q = 1,35 x 33 + 1,5 x 18
= 71,55 kN/m
Beams are assumed fixed at both ends:
M
Sd
= 71,55 x 82 / 12 = 381 kNm
W
pl,min
= 381.10
6
/ 355 = 1075.10
3
mm
3
Minimum beam section in x direction:
IPE 400 (W
pl
= 1702.103 mm
3
)
Beams in y direction. Deflection check.
Beams are assumed fixed at
both ends. Span l = 6m.
Frame on line Y2 supports a width of floor = 8m
G floor : 8m x 5 kN/ m
2
= 40 kN/ m
G walls : 3 kN/ m
Q service : 8m x 3 kN/ m
2
= 24 kN/ m
G + Q = 67 kN/m
Deflection limit: l /300 under G+Q = 67 kN/m
f = pl
4
/ 384EI= l/300
=> I
required
= 300 pl
3
/384E
= (300 x 67 x 63 ) / (384 x 0,2 x 109 ) =
5653.10
4
mm
4
Minimum beam section in y direction:
IPE 270 (I = 5790.104 mm
4
)
Beams in y direction. Moment resistance check
1,35G + 1,5Q = 1,35 x 43 + 1,5 x 24 = 58 + 36 = 94,05 kN/m
Beams are assumed fixed at both ends: M
Sd
= 94,05 x 62 / 12 = 282 kNm
W
pl,min
= 282.106 / 355 = 795.103 mm
3
Minimum beam section in y direction: IPE 360 (W
pl
= 1019.103 mm
3
)
Conclusion.
For gravity loading, minimum beam sections are:
 in direction x : IPE400 W
pl
= 1702.103 mm
3
I =23130.104 mm
4
 in direction y : IPE360 W
pl
= 1019.103 mm
3
I =16270.104 mm
4
Based on these minimum sizes needed to resist gravity loading the iterative procedure
for sizing the beams and columns can begin. The calculations presented below
correspond to the following (slightly greater) sizes of beams and columns:
 beam sections in direction x : IPE500 I = 48200.104 mm
4
W
pl
= 2194.103 mm
3
 beam sections in direction y : IPEA450 I = 29760.104 mm
4
W
pl
= 1494.103 mm3
 columns: HE340M: I
strong axis
= I
y
= 76370.104 mm
4
I
weak axis
=I
z
=19710.104 mm
4
W
pl,strong axis
= 4718.103 mm
3
W
pl,weak axis
= 1953.103 mm
3
‘Weak BeamStrong
Column’ checks
The Weak BeamStrong Column
(WBSC) check is:
That criterion can be expressed:
Grade S355 steel is chosen for both the beams
and columns, so the WBSC check becomes:
At interior nodes there are 2 beams
and 2 columns intersecting, so
the WBSC check becomes:
W
pl, column
≥ 1,3 W
pl, beam
At exterior nodes, there is 1 beam and 2 columns
intersecting so the WBSC check becomes:
2 W
pl, column
≥ 1,3 W
pl, beam
Interior node, line Y2.
W
pl, column,weak axis
≥ 1,3 W
pl,IPEA450
 HE340M has W
pl,weakaxis
= 1953.10
3
mm
3
> 1,3 x 1494.10
3
=1942.103 mm
3
Exterior node line Y2.
2W
pl, column,weak axis
≥ 1,3 W
pl,IPEA450
is a less
demanding check than that for the interior
node, so is satisfied ‘by inspection’.
19. Design example
Line Y1.
Columns are oriented such that the strong
axis bending resistance of the HE340M
sections is mobilised rather than the weak
axis considered above, so the WBSC
check is satisfied ‘by inspection’.
Interior node, line X2.
W
pl,HE340M,strong axis
= 4718.10
3
mm
3
W
pl,IPE500
x 1,3= 2194.10
3
x
1,3 = 2852.10
3
mm
3
4718.103 mm
3
> 2852.10
3
mm
3
=> WBSC condition satisfied.
Exterior node, line X2.
WBSC condition: 2W
pl
, column,weak
axis ≥ 1,3 W
pl,IPE500
2 W
pl,HE340M,weak axis
=1953 x 2
=3906.10
3
mm
3
> 1,3 W
pl
,
IPE500
=2194.10
3
x 1,3 =2852.10
3
mm
3
WBSC condition satisfied.
Conclusion.
Beam sections IPE500 in direction x and
IPEA450 in direction y satisfy the WBSC
condition when HE340M columns are used
and oriented as indicated in Figure 72.
Interior column. Axial
compression check
Relevant loaded area: 8 x 6 = 48 m
2
Floor weight is 5 kN/m
2
, all included.
G
floor
= 48 x 5 = 240 kN/storey
G
walls
= (8 + 6)x 3 = 42 kN/storey
G
frame
: 18,5 kN/storey
Q = 3 kN/m
2
x 48 = 144 kN
1,35 G + 1,5 Q = 1,35 x 300,5
+ 1,5 x 144 = 622 kN/storey
Compression in column at basement
level: 6 x 622 = 3732 kN
Approximate buckling length: 2,9 m
(equal to the storey height)
Slenderness (with HE340M section, weak
axis, i = 79mm): 2900/79 = 36,7
Euler slenderness Ȝ
E
: 76,4 (S355 steel)
=> reduced slenderness Ȝ = 0,48 => Ȝ = 0,85
A
c
= 31580 mm
2
N
b,Rd
= 0,85 x 31580 x 355
= 9529 kN > 3732 kN
That criterion can be expressed:
yd,column pl,column
f W f W u t u
¦ ¦
yd,column pl,column yd,beams pl,beams
1, 3 f W f W u t u
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
t beams pl, columns pl, 3 , 1 W W
¤ ¤
r
R b R c
3 , 1 M M
107
19. Design example
Interior column. Plastic
moment resistance
at ground level.
Plastic hinges form in the bases of the columns
at ground level as part of the global plastic
mechanism. Their bending resistance has to be
evaluated considering the interaction between
axial force and bending, according to Eurocode
3 (EN199311 paragraph 6.2.9.1), for the
seismic design condition. The axial force is found
as the sum of the contribution of 6 storeys:
N
Ed
= G + ȥ
Ei Q
= (300,5 + 0,15
x 144) x 6 = 1932 kN
The value ȥ
Ei
= 0,15 is derived from ȥ
Ei
= ĳ ȥ
2i
with ȥ
2i
= 0,3 (offices) and ĳ =
0,5 (storeys occupied independently).
For the HE340M section: N
pl,Rd
= f
yd
x A =
355 x 31580 =11210.103 N=11210 kN
n = N
Ed
/ N
pl,Rd
= 0,17
a = (A2b
tf
)/A = (31580 – 2 x 309 x
40)/31580 = 0,22 > 0,17 (= n)
M
pl,y,Rd
= f
yd
x W
pl,y,Rd
=355 x 4718.103=
1674,89 . 106 Nmm =1674,89 kNm
M
N,y,Rd
= M
pl,y,Rd
(1n)/(10,5 a) =
1674,89 . 106 x (10,17)/(1 0,5
x 0,22) = 1562.106 Nmm
M
N,y,Rd
= 1562 kNm
As n < a => M
N,z,Rd
= M
pl,z,Rd
= 355
x 1953.103 Nmm = 693 kNm
M
N,y,Rd
= 1562 kNm and M
N,z,Rd
= 693 kNm are
the resisting moments. In 19.10, it is checked
that they are greater than the design action
effects considered for elements checks.
Evaluation of the seismic mass
The unit used for mass is ‘kg’ (a mass of 1 kg corresponds to a 10N gravity force).
Total floor area for a single storey: 30 x 24 = 720 m
2
G
floor
= 500 kg/ m
2
x 720 = 360 000 kg /storey
Partitions and façade; total length for one storey: 30m x 4 + 24m x6 = 264 m
300 kg/m => 79200 kg / storey
G
roof
considers various pieces of equipment (elevator plant rooms, air
conditioning, water tanks, etc) with an assumed mass of 79200 kg
G
frame
:
column HE340M: 2,9 m x 24 x 248 Kg/m = 17260 kg
beams IPE500: 8m x 3 x 6 x 90,7 Kg/m = 13060 kg
beams IPEA450: 30m x 4 x 67,2 Kg/m = 8064 kg
total G
frame
: 38384 kg/storey
ȥ
Ei x Q
(service load)= ȥ
Ei
x 300 kg/ m
2
x 720 m
2
= 0,15 x 300 x 720 = 32400 kg /storey
Seismic mass (G+ ȥ
Ei
Q ) of one storey: 360000 + 79200 + 38384 +32400 = 509984 kg
Seismic mass m = G+ ȥ
Ei
Q of the building (6 storeys): 6 (storeys) x 509984= 3060.10
3
kg
Interestingly, the steel frame represents only 7,5 % of the total seismic mass (and could be
approximated as a constant mass in the first iterations of a design). The floors however
represent 70 % of the total seismic mass m, so a reduction of the floor weight by means
of an alternative flooring system would be an effective way to substantially reduce the
earthquake actions (by reducing the seismic mass), and subsequently the cost of the building.
Evaluation of seismic design shear
using the ‘lateral forces’ method
In this section the approximate ‘lateral forces’ method is considered (see 18).
Estimate the fundamental period of the structure using Table 7:
T = C
t
H
3/4
C
t
= 0,085 H = 6x 2,9 m = 17,4 m => T = 0,085 x 17,4
3/4
= 0,72 s
Calculate the corresponding design pseudo acceleration Sd (T): T
C
< T < T
D
=> S
d
(T)= (2,5 x a
g
x S x T
C
)/ (q x T) = (2,5 x 2 x 1,2 x 0,5)/(4x 0,72)= 1,04 m/s
2
Calculate the seismic design shear F
bR
F
bR
= m S
d
(T) Ȝ = 3060.10
3
x 1,04 x 0,85 = 2705.10
3
N = 2705 kN
F
bR
is the total design seismic shear applied to the building in either the x or y direction
(they are the same because the estimation of T is only related to the building height).
This corresponds to a deformed shape which is purely translational in the x or y directions.
In this example, calculations are presented for frames in the x direction. All six frames are
the same, and with a floor diaphragm that is assumed to be effective enough to evenly
distribute the force, then the seismic design shear F
bX
in one frame is: F
bX
= F
bR
/6 = 451 kN
Torsional effects have to be added to the translational effects. In the structure analysed,
due to double symmetry in the x and y directions, the centre of mass CM and the centre
of rigidity CR are both, at all levels, at the geometrical centre of the building. This means
that only accidental eccentricity results in torsional forces. In this example, torsion is
therefore taken into account by amplifying F
bX
by į = 1 + 0,6x/L as explained in 7. In this
expression, L is the horizontal dimension of the building perpendicular to the earthquake
in direction x (30m), while ‘x’ is the distance from the centre of rigidity to the frame
in which the effects of torsion are to be evauated. The greatest effect is obtained
for the greatest x, which is x = 0,5 L (15m), so that: į = 1 + 0,6 x 0,5 = 1,3
The design shear F
bX
including torsional effects is therefore: F
bX
= 1,3 x 451 kN = 586 kN
[Note: If the final design was to be based only on
a planar analysis as described above, į would be
taken equal to: į = 1 + 1,2 x/L , as prescribed in
Eurocode 8. However, the example described
here has been developed assuming that a final
design using 3D modal response analysis will be
performed after ‘satisfactory’ sizes of the beams
and columns have been established. The value
(1 + 0,6 x/L) used for į is known to be close to
the real value for the type of frame analysed].
Definition of storey forces.
As all storey seismic masses are equal the
distribution of storey forces is triangular (see
Figure 16), and the storey forces are given by :
The resultant design base shear F
bX
in frame X1,
including torsional effects, is: F
bX
= 586 kN
The storey forces are:
F1= 27,9 kN
F2= 55,8 kN
F3= 83,7 kN
F4= 111,6 kN
F5= 139,5 kN
F6= 167,5 kN
Earthquake action effects.
The earthquake action effects E are determined
using a static analysis under the storey forces.
Results are given in 19.11, where they are
compared to those from a dynamic analysis.
19. Design example
j
i
b i
z
z
F F
Z
109
Gravity load combined
with earthquake effects
Beam sections are checked under
combined earthquake and coincident
gravity loading using the following
combination: G + ȥ
2i
Q = G + 0,3 Q
ȥ
2i
Q = 0,3 Q = 0,3 x 300 kg x
720 m
2
= 64800 kg /storey
The total design mass at one storey is:
G + 0,3 Q = 360000 + 79200 +
38384 + 64800 = 542384 kg
Line X2 carries 1/5 of that mass (line
X1 and X6 carry each 1/10, while
lines X2 to X5 carry 1/5 each).
The vertical load (G + ȥ
2i
Q) /m of beam in line
X2 is: 542384 / (5 x 24m) = 4520 kg/m
G + ȥ
2i
Q = 45,2 kN/m
19. Design example
Dynamic analysis by
spectral response and
modal superposition
method
A planar analysis of a single frame
in line X1 is considered.
The seismic mass G+ ȥ
Ei
Q for one frame is
1/6 of the total seismic mass of the building.
As the façade in direction x is 24m long and
there are six levels of beams, the mass
(G+ ȥ
Ei
Q ) /m of beam is: G+ ȥ
Ei
Q =
3060000/(6 x 6 x 24)= 3542 kg/m
The design peak ground acceleration is a
g
= 2,0
m/s
2
. Torsional effects have to be added to the
translation effects, and this is done by amplifying
the action (the spectrum) by the factor
į = 1,3 explained above, so that the value
of ag considered for the analysis is :
a
g
= 2 x 1,3 = 2,6 m/s
2
Results of the analysis
Figure 73 presents bending moments under
earthquake loading obtained by the lateral
force method. Figure 74 presents bending
moments under earthquake loading obtained
by the dynamic analysis (spectral response
– modal superposition) method. Due to the
SRSS (Square Root of the Sum of the Squares)
combination of modes, action effects such as
bending moments are all defined as positive.
The bending moments shown in Figure 73
are a more realistic representation of the real
bending moment diagram at a given time,
with moments at the beam ends which are of
opposite sign. Bending moments at any point in
the structure can be either positive or negative,
due to reversal of the earthquake action.
19. Design example
The values obtained by the dynamic analysis
are smaller than those from the lateral force
method. This is due to the use of correct
values of periods in the dynamic analysis;
the first mode period T
1
= 1,17 s is greater
than the estimated 0,72s of the lateral force
method (see 12.8), and a smaller pseudo
acceleration S
d
(T) corresponds to a greater
period T
1
for T
1
> T
C
of the design spectrum.
The analysis also shows that first modal mass
is 82,7 % of the total seismic mass m. The
second modal period is T
2
=0,368 s and the
second modal mass is 10,4 % of the total
seismic mass m. Figures 75 and 76 present the
deformed shapes in vibration modes 1 and 2.
Figure 73
Diagram of bending moments under
earthquake action obtained by the
lateral force method. Units: kNm.
Z
X
50.60
78.25
101.96
116.99
117.68
76.80
123.58
198.04
243.58
269.53
261.34
139.13
121.16
197.27
242.42
268.40
259.97
137.59
54.97
81.02
184.88
119.84
120.58
78.41
28.66
58.50
86.17
108.64
126.43
155.38
38.66
108.41
173.52
231.11
382.15
480.31
36.70
107.40
172.17
230.37
300.70
477.47
31.90
61.35
89.05
111.46
129.64
154.30
2
8
3
.
2
3
2
2
6
.
3
2
2
0
3
.
1
5
1
6
0
.
4
6
1
0
6
.
9
1
5
0
.
6
0
2
7
8
.
1
3
2
6
6
.
9
6
2
2
1
.
7
2
6
3
.
6
8
2
0
9
.
0
1
6
9
.
3
0
5
4
.
9
7
1
2
.
9
3
6
6
.
2
6
111
Z
X
54.00
67.35
77.04
83.88
103.43
133.83
158.96
77.42
197.52
321.02
133.83
158.96
77.42
197.52
321.02
54.00
67.35
77.04
83.88
103.43
89.50 89.50
38.54 38.54
19. Design example
Tables 18 and 19 give details of the checks
made on the limitation of P∆ effects with the
results from both the lateral force method and
the dynamic analysis. The values of the resultant
base shear from both methods are indicated in
those tables: 586,0 kN (lateral force method, for
one frame) and 396,2 kN (dynamic response).
It can be seen that the value of the parameter
ș does not differ much from one type of
analysis to the other. ș is ≤ 0,1 at storeys 1,
4, 5, 6 . Bending moments and other action
effects found from the analysis at storeys
2 and 3 have to be increased by 1/ (1 ș)
(1,16 at storey 2 and 1,13 at storey 3).
Figure 74
Diagram of bending moments
under earthquake action from the
dynamic analysis. Units: kNm.
Z
X
Z
X
Figure 75
Deformed shape in
vibration mode 1
Figure 76
Deformed shape in
vibration mode 2
19. Design example
113
19. Design example
Figure 77 presents the bending moment
diagram under the combination used for
the checks of structural elements: E + G
+
ȥ2i
Q (in which bending moments are
taken from the lateral force method).
The maximum beam moment is
at storey 2: 509,8 kNm
With the 1/ (1 ș) increase:
1,16 x 509,8 = 591,4 kNm
Beams are IPE500 : M
pl,Rd
= 2194.10
3
x 355 = 778,9 kNm > 591,4 kNm
The maximum moment in interior columns is:
427 kNm (at the base, as moments at
storeys 1 and 2 are inferior to that value
even with the 1/ (1 ș) increase).
Interior columns are HE340M
bending about their strong axis:
M
pl,Rd
= 4718.103 x 355 =
1674,9 kNm > 427 kNm
The maximum moment in exterior columns
is 195,2 kNm ,at the base of columns
(moments at storeys 1 and 2 are inferior to
that value even with the 1/ (1 ș) increase).
Exterior columns are HE340M
bending about their weak axis:
M
pl,Rd
= 1953.103 x 355 =
693,3 kNm > 195,2 kNm
Checks under the service earthquake,
which is assumed to be half of the design
earthquake, raise no concerns. Interstorey
drifts D
s
are half of those given in Tables 18 and
19, with a maximum: D
s
= 0,5
x 0,054 x 1/ (1 ș) = 0,031m
D
s
/ h = 0,031m / 2,9 = 0,0108 = 1,1 %
This value is acceptable with infills and partitions
that are independent of the structure.
Figure 77
Bending moment diagram under
the combination used for the
checks of structural elements:
E + G + ȥ
2i
Q . Units: kNm.
Z
X
18.08
18.26
21.92
114.46 195.20
203.26
97.70
177.35
205.66
219.02
219.44
158.51
82.66
41.65
17.82
16.74
1
8
2
.
1
8
1
8
3
.
6
5
1
7
4
.
6
8
1
6
3
.
6
2
1
4
8
.
3
4
1
6
4
.
7
2
200.34
234.31
261.28
248.71
90.01
129.73
194.97
251.68
276.66
227.68
154.73
146.99
1
5
6
.
6
1
1
6
6
.
1
8
1
5
7
.
8
1
1
4
6
.
0
6
1
3
5
.
4
8
1
2
4
.
5
9
1
5
6
.
6
1
1
7
2
.
2
2
1
6
7
.
2
7
1
5
6
.
2
1
1
4
6
.
3
0
1
6
0
.
2
1
481.49

3
7
7
.
1
4

3
7
8
.
4
1

3
2
0
.
5
8

4
3
5
.
4
1

4
3
1
.
3
5

3
6
7
.
2
0

4
8
2
.
3
9

4
7
2
.
5
1

4
0
4
.
2
6

5
0
9
.
8
0

5
0
2
.
5
5

4
2
7
.
2
9

4
9
1
.
9
3

4
7
6
.
7
1

3
9
2
.
6
6

3
4
3
.
6
3

2
8
9
.
1
0
476.28
19. Design example
Lateral force method = E
s
+ G + ȥ
Ei .
Q G + ȥ
Ei .
Q =35,42 kN/m
Storey Absolute
displacement
of the storey :
d
i
[m]
Design
interstorey drift
(d
i
d
i
1):
d
r
[m]
Storey lateral
forces E
i
:
V
i
[kN]
Shear
at storey E
i
:
V
tot
[kN]
Total
cumulative
gravity load
at storey E
i
:
P
tot
[kN]
Storey
height E
i
:
h
i
[m]
Interstorey
drift
sensitivity
coefficient
(E
i
E
i
1) :
ș
E
0
d
0
0 d
r0
E
1
d
1
0,033 d
r1
0,033 V
1
27,9 V
tot 1
586,0 P
tot 1
5100 h
1
2,9 ș
1
0,100
E
2
d
2
0,087 d
r2
0,054 V
2
55,8 V
tot 2
558,1 P
tot 2
4250 h
2
2,9 ș
2
0,141
E
3
d
3
0,139 d
r3
0,052 V
3
83,7 V
tot 3
502,3 P
tot 3
3400 h
3
2,9 ș
3
0,122
E
4
d
4
0,184 d
r4
0,044 V
4
111,6 V
tot 4
418,6 P
tot 4
2550 h
4
2,9 ș
4
0,093
E
5
d
5
0,216 d
r5
0,033 V
5
139,5 V
tot 5
307,0 P
tot 5
1700 h
5
2,9 ș
5
0,062
E
6
d
6
0,238 d
r6
0,021 V
6
167,5 V
tot 6
167,5 P
tot 6
850 h
6
2,9 ș
6
0,037
Behaviour factor : q = 4
Modal superposition
Dynamic analysis.
= E
s
+ G + ȥ
Ei .
Q G + ȥ
Ei .
Q = 35,42 kN/m
Storey Absolute
displacement
of the storey :
d
i
[m]
Design
interstorey drift
(d
i
d
i
1):
d
r
[m]
Storey lateral
forces E
i
:
V
i
[kN]
Shear
at storey E
i
:
V
tot
[kN]
Total
cumulative
gravity load
at storey E
i
:
P
tot
[kN]
Storey
height E
i
:
h
i
[m]
Interstorey
drift
sensitivity
coefficient
(E
i
E
i
1) :
ș
E
0
d
0
0 d
r0
E
1
d
1
0,022 d
r1
0,022 V
1
26,6 V
tot 1
396,2 P
tot 1
5100 h
1
2,9 ș
1
0,099
E
2
d
2
0,057 d
r2
0,035 V
2
42,9 V
tot 2
369,7 P
tot 2
4250 h
2
2,9 ș
2
0,137
E
3
d
3
0,090 d
r3
0,033 V
3
50,0 V
tot 3
326,8 P
tot 3
3400 h
3
2,9 ș
3
0,118
E
4
d
4
0,117 d
r4
0,027 V
4
61,1 V
tot 4
276,7 P
tot 4
2550 h
4
2,9 ș
4
0,086
E
5
d
5
0,137 d
r5
0,020 V
5
85,0 V
tot 5
215,6 P
tot 5
1700 h
5
2,9 ș
5
0,054
E
6
d
6
0,148 d
r6
0,012 V
6
130,6 V
tot 6
130,6 P
tot 6
850 h
6
2,9 ș
6
0,027
Behaviour factor : q = 4
Table 18
Results from the lateral
force method analysis.
Table 19
Results from the modal
superposition analysis.
115
19. Design example
Design of beam to
column connection at an
interior joint in line X2
The example connection in line X2 connects
an IPE500 beam to a HE340M column. Both
are made of S355 steel. A connection type
valid for a Ductility Class DCH, as defined in
Table 9, is selected. This is an unstiffened end
plate connection as shown schematically in
Figure 36; extended end plates are welded to
the beam during fabrication and bolted to the
column flanges on site. The design also involves
consideration of the beam connections in line
Y2, which are similar; extended end plates are
welded to the IPEA450 beams during fabrication
and are bolted on site to vertical plates welded
to the columns flanges (see Figures 78 and 79).
Design checks are presented below for
the connections in line X2 only.
Design moment and shear at the
connection of the IPE500 beam.
The design moment and shear are related to
a design situation in which plastic hinges are
formed at all the beams ends in line X2 (at all
storeys). The design values are established
considering possible beam material real
strength that is greater than the nominal f
y
=355 N/mm
2
. This is achieved using a Ȗ
ov
factor, and a partial safety factor of 1,1:
M
Rd,connection
≥ 1,1 Ȗ
ov
M
pl,Rd,beam
= 1,1
x 1,25 x 778,9 = 1071 kNm
V
Ed,E
= 2 M
pl,Rd,beam
/ l = 2 x
778,9 /8 = 194,7 kN
V
Ed,G
is found under G + ȥ
2i
Q
(= 45,2 kN/m, see above)
V
Ed,G
= 0,5 x 8 x 45,2 = 180,8 kN
V
Rd,connection
≥ 180,8 + 1,1 x
1,25 x 194,7 = 448,5 kN
Given the design values of bending moment
and shear, the design is based on the
requirements of Eurocode 3 (EN199318)
with additional consideration of some specific
requirements from Eurocode 8 (EN1998
1:2004) as explained in Sections 6, 8 and 9.
Design of welds between
end plates and beams.
Butt welds with adequate preparation and
execution (V grooves, welding from both
side) satisfy the overstrength design criterion
by default so no calculation is needed.
Design of bolts.
The bending moment M
Rd,connection
is transferred
by 4 rows of 2 M36 grade 10.9 bolts.
For row 1, h
r
= 500 – 16 + 70 = 554 mm.
For row 2, h
r
= 500 – 16  70 = 414 mm.
The resistance F
tr,Rd
of an M36
grade 10.9 bolt in tension is:
F
tr,Rd
= 0,9 f
u
A
s
/ Ȗ
M2
= 0,9 x 1000 x 817
/1,25 = 735,3 kN/1,25 = 588,2 kN
M
Rd,assemblage
= (554 + 414) x 2 x 588,2 =
1138.10
3
kNmm = 1138 kNm > 1071 kNm
Shear is transferred by 6 M20 grade 10.9 bolts
placed on both sides of the web and designed
to carry the design shear in its entirety.
Design resistance of bolts in shear:
6 x 122,5 / 1,25 = 588 kN > 448,5 kN
Design bearing resistance of plate
(40 mm thickness, see below):
V
Rd,plate
= (6 x 193 x 40)/
(10 x 1,25)= 3705 kN > 448,5 kN
Design of end plate.
The total design tension force F
tr,Rd
applied
by one flange to the end plate is:
F
tr,Rd
= M
Rd
/ (500 16) =1071.10
3
/ 484 = 2213 kN
The virtual work equation on which end plate
design in EN199318 is based indicates:
4 M
pl,1,Rd
x ș = F
tr,Rd
x ș x m
ș is the rotation in a plastic yield line over the
width of the plate (the yield line is horizontal);
M
pl,1,Rd
is the plastic moment developed along
this yield line; 4 is the number of yield lines
when prying action is accepted – Figure 80;
m is the distance from the bolt axis to the
flange surface (70 mm, see Figure 79).
For yielding to develop in the beam
and not in the plate the following
condition should be satisfied:
4 M
pl,1,Rd
x ș > F
tr,Rd
x ș x m
M
pl,1,Rd
= (l
eff
x t
2
x f
y
)/ 4Ȗ
M0
l
eff
= 300 mm
Ȗ
M0
= 1,0
f
y
= 355 N/mm
2
(4 x 300 x t
2
x 355) /4 = 2213.10
3
x 70
=> t = 38,1 mm as minimum => t = 40 mm
Note.
As:
¬ the thickness t
f
of the column
flange is also 40 mm
¬ the distance to the column web is (150/2)
– (t
w
/2)= 75 – 21/2 = 64,5 mm < 70 mm
¬ the length of a potential vertical yield
line in the column flange is (70 + 16 +
70) + (2x70) = 296 mm ≈~300 mm
It can be deduced that the flange has the
required resistance to accommodate the
tension from the connection, without
need of transverse stiffeners.
19. Design example
Check of resistance of end plate
and column flange to punching.
The resistance B
p,Rd
of the end plate and of
the column flange to punching by one bolt
should be greater than the tension F
tr,Rd
that
can be applied by that bolt: B
p,Rd
> F
tr,Rd
The check is identical for both the end
plate and the column flange since they
have the same thickness (40 mm)
and yield strength (355 N/mm
2
).
F
tr,Rd
= 2213 / 4 = 553 kN
B
p,Rd
is taken as the shear resistance
corresponding to punching out a
cylinder of diameter d
m
of the head of
the bolt (58 mm for a M36 bolt) and
thickness t
p
of the plate (40 mm):
B
p,Rd
=0,6 x 3,14 x 58 x 40 x 500 /1,25=
2185.103 N = 2185 kN > 553 kN
Check of column web panel in shear.
In the design situation plastic hinges are
formed in the beam sections adjacent
to the column on its left and right sides.
The horizontal design shear V
wp,Ed
in the
panel zone is therefore equal to:
V
wp,Ed
= M
pl,Rd, left
/ (d
left
– 2t
f,left
)
+ M
pl,Rd, right
/ (d
right
– 2t
f,right
) + V
Sd, c
Neglecting V
Sd,c
:
V = 2 x 1071. 10
3
/(3772x40) = 7212 kN
V
wb,Rd
= (0,9 f
y
A
wc
)/ (√3 x Ȗ
M0
)
= (0,9 x 355 x 9893) / (√3 x 1,0)
= 1824.10
3
N
V
wb,Rd
= 1824 kN << 7212 kN
The column web area therefore needs to
be increased by adding plates with a shear
resistance of: 7212 – 1824 = 5388 kN
This corresponds to an additional shear area:
(5388.10
3
√3 ) / (355 x 0,9) = 29209 mm
2
The design of the connections for the beams
oriented in the y direction requires two plates of
297 mm length and thickness equal to: 29209/
(2 x 297)= 49,2 mm => 50 mm. (Figure 78).
Check of column web panel in
transverse compression.
This check refers to cl. 6.2.6.2 of EN199318.
F
c,wc,Rd
= Ȧ k
wc
b
eff,c,wc
t
wc
f
y,wc
/ Ȗ
M0
A simple check is made by:
¬ setting Ȧ and k
wc
at 1,0 and taking
b
eff,c,wc
= t
fb
+ 5(t
fc
+ s)= 16 + 5
(40 + 27) = 351 mm (both of these
are safesided assumptions)
¬ Ȗ
M0
=1,0
¬ ignoring the connecting plates
of beams in the y direction
F
c,wc,Rd
= 351 x 21 x 355 = 2616.10
3
N = 2616 kN > F
tr,Rd
= 2213 kN
The check is therefore satisfied. A more
comprehensive check would include
taking the connecting plates of beams
in the y direction into account:
b
eff,c,wc
= t
fb
+ 5(t
fc
+ s)= 16 + 5 (40
+ 27+ 40 + 40)= 751 mm
Check of column web panel
in transverse tension.
This check refers to cl. 6.2.6.3 of EN199318.
F
c,wc,Rd
= Ȧ b
eff,c,wc
t
wc
f
y,wc
/ Ȗ
M0
The check is identical to the one
above, and is therefore satisfied.
117
1
5
0
IPE A 450
IPE 500
IPE A 450
HE 340 M
X
130
3
5
5
0
40 40
19. Design example
Comment on
design options
The design presented above is governed by the
limitation of deflections, both in terms of P∆
effects under the design earthquake loading
and interstorey drift under the serviceablity
earthquake loading. This means that the
section sizes chosen for the beams inevitably
possess a safety margin for resistance;
M
pl,Rd
= 778,9 kNm > M
Ed
=591,4 kNm
(which is the worst case applied moment).
Making use of redistribution of moments
(see 10.) would not enable smaller beam
sections to be used, as this would result in an
unacceptable level of flexibility in the structure.
Figure 78
Plan view of beam to column connections.
Reducing the beam sections locally, close to the
connections (‘dogbones’ or RBS, see Figures
33 and 38) should however be considered.
Such an approach would only change the
structure stiffness by a few percent so it
would still comply with design requirements
for deformation, but would provide a useful
reduction in the design moments (and shears)
applied to the beam to column connections.
At the interior joints the IPE500 plastic
moment M
pl,Rd
could be reduced by the ratio
778,9/591,4 = 1,32 (that is a 32% reduction).
Using RBS would allow reduced bolt diameters
and end plate thicknesses. At the connections
to the perimeter columns, where IPE500 beams
are connected into the column minor axis, the
reduction could be greater since the maximum
value of M
Ed
is only 481 kNm allowing a
reduction ratio of 1,61 (that is 61% reduction).
HE 340 M
IPE 500
Ftr,rd
IPE 500
A
6
0
6
0
1
6
6
0
7
0
8
2
8
2
8
2
8
2
7
0
1
6
7
0
6
0
1
3
,
1
6
0
1
0
0
6
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
6
0
1
3
,
1
HE 340 M
IPE A 450
IPE 500
7
0
4 M 36
6 M 20
4 M 36
Other design options could be considered to
reduce fabrication and construction costs. Using
nominally pinned connections for the beams
framing into the column minor axes would
simplify the column ‘nodes’. The loss of frame
stiffness could be compensated by using deeper
beam and column sections. Alternatively, it
might be interesting to reduce the number of
frames that provide most of the earthquake
resistance. For instance, frames in lines Y1 and
Y4 could be dedicated to earthquake resistance
in the y direction, while frames in lines X1,
X4 and X6 could be dedicated to earthquake
resistance in the x direction. Smaller beam
sections and low cost connections could be
used in the frames on other grid lines.
Figure 79
Elevation of beam to column connections.
Figure 80
Plastic deformation mechanism in
the end plate of the IPE500 beam.
19. Design example
119
Design of reduced
beam sections
Objective.
The analysis has indicated a maximum bending
moment of 591,4 kNm in the IPE500 beams
in the x direction under the seismic load
combination E + G + ȥ
2i
Q . As mentioned
in 19.12, because the beams are deflection
governed there is an excess of resistance
which is equal to: 778,9 : 591,4 = 1,32. The
objective in considering the use of reduced
beam sections is to limit the beam end
moment to a value at or near to 591,4 kNm.
In principle this could be achieved by trimming
the flanges of the beam adjacent to the
column connection, but experiments have
shown that better ductility is achieved by
locating the reduced section some distance
away from the beam end. This means the
limiting moment has a slightly different
value, which must be determined (see Figure
40). The design moment to consider is
influenced by the increase in flexibility due to
the reduced beam section. In the paragraphs
that follow, the design moment in the RBS is
evaluated considering these two factors.
Influence of increase in
flexibility due to RBS.
Reducing the beam sections (RBS) increases
frame flexibility and therefore drift by an
estimated 7% (see [6] [7]), which results in
an increase in ș also of 7%. Therefore the
amplification factors 1/ (1 ș) which are given
in Table 17 should be recalculated considering
the modified values of ș as shown in Table 20.
Only the worst case value [1/ (1 ș) = 1,17]
is considered in the design, because all RBS will
have the same dimensions at all levels. The
maximum moment applied at the beam ends
under the combination E + G + ȥ
2i
Q , without
considering the amplification factors 1/ (1 ș) ,
was 509,8 kNm. When reduced sections
are used that maximum moment is amplified
by 1,17 due to the increase in flexibility:
1,17 x 509,8 = 596,5 kNm
Clearly this value is not very different from
the value without RBS (591,4 kN)
Influence of RBS distance to connection.
To take into account the fact that the
RBS is located at some distance away
from the column face, it is necessary to
choose dimensions which comply with the
guidance given in Section 10. Consider:
a = 0,5 x b = 0,5 x 200 = 100 mm
s = 0,65 x d = 0,65 x 500 = 325 mm
The distance from the RBS to the column
face is a + s/2 (see Figure 38).
a + s/2 = 162,5 + 100 = 262, 5 mm
The maximum moment is obtained at the
beam end, and the bending moment diagram
(shown in Figure 74) can be approximated
as being linear between the beam end
and 1/3 span point, so that the design
bending moment in the RBS is as follows.
1/3 span = 8000 / 3 = 2666 mm
M
d,RBS
= 596,5 x (2666 – 262,5)
/ 2666 = 537 kNm
Storey
Interstorey drift sensitivity
coefficient ș
Modified amplification
factors 1/ (1 ș)
Without RBS With RBS With RBS
1 0,099 0,105 1,11
2 0,137 0,147 1,17
3 0,118 0,126 1,14
4 0,086 0,092 1
5 0,054 0,057 1
6 0,027 0,028 1
Table 20
Modified amplification
factors 1/ (1 ș)
19. Design example
Definition of section cuts at RBS.
As indicated in Section 9, the RBS cut dimension c should be in the range c = 0,20 b to 0,25 b
Consider c= 0,22b = 0,22 x 200 = 44 mm .
The plastic moment of an IPE500 section (without any reduction) is equal to:
W
pl,y fy
= 2194.10
3
x 355 = 778. 10
6
Nmm
This results from the addition of:
Flange moment: b t
f
f
y
(d  t
f
) = 16 x 200 x 355 (500 – 16) = 549. 10
6
Nmm
Web moment: t
w
f
y
(d  2t
f
)
2
/ 4 = 10,2 x 355 x (500 – 32)
2
= 198. 10
6
Nmm
Moment due to root radii at webflange junctions: = (778 – 549 – 198) = 31. 10
6
Nmm
The plastic moment of a ‘reduced’ IPE500 (RBS) is calculated as follows:
b
e
= b – 2c = 200  88 = 120 mm.
Flange moment: b
e
t
f
f
y
(d  t
f
) = 16 x 112 x 355 (500 – 16) = 308. 10
6
Nmm
RBS plastic moment: M
pl,Rd,RBS
= ( 308 + 198 + 31 ) . 10
6
= 537. 10
6
Nmm = 537 kNm
For fabrication purposes it is also necessary to know the radius R of the cut (see Figure 38).
This is calculated as: R = (4c
2
+ s
2
) / 8c = (4 x 32
2
+ 325
2
)/(8 x 32) = 857 mm.
Design moment and design shear at the connection.
The shear in the RBS due to the earthquake action corresponds to the situation when plastic
hinges form at the left and right hand ends of the beam. This is therefore given by:
V
Ed,E
= 2 M
pl,Rd,,RBS
/ L’
in which L’ is the distance between the plastic hinges at the extremities of the beam.
L’= 8000 – 377  (2 x 262,5) = 7098 mm = 7,098 m
V
Ed,E
= 2 x 537 / 7,098 = 151 kN
The shear V
Ed,G
in the RBS due to gravity loading G + ȥ
2i
Q is :
V
Ed,G
= 0,5 x 7,098 x 45,2 = 160,4 kN
The total shear in the RBS is:
V
Ed,E
= V
Ed,G
+ 1,1 Ȗ
ov
V
Ed,E
=160,4 + 1,1 x 1,25 x 151 = 368 kN
The design moment M
Ed,connection
applied to the beam end connections is:
M
Ed,connection
= 1,1 Ȗ
ov
M
pl,Rd,,RBS
+ V
Ed,E
x X
With X = a + s/2 = 262, 5 mm
M
Ed,connection
= 1,1 x 1,25 x 537 + 368 x 0,2625 = 834 kNm
Thanks to the RBS, the design moment
M
Ed,connection
for the beam end connections has
been reduced from 1071 kNm down to 834
kNm. The reduction in design moment for the
connections, due to RBS, is therefore 28%.
The design check for shear at the connection is:
V
Rd,connection
≥ V
Ed
= V
Ed,G
+ 1,1 Ȗ
ov
Ω V
Ed,E
The condition was:
V
Rd,connection
≥ 448 kN without RBS.
It is :
V
Rd,connection
≥ 368 kN with RBS
The reduction in design shear at the
connection, due to RBS, is therefore 21%.
19. Design example
121
Economy due to RBS
The use of reduced beam sections will contribute
significantly to the economy of the design
by allowing a reduction of 28% in the design
moment at the connection. This reduction is
also reflected in the design shear applied to
the panel zone of the column. Both types of
reduction can bring significant reductions in cost.
19. Design example
Annex
Annex A
Definition of Eurocode 8 design
response spectra.
For the horizontal components of the
seismic action, the design horizontal
acceleration response spectrum S
d
(T)
is defined by the following expressions.
These apply throughout Europe.
a
g
= Ȗ
I
.a
gr
a
gR
: maximum reference acceleration
at the level of class A bedrock.
S
d
(T) is the design horizontal acceleration
response spectrum;
T is the vibration period of a linear
singledegreeoffreedom system;
a
g
is the design ground acceleration
on type A ground (a
g
= Ȗ
I
.a
gR
);
T
B
is the lower limit of the period of the
constant spectral acceleration branch;
T
C
is the upper limit of the period of the
constant spectral acceleration branch;
T
D
is the value defining the beginning
of the constant displacement
response range of the spectrum;
S is the soil factor (see Table 2);
Ș is the damping correction factor
with a reference value of Ș = 1
for 5% viscous damping.
, where ȟ is the viscous damping ratio of
the structure, expressed as a percentage.
Annex B
ArcelorMittal Available Steels.
The available steel grades, their mechanical
and chemical characteristics as well as
the dimensions of the profiles
can be downloaded on:
http://www.arcelormittal.com/sections
( )
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷ + = s s
3
2 5 , 2
3
2
: 0
B
g d B
q T
T
S a T S T T
( )
q
5 , 2
S a T S : T T T = s s
g d C B
( )
5 , 2
=
:
g
C
g
d D C
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
>
(
¸
(
¸
s s
a
T
T
q
S a
T S T T T

( )
=
g
2
D C
g
d D
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
 >
(
¸
(
¸
s
a
T
T T
q
5 , 2
S a
T S : T T
S (T) is the design horizontal acceleration response spectrum;
( ) 55 , 0 5 / 10 > + =
123
References
[1] EN 19981:2004. Design of Structures
for Earthquake Resistance. Part 1: General
Rules, Seismic Actions and Rules for
Buildings.( Eurocode 8). CEN, European
Committee for Standardisation.
[2] Seismic Resistance of Composite Structures
 Report EUR 14428 EN. 1992 . Publication
of the Commission of European Communities.
[3] A.Plumier. New Idea for Safe Structures
in seismic Zones. IABSE Symposium.
Mixed Structures Including New Materials
 Brussels 1990.pp. 431  436.
[4] A.Plumier. The Dogbone  Back to the
Future. AISC Engineering Journal Second
quarter 1997  Volume 34, n°2.
[5] Paulay and Priestley, Seismic
Design of Reinforced Concrete and
Masonry Buildings, Wiley Ed.,1992
[6] Moment Connections For Seismic
Applications. Canadian Institute for Steel
Construction.2004. ISBN 0888111061
[7] Recommended Seismic Design Criteria
For New Steel MomentFrame Buildings.
FEMA 350. July 2000.
[8] Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel
Buildings. AISC 34102.May 2002.
[9] I. Vayas, L. Calado, C. Castiglioni,
A. Plumier, P. Thanopoulos.Behaviour
of Seismic Resistant Braced Frames with
Innovative Dissipative (INERD) Connections .
EUROSTEEL. 2005. ISBN 3861308126.
[10] A.Plumier, R. Agatino, A. Castellani,
C. Castiglioni, C. Chesi. Resistance of
Steel Connections to Low Cycle Fatigue.
XIth European Conference on Earthquake
Engineering. Paris. September 1998.
References
[11] Moment resisting Connections of
Steel Frames in Seismic Areas. Design and
Reliability. Edited by F. MAZZOLANI; E&F SPON
Editions, 2000; ISBN 0415235774.
[12] Two Innovations for Earthquake Resistant
Design: the INERD Project. Rapport EUR
22044 EN, ISBN 9279016946, 2006,
Publication office: Publications.europa.eu.
[13] Fardis, Carvalho, Elnashai, Faccioli, Pinto,
Plumier.Designer’s Guide to Eurocode 8. Thomas
Telford Publisher. ISBN 0727733486 .2005.
[14] Guide des Dispositions Constructives
Parasismiques des Ouvrages en Acier, Béton,
Bois et Maçonnerie. AFPS (Association
Française du Génie Parasismique).
Presses de l’Ecole Nationale des Ponts et
Chaussées.2005. ISBN 2857984160.
[15] ICONS Report 4. Composite Steel
Concrete Structures’. Laboratorio Nacional
de Engenharia Civil. A. Plumier & C. Doneux
Editors (2001). Editor. LisbonPortugal.
[16] Sanchez, L and Plumier, A. ‘Particularities
raised by the evaluation of load reduction
factors for the seismic design of composite
steel concrete structures’, Proceedings of
the SDSS’99 Stability and Ductility of Steel
Structures Colloquium, Timisoara, 1999.
[17] C. Doneux and A. Plumier, Distribution
of stresses in the slab of composite steel
concrete moment resisting frames submitted
to earthquake action. Der Stahlbau 6/99.
[18] M. Zacek, Construire parasismique, Editions
Parenthèses / ISBN 2863640542, 1996.
Technical
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& Finishing
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V
e
r
s
i
o
n
2
0
0
8

1
Aim of this document This document aims to present in a straightforward manner the essentials of seismic design of steel structures, which is a ﬁeld of engineering and construction to which ArcelorMittal contributes by continuous research efforts that bring better steel products and original design solutions to the market. These include the widely used Reduced Beam Section concept (RBS or ‘dogbone’) for moment resisting frames (Section 10), INERD dissipative connections for braced frames (Section 12), and the use of composite columns to mitigate soft storey failures in reinforced concrete structures (Section 18).
Contents
1.
What is an Earthquake?
4 8 11 15 20 25 30 34 40 47 60 65 68 73 89 91 94 99 102 122 122 123 124 125
2. Why are Steel Structures Good at Resisting Earthquakes? 3. A Tool to Evaluate the Effects of Earthquakes: the Response Spectrum 4. Design Response Spectra 5. Characterisation of Structures Speciﬁc to Seismic Design 6. Aspects of Seismic Analysis and Design Checks Common to all Structural Types 7. Approximate Method for Seismic Analysis and Design 8. Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings 9. Designing Dissipative Structures 10. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames 11. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing 12. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing and Dissipative Connections 13. Seismic Design of Frames with Eccentric Bracing 14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures 15. Composite Steel Concrete Moment Resisting Frames 16. Composite Steel Concrete Frames with Bracing 17. Composite Steel Concrete Walls and Systems with Walls 18. Improving Reinforced Concrete Structures by using Composite Columns 19. Design Example Annex A Deﬁnition of Eurocode 8 Design Response Spectra Annex B Steels available from ArcelorMittal References Technical advisory & Finishing Your Partners
1
Analysis of V or bracing. Design of reduced beam sections. Resistance condition. Multimodal response. Estimation of the fundamental period T1 of a building. Action applied to a structure by an earthquake. Seismic mass. 8. Simple elastic analysis method. 11. Methods of analysis. Aspects of Seismic Analysis and Design Checks Common to all Structural Types.ArcelorMittal Technical Brochure: Earthquake Resistant Steel Structures 1. US and European design rules for frames with concentric bracing. Design Criteria for X bracing. Why are Steel Structures Good at Resisting Earthquakes? The paramount importance of ductility. Recommended designs for beam to column connections. Other requirements for X bracing. Principle. Design Criteria for frames with X. 6. 12. Approximate Method for Seismic Analysis and Design. Redistribution of bending moments in beams. Selecting a Ductility Class for design. Plastic hinges. Displacements in dissipative structures. Design Response Spectra. Flexibility and low weight. Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings. Elastic displacement response spectrum. Characterisation of Structures Speciﬁc to Seismic Design. 4. Choice of units. 10. Response of structures subjected to an earthquake. Capacity design applied to connections. A Tool to Evaluate the Effects of Earthquakes: the Response Spectrum. 7. Non dissipative local mechanisms. Design criteria. Design objective. Limitation of second order effects. Plastic redistribution parameter. Design Criteria for V or bracing. Importance of the structure. Ductility of the structure. From one elastic response spectrum to design response spectra. How is an Elastic Response Spectrum established? Code elastic response spectrum. Designing Dissipative Structures. Design of connections. Selecting a typology of structure for design. Principles of conceptual design of an earthquake resistant structure. Design of non dissipative elements in a dissipative structure. Torsion. . Other requirements for V or bracing. Designing reliable dissipative zones. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing. Example of design spectra. US and European Ductility Classes. Interest of dissipative connections in frames with concentric bracings. Objectives of conceptual design. Behaviour factors. Design objective for moment resisting frames (or MRFs). Analysis of frames with X. Primary structure and secondary structure. 5. Ductility Classes. 3. Other requirements. 2. V or bracing and dissipative connections for the diagonals. Basic features of an earthquake resistant building. 9. Remote or near ﬁeld earthquake. V or bracing and dissipative connections for the diagonals. The many local dissipative mechanisms available in steel structures. Connections of columns to foundations. Characterisation of seismic action. Design criteria for dissipative structures. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing and Dissipative Connections. Capacity design applied to bars with holes. What is an Earthquake? The physical phenomenon. Soil and site. Analysis of X bracing. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames.
Dynamic analysis by spectral response and modal superposition method. Composite Steel Concrete Walls and 14. Short links and long links. Stiffness of sections. ite columns subjected to compression and cyclic bending. References. Composite Steel Concrete Frames with Bracing. Composite Steel Concrete Structures. BeamStrong Column checks. Interior column. General rules for the design of dissipative and non dissipative elements. Design of beam to column connection at an interior joint in line X2. Comments on design options. Introduction. the degree of composite ‘character’. Plastic resis15. Seismic Design of Frames with Eccentric Bracing. Composite frames with eccentric bracing. Anchorage and splicing of reinforcement bars. Gravity load to combine with earthquake effects. Plastic resistance of dis. Steel beams Presentation. Fully encased composite columns. Steels available from ArcelorMittal. Results of the analysis. How can composite structural Deﬁnition of the various composite wall systems and the design objectives. Economy due to RBS. sipative zones. 16. Detailing rules for tures. 3 . Check in compression. Annex B. Deﬁnition of Eurocode 8 Design Response Spectra. Detailing rules for composite walls the design of dissipative composite strucof ductility class DCM. Checking moment resistance acting composite with the slab. 17. Annex A. Improving Reinforced Concrete Structures by using Composite Columns. coupling beams of ductility class DCM. Partially encased members. Evaluation of seismic design shear by the of composite ‘character’. the degree tion of the seismic mass. Composite frames with concentric bracing. connections in dissipative zones.Composite steel plate shear walls. in the context of the Eurocodes. ‘lateral forces’ method. Composite Steel Concrete Moment tance in bending at basement level. Effective and deﬂection limits for beams. Ductility in bending of composite beams. 19. FavourProblem deﬁnition and design conditions of able inﬂuence of concrete encasement on composite columns. Analysis. Materials. EvaluaResisting Frames. General features of the design of frames with eccentric bracing. Design Example. A basic choice. Behaviour of composlocal ductility. Design spectrum. AdDesign concepts and behaviour factors q ditional detailing rules for ductility class DCH. Selection of a type of eccentric bracing. Weak width of slab. Design of a reduced beam section. Detailing rules for composite 18. Design objective.13. Analyelements be dissipative? A basic choice in sis. Systems with Walls.
Characterisation of seismic action.1. . WHAT IS AN EARTHQUAKE? The physical phenomenon. Action applied to a structure by an earthquake.
1.Burma AS 37 14 10 15 48 Pacific (PA) 92 GordaCaliforniaNevada 19 5 22 69 ATLANTIC Aegean Sea Yangtze (YA) 15 29 54 36 20 PACIFIC 25 51 76 14 24 ON Okinawa 71 India (IN) 17 west central Atlantic Africa (AF) Arabia (AR) Africa (AF) 26 MA 69 RI Rivera Mariana 90 RiveraCocos Burma 46 Philippine Sea (PS) Philippines 84 39 102 10 Panama PA 19 Caribbean (CA) 11 27 23 6 Sunda (SU) BU 14 87 67 Pacific (PA) Caroline (CL) BH Manus (MN) 96 Cocos (CO) ND North Andes Somalia (SO) MS Ninety East . This is an earthquake. The importance of the waves reduces with the distance from the epicentre.svg). What is an Earthquake? The physical phenomenon The most important earthquakes are located close to the borders of the main tectonic plates which cover the surface of the globe. depending on their proximity to the boundaries of the main tectonic plates (the red lines in Figure 1).bris. The local shock generates waves in the ground which propagate over the earth’s surface. continental / oceanic convergent boundary continental rift boundary / oceanic spreading ridge continetal / oceanic transform fault subduction zone 30 Laptev Sea 14 Eurasia (EU) 14 Alaska .uk http://en. creating movement at the bases (foundations) of structures.ideers.Tibet .Yukon 16 velocity with respect to Africa (mm/y) orogeny 14 13 Alps Okhotsk (OK) 10 11 13 18 19 18 59 15 8 Eurasia (EU) western Aleutians Amur (AM) Pacific (PA) 10 Eurasia (EU) 7 North America (NA) 26 JF Alps Anatolia 21AT Juan de Fuca Persia . Therefore.org/wiki/Image:Tectonic_plates_boundaries_detaileden. Figure 1 World map showing the main tectonic plates (from Bristol University website: www.wikipedia. there exist regions of the world with more or less high seismic risk.Sumatra 11 15 44 92 57 Equator Galápagos (GP) 70 MO 96 NB 95 40 86 SS 83 32 32 BS TI 58 WL 26SB Peru 100 103 South America (SA) 70 FT New Hebrides .ac.Fiji BR CR 62 Pacific (PA) 119 Nazca (NZ) Altiplano 26 AP INDIAN 59 NH NI TO OCEAN Tonga OCEAN 13 Australia (AU) 68 69 55 44 OCEAN Easter 51 51 EA 34 34 KE 102 51 83 PunaSierras Pampeanas Kermadec 62 Juan Fernandez JZ 53 Antarctica (AN) 78 14 Pacific (PA) 70 31 13 10 12 56 82 31 Sandwich 14 Antarctica (AN) 14 14 66 Scotia (SC) SW 25 47 Antarctica (AN) Shetland SL 12 AUSTRAL OCEAN AUSTRAL OCEAN 13 Antarctica (AN) 5 . These plates tend to move relative to one another but are prevented from doing so by friction until the stresses between plates under the ‘epicentre’ point become so high that a move suddenly takes place.
. They show that earthquakes may occur in places other than those near the tectonic plate boundaries. but can still be destructive in the vicinity of the epicentre. What is an Earthquake? Besides the major earthquakes which take place at tectonic plate boundaries. Figure 2 World and European Peak Ground Acceleration Maps (From GFZPotsdam website http://seismohazard.1. others have their origin at the interior of plates at fault lines.gfzpotsdam. these release less energy. Maps of ‘seismic hazard’ (peak ground accelerations at the bedrock level) show the distribution of earthquake levels in the world and in Europe (see Figure 2).de/projects/en/). Called ‘intraplates’ earthquakes.
What is an Earthquake? Action applied to a structure by an earthquake The action applied to a structure by an earthquake is a ground movement with horizontal and vertical components. Japan or Turkey). are recorded as a function of time.05 g in very low seismic zones to 0.1. The vertical component of the earthquake is usually about 50% of the horizontal component. Two subproducts of the ground acceleration ag(t) are the most commonly used data in earthquake engineering: The maximum value of acceleration ag(t) at the bedrock level. Its meaning is explained in Section 3. is the parameter used to define the seismic hazard in a given geographic area. PGAs range from 0. except in the vicinity of the epicentre where it can be of the same order. The ground acceleration ag(t) at a given location. The intensity I (for example the Mercalli scale) describes the effects on structures at a given place and relates these to a given number. 7 . National seismic zone maps are usually presented in terms of Peak Ground Accelerations (see Figure 2). They are the most explicit data and as such can be used in timehistory analysis of structures. Characterisation of seismic action Earthquakes can be characterised in different ways. The horizontal movement is the most specific feature of earthquake action because of its strength and because structures are generally better designed to resist gravity than horizontal forces. The acceleration response spectrum is the standard representation of earthquake action considered in building design.4 g in highly seismic zones (for example California. or Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA. symbol agR in Eurocode 8). or its equivalent the ground displacement dg(t). for instance 7 corresponds to serious cracks in masonry. Other characterisations may be more useful for designers. The magnitude M (Richter scale) expresses the total energy liberated and does not give direct information about the earthquake action at a given site.
WHY ARE STEEL STRUCTURES GOOD AT RESISTING EARTHQUAKES? The paramount importance of ductility. Flexibility and low weight. .2.
For this reason. the two design options are said to lead to ‘dissipative’ and ‘nondissipative’ structures. this energy being represented by the area under the Vd curve. Why are Steel Structures Good at Resisting Earthquakes? The paramount importance of ductility Experience shows that steel structures subjected to earthquakes behave well.Top Displacement d diagram of Figure 3. In a structure designed to the second option selected parts of the structure are intentionally designed to undergo cyclic plastic deformations without failure. The structure can dissipate a significant amount of energy in these plastic zones. In this case the structure’s global behaviour is ‘brittle’ and corresponds for instance to concept a) in a Base Shear V. Figure 3 Examples of ‘Dissipative’ and ‘non dissipative’ global behaviours of structures. The ‘non dissipative’ structure fails in a single storey mechanism. (From [13]). A structure designed to the first option will be heavier and may not provide a safety margin to cover earthquake actions that are higher than expected. structures made of smaller sections. designed to form numerous plastic zones. structures made of sufficiently large sections that they are subject to only elastic stresses Option 2.Top Displacement d diagram. as element failure is not ductile. as shown in Figure 3. There are two means by which the earthquake may be resisted: Option 1. du du Concept a Concept b V V elastic response Structure designed to remain elastic under design earthquake Concept a: lowdissipative structure V reduced Structure designed to yield under design earthquake Concept b: dissipative structure du Ultimate displacement d 9 . The structure’s global behaviour is ‘ductile’ and corresponds to concept b) in the Base Shear V. This may be explained by some of the specific features of steel structures. and the structure as a whole is designed such that only those selected zones will be plastically deformed. Global failures and huge numbers of casualties are mostly associated with structures made from other materials.2.
mechanisms in steel structures. This is particularly the the many possible ductile mechanisms in case for halls/sheds: they create an envelope steel elements and their connections around a large volume so their weight per the effective duplication of plastic unit surface area is low and wind forces. as result a of controlled production designs and constructions made by professionals . which provides extended deformation capacity. a reduction in base shear V (Vreduced < Velastic) means an equal reduction in forces applied to the foundations. due to: structures are sufficiently light that seismic the ductility of steel as a material design is not critical. As earthquake forces are associated with inertia. it may be that the earthquake action and/ or its effects are greater than expected.2. Stiffer and heavier structures attract larger forces when an earthquake hits. are the fundamental characteristics explaining the excellent seismic behaviour of steel structures. due to some of the other factors that characterise them: guaranteed material strength. Forces in the structure and its foundations are therefore lower. resulting in lower costs for the infrastructure of a building. reliable geometrical properties This means that a building designed for gravity a relatively low sensitivity of the bending and wind loads implicitly provides sufficient resistance of structural elements to the resistance to earthquakes. generally govern the design. Indeed some steel providing an energy dissipation capability. Steel structures are generally light in comparison to those constructed using other materials. they are related to the mass of the structure and so reducing the mass inevitably leads to Steel structures are particularly good at lower seismic design forces. and the reliability of each of these possibilities. not mechanisms at a local level seismic forces. By ensuring ductile behaviour. Furthermore. This reduction of design forces significantly reduces the cost of both the superstructure and foundations of a building. This explains presence of coincident axial force why in past earthquakes such buildings have been observed to perform so much better The variety of possible energy dissipation than those made of heavy materials. Furthermore. is generally the better way to resist earthquakes. any such excesses are easily absorbed simply by greater energy dissipation due to plastic deformations of structural components. Flexibility and low weight There are other advantages for steel structures in a seismic zone. Steel structures are generally more flexible than other types of structure and lower in weight (as discussed below). steel structures tend to have more reliable seismic behaviour than those using other materials. Why are Steel Structures Good at Resisting Earthquakes? A ductile behaviour. namely their flexibility and low weight. One reason for this is that because of the many uncertainties which characterise our knowledge of real seismic actions and of the analyses we make. The same components could not provide more strength (a greater elastic resistance) when option 1 is adopted.
A TOOL TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKES: THE RESPONSE SPECTRUM Response of structures subjected to an earthquake. How is an Elastic Response Spectrum established? Code Elastic Response Spectrum. Elastic Displacement Response Spectrum. 11 .3. Multimodal Response.
There is therefore a dynamic response. The period can be observed by displacing the mass M and releasing it. The most simple form of structure representing a building is considered. A Tool to Evaluate the Effects of Earthquakes: the Response Spectrum Response of structures subjected to an earthquake The ground movement dg(t) displaces the structure horizontally and dynamically. the structure vibrates at its natural period T1. Modes: global flexure storey in shear floor vibration How is an Elastic Response Spectrum established? By making a set of timehistory analyses of dynamic responses of structures. The process by which a spectrum is built up is sketched in Figures 5 and 6. so there is no displacement of the structure relative to its base. Figure 4 Example of vibration modes. the movement of every point depends on the mechanical characteristics of all the structural elements (stiffness) and on the distribution of masses in the structure (a structure without mass would be submitted to zero force). If the structure is infinitely stiff all its points are displaced equally by the amount of ground movement dg(t). The elastic response spectrum is of interest to designers as it directly provides the peak value of the dynamic response of a given structure under a given accelerogram characteristic of a given seismic area. In a flexible structure. d d M H F max=M . it is possible to produce a ‘response spectrum’. Such a structure has a single natural period of vibration T1 related to its mass and stiffness. Each vibration mode is characterised by its period T (in s) and the portion of the total mass associated with that mode (modal mass). are local (see Figure 4). which involves all the vibration modes of the structure. This is said to be ‘elastic’ if it corresponds to a structure responding with purely elastic deformations. which can be calculated as: Figure 5 Definition of pseudo acceleration (T1) for a cantilever of given properties. like floor vibrations. Some modes are global and involve the whole structure whereas other modes.3. it is a vertical cantilever of stiffness k ( k = EI/H) with a concentrated mass M at level H above ground (see Figure 5).b (T 1) d g(t) T1 2 MH 3 3EI .
etc…Those influences have been evaluated and led to a standard value of “structural” damping equal to 5% in the seismic context. and then establishing for the design code an ‘average’ of all these spectra (T1) . a code ‘elastic acceleration response spectrum Se(T)’ is established (see Figure 7). (T)) is determined. A Tool to Evaluate the Effects of Earthquakes: the Response Spectrum The mathematics of elastic structural dynamics are used to make timehistory analyses of the movement of this cantilever subjected to one ground movement characterised by dg(t) or by one accelerogram ag(t). The damping which can be related to a material working elastically is low. The mass M moves relative to its base by a displacement d (see Figure 5). d might become infinite. there are other sources of damping. a direct evaluation of the maximum deformation and stresses in a cantilever structure of mass M and stiffness EI/H is deduced: the period T1 is given by the pseudoacceleration (T1) is read from the spectrum the maximum force Fmax = M (T1) equivalent to the earthquake is then determined and the deformation and stresses in the cantilever deduced In the analysis described above. a ‘pseudo acceleration’ (T1) is defined: (T1) = Fmax / M By varying the parameters defining the cantilever (other masses M. is certainly too specific. This set is known as an ‘acceleration response spectrum ’ (see Figure 6). like friction in the connections. deriving response spectra (T1) corresponding to these accelerograms. But in the structures submitted to earthquakes. which is related to one single accelerogram. In this way. would come back to that position without oscillating.3. Uncertainties about future earthquakes are addressed by considering several accelerograms. By selecting the maximum value Fmax of F(t) and expressing the fundamental law of dynamics Fmax = mass x acceleration. of the order of 1% of the “critical” damping. T1 2 MH 3 3EI Figure 6 Establishing an elastic response spectrum as a function of (T1) Figure 7 Construction of a code elastic response spectrum b T 1) S e(T) Computed spectrum 1 bi ag Elastic acceleration spectrum "average" Computed spectrum 2 0 T 1i T 1(s) 0 TB TC T(s) 13 . Code Elastic Response Spectrum There will inevitably be uncertainties about the accelerogram that would apply at a given site for a future earthquake. etc). which is a damping such that the cantilever at Figure 5. It is possible to define a force F(t) which generates a displacement d similar to the one generated by dg(t). and the ‘acceleration response spectrum ’ constructed as explained above. other stiffnesses k. a set of values (T. when displaced of d from its position at rest. resulting in other fundamental periods T = T1. friction between partitions and structure. T2 . the amplitude of the displacement d of the mass relative to the base is influenced by the damping of the system: if there was no damping. Once established.
The elastic acceleration response spectrum Se(T) has ‘break points’ TB . A Tool to Evaluate the Effects of Earthquakes: the Response Spectrum The ‘averaging’ process described above is in part statistical and in part based on practical engineering judgment. For flexible structures. The evaluation of the maximum deformation and stresses in a cantilever structure of mass M and stiffness EI/H is made as indicated above. In the elastic single degree of freedom oscillator. Eurocode 8 defines one single shape as a reference elastic acceleration response spectrum Se(T) and that shape is represented at Figure 8. But the formulation of the spectrum takes into account a series of parameters and it allows generate local spectra which can be very different. and to a factor . which is different from 1 if the damping can be proved to be different from the standard value of 5% explained above (see the formulation of spectra in Annex A). so that the shape of the code reference elastic response spectrum Se(T) is more schematic than that of each individual response spectrum (T1). resulting in a maximum force: Fmax = M Se(T) For an infinitely stiff structure (period T=0). Elastic Displacement Response Spectrum A mathematical process similar to the one used to define an elastic acceleration response spectrum can be applied to define an ‘elastic displacement spectrum SDe(T)’. The spectrum at Figure 8 is normalised by ag in order to be valid independently of ag. there is a ‘dynamic amplification’ up to approximately Fmax = 2.5S Figure 8 Eurocode 8 reference shape of the elastic acceleration response spectrum Se(T) S TB TC TD T . The maximum effects then have to be ‘superimposed’ to assess the maximum response. etc) found in each mode is most often adopted because it provides the most probable value of the maximum multimodal response: SDe (T ) D e S e (T ) T 2 2 EE = EEi 2 Se/ag 2. The spectrum is related to a factor S. SDe(T) is the displacement d of the mass M relative to the cantilever base (see definition of d in Figure 5). accelerations Se(T) and displacements SDe(T) are linked by the expression: Multimodal Response For a structure characterised by several vibration modes. the pseudo acceleration Se(T) is equal to the ground acceleration ag S and Fmax = M ag S.3. which depends on the site. the response spectrum allows calculation of the maximum effects corresponding to each mode (‘spectral response’). a square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) combination of the earthquake effects EEi (bending moments.5 M ag S. Taking into consideration the fact that the different maxima are not simultaneous. TC and TD which are also related to local values of site and soil parameters.
Importance of the structure. DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRA From one Elastic Response Spectrum to Design Response Spectra. Ductility of the structure. Soil and site. Remote or near field earthquake.4. 15 . Example of Design Spectra.
4 for structures whose structural performance is vital during an earthquake (Class IV). and produce spectra which can be used in elastic analysis of structures. cultural institutions. Design response spectra Sd(T) are obtained by modifying this elastic response spectrum Se(T) to take into account all these factors. for example agricultural buildings.8 1. In Eurocode 8 a reference peak ground acceleration agR corresponding to a standard level of risk is defined.4. for example schools. Table 1 gives the values recommended for I in Eurocode 8 for different categories of importance of buildings.0 1. fire stations.4 . therefore the design value of ag should be greater for structures of greater importance. I 0. etc. The factors influencing the design spectra are defined in the following paragraphs. assembly halls. Design response spectra From one Elastic Importance of Response Spectrum to the structure Design Response Spectra The definition of a ‘design’ Peak Ground Many factors in addition to those considered in the definition of an elastic acceleration response spectrum Se(T) are relevant in the response of structures to earthquakes. Buildings whose seismic resistance is of importance in view of the consequences associated with a collapse. Importance class I II III Buildings Buildings of minor importance for public safety. power plants. Table 1 Importance classes for buildings and recommended values of I (EN19981:2004). Buildings whose integrity during earthquakes is of vital importance for civil protection. which is a ‘coefficient of importance’ of the designed structure: ag= I agR . etc. I is equal to 1 for standard buildings (Class II) and up to 1. The design PGA value of ag is obtained by multiplying agR by I. Ordinary buildings not belonging in the other categories. Acceleration ag is statistical and corresponds to the acceptance of a certain level of risk. for example hospitals.2 IV 1.
5 contribute most to the seismic hazard. This is a matter of geology and geography. the possibility of different seismic events is taken into account by defining spectral shapes Type 1 and Type 2.5 17 . Design response spectra Remote or ‘near field’ earthquake A reference peak ground acceleration agR at a given location can result from different types of earthquakes. In Eurocode 8. Figure 9 Elastic acceleration response spectra Se(T) of Eurocode 8 for Type 1 and Type 2 earthquakes and for various natures of site conditions. The data to define Type 1 and Type 2 spectral shapes are given in Table 2.5) to generate significant accelerations at the proposed construction site. Se/ag Se/ag 4 5 4 3 E 3 D C B A D E C B A 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 0 0 1 2 3 4 T (s) T (s) Type 1 spectrum. combined with those due to soil and site effects explained hereunder. a stronger. A Type 1 shape should be considered if remote earthquakes are strong enough (magnitude MS ≥ 5. and these contribute most to the seismic hazard. In some regions the design spectrum can be a combination of Types 1 and 2. Remote earthquakes of magnitude MS ≥ 5. A Type 2 spectral shape applies if earthquakes of magnitude MS < 5.4. but more remote earthquake or a smaller earthquake in the vicinity. but the response spectra corresponding to these two types differ because the wave propagations from remote locations or locations in the vicinity generate results which are different.5 Type 2 spectrum. Earthquakes of magnitude MS < 5. The schematic influence of the earthquake type can be seen at Figure 9.
15 0. or very stiff clay.05 0. B. TC and TD defining the elastic response spectra Type 1 and Type 2. More detailed explanations of behaviour factors are given in Section 5.10 0.0 1.15 0.2 Special studies Special studies . established at the bedrock level. C. The site type has a significant influence on the action applied at the base of a structure since S ranges from 1 (rock) to 1. underlain by stiffer material S1 Deposits consisting.20 0. or any other soil profile not included in types A – E or S1 S 1.05 0.5 TD(s) 2.4 0. Sites are classified as types A. This factor reduces the elastic spectrum Se(T) into a design spectrum Sd(T).4.5 (low dissipation) up to 6 or more (high dissipation).0 2. or ‘hazard’.0 1. including at most 5 m of weaker material at the surface. and E described by stratigraphic profiles and parameters. The value of q ranges from a minimum 1. C Deep deposits of dense or mediumdense sand. gravel or stiff clay with thickness from several tens to many hundreds of metres. but with smaller sections for the structural elements forces applied to the foundations are reduced.25 1.25 0.10 0.4 0. D. As explained in Section 2 and expressed by Figure 3. ductility is a positive attribute for the economy of the project. gravel. The merit of using this behavioural factor is that the ability of a structure to deform in the plastic range is taken into account in a purely elastic analysis of the structure under Sd(T). TB .35 TB(s) 0.35 1.6 0.25 1. Design response spectra Soil and site The layers of soil between the bedrock and the foundation level of a building modify the shape and amplitude of the elastic response spectrum. Table 2 Eurocode 8 values of parameters S. It is clear from these graphs that ignoring the soil and site conditions can lead to serious underestimations of the design forces. gradual increase of mechanical properties with depth. Different values of S are related to these different site types.2 1.8 1.2 1.2 Type 2 Earthquake TB(s) 0.2 1.15 0. Ductility of the structure If a structure submitted to an earthquake is able to deform plastically and cyclically without loss of resistance. or containing a layer at least 10 m thick.0 1. q in Eurocode 8. Type 1 Earthquake Soil A Rock or rocklike formation.25 TD(s) 1. it is said to be ‘ductile’.5 0. E A surface alluvium layer of soil similar to C or D with thickness varying between about 5 m and 20 m. as can be seen in Figure 9.30 0.8 0.15 TC(s) 0.20 0. of soft clays/silts with a high plasticity index (PI > 40) and high water content S2 Deposits of liquefiable soils. B Deposits of very dense sand. Different values are also attributed to the ‘break point’ periods TB and TC of the spectra corresponding to different sites and soils.0 2.5 2. as indicated in Table 2. several tens of metres in thickness. The ability to deform plastically without loss of resistance is taken into account by attributing to structures a ‘force reduction’ or ‘behaviour’ factor.2 1.8 (very loose soil). D Deposits of loosetomedium cohesionless soil or of predominantly softtofirm cohesive soil. because: the structure can undergo the same displacements as a structure which would remain elastic.6 2.05 TC(s) 0.0 S 1. of sensitive clays. A soil parameter S takes this influence into account so that the Peak Ground Acceleration at the foundation level is equal to Sag.0 1.
I and T. a family of design spectra Sd(T) is derived from one elastic response spectrum Se(T). for structures characterised by q=1.0 s T 1=0. Examples of design spectra for different sites and behaviour factors q. Figure 10 Top. The expressions defining the Eurocode 8 design spectra Sd(T) are given in Annex A.5 s H =100 m T 1=2.7 s 19 . Design response spectra Example of Design Spectra When considering the factors listed above. Sd(T) is a function of Se(T).7 s concrete bunker H =50 m T 1=1.q = 1.q = 4 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 T (s) H =5 m H =17 m T 1=0. Bottom.4.q = 1. S d(T) ) 4 Soil A . q and the site and soil conditions.5 built on soil types A and C and for structures characterised by q=4 built on soil Type C. Se(T) is a function of agR .5 3 Soil C .5 Soil C . Figure 10 shows examples of the design spectra in a seismic area where ag = 2 m/s2 and earthquakes of Type 1 define the seismic hazard. Periods (T) of structures related to height H (estimated by T=CtH3/4 from Table 6).
. Plastic redistribution parameter. CHARACTERISATION OF STRUCTURES SPECIFIC TO SEISMIC DESIGN Behaviour factors.5. Ductility Classes.
provided that the ductility max/ y of the elastoplastic cantilever is greater than 2. as it can be shown by comparing the behaviour of two cantilevers submitted to cyclic displacements between +dmax and dmax . .dmax. The total earthquake input energy Einput is absorbed in different ways by a structure. The displacement dmax is reached after elastic and plastic deformations.5 MEL max .dmax which is the effect represented by the curve EP at Figure 11. The second cantilever is charaterised by a plastic moment MEP = 0. If an earthquake induces cyclic displacements from +dmax to . a behaviour factor reflects the capacity of a structure to deform plastically. for instance. d max M EL Figure 11 MA EL Comparison of elastic EL and elastoplastic EP behaviour. viscous energy Eviscous and plastic deformation energy EEPdef : Einput = Ekin + Eviscous + EELdef + EEPdef EEPdef corresponds to energy permanently absorbed by the system and can be substantially more important than the other terms.5. correspond to a total energy: EEPdef = 8 EELdef. 4 cycles from +dmax to . the base moment MA reaches MA=MEL. kinetic energy Ekin. At a displacement +dmax . An earthquake generally induces several large cycles and. elastic deformation energy EELdef. That energy is never dissipated into the structure. The energy dissipated in plastic mechanisms can contribute significantly to the energy absorption in a structure submitted to an earthquake. when the structure is displaced back to d = 0. This shows that the energy absorbed in alternate plastic deformations in the cantilever with a plastic resistance MEP is largely greater than the maximum elastic deformation energy in a 2 times more resistant cantilever. That plastic moment MEP is obtained at the base A of the cantilever for = y = max/2 and a plastic hinge is formed. the energy of elastic deformation EELdef of the system is equal to 0. The conclusion is that the required section for the EP cantilever can be much smaller than the one needed to withstand elastically MEL.5 MEL . The first cantilever deforms elastically and its behaviour is represented by the EL line in the M – diagram of Figure 11. the energy EEPdef permanently dissipated into the system in one cycle (+ dmax. This should not present a problem when adequate structural steel is used. Characterisation of structures specific to seismic design Behaviour factors As explained in Section 3.dmax) is represented by the area marked with horizontal lines at Figure 11 and it is equal to: EEPdef = 2 EELdef . The energy of elastic deformation EELdef is represented by the triangle with vertical lines in the graph and is equal to: EELdef = 0. H A max y M EP max max EP 21 .
. Estimating behaviour factors is a complex problem which can however be resolved by adopting sophisticated approaches. In practical terms. and the ‘behaviour factor q’ in Eurocode 8. This shows exactly the meaning of the behaviour factor q of Eurocode 8. evaluation can be made in the example of Figure 11. the ordinates of the “design response spectrum Sd(T)” used to analyse the ductile cantilever in an elastic analysis are equal to 1/2 of the ordinates of the elastic acceleration response spectrum Se(T). to the seismic forces FEP that may be used in the design (with a conventional elastic analysis model) to still ensure a satisfactory response of the structure.5) * Stability of a K bracing depends on slender diagonal in compression. and the action effect M found in the cantilever is M = ME / 2 . If q = ME / MEP = 2 is used.5. which fails in a brittle way. Characterisation of structures specific to seismic design It is possible to achieve very dissipative steel structures if they are designed to form numerous and reliable energy dissipative zones. amongst which is ‘capacity design’ as explained in Section 8. as from TB . the resultant design shear FEP applied to a structure is derived from an elastic resultant shear FEL = Fmax using: FEP = FEL /q (Note: only valid in the range T>TB. These factors are high for dissipative structures (see Figure 12). The values of q associated to a typology of structure reflect its potential to form numerous dissipative zones (see Figure 12). the influence of q decreases down to q=1 at T = 0). The design seismic action is thus reduced in comparison to the one that would need to be considered in the analysis of a structure designed to sustain the seismic action in a purely elastic manner. then it can withstand the earthquake. Reliability of the dissipative zones results from compliance with a certain number of design conditions. This is the ‘force reduction factor R’ in AISC documents. 4 plastic hinges q=6 1 plastic diagonal q=4 no plastic mechanism q=1 (1. although approximate. All seismic codes characterise the ability of structures to dissipate energy through plastic mechanisms by means of a factor. A simple. Numerous dissipative zones will form in well designed types of earthquake resisting structures. The behaviour factor q is an approximation of the ratio of the seismic forces FEL that the structure would experience if its response was completely elastic. provided its ductility is 2 or more. P F F P F P Figure 12 Behaviour factor q reflects the energy dissipation potential of a structural type. If the section of the cantilever is designed such that its design resistance MRd ≥ ME / 2.
leave the choice between these two concepts open and define several ‘Ductility Classes’.5 (2*) Ductility classes At the outset of a project. In Eurocode 8 there are three Ductility Classes.5 (2*) 1. namely DCL (Low Ductility. choosing a higher Ductility Class also means complying with certain other requirements (Eurocode 8). see Section 6). which is related to q as indicated in Table 4. This means that the bending moments etc are reduced. and are influenced by the plastic redistribution parameter u/ 1 which characterises the structural typology. Table 3 Behaviour factors q (maximum values) STRUCTURAL TYPE DCL Moment resisting frames (MRF) Concentric diagonal bracings Concentric Vbracings Eccentric bracings Inverted pendulum MRF with concentric bracing MRF with unconnected concrete or masonry infills in contact with the frame MRF with infills isolated from the frame * the National Annex can allow q = 2 in class DCL Ductility Class DCM 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 DCH 5 u/ 4 2. and this approach results in the smallest possible design earthquake actions and seismic action effects.5 (2*) 1. often significantly. All modern seismic design codes. These values depend on the Ductility Class DC chosen for a given design. but only performing the usual static design checks (for example using Eurocode 3). Designing for class DCH the highest possible behaviour factor q is considered. However. Ductility Classes and reference values of the behaviour factor q.5 < q ≤ 2 2<q≤4 q>4 23 . the designer can choose to design structures ‘as usual’ (non dissipative) or to design ‘dissipative’ structures. Guidance on the selection of an appropriate Ductility Class for design is given in Section 8. 2 or 3 Class 1 or 2 Class 1 DCL or Low Ductility DCL or Low Ductility DCM or Medium Ductility DCH or High Ductility 1. DCM (Medium Ductility) and DCH (High Ductility).5 Required crosssectional class for dissipative elements No requirement Class 1. Characterisation of structures specific to seismic design The maximum values of q for design to Eurocode 8 are given in Table 3.5 (2*) 1. in comparison to those considered in the design of a non dissipative structure (note this is not the case for the displacements. A designer is free to choose values of q lower than those indicated in Table 3. for instance [1] [7] [8] [13].5. One of these requirements is the class of section required for the dissipative structural elements. Table 4 Design concepts.5 5 u/ 2 u/ 4 u/ 2 5 u/ 1 1 1 1 1 1.5 (2*) 1. Ductility classes and u/ 1 are defined hereafter. non dissipative structures). Design Concepts for Structural Behaviour Non dissipative Non dissipative Dissipative Dissipative Ductility Class Reference behaviour factor q q ≤ 1. Designing a structure to be class DCL means taking into consideration the highest design forces.5 (2*) 1.
Characterisation of structures specific to seismic design Plastic redistribution parameter u/ 1 The parameter 1 is the multiplier of the horizontal seismic design action needed to reach the plastic resistance in one part of the structure.6 . u / 1 may be obtained from nonlinear static ‘pushover’ global analysis. u is the multiplier of the horizontal seismic design action needed to form a global mechanism.2 . but is limited to 1. and associated standard values of parameter u/ 1 (from Eurocode 8) X or V concentric bracings and eccentric bracings designed to Eurocode 8: u / 1= 1. Values of u / 1 taken from Eurocode 8 are provided in Figure 13.5. Figure 13 Location of dissipative zones defined as a design objective in order to form global plastic mechanisms.
6. Torsion. Resistance condition. Limitation of second order effects. Methods of analysis. Displacements in dissipative structures. 25 . ASPECTS OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN CHECKS COMMON TO ALL STRUCTURAL TYPES Seismic mass.
B : office Cat.i . accumulation of goods Cat.5 1.8 0.C: meeting rooms. . for the resistance checks of these elements values of AEd are combined to the other action’s effects in order to establish the design value of the action effect Ed : Ed = Gk.8 0.j « + » P « + » 2i. because they are not rigidly connected to the structure.0 0. F : traffic (vehicle≤30 kN) 2.A : residence Cat.i is used to estimate a likely value of service loads and to take into account that some masses do not follow perfectly the moves of the structure.3 = 0.6 . Aspects of seismic analysis and design checks common to all structural types Seismic mass As the periods T are function of the masses M.6 0.j + E.Qki The coefficient E. For example. in an office buildings in which all levels are occupied independently: Specific use Cat.i Storey Roof Storeys with correlated occupancies Independently occupied storeys 1.15 Values of 2.i is computed as: E= 2.0 Table 5 Coefficients 2. a correct evaluation of the masses present in a structure at the time of the earthquake is necessary. It can be noticed that the coefficient E. A ‘seismic mass’ is defined.6.5x0.i et 0.3 0. E.6 0.Qki « + » AEd 0.D : shopping area Cat. based on a weight W calculated as: W= Gk. places where people congregate Cat. in particular at the foundations the forces Ptot and Vtot used in the verification of limitation of second order effects the seismic action effects AEd generated in the structural elements by the earthquake.i = The seismic mass is used to determine: the global effects due to an earthquake at a given level of the structure.i and are listed at Table 5.3 0.E : storage.i which is used to define the mass of the service load present on average over the building height can be much lower than 1.
The earthquake action is represented by accelerograms (minimum 3).6. Similarly to the ‘equivalent’ force F applied to the mass m of the simple cantilever. through the use of a behaviour factor. It is applied essentially: to verify or revise the overstrength ratio values u/ 1 to estimate the expected plastic mechanisms and the distribution of damage to assess the structural performance of existing or retrofitted buildings 4) Nonlinear timehistory analysis is a dynamic analysis obtained through direct numerical integration of the differential equations of motion. it is possible to define in multistorey buildings a set of ‘storey’ forces Fi. q Reference value Reference value /1.2 Reference value Reference value Reference value /1. This is a linear method in which the inelastic behaviour is considered in the definition of the design spectrum. be they regular or irregular in plan and/or elevation. 3) The ‘Pushover’ analysis is a nonlinear static analysis carried out under constant gravity loads and monotonically increasing horizontal loads. 2) The ‘lateral force’ method is a simplified version of the modal response method and is a static analysis which can only be employed for regular structures which respond essentially in one single mode of vibration. Details are given in Section 7 (Approximate method for seismic analysis and design). depending on certain regularity criteria (see Table 6). Aspects of seismic analysis and design checks common to all structural types Methods of analysis Several methods can be used to analyse the response of a structure subjected to an earthquake. This type of analysis is used for research and code background studies. The choice of method depends on the structure and on the objectives of the analysis.The modal response method and the lateral force method of analysis can be applied to planar models of the structure. 1) The standard method used in design is the modal response using a design spectrum. This method is applicable to all types of buildings. which are applied at each storey level and which induce the same deformed shape as the earthquake. Regularity Plan Yes Yes Limited No No Permissible Simplification Elevation Yes No Yes Yes No Model 2 planar 2 planar 2 planar 1 model 3D 1 model 3D Linearelastic Analysis Lateral force Modal response Lateral force Lateral force Modal response Behaviour factor Table 6 Structural regularity and permissible simplifications in seismic analysis (Eurocode 8).2 & reduced u/ 1 27 .
E F d=M.6 x Le X is the distance in plan between the seismic resisting structure considered and centre of mass CM of the building in plan.6. the CMCR distance and on the accidental eccentricity in either a + or . The effects of accidental eccentricity can be found applying at every level a torque computed as the product of the storey force by the CMCR distance. there is an uncertainty on the exact location of the CM and design codes impose consideration in the analysis of an ‘accidental’ eccentricity equal to 5% of the building length perpendicular to the earthquake direction being considered. Given that the definition of behaviour factors is based on the hypothesis of equal displacements in the real (elastoplastic) structure and in the reference elastic structure (Figures 11 and 14).sense. the computation of torsional effects resulting from the non – coincidence of CM and CR can only be done in a 3D model. In symmetrical buildings with peripheral resisting structures. The effects of those two terms of torsion are then “combined”.S d(T) F e = M. which coincides with the mass centre CM of the storey.d y . Figure 14 Computation of real displacement ds . ground movement has rotation aspects which affect very long structures (several hundred meters) even in a symmetrical building. which means that effects of accidental eccentricity have to be considered with + and – signs. In structures symmetrical in plan in which CM and CR have the same position.3. In irregular structures. real displacements ds are found by simply multiplying values of de by q : ds = q de . Aspects of seismic analysis and design checks common to all structural types Torsion Earthquakes generate torsional movements of structures for three reasons: an eccentricity can exist at every storey between the storey’s resultant force. reduced by q factor ds : real displacement d d s=q. and Le is the distance between two extreme seismic resisting of torsion have to be determined based on structures. 1 0. the effects of accidental eccentricity can be approximated by amplifying the translational action effects by a factor : Displacements in dissipative structures A modal response considering a design earthquake is a conventional linear analysis in which the action is reduced by a behaviour factor q. in addition to the computed CMCR distance. The effects under consideration.S e(T) M F d = F e/q D C de = dy de : elastic displacement from the elastic analysis under response spectrum. measured The centre of rigidity CR is the point where the application of a force generates only a translation perpendicularly to the seismic action of the building parallel to that force. is of the order: = 1. also measured perpendicularly to the seismic action under consideration. and the centre of rigidity CR of that storey. The displacements found are the elastic part de of the real elastoplastic displacements (Figure 14).
and Ed is the design value of the action effect due to the seismic design situation: then P.3. second order effects are taken into account in the value of Ed (see below).10 Ed Rd Rd is the design resistance of the element. Vtot is the total seismic shear at the storey under consideration (which is the sum of all the storey forces at and above the level under consideration). dr is the difference in lateral displacements (drift) ds at the top and bottom of the storey under consideration (ds = q de ). Ei .) effects. Figure 15 Parameters used in the control of 2nd order effects. Checking this at every storey mitigates the risk of a ‘soft storey’ (see Section 8). d r = q.effects are assumed to be negligible.1 < ≤ 0.j « + » P « + » 2i.Qki « + » 1 AEd Gk j " " .). and h is the storey height (see Figure 15). If 0. Ptot is the total gravity load at and above the storey.d re V tot h V P tot N V N Ptot = Vtot = Ngravity Vseismic 29 . Qk i . If necessary. Vtot h 0.6. Ed = Gk.2 then the second order effects may be taken into account by multiplying the action effects by 1/(1 . second order moments Ptot dr are compared to the first order moments Vtot h at every storey. and redistribution of bending moments is permitted. determined considering the seismic mass If = Ptot d r . noting that should never exceed 0. Aspects of seismic analysis and design checks common to all structural types Resistance condition The resistance condition for all structural elements including connections is: Limitation of second order effects The uncertainties of seismic design require the limitation of second order (or P. In Eurocode 8.
Simple elastic analysis method. Estimation of the fundamental period T1 of a building. . APPROXIMATE METHOD FOR SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Choice of units.7.
Example: a vertical mode of vibration of a floor in a structure submitted to the horizontal component of the earthquake. the contribution of vibration modes higher than the fundamental one is negligible and the structure responds like a vertical cantilever of period T1. Each model represents one of the n resisting frames parallel to the direction of the earthquake being considered. masses are defined in kg (not in kN). one in the x direction. As noted above. a ‘lateral force method’ can be applied to the earthquake action and to the analysis of the action effects on the structure. The resultant seismic horizontal force Fb. see Section 5).85. care is needed to ensure current use of units for m.85. The fundamental period T1 can be assessed by considering the physical relationships of single degree of freedom systems. lengths in m. For the regular structure described above. m is the seismic mass allocated to the frame being considered. Such a method comprises steps S1 to S7 as described below: S1: evaluate the period T1 of the fundamental vibration mode using an expression from Table 7. Approximate Method for Seismic Analysis and Design Choice of units The units used in a dynamic analysis must belong to a coherent system of physical units to void errors that can easily be of the order of 1000%! For instance using the International System of Units. The factor expresses the fact that part of the mass of the structure vibrates into local modes and does not 31 . Static elastic analysis or the ‘lateral force’ method A structure that is regular in both plan and elevation. Based on the above. Young’s modulus in N/m2 and time (periods T1) in s. or ‘statistical’ relationships deduced from the analysis of many existing designs (see Table 7). in which the masses are regularly distributed and in which stiff horizontal diaphragms are present can be modelled by means of two planar models.7. The seismic mass m allocated to that frame is 1/n of the total seismic mass of the building. can be evaluated as: contribute to the mass involved in global modes. Sd (T) is a design spectrum (spectrum reduced by a behaviour factor q selected by the designer. S2: read the design pseudo acceleration Sd (T1) from the design spectrum S3: compute the seismic resultant design base shear Fb: = 0. Fb. forces in N. the other in the y direction. Sd (T) is the design spectrum (see Section 4). and Sd (T1) Fb S d T1 m m is the seismic mass allocated to the analysed frame. Taking the total mass into consideration would be penalising in the evaluation of the global shear Fb and one considers = 0.
The accelerations increase with height and are distributed in accordance with the deformed shape of the structure. with consideration of P∆ effects etc. mj are the storey seismic masses.7. namely the beams and columns. by using a static analysis S6: combine those seismic action effects to other action effects (gravity loading in the seismic situation. S6 and S7 can only be carried out once the dimensions of the structural elements are defined. limitation of displacements and of P∆ effects etc. Approximate Method for Seismic Analysis and Design S4: distribute Fb over the height of the structure into a number of ‘storey forces’ S5: establish internal forces and displacements of the structure under the force Fb. if this shape is approximated by a triangle (See Figure 16) then the horizontal storey force Fi at each storey i situated at a level zi above ground is: In this expression mi. Provided that the structure falls within the limits of compliance of the regularity criteria. Fi Fb z i mi z j mj Figure 16 Lateral force method. shear. This means that all the design checks can be made. The analysis then provides all the action effects. If all the storey seismic masses are equal: Fi Fb zi zj N = 4 storeys Running this type of analysis requires a first guess of the ‘sizes’ of the structural components. etc) S7: carry out all seismic checks required for the structural elements and connections. resistance of structural elements. bending moments. F4 F3 F2 F1 W4 W3 W2 W1 h2 Fb . displacement de. Steps S5. (See Sections 6 and 10 to 14). The storey forces Fi are related to the accelerations that each storey in the structure undergoes. then the ‘lateral force method’ is one of the analyses accepted by seismic codes.
Approximate Method for Seismic Analysis and Design Estimation of the fundamental period T1 of a building For structures that can be ‘represented’ by a simple cantilever. 33 . Approximate Relationship (Eurocode 8).075 for eccentrically braced steel frames Ct = 0. For more complicated structures. but this may be preferred as a first design approach. Designers should of course not forget that these are only approximate relationships. Figure 10 shows the relationship between building height H and period T1 as deduced from Table 7 for a steel moment frame. T1 Ct H 3/ 4 H building height in m measured from foundation or top of rigid basement.24 M B )H 3 Mass M lumped at top of a vertical cantilever 3 EI of height H and of total mass MB. ‘statistical’ studies have defined empirical relationships between the height of the structure. Ct = 0.085 for moment resisting steel space frames Ct = 0.050 for all other structures Approximate Relationship (Eurocode 8). Vertical cantilever of height H and of total mass MB Exact formula for Single Degree of Freedom Oscillator. which is an upper bound value for most structures. Period T1 Reference structure T1 T1 T1 2 2 2 MH 3 3 EI 0 .7. Mass M lumped at top of a vertical cantilever of height H. One safesided approach consists of considering for Sd the ordinate of the horizontal plateau of the response spectrum Sd(TB) = Sd(TC). T1 2 d d : elastic horizontal displacement of top of building in m under gravity loads applied horizontally. (M 0 . the use of physical (exact) formulae is possible because their structural form corresponds well to the hypotheses behind these formulae. Table 7 Formulae for the estimation of the fundamental period T1 of a building.24 M B H 3 3 EI Exact formula for Single Degree of Freedom Oscillator. Cantilever mass MB = 0 Exact formula for Single Degree of Freedom Oscillator. the form of the structural system and its fundamental period T1 (see Table 7). Such an approach may result in earthquake effects and therefore the sizes of structural elements being somewhat overestimated.
ARCHITECTURE OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Basic features of an earthquake resistant building. . Primary structure and secondary structure. Principles of conceptual design of an earthquake resistant structure. Objectives of conceptual design.8.
their connections to the vertical frames must be designed to carry the storey forces. Stiff and resistant horizontal structures. Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings Basic features of an earthquake resistant building All buildings are ‘boxes’ and when subjected to earthquakes they work in the way sketched in Figure 17. Figure 17 How structures work as ‘boxes’ (from reference [18]) Storey forces are ‘attracted’ by the diaphragms… which distribute them to the vertical resisting structures… which transfer the forces down to the foundations. 35 . allow the horizontal forces at each storey to be distributed into the vertical resisting structures. called diaphragms.8. Vertical resisting structures in the x and y directions attract the horizontal storey forces and transmit them to the foundations.
the contribution to lateral stiffness and resistance of the secondary structure should not exceed 15% of that of the primary structure.8. Objective of conceptual design A good conceptual design will enable the development of a structural system to resist earthquakes that has low additional costs in comparison to a nonseismic design. whilst remaining capable of carrying the gravity loading. Primary structure Secondary structure . The principles of this conceptual design only apply to the ‘primary’ resisting system (as this alone resists earthquakes). Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings Primary structure – Secondary structure The vertical load resisting structure may comprise a main or ‘primary’ system designed to carry the total earthquake effects. there will be almost total freedom in the design of the ‘secondary’ structure. In particular. the members of the secondary structure and their connections must be able to accommodate the displacements of the primary structure responding to an earthquake. which may be the more important for the exterior aspects of the building. Furthermore. Figure 18 Primary and secondary structures. allowing much more architectural freedom in the form of the building. and a ‘secondary’ structure which is designed to carry only gravity loads (see Figure 18). The physical reality of the frame must reflect this distinction.
which allows short and direct transmission of the inertia forces created by the distributed masses of the building. a symmetric layout of vertical structures providing the earthquake resistance is appropriate for the achievement of uniformity. uniformity. These joints should be wide enough to prevent pounding of the individual units during a seismic event. use of strong and stiff diaphragms at storey levels. It is an important principle. Structural systems distributed close to the periphery are the most effective at resisting torsion. If the building configuration is either symmetric or quasisymmetric. and minimises the torsional moments applied to the building (see Figure 19). analysis.8. Structural simplicity is characterised by the presence of clear and direct paths for the transmission of the seismic forces. A close relationship between the distribution of masses and the distribution of resistance and stiffness eliminates large eccentricities between mass and stiffness. designing. bidirectional resistance and stiffness (torsional resistance and stiffness). If necessary. because the modelling. symmetry. structural simplicity. redundancy. uniformity may be realised by subdividing the entire building by seismic joints into dynamically independent units. Favourable inplan shapes action reaction torsion Don't do Do 37 . detailing and construction of simple structures are subject to many less uncertainties. Uniformity in plan is obtained by an even distribution of the structural elements. Figure 19 Symmetrical inplan shapes reduce torsion. Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings Principles of conceptual design of earthquake resistant structures The guiding principles governing conceptual design for resistance to earthquakes are. and use of adequate foundations. so that the prediction of their seismic behaviour structurally is much more reliable.
Uniformity over the height also requires that non structural elements do not interfere with the structural elements to localise the plastic deformations.8. infills Figure 20 Regularity over the height reduces risk of ‘soft storey’ failure. action action reactions d Small lever arm of reactions Small lever arm of reactions reactions d Great lever arm of reactions Do Great lever arm of reactions Don't do . The use of evenly distributed structural elements increases redundancy and facilitates more redistribution of the action effects and widespread energy dissipation across the entire structure. such as in the socalled ‘soft storey’ mechanism (Figure 20). Its use also spreads the reactions at the foundations (Figure 21). Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings Uniformity over the height of the building avoids the occurrence of sensitive zones where concentrations of stress and large ductility demands might cause premature collapse. soft storey plastic hinges Figure 21 Redundancy and wide bases better redistribute the seismic action effects at the foundation level.
However. which tend to stress the different structural elements in a nonuniform way. containing a foundation slab and a cover slab. Particular care should be taken in cases with very elongated inplan shapes and large floor openings. If individual foundation elements like footings or piles are used. When considering the stiffness of the structure a balance has to be made. The general importance of diaphragms in the resistance of buildings is explained above. A rigid.8. displacements will be greater and the design must prevent excessive displacements that might lead to either instabilities due to second order effects under the design earthquake. Arrangements in which the structural systems resisting the seismic action are distributed close to the periphery of the building are the most effective. The structural elements should ensure similar resistance and stiffness in both main directions. as can be directly concluded from the acceleration response spectrum. Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings Horizontal seismic motion is a bidirectional phenomenon and the building structure must be able to resist horizontal actions in any direction. The presence of floor and roof diaphragms is especially relevant in cases of complex and nonuniform layouts of the vertical structural systems. They should also be designed to reduce problems in case of differential settlement under seismic action. The action effects in terms of forces may be reduced in a more flexible structure. or where systems with different horizontal deformation characteristics are used together (for example in dual or mixed systems). 39 . The building structure should possess adequate torsional resistance and stiffness in order to limit torsional movements. achieves this objective. or instabilities due to excessive damage (cracks) under more frequent earthquakes. boxtype or cellular foundation. especially those located near vertical structural elements. they should be tied together by the foundation slab or by tiebeams. The foundations should ensure that the whole building is subjected to a uniform seismic excitation.
Selecting a typology of structure for design.9. . Capacity design applied to bars with holes. Designing reliable dissipative zones. DESIGNING DISSIPATIVE STRUCTURES Principle. Non dissipative local mechanisms. Design of non dissipative elements in a dissipative structure. The many local dissipative mechanisms available in steel structures. Design criteria for dissipative structures. Capacity design applied to connections. Selecting a Ductility Class for design.
41 . will be over 15. The design criteria are also specific to each type of frame. there should be an homogeneous overstrength of the dissipative zones. This will be achieved by the application of the ‘capacity design’ method. but they encompass the following three generic requirements: the resistance Rd of the dissipative zones should be greater than the calculated action effects Ed . related to the structural elements or connections that are specific to the structure. Designing Dissipative Structures Design criteria for dissipative structures The general design objective when considering dissipative structures is to form numerous and reliable dissipative zones. The aimed for global plastic mechanisms for different structural systems will have specific features related to these systems. max / y . The global mechanism selected as the overall design objective will depend on the type of structure.10. in order to give enough resistance to the structure: Rd ≥ Ed the ductility of the dissipative zones should be high enough to accommodate the formation of a global plastic mechanism which is stable up to the displacements that will be imposed by the earthquake the other structural elements should be designed to remain elastic and stable. Conditions 2 and 3 are more general and are discussed below. If correct structural steel grades are used then the material elongation will be over 15 % and the ductility. Other requirements are formulated for each type of structure. They are considered in Sections 10 to 17. and other requirements are correct toughness at working temperature (minimum 27 J in a Charpy V notch test) and weldability. brittle failures and/or elastic instabilities at places in the structure other than the dissipative zones. as explained in this paragraph. Condition 3: avoid plastic deformations. In conclusion. the following three ‘conditions’ must be addressed: Condition 1: define the intended global plastic mechanism and its dissipative zones. clearly the weld material and bolts must also be adequate. In addition to the steel itself. to ensure a global plastic mechanism forms rather than a partial one. a need for high elongation requires fu / fy >1. ArcelorMittal steels complying with the necessary requirements are described in Annex B. Condition 2: design and ensure reliable dissipative zones at the selected places. The adequacy of the steel is related to the properties needed to achieve ductility of the structural elements. Designing reliable dissipative zones Dissipative zones have to be made of a ductile material. defined as y.9.
and plates will bend in order to form yield lines. plastic or brittle. Various dissipative and non dissipative local mechanisms possible in steel structures are shown in Figure 22. LOCAL MECHANISMS DISSIPATIVE NON DISSIPATIVE N Compression or tension yielding V Failure of bolt in tension M V Yielding in shear M Plastic hinge Plastic deformations in narrow zone exhaust available material ductility F Ovalization of hole M Local buckling (elastic) F F Slippage with friction M M Figure 22 Dissipative and non dissipative local plastic mechanisms. if premature buckling is prevented. Designing Dissipative Structures The many local dissipative mechanisms possible in steel structures The design must ensure the development of local plastic mechanisms that are known to be dissipative.9. The elements must be in pure tension. because they are not made of a very ductile material and may be subjected to bending when a connection deforms. and avoid non dissipative. bars yielding in compression. mechanisms. plates yielding in shear. High strength bolts in tension should not be used as dissipative components. An adequate class of section must be chosen. Reliable energy dissipation within elements can be achieved by: bars yielding in tension. This requires the designer to be aware of the dissipative and non dissipative local mechanisms that are possible. with the design avoiding local stress concentrations or excessive section reductions. Stocky elements with < 0. Plastic bending or shear of components of the connection . provided flange buckling takes place at large enough deformations.2 can develop plasticity in compression. plastic bending. which provide a stable ductile mechanism.
This problem is illustrated in Figure 23 for the case of bending applied to a bar either without (Figure 23a) or with cover plates which are not connected to the column (Figure 23b).a = 6. and these may be below the expectations of the designer and the requirements of the code. pretensioning of bolts is prescribed for seismic applications.0338 x 200 = 6. as: u = Du /( db /2) Design ‘a’ corresponds to a plastic rotation capacity u. friction between plates.76 mrad. Friction dissipates energy and prevents destructive shocks in the bolts between loose parts of a connection. Du.b = 0. then.Rd in the section reinforced by the cover plates. and is a very stable and ductile mechanism (indeed the opposite of failure of the bolts themselves in shear. yielding of the flange only take place on a 20 mm length. yielding of the flange takes place over the length of a plastic hinge. that means equal to 200 mm . For this reason. Even when appropriate materials and construction are adopted.76 mm In the beam with a cover plate –Figure 23b. The ultimate elongation of that 20 mm zone is equal to: Du.premature local or global buckling plastic strains occurring in a region that is too small (see below).. Design ‘b’ corresponds to a plastic rotation capacity u.a 43 . it is recommended that the design shear resistance of the bolts is more than 1. in the connections. Figure 23 Localisation of plastic strains in a small zone leads to low ductility failures.38 % In the beam without cover plate. for an S355 steel: u = 20 y = 20 x 355/210000 = 3. This occurs when local plastic compression strains are applied by bolts to a plate made of ductile structural steel. this is a ‘localisation of strains’ or ‘stress concentration’ situation. Designing Dissipative Structures ovalisation of bolt holes.9. 200 20 mm M 200 M M D Du. which is of the order of the beam depth. Bearing resistance will then be the true mode of failure of the bolted connection.0338 x 20 = 0. which is greater than US or European code requirements for dissipative zones in bending(25 to 40 mrad). if they are designed to develop one or more of the dissipative mechanisms listed above. because even if the bolted connection is designed to be ‘nonslip’ there is always relative movement between the two assembled plates in an earthquake condition. Non dissipative local mechanisms Non dissipative behaviour of potentially dissipative zones can result from: . the rest of the beam remaining elastic due to a significantly greater plastic modulus Wpl.6 mrad.2 times the design bearing resistance.Figure 23a.676 /100 = 6.a = 0.a = 0. a design that generates high elongations over a short zone will result in very low deformation of the component. For bolted shear connections.. which is far less than US or European code requirements and its failure will be said ‘brittle’.b .b can be translated into ultimate rotation capacity u.67 mm Those elongations Du.76 /100 = 67.a and Du. The ultimate elongation of that 200 mm zone is equal to: Du. If the ultimate strain u of the steel beam is equal to 20 times the yield strain y ( y = fy / E and the minimum value of u / y prescribed for structural steel in seismic applications is 15). or failure of the welds).
P P ductile link Edi Rdi Edi Other links Edj (Rdi / Edi) Edj ( =1. the dissipative element is designed To highlight the concept. effects Ed in sections are computed This concept is known as ‘capacity design’. The mechanism are identified. Sdj. action effect resulting from the other a Rdi Sdj. for example tensile strength of the ductile link is subject buckling of an adjacent structural to uncertainties of material strength. at places in the The potential dissipative zones are structure other than the dissipative zones the defined as part of a global dissipative components adjacent to a dissipative mechanism mechanism (which is prescribed as a design have to be designed so that they have greater objective by the code for each type of resistance than the dissipative mechanism. the ductile weak link at the level of ductility Design of non dissipative elements in a dissipative structure envisaged. will ensure that they remain elastic and stable The structure is analysed and the action when overall deformations are taking place. In that expression. the chain shown in such that its resistance Rdi is greater Figure 24 is often presented. their failure can be prevented if their of the component intended to be strength is in excess of the real strength Rdi of dissipative (the weak link or ‘fuse’). To achieve adequate sizing. G in which in which is a safety factor. This structure (see Sections 10 to 17)).9. In every potential dissipative zone I. real and nominal strengths are different. and indeed brittle the capacity design involves the following steps: failures and/or elastic instabilities. G IfIf Edj=Edi : RdJ Figure 30 shows the influence of capacity design in the case of a beam to column connection in a moment resisting frame. Figure 24 Principle of Capacity Design. RdJ of the J non dissipative elements of dissipative zone i has to be greater than the computed action effects EdJ amplified to take into account the fact that the real action effect in the dissipative element is the plastic resistance Rdi and not the action effect Edi determined from the conventional elastic analysis of the structure. To avoid plastic deformations. + means “combined with” in the sense of seeking the realistic worst case situation. Figure 45 shows the influence of capacity design in the case of the connection of a diagonal in a concentrically braced frame. Whilst the other links are presumed to RdJ is greater than the plastic resistance be brittle. because element. or failure of bolt in tension.2) . The resistances RdJ of the non dissipative elements should thus comply with: RdJ > Rdi EdJ Edi Sdj. The J potential failure modes of the therefore one ductile link may be used to elements adjacent to the dissipative achieve ductility for the entire chain. and The sizes of those adjacent elements because of strain hardening effects at high are defined such that their resistance strains.G is the action effect resulting from the other actions included in the seismic combination. The strength than the action effect Edi: Rdi ≥ Edi of a chain is the strength of its weakest link. using a reduced response spectrum. Figure 24 shows how the minimum resistance required for the brittle links is established using the ‘capacity design’ principle. Designing Dissipative Structures If a standard elastic analysis is adopted for a structure.
in which holes are drilled for connection purposes.25 from Eurocode 8 means that the estimation is: Rd.1 ov Rfy Rfy is the plastic resistance of the connected dissipative member. Dissipative zones may be located in the connections. ov is the material overstrength factor explained above. When full penetration butt welds are used they automatically satisfy the capacity design criterion. Many design rules related to specific structures are direct consequences of this principle. Designing Dissipative Structures Correct application of the capacity design principle requires: the identification of all possible failure modes a correct evaluation of the stresses and strains sustained by the various components of the plastic zones. like those explained in the following two paragraphs. welds. In this context. but it must be demonstrated that they have adequate ductility and resistance. an underestimation of the plastic resistance of the dissipative zone reduces safety. are of a more general nature. As an indicative value. ov in Eurocode 8.real = 1. The rule says that in order to achieve a plastic mechanism using the bar in tension.0 et M2 = 1. G G G Capacity design applied to connections The design rule for rigid full strength connections is common to all types of structures.25 (EN199311: 2004). and plates. Capacity design applied to bars with holes There is one case of possible localisation of strains in a structural element for which an explicit design rule is provided in the codes. based on the design yield strength. This concerns bars in tension.nominal. A correct estimation of the yield strength of the plastic zones is enforced by seismic codes. bolts. ov = 1. The rule applies to non dissipative connections using fillet welds or bolts. When this is the case the connected members should have sufficient overstrength to allow the development of cyclic yielding in the connections. a correct estimation of the yield strength of the plastic zones and of the adjacent zones. This condition can only be satisfied if the ratio fu / fy is high enough. 45 . the failure resistance of the section with holes Anet (net section) must be higher than the yield resistance of the section A without holes (gross section): A fy / M0 < Anet fu / M2 M0 and M2 are partial safety coefficients respectively for the gross section and forthe net section . which is however the case with structural steels (fu / fy > 1. which compel the designer to evaluate the real plastic resistance by means of a coefficient indicating the ratio between real and nominal (that is ‘design’) yield strength of the steel. Ry in US or Canadian codes. because Rdi / Edi is underestimated.10). the recommended values are: M0 = 1.9. and says that the resistance Rd of non dissipative connections should satisfy: Rd ≥ 1. An example of a dissipative connection developed with the support of ArcelorMittal is presented in 12. steel sections. Providing material with excessive yield strength fy for the dissipative zones may be unsafe.25 Rd. Some rules. A strict application of capacity design is essential to ensure the reliability of dissipative structures in seismic areas.
while DCM and DCL would be most appropriate for medium and low zones respectively. with stiffness that is similar to that of frames with concentric bracing. This situation is more likely to occur in areas of low seismic activity. if a structure is of high mass and stiff. The seismic code defines the seismic action. and there are restrictions on the classes of sections. therefore a DCL design is favourable. Frames with concentric bracing are stiff by nature. In such a case. Moment resisting frames are flexible structures. Designing a ‘dissipative’ structure normally results in a more competitive solution. and the behaviour factor is minimal (q equal to 1. this is not always the case because the seismic checks may not be critical. Frames with eccentric bracing combine the high energy dissipation capacity and behaviour factors q associated with moment resisting frames. Designing Dissipative Structures Selecting a Ductility Class for design At the start of a project the designer is free to choose the Ductility Class which he/she wants to achieve with the structure. To help select an appropriate structure type for design. However. If the structure is essentially empty. . Another situation concerns the use of industrialised ‘system building’. One way to avoid this situation consists of designing stiff façade frames as the primary structures. with checks for resistance to gravity and wind loads etc. Selecting a typology of structure for the design All types of structure can be designed to resist earthquakes and fulfil all other design requirements. and none of the checks from the seismic code need be applied because the expectation is that all the structural components will behave elastically in an earthquake condition. and for flexible structures for which the serviceability limit states can be the most important. but the most cost effective solutions satisfy all design criteria more or less equally.5). This generally results in significant overstrength as far as resistance to an earthquake is concerned. capacity design results in dissipative sections which have greater overstrength. Requirements on the materials and classes of section are also minor. A non dissipative or low ductility class DCL structure is designed following the basic design codes. In such cases. The choice of a Ductility Class for a given design also depends on the mass/volume ratio of the structure. on the connections.9. which then lead to overstrength and more weight for the other structural elements and the foundations. so they should be placed around the periphery of the building as stiff primary structures to resist earthquakes. on the materials and on the control of the material properties. although the design process itself is more onerous. the wind resultant force Fw can be greater than the design base shear Fb determined with the behaviour factor of a non dissipative structure (q = 1. with some eventual minor local plastic zones. while the interior frames are secondary structures essentially carrying gravity loading alone. where thin walled sections and/or partial strength connections may be used. Conversely. Frames with bracing are rather invasive as the bracing may cut into free space. for example an industrial shed. The weight of the structural elements can be substantially reduced. a DCH or DCM design can be the best option. so designing for high ductility is of no interest. but their behaviour factors q are not the highest possible (see Table 3). while the interior secondary structures carry the gravity loading. and their design is most often governed by the limitation of deformations. because the behaviour factor q is greater (in the range of 3 to 6). even in areas of low seismic activity. providing greater resistance is probably simpler than providing more ductility. a seismic design also has to comply with all ‘classical’ requirements (such as limitation of beam deflection under gravity loading) and these may govern the size of sections needed. It can be concluded qualitatively that class DCH solutions would in general be best in zones of high seismic activity. the following typology may be useful. A dissipative structure (Ductility Class DCM or DCH) is designed for a seismic action which is lower than that used in a DCL design.5).
Other requirements. Redistribution of bending moments in beams. Design of reduced beam sections. Connections of columns to foundations. Plastic hinges. Design criteria. Recommended designs for beam to column connections. SEISMIC DESIGN OF MOMENT RESISTING FRAMES Design objective for moment resisting frames (or MRFs). US and European Ductility Classes.10. 47 .
5 L s 0. and even if it does then collapse may be limited to that beam alone.10. It does allow plastic hinges in the columns at the base of the frame and at the top of columns at roof level. Figure 25 a) A frame with ‘weak beamsstrong columns’ b) Plastic hinges in columns result in larger P∆ effects. A partial failure at a beam end does not necessarily lead to collapse of the beam. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames Design objective for dissipative moment resisting frames (MRF) The global design objective for dissipative moment resisting frames is to form plastic hinges in either the beams or their connections to the columns. a partial failure in a column can easily be catastrophic for the complete structure. but not in the columns. Furthermore.5 L a) b) c) . However. (EN199811:2004). c) Parameters used in the definition of the capacity of rotation in Eurocode 8. It has several positive features: Partial mechanisms of the ‘soft storey’ type are avoided (see Figure 20). Such an objective leads to a solution that is often called a ‘weak beamstrong column’ (WBSC) frame. this is not the case with hinges in columns due to the interaction of moments and axial forces. Whereas plastic hinges in beams take advantage of the full plastic moment resistance of the section. as shown in Figure 25 a). plastic hinges in columns would create problems in terms of both column and global stability. D D 0. P∆ effects are less important if hinges are not in the columns (Figure 25 a and b).
** the National Annex can allow q = 2 in class DCL 49 .5 1.S.10.S.S.S. which shows the maximum value of the behaviour factor associated with each class and some of their respective requirements. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames U.5 – 2. Plastic Rotation Capacity mrad * ____ ____ 20 25 40 35 Capacity Design of Connections Low Ductility U.0** 4. (Figure 25 c) Table 8 U. Europe High Ductility U. the effect on ∂ of the elastic deformation of the column on a storey height is added and thus included in the capacity of rotation. and European Ductility Classes for moment resisting frames U.5 4 8 6 Req.S. connection and column is evaluated by tests followed by data processing. In the USA. Europe OMF Ordinary Moment Frame DCL Ductility Class Low IMF Intermediate Moment Frame DCM Ductility Class Medium SMF Special Moment Frame DCH Ductility Class High Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes * The rotation capacity provided by a given combination of beam. The definitions of rotation capacity are slightly different in Europe and in the U. In Europe. MRF Ductility Classes Country Designation Of Moment Frame Force Reduction Factor R (US) Behaviour Factor q (EU) 3.5L in which ∂ is the deflection at midspan of the beam and L the beam span shown at Figure 25 c). and European Ductility Classes for moment resisting frames. and European Ductility Classes for moment resisting frames are defined in Table 8.S. the rotation p is defined as: p = ∂ / 0.S. Europe Medium Ductility U.
3 is chosen to ensure that the beams are sufficiently weaker than columns to always ensure the formation of a global mechanism.10.3 M Rb In this expression the moments of resistance of the columns take into account interaction between moments and axial forces. However. has to be performed in order to validate its design. In this expression the moments of resistance . The design criterion is that at all the beam to column joints the sum MRb of the design values of the moments of resistance of the beams and the sum MRc of the moments of resistance of the columns framing a joint should satisfy: Redistribution of bending moments in beams Under a combination of gravity loading and seismic loading effects. bending moments in the beams may be redistributed according to and within the limits prescribed by Eurocode 3. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames Design criteria for dissipative moment resisting frames The moment resistance Mpl. the limitation of redistribution to the prescribed 15% is not respected). In this expression the moments of Any reductions in section size will clearly make the structure more flexible than the original design. that is by the combination of: the moment MEd.Rd at beam ends should be greater than the applied moments MEd : Mpl. due to the capacity design condition: M Rc 1. and the most unfavourable combination of these should be considered. A further analysis of the structure.G established by the analysis of the structure submitted to the maximum local gravity loads G + 2i Q Equilibrium at beam to column intersections means that the sum of the beam moments MEb due to seismic action must be equal to the sum of the column moments MEc. The coefficient 1. and its response will be changed.E established by the analysis of the structure submitted to seismic action. Figure 26 (top) shows such a redistribution of bending moments (but for clarity of the graph. which provides another distribution of moments in equilibrium with the external applied actions. considering the resistance modifications made. The choice of steel sections must be related to the absolute maximum values. A redistribution of moments consists in changing the level of the reference line of the diagram of bending moments. Redistribution can bring about a reduction in the design moments of the beams.Rd ≥ MEd MEd results from the seismic combination defined for the check of resistance of structural elements (see 6. which is an elastic analysis under an earthquake action reduced by a behaviour factor q the moment MEd. If the beams are weaker than the columns they yield first and behave like ductile ‘fuses’. following a general statement in Eurocode 8. allowing the use of smaller steel sections and indeed the column sections may also be reduced.3 M Rb M Rc 1. the values of the maximum positive and negative bending moments in the beams can be very different.). When partial strength beam to column connections are used then MRb represents the sum of the moments of resistance of these connections.
which are the loads the plastic hinge in comparison with the present in the seismic situation.Rd.i is the corresponding in Figure 26 (bottom). value MEd. right / (dright – 2tf.G + VEd.right) + VEd.Ed ≤ Vwp.right after redistribution M Ed.M. obtained as the combination of VEd.E computed in the elastic analysis.Rd.M M Ed.left and MSd.E beam ends are the plastic moments Mpl. the design check is: Vwp.right x D For column web panels of low slenderness.Rd.G with and without redistribution of moments.Rd. MEd. calculated as VEd = VEd. with VEd.right in the formula above should be replaced by MSd. compression and shear forces should not be high.Rd. Columns are capacity designed relative to the beams.G .E + MEd.right before redistribution Original reference line Action effects due to seismic action.G . left and Mpl. NEd is the design axial force and VEd the NEd .Rd Vpl. Rd yield stress. Top: seismic moment MEd.15 and and cted to: 0 the beam may effects.1 ov M Ed.E . The panel zone of the column has to be checked for shear resistance.Rd.Rd.M.10.M.M 51 .Rd.5 to avoid interaction be higher than the design N pl. Bottom: seismic shear VEd.right = Mpl.right V Ed.Rd Figure 26 M Ed Modified reference line Ed.1 ov Ω takes VEd. considering the most unfavourable combination of axial force and bending moments.G 1. the horizontal design shear Vwp.left x D and MSd.M = (Mpl. As the yield stress of N Ed VEd and.Rd.Rd.E M pl. Preventing lateral torsional buckling of beams in MRFs is also necessary in order to achieve the full plastic moment in beams. 0. left + Mpl.M M Ed M Ed. effect of maximum local gravity loading found under G + 2i Q If the plastic hinges are formed at a distance D from the column face.Rd. value NEd.Rd.left) + Mpl. combined moments MEd= MEd. The factor 1.G is a result of the gravity loads into account the possible overstrength of G + 2i Q . calculated as the design shear. are located. This expression reflects a capacity design N Ed N Ed. In this case.left M Ed. as shown design situation and Mpl. established by the analysis of the structure submitted to the seismic action.E of the design shear VEd in a beam is related to the situation in which the moments at the VEd VEd. They are restricted to: Connections between top and bottom flanges of beams and floors (slabs etc) can provide effective lateral restraint to the beam sections. Columns must be verified in compression. right + VEd.i/ moments MEd given by the consideration of MEd. MEd and VEd should be computed as: design shear.G M pl.i determined from the analysis.c is the shear in the section of the column above the node.left before redistribution M M Ed. c VEd. which are able to develop their full plastic strength. calculated corresponding to the formation of the plastic as hinge in the beam may be higher than the to avoid interaction effects. right and not the bending Ω is the minimum value of Ωi = Mpl.Rd.i for all beams in which dissipative zones seismic action effects in the elastic analysis.E . the moments Mpl.left after redistribution M Ed. left / (dleft – 2tf.G 1. If the plastic hinges are formed in the beam sections adjacent to the column on its left and right sides. left + VEd.Rd. ov is a material overstrength factor and left and Mpl. the element being considered (a column) is not the same as the element in which the plastic zone will develop (a beam).1 ov VEd.1 ov N Ed. the seismic component VEd.Ed in the panel zone is equal to (Figure 27): Vwp. right) / L in which bending moment in beam i in the seismic L is the beam span. plastic moment.Ed = Mpl. the axial force NEd in the column n axial force and V the design shear.right defined as: MSd.E requirement.left = Mpl.i is the design value of the VEd.G 1. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames Other requirements In order to achieve the full plastic moment in beams. gravity moment MEd.
left tf. This reflects the acceptance by codes of some plastic shear deformation of column web panels. They may be either in the form of a ‘doubler’ plate welded onto the column web.Rd. the design shear Vwp. However.Ed can often exceed the shear resistance Vwp. can eliminate the need for additional shear plates. see details further in text) reduce the bending moments at the beam ends and therefore minimise the demand on the column web and flanges.Ed applied to the panel zone tends to be high. RBS.Ed tf h M Pl. in which buckling limits the capacity in shear. However. and they can be avoided by using other design options: A higher steel grade for the column.C. the design shear Vwp.right M Pl.Rd when columns use standard rolled sections and low grade steel. the design check is: Vwp.Rd. A Section AA A "Doubler plate" Figure 29 Reduced Beam Sections minimise requirements for column section. A higher steel grade and the use of column sections with thicker flanges can eliminate the need for transverse stiffeners. or ‘dogbones’. or two plates welded to the flanges.left d left dc h tf. M Sd.sup Columnd panel zone V wp.Ed M Sd. which is justified by the ductility of such a mechanism. for instance ArcelorMittal HISTAR® S460 steel (Grade 65 following ASTM 913).Uang) .Ed < Vwb. Beams with a reduced crosssection close to the connection (known as Reduced Beam Sections.inf Figure 28 ‘Doubler’ plates to improve the shear resistance of column panel zone.right tf V wp.Rd Due to the presence of plastic bending moments of opposite signs at the beam ends adjacent to a column. They may therefore enable the need for doubler plates and/or transverse stiffeners to be avoided (Figure 29). as indicated in Figure 27. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames For slender webs. Figure 27 Panel zones of columns are subjected to shear corresponding to the plastic moments in the beams. requiring reinforcing plates to be installed.M. doubler plates and transverse stiffeners are costly items due to the fabrication involved. The design checks for web panel shear allow the design action effect to be equal to the shear resistance. column stiffeners and demands on beam to column connections (By Courtesy of Prof. Stiffeners transverse to the column may also be needed (see Figure 28).10.
1 Design of an extended end plate connection close to a dissipative zone. Plastic hinges in unbraced MRFs acting as primary structures for resisting earthquakes are thus classically developed in the beams.connection VEd VEd. In shear the design check is: VEd.Rd. such that in bending: MRd. This may mean that globally a ‘partial strength’ design is not the most economical one.beam This requirement is considerably more demanding than the static design condition and it influences significantly the size and the cost of the connections (see Figure 30). dissipative zones in MRFs are the plastic hinges activated at the beam ends (see Figure 25 a).Rd.G 1.beam in order to avoid yielding of components of the connection. Normally connections are chosen to be of a full strength rigid type because unbraced MRFs tend to be flexible by their very nature. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames Plastic hinges and connections in Moment Resisting Frames Due to the shape of the bending moment diagram under seismic action.E Figure 30 t1 n1 a1 MSd n2 t2 +1.10. All connections are thus capacity designed to the beam. Whilst plastic hingesshear the design check is: VRd. so additional flexibility due to the connections can create problems with drift limitations and P∆ effects.beam a2 1.beam ov Mpl.1 Nonseismic design Seismic design: t2 >> t1 a2 > a1 53 .Rd.connection ≥ ±1. capacity of components such as end plates and cleats (angles).Rd.1 ov In can be developed in connections that are of a partialstrength The definition of symbols is the same type. Another problem with partial strength connections is that because MRFs tend to be flexible structures then any flexibility in connections has to be compensated by using stiffer sections for the beams and columns. ov Mpl. Impact of seismic design in comparison to a design for gravity loading alone. The resistance of the connections must be such that Rdi > M pl. by taking advantage of the deformation as for the design of the columns.1 ov Mpl. it must be shown that their resistance is ‘stable’ under cyclic conditions and this is not yet practical.
as shown in Figure 31. Mpl. Figure 32 The strengthening strategy. the web connection must also transmit the plastic resistance moment of the beam web in order to fulfil the condition: MR.flanges without problem. which has the beneficial effect of separating the stress concentrations in the connection from the plastic strains that develop in the plastic hinge.web = 1.Rd.beam The plastic bending resistance of the beam Mpl.1 ov Mpl. each one of which results in a different location for the plastic hinge: 1. and the beam web is connected to the column by means of shear tabs (as shown in Figure 31). Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames The nature of the design checks for moment and shear resistance of the connections is worth emphasising. involve increasing the bending resistance of the beam from the column face to a point a short length into the span. Cover plate Bracket .Rd.10.flanges = bf tf fy (d+ tf ) and the plastic resistance moment of the web. There are three options for the design of rigid beam to column connections. other connection design options. such as those shown in Figures 32. because they may be critical for the design of connections in which the beam flanges are welded to the column flange. which does not increase the bending resistance of the beam locally. The plastic hinge is then developed away from the column face. The plastic hinge then forms in the beam section adjacent to the column flange. in addition to the vertical fillet welds down the vertical sides that carry the shear. 2.connection ≥ 1.1 ov tw d2 fy / 4 When the connection detailing involves a shear tab welded to the column flange.web. this condition requires: use of a shear tab with more resistance than the beam web welding the tab along its top and bottom sides. transmit the plastic resistance moment Mpl. The design condition for the connection is: MRd. Figure 31 Beam to column connection with beam flanges welded to column flange and beam web welded to a shear tab that is welded on column flange.beam is the sum of the plastic resistance moment of the flanges alone Mpl. or to an end plate. 35 and 37.web = tw d2 fy / 4 Whilst butt welds connecting the beam flanges to the column flange. ‘classical’ connection design.1 ov Mpl.connection ≥ 1.
ArcelorMittal then gave free use of its patent and the concept was further developed. in fact beam sections are normally sized to meet deformation requirements under gravity and earthquake loadings. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames 3. because sections are only reduced over very short lengths of the beams normally does not require any change in the section sizes of the structural elements in order to compensate this minor stiffness reduction reduces the ultimate strength of the structure. After the Northridge earthquake in 1994 and the Kobe earthquake in 1995. This last concept. welding on a backing bar. as noted above. details required for on site welding). The achievement of appropriate quality explains why the numerous experiments undertaken between 1988 and 1997 on ‘classical’ welded connections (that is connections that were not strengthened. 7]. a concept originally developed and patented by ArcelorMittal. It also: reduces very slightly the stiffness of the structure (between 4% and 9%). Design guidance on RBS is now provided in many documents. appropriate base Figure 33 The weakening strategy using ‘dogbones’ or Reduced Beams Sections (RBS). for example low toughness of the weld material. some weld preparations resulting in stress concentrations and defects (V preparation with cope hole. Whilst removing material may seem something of a paradox and indeed potentially uneconomical. which can result in a significant reduction in fabrication costs. assuming they have been sized by the ‘strong columnsweak beams’ capacity design condition allows the dimensions of any stiffeners needed in the columns for the transmission of bending moments and shear in the connection zone to be reduced. the beam may be deliberately weakened at some distance from the column. Some issues concerned welds. often providing more resistance than is needed (‘overstrength’). 55 . which is known as Reduced Beam Sections (RBS) or ‘dogbone’. The only effect of adopting RBS is therefore to consume part of this excess. and inadequate weld protection. poor connection behaviour was observed in many moment resisting frames and the RBS concept became more widely considered as a smart design option to obviate such problems. and the stress concentrations in the connection are separated from the plastic strains that develop in the plastic hinge (see Figure 33). welding from one side followed by welding from the other. namely weld preparation in K. The research effort after the Northridge and Kobe earthquakes also showed that factors other than simply the connection design caused poor behaviour of the connection zones. for example in FEMA2002 and ICCA2002 [6. with radius cuts becoming apparent as the most economical option. The base material was also questioned. toughness and weldability characteristics were in many cases far inferior to what ArcelorMittal had long been advising specifiers. choice of weld metal. or using RBS) showed that plastic rotation capacities greater than the 25 or 35 mrad now required by the code could be achieved without difficulty [2][10][11]. by trimming the flanges. The plastic hinge is then displaced away from the column flange. The standards adopted for the materials and fabrication procedures complied with the current international requirements. there is normally a high excess of resistance anyway allows column section sizes to be reduced. These tests were based on H and IPE profiles from ArcelorMittal production. was originally developed as part of an ArcelorMittal (ARBED) promoted research programme in 1988. but not significantly because.10. with beam depths of up to 450 mm.
while a more traditional Grade 50 (50 ksi or 345 MPa) is adopted for the beams.36. 35 Unstiffened end plate welded to beam and bolted to column flange by 4 rows of bolts. Maximum Ductility Class allowed Europe DCL * DCH DCH DCH DCH DCH US OMF* SMF SMF SMF SMF SMF Table 9 DCH SMF Connection Types and corresponding ductility classes * May be considered for DCM (equivalent to IMF) in some countries . Fig. and Figures 31 to 39 show schematics of these connections. including partial strength connections and proprietary connections references [6][7][14] give detailed guidance on choice of base & weld material. weld types. there may be an overloading of the ‘hard’ welds resulting in premature failure without much rotation capacity. If a higher strength grade is prescribed for the columns. as well as design solutions that adopt either strengthening or weakening strategies. beam web welded to shear tab welded to column flange.36 Stiffened end plate welded to beam and bolted to column flange by 8 rows of bolts. can be guaranteed for the Grade 50 steel (50 ksi or 345 MPa). the designer can be sure that the ‘weak beam – strong column’ design condition will be effectively achieved. Fig. with depths up to 1100 mm and flange thicknesses up to 125 mm.S.38 Reduced beam section. namely those which are best able to provide high ductility (for example only 3 connection types are given in reference [6]) there are some minor variations in the connection to class correspondence from one reference to another. 34 Beam flanges welded. It is presented in documents such as references [6][7][14]. The applicability of these steels to seismic applications was further enhanced by the ability of ArcelorMittal to accurately control the grades of the steel produced. Beam web welded to a shear tab welded to column flange. access hole design (see example in Figure 39). whilst explicit information cannot be found in the main document [1]. Fig. which means a mix of ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ mechanisms. Connection Type Beam flanges welded. Unstiffened end plate welded to beam and bolted to column flange by 4 rows of bolts. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames and weld material toughness and weldability. but with reduced flange sections. Same as Fig. beam web bolted to a shear tab welded to column flange. reference should be made to the National Annexes. In the context of Eurocode 8. because an upper yield strength of 65 ksi (450 MPa). 37 Reduced beam section. Developments of new ASTM A913 and A992 steels by ArcelorMittal extended the validity of these results to deep beams and thick walled sections. This is the reason why such connection detailing should be considered as only valid for low ductility DCL or OMF design.10. etc. and to keep strengths within upper and lower limits. Designs in which the plastic hinges are assumed to occur in the beam sections adjacent to the column flanges are allowed. This information is not reproduced here some references define a very small number of connections. Fig. Fig. namely U. 31 Beam flanges bolted. Beam flanges welded. Table 9 relates some connection details to the ductility class for which they are allowed. Fig. This is particularly the case with connections in which the beam flanges are welded to the column flange whilst the beam web is bolted to a shear tab welded on the column flange (types marked with an * in Table 9). Recommended design for beam to column connections Explicit design guidance for beam to column connections in moment resisting frames is now available as a result of the huge international research effort made since 1995. even within a given country. It should be noted that: some connection types other than those indicated in Table 9 are mentioned in some of the references [6][7][14]. beam web bolted to a shear tab welded to column flange. Because there are both bolted and welded components in the connection. Grade 65 (65 ksi or 450 MPa).
beam web bolted to shear tab welded to column flange. Figure 35 Beam flanges bolted. beam web bolted to shear tab welded to column flange. q pf pf dO dl pt c tw bp tpl tpf db 57 .10. Figure 36 Unstiffened end plate welded to beam and bolted to column flange by 4 rows of bolts. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames Figure 34 Beam flanges welded. Above: with bolted flange plates. Below: with double split T connection.
Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames Figure 37 Stiffened end plate welded to beam and bolted to column flange by 8 rows of bolts. 50 c . 2 2 Radius = 4c + s 8c a s Reduced beam section Figure 39 Weld access hole details in FEMA 350 [7]. beam web welded to shear tab welded to column flange. Figure 38 Reduced beam section.10. Beam flanges welded.
Their form should respect the geometrical conditions defined hereunder.E x X with V Ed. Connection of columns to foundations The global mechanism for a MRF involves the development of plastic hinges at the interface between the columns bases and the foundations.25 b The plastic bending resistance Mpl. N M L' L V F HS RBS RBS M pl. then the design is acceptable.connection. A design example is given in Section 19.1 ov MEd. Past experience has often demonstrated poor behaviour.20 b ≤ c ≤ 0. None of the components of a ‘classical’ connection are then needed. large butt welds and big bolts.Rd.column = Mpl.5 b ≤ a ≤ 0.connection ≥ 1.65h ≤ s ≤ 0. This can be achieved by a ‘classical’ design using a base plate connected by anchor bolts to the foundation.85h in which b is the beam flange width and h the beam depth.RBS V Ed. the beam flange width at the reduced section being: be = b – 2c As the plastic hinge forms at a distance X = a + s/2 from the column face.RBS + VEd.Rd.75 b 0. then the bending moment is taken as: MEd. Seismic Design of Moment Resisting Frames Design of reduced beam sections The best form of beam flange reduction corresponds to a shape with circular cuts as shown at Figure 38. Rd. Figure 41 Column to foundation connection using a pocket in the concrete.Rd .connection ≥ VEd = VEd.RBS V Ed.G + 1. Rd.E The panel zone is designed for the action effects MEd. It usually requires very thick plates.1 ov Ω VEd.E F HI 59 .RBS of the reduced section can then be calculated.connection and VEd . A better option consists of placing the column in a pocket formed in the concrete (Figure 41). R BS /L’ L’ is the distance between the plastic hinges at the left and right hand ends of the beam (see Figure 40).E x X’ With: X’ = X + hc/2 The design check for shear at the connection is: VRd. with anchorages broken under the concrete surface. If MRd.connection = Mpl. If the critical section is at the column axis (for example a connection with a weak panel zone). The length s of the circular cuts and the distance a from the cuts to the face of the column flange should comply with: 0.RBS + VEd. The depth of the cut c should satisfy: 0. transferring the column plastic moment resistance is difficult with such a detail.Rd.E = 2 M p l. the bending moment in the column being equilibrated by two horizontal compression forces FHI and FHS in the foundation block. Figure 40 Calculation of design moment and shear in the connection in presence of a RBS. However.E x hc x' M pl.10. the bending moment applied to the beam to column connection is: MEd.
SEISMIC DESIGN OF FRAMES WITH CONCENTRIC BRACING Design objective. Analysis of X bracing. . Design Criteria for V or bracing. Other requirements for X bracing. Analysis of V or bracing. Design of connections. Other requirements for V or bracing. Design Criteria for X bracing.11. US and European design rules for frames with concentric bracing.
which are stable dissipative elements. The expected for global mechanism in the case of a frame with X bracing is shown in Figure 42 a). The design of K bracings to achieve energy dissipation (DCM or DCH) is not allowed (see Figure 12). b) under seismic loading. but needs a nonlinear static or nonlinear time history analysis in which both prebuckling and postbuckling behaviour of diagonals are considered. Analysis of frames with X bracings The standard analysis is made assuming that: under gravity loading. and to avoid yielding or buckling of the beams or columns.G N Ed 1 N Ed 3 61 . Figure 43 Models used for the analysis a) under gravity loading. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing Design objective The global design objective for energy dissipation in the ‘classical’ design of frames with concentric bracing is to form dissipative zones in the diagonals under tension. contribute to frame stability the behaviour factor q associated with X bracing is high: q = 4. Figure 42 a) Global plastic mechanism which is the design objective for frames with X bracings. only the diagonals in tension are present in the model (Figure 43).11. only the beams and columns are present in the model under seismic loading. They are presented separately below. As only the diagonals in tension. Diagonals in compression are designed to buckle. Refined analysis of the X bracings also considering the diagonals in compression is possible. The standard analysis process and the design criteria are slightly different for a frame with X bracings compared with one that has V or bracings. F2 N Ed 2 F1 N Ed. b) Storey mechanism prevented by the resistance homogenisation condition for the diagonals.
Ω is the symbol reserved for the minimum Ωi . the maximum Ωi should not differ from the minimum by more than 25%. which is found by multiplying the section ‘overstrength’ factor Ω by the material ‘overstrength’ ov (when applying socalled capacity design). the beam and column design forces are a combination of: the axial force NEd. The axial load design resistance Npl. the ratio of the resistance provided Npl. . after the first loading cycle by the earthquake. justifying the simple model (which ignores them completely).E due to seismic action amplified by the ‘overstrength’ of the diagonal.11. should satisfy: overstrength’. then: the only limitation for slenderness is: ≤ 2.i / NEd.E in the diagonals increases up to the buckling strength Nb.E too much over the full height of the structure. Figure 44 Bracing in which the pair of diagonals of each X brace are decoupled.Rd ≥ NEd For each diagonal.0 the design should take into account the tension and compression forces which develop in the columns adjacent to the diagonals in compression.Rd . the compression forces in these diagonals being equal to their buckling resistance. In order to achieve a global plastic satisfy: mechanism the values of Ωi should not vary N pl. As the diagonals are effectively ductile ‘fuses’.Rd to the resistance required NEd is determined: Ωi = Npl.Rd of the These ratios Ωi represent the excess capacity beam or the column.3 limit for is intended to avoid overloading the columns in the prebuckling stage. and certainly not equal to zero as indicated by the simple analysis model proposed (which only includes the diagonals in tension). Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing Design criteria for X bracings The yield resistance Npl.G 1. Practically. and diagonals could be cables.0. Then.3 < ≤ 2. The 1. this means that diagonals cannot be made of the same section from top to bottom of the building.i . when both the compression and tension diagonals are active. and a homogenisation criterion is defined.G due to gravity loading in the seismic design situation the axial force NEd. in other words it is quite significant. but are decoupled as in Figure 44.Rd of the diagonals should be greater than the axial tension force NEd computed under the seismic action effect: Npl. If the pairs of diagonals are not positioned as an X. due to permanent deformation resulting from buckling the resistance of the diagonals in compression will have decreased sharply. which takes into account of the sections with respect to the minimum interaction with the design bending moment MEd requirement and are therefore called ‘section in the seismic design situation. This limitation is justified by the fact that at the first application of force by the earthquake the compression NEd.N Ed.1 ov .Rd ( M Ed ) N Ed. For structures of up to two storeys no limitation applies to . Other requirements for X bracings The nondimensional slenderness of the diagonals should be limited to: 1.Rd.
Figure 46 Design action effects applied to a beam in an inverted V (or ‘chevron’) bracing. or the use of an intermediate piece of angle through which part of the force in the diagonal is transmitted (Figure 45 c). G F1 N pl.Rd ov Ed. both the diagonals in tension and the ones in compression are present in the model (see Figure 46). the behaviour factor q is low: q = 2 in DCM q = 2. etc) in which full plastic yielding under tension is developed. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing Design of connections The design of the connections between the diagonals and the beams or columns is made considering the capacity design condition explained in Section 9. only the beams and columns are present in the model under seismic loading. is necessary. The ductility condition explained in the same Section is applied if holes are made for connection purposes. due to the fact that the steel sections used for the diagonals have several ‘elements’ (2 for L sections.5 in DCH . Figure 45 Comparison between a ‘classical’ connection design (a) and a connection that is ‘capacity designed’ relative to the diagonal plastic resistance (b or c). Capacity design of the connections generally results in huge components. but do not provide a means of stable energy dissipation. Rd Analysis of V or bracings A standard analysis is made assuming that: under gravity loading. 3 for U sections.11. b c ov Npl. either a local increase in the section of the ‘element’ in contact with the plate (by means of a welded cover plate as shown in Figure 45 b). E) 63 . As the diagonals in compression contribute to the overall stability. As all these ‘elements’ cannot be directly connected to a gusset plate.
The latter (beams .E as the axial tensile force (diagonal in tension) and considering the post buckling resistance for the diagonals in non dissipative elements is estimated as: and compression. force reduction or behaviour factors.  Resistance Npl. of diag.87 Yes No Europe 4 1. overstrs Low Ductility U.Rd U. and European design rules for frames with concentric bracing U.Rd.11. Class Country Designation Of Frame Force Reduction R. and homogenisation of diagonal member overstrengths.1 0v Ω NEd.Rd N pl.E pb Npl.3< ≤2.Rd ≥ NEd The compression diagonals are designed for compression resistance: Nb. and European design rules for frames with concentric bracing.0*) No No No Medium Or High Ductility U.G of 1. Ω is the minimum of all the values of Ωi Resistance Npl.S.S.Rd =1.3 Npl.5 (2. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing Design Criteria for V or bracing The criteria for bracing design are similar to those for X bracings: Resistance of diagonals in tension: Npl. .Rd = 0.0. the vertical seismic action effect applied to the beam by the two diagonals of each V brace after buckling of the compression diagonals has taken place. Table 10 indicates some different cases of frames with concentric X bracing. The maximum value of Ωi should not differ from the minimum one by more than 25%. models used for simple analysis.S.i / NEd.S.Rd of non dissipative elements (beams and columns) Other requirements for V or bracing The only limitation for the nondimensional slenderness is that: ≤ 2.Rd ( M Ed ) N Ed. The beams are designed to resist: nonseismic actions whilst neglecting the intermediate supports given by the diagonals. OCBF Ordinary Concentrically Braced Frame DCL Ductility Class Low X bracings SCBF Special Concentrically Braced Frame DCM or DCH Ductility Class Medium or High X bracings No No Europe 1.S.Rd ≤ NEd Homogenisation of diagonal section overstrengths Ωi over the height of the building: Ωi = Npl. Duct. and European design rules for frames with concentric bracing differ significantly in several aspects. Rule for homog.0 Yes Yes *the National Annex can allow q = 2 in class DCL. required capacity design of connections.N Ed. or Behaviour Factor q 5 Limit To Diagonal Slenderness No Capacity Design of Connect.1 columns) ov Table 10 Some aspects of Ductility Classes in U. This action effect is calculated using Npl. 6 ≤ 1.i .
12. V or bracing and dissipative connections for the diagonals. V or bracing and dissipative connections for the diagonals. Analysis of frames with X. Design Criteria for frames with X. SEISMIC DESIGN OF FRAMES WITH CONCENTRIC BRACING AND DISSIPATIVE CONNECTIONS Interest of dissipative connections in frames with concentric bracings. 65 .
replacement of deformed components of connections is easier than replacement of complete diagonals. Dissipative connections must be able to deform significantly. ov can be taken equal to 1. for the structure to achieve the drifts of up to 3% that may be imposed by the earthquake. stiffness. In 2001 ArcelorMittal. initiated the INERD research project with a team of five European Universities [9]. a) 3D view. A pin connections consists of two external eyebars welded or bolted to the adjacent member (column or beam). are avoided. namely the ‘pin’ connection and the ‘U shape’ connection. This compensates for the additional flexibility resulting from the use of semirigid connections. With dissipative diagonals. and without loss of strength. With dissipative connections. . b) in test.12. a) b) Figure 48 Two designs with a U connection. As no buckling takes place. This resulted in the development of two designs. the drift is achieved with a low strain over the total length of the diagonals. one or two internal eyebars welded to the diagonal brace and a pin running through the Figure 47 Rectangular pin connection with two internal eyebars. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing and Dissipative Connections Interest of dissipative connections in frames with concentric bracing Dissipative semirigid and/or partial strength connections are permitted by codes.0. or for decoupled braces. provided that the adequacy of design (strength. thereby preventing yielding and buckling of the latter. they provide additional stiffness in comparison to the ‘tension diagonal only’ model. aware of the considerable potential of partial strength connections in the seismic design of frames with concentric bracing. All the results of the analysis may be used directly. As all diagonals are represented in the model for simple analysis. the deformation is concentrated in the connection. the analytical difficulties that result when diagonals in compression buckle. with consideration of their buckling resistance at the pre and postbuckling stages. with no distinct rules for X and V braces. Partial strength connections can be developed as ‘standardised’ components with calibrated strength obviating the problems of considering the diagonal overstrength in the design of beams and columns. Several reasons justify the interest in partial strength connections: Partial strength connections can be designed to have a resistance that is lower than the buckling strength of the diagonal. After an earthquake. All frame members are therefore represented in the model for simple analysis. ductility) is supported by experimental evidence.
V or There are no other specific requirements for frames with X.Rd > Rpl. The pin connection also shows potential in terms of its strength and stiffness.Rd or in compression Nb. offering an elongation capacity similar to that of a dissipative diagonal. This research has demonstrated the validity of the design approach. Ω is the minimum value of Ωi If Rpl. Analysis of frames with X.G 1.1 ov frames with X ) or specific requirements for .E There are no other specific requirements for frames with X.Rd ( M Ed ) N Ed. Both types of connection show potential in terms of ductility.Rd of the dissipative connections: Rpl. Numerous tests have been undertaken on connections and frames. V or bracing and dissipative connections for the diagonals The following criteria should be applied: Resistance Rpl. and can readily be put into practical use.Rd of the non dissipative elements (beams and columns): or and columns): N pl.Rd of the diagonals established by capacity design to the dissipative connections resistance: Nb. meaning a total of 100mm for one diagonal. Numerical modelling of structures submitted to earthquakes has also been performed. V or bracing and dissipative connections for the diagonals A standard analysis is carried out assuming that: under gravity loading. bracin 67 .N Ed. In this type of connection the pin dissipates energy through inelastic bending.i / NEd.Rd ( M Ed ) or There are no other N b. V or bracing and dissipative connections for the diagonals. A ‘U shape’ connection consists of one or two bent Ushaped thick plates that connect the brace to the adjacent member (see Figure 48). The energy dissipation takes place in the bent plate(s).i The maximum value of Ωi should not differ from the minimum by more than 25%.12.0 Resistance in tension Npl.Rd of the dissipative connections is known (controlled production of standard connections).Rd ≥ NEd Resistance Nb. only the beams and columns are present in the model under seismic loading.Rd ≥ NEd Homogenisation of the dissipative connections overstrengths over the height of the building: Ωi = Rpl. more than 50mm for an individual connection. Seismic Design of Frames with Concentric Bracing and Dissipative Connections eyebars (see Figure 47). ov = 1.Rd. due to a better control of the global plastic mechanism. The behaviour factor q of frames with concentric bracing and partial strength connections is higher (q = 6) than that of a ‘classical’ design (2 to 4). all diagonals are in the model Design Criteria for frames with X.
. Selection of a type of eccentric bracing.13. Short links and long links. SEISMIC DESIGN OF FRAMES WITH ECCENTRIC BRACING General features of the design of frames with eccentric bracing.
not four as in frames with concentric bracings. Seismic Design of Frames with Eccentric Bracing General features of the design of frames with eccentric bracing The geometry of frames with eccentric bracing is close to that of frames with concentric bracing. because none of the diagonals is designed to buckle under seismic actions. The diagonals themselves are non dissipative zones that are ‘capacity designed’ relative to the strength of the links. connections are made between three elements. The analysis of frames with eccentric bracing does not require the approximations made for frames with concentric bracing. in order to ensure they remain elastic and do not buckle. providing an increase in stiffness. Figure 49 e e e Examples of frames with eccentric bracing e 69 . except that some intentional eccentricities e in the layout of the elements (see Figure 49) generate bending moments and shears.13. There are several reasons for selecting a frame with eccentric bracing as an earthquake resistant structure: such frames combine stiffness with a q factor that is higher than for a frame with concentric bracing: q = 6 instead of a maximum of 4 (see Table 3). This results in less complicated connection details which reduce fabrication costs and may also simplify the erection of the structure diagonals are parts of the structural system that supports the gravity loads. but they are designed to yield first in shear or bending in localised ‘seismic links’. These are zones created by positioning the ends of the braces away from the ‘usual’ intersection points with other elements. These structures resist horizontal forces essentially by axial load in the members.
link and Mp. For H sections: Vp. Figure 50 Eccentric braces in which the shear and bending moment diagrams in the link are symmetrical.link are the plastic shear and bending resistance of the link respectively. Link Link M Moment M in link Shear V in link V . in which Vp. or not (as shown in Figure 51). Short links yield essentially in shear.link = ( fy /√3) tw (d. The plastic mechanism achieved in seismic links depends on their length e.link . and the energy dissipated in the plastic mechanism is: WV = Vp.link and MEd ≤ Mp. by satisfying VEd ≤ Vp. the shear and bending moment diagrams in the link are symmetrical (as shown in Figure 50).13.link p e Long links yield essentially in bending.tf ) Depending on the frame typology. Link M Moment M and Shear V in link V Figure 51 Eccentric braces in which the shear and bending moment diagrams in the link are unsymmetrical. Seismic Design of Frames with Eccentric Bracing Short links and long links Seismic links are designed to carry the calculated seismic action effect in either shear or bending.tf ) and Mp.link = fy b tf (d.
link Between these two values es and eL . There should be homogenisation of the dissipative connections’ overstrengths Ωi over the height of the building ( Short links: Ωi = Vpl.link / Vp. The beams. Ω is the minimum value of ΩI that will ensure that yielding occurs simultaneously at several places over the height of the building.i The maximum value of Ωi should not differ from the minimum by more than 25%. Long Links: Ωi = Mpl.link p . the limiting length between long and short links corresponds to: e = Mp.link / Vp. This is achieved by satisfying: NRd (MEd .1 ov Ωi Ed. F2 p F1 pst e e p p e M pl a) WV = Vp.G + 1.i / MEd. links are said to be ‘intermediate’ and the interaction between shear and bending has to be considered.1 ov Ω NEd.link See the example of vertical shear links shown in Figure 51.E Figure 52 Energy W dissipated in plastic mechanisms a) in shear b) in bending.link / Vp.i / V . Seismic Design of Frames with Eccentric Bracing In a link submitted to a symmetrical action effect M.6 Mp. If the typology of the structure is such that the shear and bending moment diagrams are not symmetrical.13.link pe b) WM = 2 Mp.link For values of e around this limit. Ed. columns and connections are ‘capacity designed’ relative to the real strengths of the seismic links.link The value of e for considering only a plastic mechanism in bending (long links) is : e > eL = 3 Mp.VEd ) ≥ NEd.Rd.Rd.E Ed ≥ Ed. the value of e for considering a plastic mechanism in shear (short links) is: e < es = 1. In this case.link p e => e = 2 Mp. so that: WM = Mp.link / Vp. The criteria that must be satisfied in order to form a global plastic mechanism are similar in frames with eccentric or concentric braces. and a global mechanism is formed.link p L 71 . In Eurocode 8. because they correspond to the same concept.G + 1. significant bending moments and shear forces exist simultaneously and their interaction has to be considered.link p = Vp. the energy dissipated in the plastic mechanism is: WM = 2 Mp. only one plastic hinge will form if the link is long. as in Figure 52 b).link p The limit between long and short links corresponds to the situation in which yielding could equally take place in shear or bending: WM = WV => 2 Mp.i ).
The choice between various typologies is influenced by many factors. Figure 53 Typology of eccentric bracing in which seismic links yield simultaneously. One way to overcome this penalty is to select a frame typology which forces all the seismic links to yield simultaneously. Frames with V or inverted V eccentric braces in which the Vs have a flat horizontal tip correspond to this situation. Vertical seismic links as shown in Figure 51 can more easily be designed as specific ‘ductile fuses’.13. because gravity loading subjects them essentially to axial forces which do not interact significantly with their bending and/or shear resistance. Seismic Design of Frames with Eccentric Bracing Selection of a type of eccentric bracing There are many potential types of eccentric bracings. in order to distribute yielding over the height of the structure. whilst the beam sections are determined by design checks other than those of ULS under seismic conditions. like the frame shown in Figure 53. The choice between short and long links is partly determined by the following considerations: short links provide more stiffness than long links shear deformations are essentially inplane deformations of the webs of sections. the requirement for homogenizing the section overstrength ratios Ωi of the dissipative zones may require an important overstrength of the beams and consequently of all other structural components due to ‘capacity design’. But frames with eccentric bracings can make use of partial strength connections. . Frames with eccentric bracing making were originally designed to dissipate energy through seismic links and not in partial strength connections. including the openings required by the architecture. without any marked tendency to lateral torsional buckling long links mean strong bending effects take place with a potential for lateral torsional buckling. If the seismic links are in the beams. and by structural considerations: The distribution of resistance over the height of the building should follow the shear distribution. which has to be prevented by strong lateral restraints of the upper and lower flanges of the steel sections.
Favourable influence of concrete encasement on local ductility. Anchorage and splicing of reinforcement bars. 73 . Detailing rules for composite connections in dissipative zones. Materials.14. Ductility in bending of composite beams. Partially encased members. Steel beams acting composite with the slab. General rules for the design of dissipative and non dissipative elements. How can composite structural elements be dissipative? A basic choice in the design of dissipative composite structures. COMPOSITE STEEL CONCRETE STRUCTURES Introduction. Design concepts and behaviour factors q in the context of the Eurocodes. the degree of composite ‘character’. Stiffness of sections. Plastic resistance of dissipative zones. Fully encased composite columns. Effective width of slab.
Mixed design systems involving concrete walls or columns and steel or composite beams. Section 14 considers general aspects of composite steel concrete structures.. Composite steel plate shear walls consisting of a vertical steel plate that is continuous over the height of the building. such as moment resisting frames and frames with concentric or eccentric bracing. Besides the ‘classical’ types of steel structures. braced frames. Sections 14 to 17 present the main aspects of composite design in the context of earthquake resistant structures. of Types 1 and 2 as shown in Figure 54. Type 3 in Figure 54. for example moment resisting frames. Concrete shear walls coupled by steel or composite beams. Composite Steel Concrete Structures Introduction There are a lot of opportunities for the use of composite steel concrete design in buildings. Figure 54 Composite walls (Type 1 and 2). whilst Sections 15 to 17 address peculiarities of various structural types. Composite or concrete walls coupled by steel or composite beams (Type 3). . composite structures can be: Composite wall structures. Readers should refer to references [1][2][13][17] for more detailed information. Concrete walls reinforced by encased vertical steel sections. TYPE 1 TYPE 2 TYPE 3 Steel or composite moment frame with concrete infill panels.14. composite steel concrete walls and composite systems with walls. with structural steel or composite vertical boundary members and with reinforced concrete encasement on one or both faces of the plate.
Composite Steel Concrete Structures How can composite structural elements be dissipative? Composite beams. Deformation at failure cu2 is in fact only about twice the maximum deformation c2 of concrete in the elastic range. and energy dissipation is achieved by yielding taking place in the steel sections and/or in the rebars. although this improvement is only valid for the section of concrete situated within the confining bars. and if correct steel grades are selected then the material elongation at failure is greater than 15% (that is 150x103) and the ductility y. This is clearly much less than the value of 15 that can be achieved by structural steel. leading to an underestimation of the sections needed adjacent to dissipative zones. 75 . max / y is above 15. as in reinforced concrete. and to a risk of unintentionally creating plasticity in the wrong places. by detailing the design so that the steel yields while the concrete remains elastic. A basic choice in the design of dissipative composite structures.14. as underestimating the resistance and stiffness is not a safe approximation. Two design options exist: 1. either achieve ductile composite elements/connections by complying with certain specific conditions 2. In seismic design this correspondence between model and reality is essential. The ductility needed in composite structural elements or in composite connections is achieved. of the order of 3. so that material ductility is only about 2. Steel is a ductile material. or rely on the steel sections only and ignore any contribution of concrete in the resistance of dissipative zones. Concrete is characterised by a very limited deformation capacity cu2 at failure. In this way. The second option can ease the analysis and the execution. columns or connections are made of two materials. the integrity of the concrete is maintained during the seismic event. but if the analysis model is to correctly represent the behaviour of the real structure then the latter must have an effective disconnection of concrete from steel in potential dissipative zones. cu2 can be raised by a factor of 2 to 4 if the concrete is well confined by transverse reinforcement. If the analysis model underestimates stiffness it will predict smaller action effects due to the decreasing branch of the response spectrum.5x103. namely steel and concrete. the degree of composite ‘character’ Dissipative composite structures need reliable dissipative zones. Underestimating resistance means that elements sized using capacity design may be incorrect.
1 Composite walls (Type 1 and Type 2) Composite or concrete walls coupled by steel or composite beams (Type 3) Composite steel plate shear walls Default value: u/ 1 = 1. See Table 3. 4 and 8 for structural analysis and design. connections and detailing. 4 u/ 1 u/ 1 4. Structural types that are similar to pure steel structures have the same behaviour factors. Composite Steel Concrete Structures Design concepts and behaviour factors q in the context of the Eurocodes Earthquake resistant composite buildings can be designed to one of the following concepts: Concept a): lowdissipative structural behaviour and reference only to Eurocode 4 (static design) for the analysis and design.5 (2*) q≤4 + Limits of Table 12 Concept a) Low dissipative structural behaviour Concepts b) or c) Medium or High Dissipative structural behaviour DCL DCM DCH Limits of Table 12 * the National Annex can allow q = 2 in class DCL. Concept b): dissipative structural behaviour with composite dissipative zones and reference to Eurocodes 4 and 8 for structural analysis and design. structural ductility classes and upper limit of reference values of the behaviour factor q Design concept Structural Ductility Class Range of the reference values of the behaviour factor q q ≤ 1. STRUCTURAL TYPE Moment resisting frames Frames with concentric or eccentric bracing Inverted pendulum Composite structural systems Default value: u/ 1 = 1. Table 12 Upper limit reference values of behaviour factor q for systems that are regular in elevation Ductility Class DCM DCH As for steel structures. Structures belonging to Ductility Classes DCM or DCH have to meet certain requirements for the steel sections. Concept c): dissipative structural behaviour with steel dissipative zones and reference to Eurocodes 3.2 3 3 3 u/ 1 u/ 1 Table 11 Design concepts.14.5 4 u/ 1 u/ 1 . Behaviour factors q corresponding to different structural types are given in Table 12. The design concepts are related to structural ductility classes and behaviour factors q in the ways indicated in Table 11.
14. because safety requires consider both ductile and non ductile reinforcements for the reference strength in the capacity design. Composite Steel Concrete Structures Materials Concrete classes lower than C20/25 or higher than C40/50 are not permitted. should not be above the nominal value by more than 25%. Except for closed stirrups or cross ties. be it ductile or not. This can be done by using standard ductile rebars at these locations and by placing the overlap between ductile and non ductile reinforcement away from the dissipative zone. welded mesh that does not comply with the ductility requirements may be used in dissipative zones provided ductile reinforcing bars are present to duplicate the mesh. bars and welded meshes that are considered to contribute to the plastic resistance of dissipative zones have to satisfy requirements on the ratio fu/fy and the available elongation. The requirements are recalled at Table 13. which are those of steel Class B or C (EN199211:2004. the upper characteristic value (95% fractile) of the real yield strength.35 ≥ 7. only ribbed bars are permitted as reinforcing steel. Such duplication is necessary because in moment frames subjected to earthquakes a reliable negative plastic moment resistance in the connection zones requires the presence of ductile reinforcement. while the beam plastic moment resistance used in the capacity design of the columns considers all contributions from reinforcement.2k (MPa) Minimum value of k = (ft / fy)k Characteristic strain at maximum force (%) Bars and decoiled rods. Table 13 Properties of the reinforcements. an economical solution is obtained either by using ductile welded mesh or by avoiding the continuity of non ductile reinforcement in dissipative zones. in Class DCH.95.08 C 1. In slabs that form the flanges of composite beams. When there is duplication of non ductile reinforcement the capacity design of the columns therefore results in their overdesign. fyk.0. Table C. Wire fabrics B 400 to 600 k ≥ 1. Type of product Class Characteristic yield strength fyk or f0.0 77 . In practice.5 ≥5. Reinforcing steel. Furthermore.1) in Class DCM and those of steel Class C in Class DCH.15 ≤ k < 1.
This resistance is established considering the concrete and all the steel components present in the section. example The stiffness of composite sections in which the concrete is in tension should be calculated assuming that the concrete is cracked and that only the steel parts of the section are structural. Rd) of the dissipative zones is the one considered in design checks concerning the sections of the dissipative elements. M Ed M pl. the upper bound plastic resistance (index U.14.Rd . for example welded meshes. Composite Steel Concrete Structures Stiffness of sections The stiffness of composite sections in which the concrete is in compression should be calculated using a modular ratio n = Ea / Ecm = 7 Plastic resistance of dissipative zones Two different plastic resistances of the dissipative zones are considered in the design of composite steel concrete structures: the lower bound plastic resistance (index pl. For composite beams that incorporate a concrete flange the second moment of area of the section. The structure should be analysed taking into account the presence of concrete in compression in some zones and concrete in tension in other zones or making use of the average value of I or EI mentioned in 15. only the steel resistance is calculated considering the concrete and only the steel components of the section which are ductile. This resistance is calculate This components of the section which are ductile. for example. . including those that are not necessarily ductile. referred to as I1 (slab in compression) or I2 (slab in tension). should be calculated taking into account the effective width of slab defined at Table 16. Rd) of the dissipative zones is the one considered in the capacity design of the elements that are adjacent to the dissipative zones.
20 0. Limiting values of the wall slenderness c/tf for flanges remain unchanged.1 Limiting values of x/d for ductility of composite beams (with slab) 1. The limiting values imposed to c/t are defined in Eurocode 3 (EN199311 : 2004. This may be translated into a geometrical condition on the position of the neutral axis (Figure 55). should satisfy to the following requirement: x/d < cu2/ ( cu2+ a) where cu2 is the ultimate compressive strain of the concrete and a is the total strain in the steel at the Ultimate Limit State. It should be noted that a composite beam (with concrete flange) has a reduced ductility in comparison to that of same steel section alone. Table 14 indicates limits of x/d of sections for which the condition is satisfied. to the depth d of the composite section. c.composite +1. The strain diagram must indicate that strains in the steel reach the yield strain y while strains in the concrete are still below cu2 (the ultimate strain of concrete in compression).steel developed for the same rotation in a symmetrical steel section (Figure 55).composite x d s.trave q 1.5 < q ≤ 4 q>4 q>4 fy (N/mm2) 355 235 355 235 x/d upper limit 0. This is because the neutral axis is raised towards the upper part of the section (it is typically located in the steel flange).5 < q ≤ 4 1. the limits imposed to the value of wall slenderness c/t of webs are more restrictive for webs that are fully in compression (for example as found in composite beams with slab) than for webs in bending (as found in symmetrical steel sections as shown at Figure 55).2). These higher strains result in a faster strength degradation due to buckling. Table 5. and accordingly reduce the ductility of the sections.27 79 .composite in the bottom flange of the steel section are increased in comparison to the strains s. Figure 55 Strains obtained at the same rotation in a symmetrical steel beam and in a composite beam made from the same steel section.Rd. In order to achieve in all cases a sufficient ductility. The ratio x/d of the distance x between the top concrete compression fibre and the plastic neutral axis.Rd.14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures Ductility in bending of steel beams acting compositely with slabs The general concept used to define the condition for ductility of composite sections is exactly the same as that used for reinforced concrete sections.trave ov Mpl.1 Ductility class DCM DCH Table 14 ov Mpl. and strains s.steel s.27 0.36 0.
Figure 57. taking into account the plastic resistance of the adjacent composite dissipative zones in beams or connections. For partially encased stiffened web panels a similar assessment is permitted if straight links. bc t bb hb hc B steelconcrete web panel in accordance with Eurocode 4.Rd is the shear resistance of the composite Figure 56 Beam to column composite connections. The dimensions hb and hc are as defined in Figure 56. Vwp.Rd Vwp.6 < hb/hc < 1. of the type shown in Figure 57.8 Vwp.14. are provided at a maximum spacing s1 = c in the panel. and no other reinforcement of the panel is required. the panel zone resistance can be calculated as the sum of the contributions from the concrete and steel shear panel. These links are not required if hb/ bb < 1.2 and hc/bc < 1. A C B A D A B C D steel beam face bearing plates reinforced concrete column composite encased column . Composite Steel Concrete Structures Detailing rules for composite connections in dissipative zones Local design of the reinforcing bars used in the joint region has to be justified using equilibrium models.2. When the web panels of beam/column connections are fully encased.Ed < 0. Annex C of Eurocode 8 provides complete information for the design of the ‘seismic’ reinforcement in slabs (see Section 15).Ed is the design shear force in the web panel due to the action effects. These links must be oriented perpendicularly to the longer side of the column web panel.4 b) Vwp. provided the aspect ratio hb/bp of the panel zone satisfies the following conditions: a) 0.
vertical reinforcements with a design axial strength equal to the shear strength of the coupling beam.14. which requires vertical reinforcements. the reaction is alternatively directed upwards and downwards. The presence of face bearing plates and transverse reinforcements is equally required. the following should be checked: the capacity of the column to bear locally those forces without crushing. bb c hb s 1 s1 s1 s 1 s 1 s1 < c bp = hc 81 . Indeed. For that reason. similarly to those shown in the case of a beam framing into a wall at Figure 68. vertical column reinforcements may be calculated either as explained above or by distributing the shear strength of the beam between the column steel section and the column reinforcement. Figure 56. When a dissipative steel or composite beam is framing into a fully encased composite column (see Figure 56). which is realised by a couple of vertical reaction forces into the concrete. a rule in Eurocode 8 prescribes to place in the column. Figure 57 Confinement of the composite web panel. depending on the direction of the moves of the frame . Composite Steel Concrete Structures When a dissipative steel or composite beam frames into a reinforced concrete column (see Figure 56). it is necessary to realise the transfer of bending moment and shear present at beam end into the column. To maintain the integrity of the column. To ensure a good behaviour of the steel coupling beam and of the concrete at the support. in the vicinity of the beam stiffeners or « face bearing plates » adjacent to the beam plastic hinge. the beam/column connection may be designed either as a beam/steel column connection or as a beam/composite column connection. this can put the column under tension. It is allowed to consider part or total of reinforcement present in the column for other reasons as part or total of the reinforcements so required. which requires confining (transverse) reinforcement the capacity of the column to resist locally tension mobilised by those vertical forces. In the latter case. because of the reversal of signs of the plastic moment at beam end. These vertical reinforcing bars should be confined by the transverse reinforcement already mentioned. the mentioned face bearing plates should be placed in the exterior plane of the concrete.
2 FLANGE outstand limits c/tf H or I Section. h = hc h = hc tw tw s s s s s s s a) Additional straight bars (links) welded to the flanges. The connection of concrete to web refers to design details defined in Eurocode 4: the concrete is connected to the web of the steel section. and/or by studs of at least 10 mm diameter welded to the web.2 FLANGE outstand limits c/tf H or I Section. b) Concrete connected to the web of the steel section by means of welded stirrups.5 EN199811:2004 FLANGE outstand limits c/tf H or I Section. for partially encased sections as shown in Figure 58a. or placed between its flanges.5 with fy in MPa Table 15 Limits of wall slenderness for steel and encased H and I sections. These limits can be increased by up to 50% if the following details are placed with certain densities: confining hoops. For this reason.5. EN199311:2004 Table 5. in steel only. Further guidance on ‘+ hoops’ and ‘straight links’ is provided below under the subtitles ‘Fully encased composite columns’ and ‘Partially encased members’. partially encased.5 EN199811:2004 WEB depth to thickness limit cw/tw cw/tw = h – 2tf Reference: H or I Section. EN199411.14. web completely in compression. cl. Composite Steel Concrete Structures Favourable influence of concrete encasement on local ductility Concrete used to encase a steel section. EN199411:2004 Table 5.5 42 38 33 38 38 33 tf tf Figure 58 Partially encased sections. fully encased + hoops placed with s/c ≤ 0. with connection of concrete to web as in Figure 57 b) or by welded studs.2 WEB depth to thickness limit cw/tw H or I Section. Table 15 presents values of acceptable wall slenderness for H or I sections in compression.5 30 21 13. web completely in compression EN199311:2004 Table 5.5 < q ≤ 2 14 20 2<q≤4 10 14 DCH q>4 9 9 30 21 13.2. section partially encased with connection of concrete to web or fully encased with hoops. DCM 1.3(3) note: = (fy/235)0. for fully encased sections additional straight bars welded to the inside of the flanges. Ductility Class of Structure Reference value of behaviour factor q FLANGE outstand limits c/tf Reference: H or I Section in steel only EN199311:2004 Table 5. either by stirrups welded to the web (see Figure 58b)) or by means of bars of at least 6 mm diameter placed through holes. some of the limits for wall slenderness of composite sections are higher than those for pure steel sections. for different design details and behaviour factors q. c) Steps s of the stirrups. partially encased + straight links as in Figure 57 a) placed with s/c ≤ 0. prevents inward local buckling of the steel walls/flanges and therefore reduces strength degradation due to buckling. c b = bc a) c b = bc b) c) .5.
the axial force in a column is tensile. as well 4. When calculating the anchorage or lap length of column bars which contribute to the flexural strength of elements in critical regions. the resistance in shear of the steel for example in moment frames at the: section may be considered either alone or bases of all types of columns at ground level combined with the resistance in shear of tops of columns in the upper storey the concrete section.req/As. for example at the top and the steel section alone. the shear as to other regions of the columns in which resistance should be determined considering uncertainties exist. 83 . For hoops used as transverse reinforcement in beams. However.0. columns.14. the full composite resistance of a column is employed.prov should be assumed to be 1. complete shear transfer between the steel and reinforced concrete parts should be ensured. In DCH structures. Anchorage and splices of reinforcement bars The following requirements apply to reinforcing bars used for both earthquake resistant reinforced concrete structures and composite structures. in order to achieve a global plastic mechanism In essentially axially loaded non dissipative involving local dissipative zones. to take into account yield penetration due to cyclic postelastic deformations. In such ‘critical zones’ confining reinforcement is required for both For fully encased columns that are dissipative and non dissipative columns. Composite Steel Concrete Structures General rules for the design of dissipative and non dissipative elements When. connections to beams and bracing members. The mechanism members. dbL is the diameter of longitudinal reinforcement. Columns can be designed to be dissipative in regions where the global mechanism indicates In the design of non dissipative composite that plastic deformations will take place. the anchorage lengths should be increased to 50% longer than those specified in Eurocode 2. In this latter case it should be determined according to Eurocode Specific rules apply to these zones. closed stirrups with 135° hooks and extensions 10 dbw in length should be used. in the seismic design situation. the minimum the design of both types of composite column crosssectional dimensions b and h the resistance in bending of the steel section should be not less than 250 mm. it is necessary to consider reduced design shear resistances in order to ensure the effectiveness of the transmission of forces. the ratio of the required area of reinforcement to the actual area of reinforcement As. In assumed to act compositely. and therefore indirectly the parts share the loads applied to the column at members in which there are no dissipative zones. the design rules for dissipative columns that are intended to ensure full shear transfer between the concrete and the steel parts in a section should nevertheless be applied. dbw being the diameter of the transverse reinforcement. the anchorage length of beam or column bars anchored within beam to column joints should be measured from a point on the bar at a distance 5dbL inside the face of the joint. sufficient shear transfer should be identifies the members in which dissipative provided to ensure that the steel and concrete zones are located. columns or walls. If insufficient shear transfer is achieved through bond and friction. Figure 59. concrete structures). In dissipative members. When the concrete encasement or infill is assumed to contribute to the axial and/or flexural resistance of a non dissipative column. for capacity design purposes. may be considered either alone or combined with the resistance of the concrete section. shear connectors should An earthquake resistant structure is designed be provided to ensure full composite action. because of the cyclic character of seismic action effects. If. unless special bottom of any storey with fully encased columns details are provided to mobilise the shear (these are the ‘critical zones’ of reinforced resistance of the concrete encasement. they are obtained by dividing by 2 the shear resistances indicated in Eurocode 4.
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
ductility class DCH should not exceed: is the required value of the curvature s = min(bo/2, 150, 6dbL) ductility factor; sy,d is the design value of the where dbL is the minimum diameter tension steel strain at yield; hc is the gross of the longitudinal rebars. crosssectional depth (parallel to the horizontal In dissipative structures, there are critical The diameter of the hoops direction in which the applies); ho is the regions at both ends of all column ‘clear dbw should be at least depth of the confined core (to the centreline lengths’ in moment frames, and in the dbw = 6 mm for ductility class DCM of the hoops); bc is the gross crosssectional portions of columns adjacent to links in dbw = max( 0,35 dbL,max[fydL/fydw]0,5, 6) width; bo is the width of the confined core (to eccentrically braced frames. The lengths lcr mm for ductility class DCH the centreline of the hoops). The symbols of these The lengths lcr of these critical regi frames. critical regions (in metres) are: dbL,max is the maximum diameter of the ho , hc , bo , bc are defined at Figure 59. lcr max hc ; lcl / 6; 0,45m ductility class M M for for ductility class longitudinal rebars. fydL et fydw respectively Ac is the area of the section of concrete; As is lcr max 1,5hc ; lcl / 6; 0,6for ductility class H H the area of the longitudinal rebars; A is the area m for ductility class the design yield strength of the longitudinal a Where h is the largest crosssectional di and transverse reinforcement. of the steel profile; fcd is the concrete design Where hc is the largest crosssectional strength; fyd is the design yield strength of dimension of the column – Figure 59 In critical regions, the distance between the profile; fys is the design yield strength of and lcl is the ‘clear length’ of the column. consecutive longitudinal bars restrained the rebars; is the confinement effectiveness by hoops or crossties should not exceed factor, which is equal to = n · s, with: To satisfy plastic rotation demands and to 250 mm for ductility class DCM, or with: rectangular crosssections: For 2 compensateForloss of resistance due to spalling for rectangular crosssections: 200 mm for ductility class DCH. 1 bi / 6bo ho n of the cover concrete, the following expression n the cover concrete, the following expression should1 satisfied1 s / 2the critical regions: the bottom two storeys of a building, be s / 2bo within ho should be satisfied within the critical regions: In s bc . . n is the total number of longitudinal bars laterally hoops in accordance with the indications 0,035 wd 30 d sy, d above should be provided beyond the critical bo engaged by hoops or cross ties and bi is the regions for an additional length equal to distance between consecutive engaged bars. d = NEd/Npl,Rd = NEd/(Aafyd + Acfcd + Asfsd) half the length of the critical regions. The spacing s of confining hoops in is the mechanical volumetric ratio of Where Where wd is the mechanical volumetric critical regions should not exceed ratio of the confining hoops within The diameter dbw of confining hoops used to s = min (bo/2, 260, 9 dbL) mm the critical regions, defined as: prevent flange buckling should be not less than for ductility class DCM f yd s = min (bo/2, 175, 8 dbL) mm volume of confining hoops d bw b t f / 8 f ydf / f ydw 0,5 ; for ductility class DCH wd volume of concrete core f cd in in which b tf aretthe width and thickness of which b and and are the width and thickne The spacing s of confining hoops in is the required value of the curvature the lower part of the lower storey for ductility factor the flange and fydf and fydw are the design yield strengths of the flange and reinforcement.
Fully encased composite columns
Figure 59
Definition of symbols for fully encased composite column.
10 db
w
bo bc
s
ho hc
hC
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
Partially encased members
In zones where energy is dissipated by plastic bending of a composite section, the longitudinal spacing of the transverse reinforcement s should satisfy: s = min (bo/2, 260, 9 dbL) mm for ductility class DCM s = min (bo/2, 175, 8 dbL) mm for ductility class DCH on a length greater or equal to: lcr for dissipative zones at the end of a member 2lcr for dissipative zones within a member. As previously explained, straight links welded to the inside of the flanges as shown in Figure 58a), in addition to the reinforcement required by Eurocode 4, can delay local buckling in the dissipative zones. The diameter dbw of the additional straight links should be a minimum 6 mm or
in which b and tf are the width and thickness of the flange and fydf and fydw are the design yield strengths of the flange and reinforcement. The additional straight links should be welded to the flanges at both ends, and the capacity of the welds should be not less than the tensile yield strength of the links. A clear concrete cover of between 20 mm and 40 mm should be provided to these links. The design of partiallyencased members in which only the steel section is assumed to contribute to member resistance may be carried out as for steel structures, although the capacity design should consider the entire composite section, as explained previously.
Steel beams composite with a slab
Beams intended to behave as composite elements in dissipative zones of an earthquake resistant structure may be designed for full or partial shear connection, although the minimum degree of connection (as defined in Eurocode 4) should not be less than 0,8 and the total resistance of the shear connectors within any hogging moment region should be not less than the plastic resistance of the reinforcement. Because of the cyclic character of earthquake action effects which can cause a degradation of concrete around the connectors or excessive bending of the connectors, it is necessary to consider reduced design strength for the connectors in dissipative zones. This reduced design resistance of the connectors is that of Eurocode 4 multiplied by a factor of 0,75. Full shear connection is required when nonductile connectors are used. The minimum thickness of concrete poured on site, assumed in the design to act as a structural diaphragm, is 70 mm. When profiled steel sheeting with ribs transverse to the supporting beam is used and the “waves” in those sheeting are characterised by angle , as defined at Figure 60, between 10° et 80°, the concrete tends to be pushed up by the shear force, which correspond to additional effects on the head of the connectors and which can generate a brittle failure of the concrete around those connectors. In order to avoid this detrimental effect, it is prescribed in Eurocode 8 that the reduction factor kt for the design shear resistance of the connectors given by Eurocode 4 should be further reduced by a rib shape efficiency factor kr (see Figure 60).
d bw
b t f / 8 f ydf / f ydw 0,5
Figure 60
Values of the rib shape efficiency factor kr.
10°< <80°
kr = 1 kr = 1 kr = 0,8
85
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
Ductility in plastic hinges is achieved by designing the section such that the ratio x/d is limited to the values indicated at Table 14. In the dissipative zones of beams, specific ductile steel reinforcement of the slab, ‘seismic rebars’ (see Figure 61), should be placed in the connection zone. Detailed design guidance is given in Annex C of Eurocode 8 [1][17].
Figure 62
Effective width of slab
The total effective width beff of concrete flange associated with each steel beam should be taken as the sum of the partial effective widths be1 and be2 on either side of the centreline of the steel web (Figure 62). The partial effective width on each side should be taken as be, given in Table 16, but not greater than the available widths b1 and b2 . The available width b of each portion should be taken as half the distance from the web of the beam being considered to the adjacent web, except that at a free edge the actual width is the distance from the web to the free edge.
Definition of effective widths be1 , be2 and beff
Figure 61
Layout of ‘seismic rebars’
E
AT
AT
AT
D
AT
C
C
C
C
A
A Exterior Node
B
B Interior Node
A
A Exterior Node
C Steel beam D Façade steel beam E Reinforced concrete cantilever edge strip
14. Composite Steel Concrete Structures
The partial effective widths be of the slab to be used in the determination of the elastic and plastic properties of the composite beam (T section comprising a steel beam connected to a slab forming a concrete flange) are defined in Tables 16 and 17 and at Figures 62 and 63. These values of the partial effective widths be are valid for beams positioned as shown for beams C in Figure 63, and if the design of the slab reinforcement and of the connection of the slab to the steel beam and column are in accordance with Annex C of Eurocode 8. In Table 16, those moments which induce compression in the slab are considered as positive and those which induce tension in the slab are considered as negative.
Symbols bb , be , beff and l used in Tables 16 and 17 are defined in Figures 62 and 63. hc is the depth of the column section. bb is the bearing width of the slab concrete on the column in the horizontal direction, perpendicular to the beam for which the effective width is determined. This bearing width may include additional details aimed at increasing the bearing capacity, like the additional plates sketched as Detail 4 at Figure 63.
A
Figure 63
Definition of elements in moment frames.
E
B
A I C
C D
D be1 beff be2 D
A
bb
A A
bb bb
A
bb
F G G G G
Detail 1
Detail 2
Detail 3
B: Interior column F: Extended bearing
Detail 4
C: Longitudinal beam G: Concrete slab
A: Exterior column D: Transverse beam or steel façade beam E: Cantilever concrete edge strip
87
No steel transverse beam or steel transverse beam without connectors. Seismic rebars.14. or rebars not anchored be for I (Elastic Analysis) For negative M : 0.max be.max =0.075 l 0.025 l Table 16 Partial effective width be of slab for the computation of the second moment of area I used in the elastic analysis of the structure. Concrete slab up to exterior face of column of H section with strong axis oriented as in Figure 63. Interior column Exterior column Exterior column Interior column Exterior column Seismic rebars All layouts with rebars anchored to façade beam or to concrete cantilever edge strip All layouts with rebars not anchored to façade beam or to concrete cantilever edge strip Seismic rebars Steel transverse beam with connectors Concrete slab up to exterior face of column of H section with strong axis oriented as in Figure 63 or beyond (concrete edge strip). or beyond (edge strip).1 l Negative M 0.0 Positive M Positive M 0. Seismic rebars 0.075 l Positive M Exterior column bb/2 +0.05l .1 l 0. Composite Steel Concrete Structures be At interior column At exterior column At exterior column Transverse element Present or not present Present Not present.0375 l For negative M : 0 For positive M : 0.7 hc/2 Positive M Exterior column bb/2 ≤ be.05 l For positive M : 0. Sign of bending moment M Negative M Negative M Location Transverse element be for MRd (Plastic resistance) Table 17 Partial effective width be of slab for evaluation of plastic moment resistance. Seismic rebars All other layouts.
89 . A basic choice. COMPOSITE STEEL CONCRETE MOMENT RESISTING FRAMES Design objective. the degree of composite ‘character’.15. Analysis.
etc bending (cracked section). Ic and Is denote the second plastic resistance.Rd will occur of the beams connected to that column. 2. This is the same as for pure steel structures.4 I2 used in the analysis. There must be an effective disconnection of the slabs from the steel For composite columns. factor that is a function of the type of column Also. Two design (uncracked section) options exist to achieve ductility in those zones: 1. it should be assumed that Mpl.30 A basic choice. but not in the columns themselves. Beams should be checked for lateral and lateral An effective disconnection between steel and torsional buckling in accordance with Eurocode concrete may be realised if there is no contact 4. Composite steel concrete moment resisting frames Design objective The global design objective for dissipative composite steel concrete moment resisting frames is to form plastic hinges in the beams. element (columns. flexural stiffness is given by: the real stiffness of the structure will have been (EI)c = 0. and the aimed for global mechanism is often called a ‘weak beamstrong column’ or WBSC solution (see Figure 25a)). beff is the greater of the effective width In columns where plastic hinges will form.6 I1 + 0. by satisfying certain conditions subjected to negative (hogging) concerning seismic rebars. the analysis may be performed assuming an equivalent second moment of area The second option simplifies the design. and at the top of the columns in the uppermost storey. The following expression should apply for all composite columns: NEd/Npl. concrete and the rebars respectively. corrugated flanges. the capacity design of columns will have crosssection and has a recommended value been based on an underestimation of the beam of r = 0. the degree of composite ‘character’ Analysis . and 35 mrad for ductility class DCH. or in their connections to the columns.Rd < 0. Such a design does however allow plastic hinges to form in the columns at the base of the frame. If the disconnection is not effective. assuming the presence of a negative between the slabs and any vertical side of a steel plastic moment at one end of the beam. use only the steel sections for the beam end dissipative zones Alternatively. two different forms of flexural stiffness should be taken into account in the analysis: In moment resisting frames. as will therefore E and Ecm are the modulus of elasticity for the the earthquake action effects given that steel and concrete respectively. The design should be such that plastic rotation capacity at the beam ends is at least 25 mrad for ductility class DCM. shear connectors.9( EIa + r Ecm Ic + E Is ) underestimated by the model. dissipative zones are EI1 for the parts of spans subjected to positive (sagging) bending normally formed at the beam ends. in these hinges. omega steel deck Composite trusses should not be nailed to the flange of steel sections etc) within used as dissipative beams.15.5. the sections. leading to an underestimation moments of area of the steel section. Ia. For beams. connecting plates. the of the design forces in the columns. a circular zone around each column of diameter 2beff . form ductile composite dissipative EI2 for the parts of spans zones. but the Ieq which is constant over the entire span: real structure must correctly reflect the model Ieq = 0. r is a reduction pseudo acceleration increases with stiffness.
16. COMPOSITE STEELCONCRETE BRACED FRAMES Composite frames with concentric bracing. Composite frames with eccentric bracing. 91 .
For Mp.link are given in 13. link. composite braces would tend to overload the beams and columns. The design procedure for the braces is identical to that for steel concentrically braced frames. As for moment resisting frames. can be either steel alone or composite steelconcrete. All other members should remain elastic and failure of the connections should be prevented. An underestimated ‘link’ capacity would lead to an underdesign of the braces and columns and possibly to their failure. it would be possible to use composite elements for all frame members. Composite steelconcrete braced frames Composite frames with concentric bracing The nondissipative structural elements. Vertical steel links are also acceptable. because of uncertainties about the contribution of the concrete to shear resistance. namely the braces. because the contribution of the slab in tension to the shear resistance is negligible. Composite frames with eccentric bracing In principle. there are some uncertainties associated with composite elements that make them unacceptable for use is the dissipative zones of eccentrically braced frames.link. only the steel part of the link section is taken into account in the evaluation. The behaviour of horizontal beam links which yield in shear can be well predicted. However. link The definitions of Mp. . For this reason composite frames with eccentric bracing are designed such that the dissipative behaviour occurs essentially through yielding in shear of the links. namely the beams and columns. have to be structural steel alone. This means that such links should be either short or of intermediate length. with a maximum length e equal to: when plastic hinges would form at both ends: e = 2Mp. when a plastic hinge would form at only one end: e < Mp.16. where large deformations are needed (rotations up to say 80 mrad).link and Vp. The gap in knowledge is similar concerning the ‘disconnection’ of the slab in these areas. There are two reasons behind this requirement: prior to their buckling. composite braces have not been the subject of indepth study and consequently there are uncertainties with regard to their cyclic behaviour in both tension and compression. However. link/ Vp. making it difficult to evaluate ‘links’ working in bending in composite beam elements. link/ Vp. The links may not be formed from encased steel sections. the analysis of the structure has to consider two different stiffness for the zones under sagging and hogging moments. the dissipative elements. Figure 64.
Figure 64 Detail of zone T. D B E B A C T A : seismic link B : face bearing plate C : concrete D : additional longitudinal rebars E : confining ties 93 . the philosophy for the design of composite eccentrically braced frames is similar to that for steel eccentrically braced frames presented in Section 13. Besides these aspects. beam – column – link connection zone in a composite frame with eccentric bracings. transverse reinforcement in ‘critical regions’ of fully encased composite columns adjacent to links. Composite steelconcrete braced frames Specific construction details shown at Figure 64 should be realised for: face bearing plates for links framing into reinforced concrete columns (similar to those defined for connections in Section 14).16.
Detailing rules for composite walls of ductility class DCM. . COMPOSITE STEELCONCRETE WALLS AND SYSTEMS WITH WALLS Definition of the various composite wall systems and the design objectives. Analysis. Additional detailing rules for ductility class DCH.17. Detailing rules for coupling beams of ductility class DCM. Composite steel plate shear walls.
In structural systems of Type 3. 95 . Structural Type 3 solutions (Figure 54) are designed to dissipate energy in the shear walls and in the coupling beams. As for reinforced concrete structures. two different forms of flexural stiffness should be taken into account in the analysis . concrete and vertical steel profile Figure 65 Mechanical behaviour of shear walls. The structural steel sections in the boundary members do however increase the flexural resistance of the wall and delay the onset of flexural plastic hinges in tall walls. Type 1 and 2 solutions. Composite steelconcrete walls and systems with walls Definition of the various composite wall systems and their design objectives Composite wall systems. the analysis should be made assuming that the seismic action effects in these boundary members are axial forces only. if composite coupling beams are used. Composite steel plate shear walls are designed to yield through shear of the steel plate. when vertical fully encased (or partially encased) structural steel sections act as the boundary members of reinforced concrete infill panels. In structural systems of Type 1 or Type 2. have shear strength and stiffness comparable to those of pure reinforced concrete shear wall systems. two levels of ductility and two values of the behaviour factor are defined for dissipative walls.(as explained for beams in moment resisting frames in 15). concrete compression struts steel ties in tension connection between horizontal steel tie. These axial forces should be determined assuming that the shear forces are carried by the reinforced concrete wall. depending on the requirements of the detailing rules. Structural Type 1 and 2 solutions (Figure 54 and 65) are designed to behave as shear walls and dissipate energy in both the vertical steel sections and in the vertical reinforcing bars. when properly designed. Analysis The analysis of the structure is based on section properties defined for concrete walls and for composite beams.17. and that the entire gravity and overturning forces are carried by the concrete shear wall acting compositely with the vertical boundary members.
detail for ductility class DCH. A: bars welded to column B: transverse reinforcement C: shear connectors D: cross tie min = 2h h min = 2h h C D A D C Figure 68 Details of coupling beam framing into a wall. or anchored around it) should be provided to transfer vertical and horizontal shear forces between the structural steel of the boundary elements and the reinforced concrete. Partially encased steel sections used as boundary members of the reinforced concrete panels should belong to a class of crosssection related to the behaviour factor of the structure. V M A: Additional wall confining ties at embedment of steel beam B: Steel coupling beam. should meet the requirements for reinforced concrete wall of class DCM. Fully encased and partially encased steel sections used as boundary members in reinforced concrete panels are designed as explained in 15. C: Face bearing plates. anchored through holes in it. details of transverse reinforcement for ductility class DCH. ˜ 2/3 le B le . and the reinforced concrete walls in Types 2 and 3. Figure 67 Details of fully encased composite boundary element.17. transverse reinforcement for ductility class DCH. Figure 66 Details of partially encased composite boundary element. Composite steelconcrete walls and systems with walls Detailing rules for composite walls of ductility class DCM The reinforced concrete infill panels in Type 1 systems. as indicated in Table 13. D: vertical reinforcement. Headed shear studs or tie reinforcement (which should be either welded to the steel member.
contribute to the confinement of the concrete. A longer embedment length reduces the reaction forces and allows the wall to better resist the most adverse combination of moment and shear applied by the beam. with a design axial strength equal to the shear strength of the coupling beam. the reaction forces are successively oriented upwards and downwards. Figures 56 et 68. To ensure the correct behaviour of the beam and the concrete at the support. it is necessary to realise the transfer of bending moment and shear present at beam end into the column. stiffeners of the steel beam are required in the plane of the exterior concrete face. but may be required over the embedment length by design checks. Indeed. It is acceptable to consider vertical reinforcement that is present for other purposes as part of the contribution to this requirement. because of the reversal of plastic moments at beam end under seismic action. Eurocode 8 prescribes that vertical wall reinforcement. with twothirds of the steel located over the first half of this length. That combination has to consider as applied forces the plastic moment resistance Mpl. also called “face bearing plates”. Composite steelconcrete walls and systems with walls Detailing rules for coupling beams of ductility class DCM The “Detailing rules for composite connections in dissipative zones” presented in 14. which can require confining reinforcement in the wall and a sufficient embedment length of the beam into the wall.Rd and the plastic shear resistance VEd of the beam. the following should be checked: the wall should have the capacity to bear locally those forces without crushing. To maintain the integrity of the concrete. which are the action effects in the global plastic mechanism. Confining hoops or bars forming hoops placed horizontally are not compulsory in class DCM. apply. Installed at that place. the wall should have the capacity to resist locally to the tension mobilised by those vertical forces. which is realised by a couple of vertical reaction forces into the wall. 97 .17.5 times the depth of the coupling beam. which can put the wall in tension. For this reason. those stiffeners. should be placed over the embedment length of the beam. This wall reinforcement should extend a distance of at least one anchorage length above and below the flanges of the coupling beam. The embedment length le should be assumed to begin inside the first layer of confining reinforcement in the wall boundary member (see Figure 68) and should not be less than 1. When a dissipative steel or composite beam frames into a reinforced concrete wall (see Figure 68). which requires vertical reinforcements.
Checks should be made that: VRd ≥ VEd The shear resistance VRd is given by: 14.25% in both directions. . Composite steelconcrete walls and systems with walls Additional detailing rules Composite steel for ductility class DCH plate shear walls Transverse reinforcement should be used for confinement of the composite boundary zones of the wall. which should be stiffened by concrete encasement on one or both sides. The concrete thickness should not be less than 200 mm when it is provided on one side and 100 mm when on both sides. The steel plate should be continuously connected on all its edges to structural steel boundary members with welds and/or bolts to develop the yield strength of the plate in shear. be they partially or fully encased. yd plate and Apl is the horizontal area of the plate. The requirements for the seismic links in frames with eccentric bracing also apply to the coupling beams. This reinforcement should extend a distance 2h into the concrete walls.17. Openings in the steel plate should be stiffened as necessary. must be designed such that the full yield strength of the plate can be developed. The encasement must be suitably attached in order to prevent buckling of steel. Composite steel plate shear walls are designed to yield through shearing of the plate itself. The connections between the plate and the boundary members (columns and beams) as well as the connections between the plate and its concrete encasement. Checks should be made that: Rd VEd is given by: VRd Apl f yd / 3 rength of thef plate and Ayield strength of the where is the design is the horizontal area of the plate. with a minimum reinforcement ratio of 0. The analysis of the structure should be based on the material and section properties defined in 14. where h is the depth of the boundary element in the plane of the wall (see Figures 66 and 67).
99 . Behaviour of composite columns subjected to compression and cyclic bending. IMPROVING REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES BY INCORPORATING COMPOSITE COLUMNS Problem definition and design conditions of composite columns.18.
bending combined with compression results in the crushing of concrete. Figure 69 The ‘soft storey’ mechanism which composite columns can mitigate. This phenomenon is caused by the following factors: large openings present in the bottom storey but not elsewhere weaken the structure. The most frequent failure mode of reinforced concrete (RC) moment frame buildings is a ‘soft storey’ mechanism in which failure takes place in the bottom storey of the building (Figure 69).steel > MRd. shops. an ArcelorMittal promoted improve the behaviour research study has recently considered the use of RC buildings of ‘local’ composite elements in what remains essentially a reinforced concrete building in order to improve safety. Columns are assumed to be subject to constant compression and to alternate cyclic bending. lobby etc.concrete and VRd. with slender columns present. as any increase in stiffness would mean an increase in the seismic forces. and C2 with anchorage stopped within the depth of the first storey beams (Figure 70). The justification for this new development is explained below. The moment. in order to maintain the stiffness of the original RC structure.rotation diagrams obtained show that composite columns provide significantly more resistance and ductility than the original reinforced concrete elements (Figure 71). alternate inclined cracks due to shear result in decohesion of the concrete bending and shear of ground storey columns induces the collapse of the building Research has demonstrated that composite columns in the lower levels of RC buildings do provide reliable shear. Q) with g = 1 and q = 0. Improving Reinforced Concrete Structures by incorporating Composite Columns Definition of the problem Design of composite columns used to As an alternative to complete composite design of structures. G + q. these criteria should be checked for both weak and strong axis bending. openings are due to use of the ground floor level for offices. which is clearly not desirable. C1 with anchorage extending up to mid height of the second storey columns.steel > VRd. Design criteria for encased steel members have been defined: the steel section alone should be able to resist the design axial force of the seismic loading case: NRd > NSd ( q. bending and compression resistance.3 the steel section alone should be able to compensate for the deficient concrete section under applied bending moment and shear at collapse: MRd. Two designs for anchorage of the steel members into the concrete structure were tested. plastic hinges soft storey after earthquake .concrete the steel sections should not overly modify the local stiffnesses EI of the RC columns.18.
Moment (kNm) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 150 125 100 75 50 25 Reinforced Concrete alone Rotation Moment (kNm) 300 250 200 150 100 50 Reinforced Concrete + Steel Section Rotation Rotation (mrad) 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 50 0 25 50 Rotation (mrad) 75 100 125 150 50 100 150 200 250 300 100 150 200 250 300 101 . Figure 70 Left: Composite section.exp = Mpl.) in dissipative zones. More technical details and design considerations are given in reference [12]. the full composite plastic moment resistance is developed (Mpl. there is no significant influence of the anchorage type (C1 or C2) on results. In summary. which were shown to provide much more capacity to resist earthquakes than RC columns of the same dimensions. defined as the rotation at which the composite elements still present a resistance equal to the maximum resistance of an R. Improving Reinforced Concrete Structures by incorporating Composite Columns Behaviour of composite columns subjected to compression and cyclic bending The conclusions of the aforementioned research were very positive for composite columns. Right: Anchorage types C1 and C2. the composite elements resisted on average 1. tW tf C1 C2 Figure 71 MomentRotation curves showing the improved capacity of a composite column in comparison to the original reinforced concrete column. but this conclusion may result from the high strength of the concrete and have no general character. element. the rotation capacity comp of a composite element. but a C1 type of anchorage should be preferred in that case. the stiffnesses of the reinforced concrete and composite elements are similar.18. as wished. the improvements due to using composite sections should be relatively greater for lower concrete strengths.5 times more cycles before the end of the test (corresponding to a 50% resistance drop) and dissipated on average 3 times more energy than the RC elements. the shear resistance of a composite column is that of the steel profile. is on average two times greater than R.C.th.C.
Interior column. DESIGN EXAMPLE Presentation.19. Design of beam to column connection at an interior joint in line X2. Design spectrum. Comments on design options. Dynamic analysis by spectral response and modal superposition method. Results of the analysis. Economy due to RBS. . Design of a reduced beam section. Axial Compression check. Weak BeamStrong Column checks. Evaluation of the seismic mass. Evaluation of seismic design shear by the ‘lateral forces’ method. Gravity load to combine with earthquake effects. Plastic resistance in bending at basement level. Checking moment resistance and deflection limits for beams.
19. Design example
Definition
The example presented here is a preliminary design of the building shown in Figure 72. The aim of this design is to obtain in a straightforward way, making certain approximations, ‘sizes’ for the structural elements which are close to a final design. Carrying out such a preliminary process is a normal step in seismic design, because the dynamic action effects are a function of the member stiffness which the designer is trying to determine, so iterations are inevitable. The example presented is thus an initial step. A more refined definition of the section sizes, complete 3D calculations etc, can only be made once the ‘reasonable’ design presented hereafter has proved its validity. The example considers a building in which the seismic resistance is provided by both peripheral and interior moment resisting frames (MRF), in both the x and y directions. MRFs are known to be flexible structures and their design is often governed by the need to satisfy deformation criteria under service earthquake loading, or limitation of P∆ effects under design earthquake loading. For this reason, rigid connections are preferred. It is wise in a preliminary design to select sections that will satisfy, with some reserve, the design criteria under gravity loading alone, and to select a value below the maximum authorised one for the behaviour factor q. The maximum allowed is q = 5 x u / 1 = 5 x 1,3 = 6,5. In order to quickly arrive at the final design a value of q = 4 will be chosen for the analysis.
The preliminary design consists of: Firstly define minimum beam sections, checking deflection and resistance criteria under gravity loading. Then follow an iterative process, going through the following steps until all design criteria are fulfilled. The iterative process can make use of either the ‘lateral force’ method or the ‘spectral responsemodal superposition’ method. If the ‘lateral force’ method is used, the calculation steps are: 1) selection of beam sections 2) definition of column sections checking the ‘Weak Beam Strong Column’ criteria 3) check compression/buckling resistance of columns at ground floor level under gravity loading 4) calculation of the seismic mass (G + Ei Q ) of the structure 5) evaluation of the period of the structure by means of a code formula (see Section 7) 6) evaluation of the resultant base shear Fb and distribution of Fb into lateral forces 7) static analysis of one plane frame under ‘lateral loads’, magnified by a factor to take into account torsional effects 8) static analysis under gravity loading (G + Ei Q ) 9) stability check, considering P∆ effects (parameter ) in the seismic loading situation (in which the gravity loading is G + Ei Q ) 10) deflection check under ‘service’ earthquake loading (a fraction of the design earthquake, generally 0,5) 11) static analysis under gravity loading (G + 2i Q ) 12) combination of action effects determined in step 7) and gravity loading determined in step 11).
If the ‘spectral responsemodal superposition’ method is used, steps 5), 6) and 7) are replaced by: 5) ‘spectral responsemodal superposition’ analysis of one plane frame to evaluate the earthquake action effects. Torsional effects are included by magnifying the design spectrum by the amplification factor as indicated in 7. The ‘spectral responsemodal superposition’ method is a dynamic analysis which allows several vibration modes to be taken into account.
103
19. Design example
Both the ‘lateral force’ and the ‘spectral responsemodal superposition’ methods are used below in order to compare the results of those methods in terms of fundamental period and base shear. The site and building data are as follows: Seismic zone ; agR= 2,0 m/s2 Importance of the building; office building, => ag= 2,0 m/s2 I=1,0 Service load Q = 3 kN/m2 Design spectrum; type 1 Soil B => from code: S = 1,2 TB = 0,15s TC = 0,5s TD = 2s Behaviour factor: q = 4 The building dimensions are shown in Figure 72. The orientation of the columns is chosen in order to have: a similar percentage of strong and weak axis column bending in both the x and y directions. columns presenting their strong axis where this is mostly needed in order to satisfy the ‘weak beamstrong column’ condition with respect to the deepest beams used in the structure, that is for the beams in the x direction (longer spans) at interior nodes.
Figure 72
Example structure for design.
6 5 4 3 2 1 2,9m
Y1
Y2
Y3
Y4
x6 6m
x5 6m
x4 6m
x3 6m
x2 6m
x1 8m 8m 8m
19. Design example
Beam sections; checking moment resistance and deflection limits
Beams in x direction. Deflection check. Beams are assumed to be fixed at both ends. Span l = 8m. Frame on line X2 supports a width of floor = 6m Floor weight is estimated at 5 kN/m2, all included. G floor : 6m x 5 kN/ m2 = 30 kN/ m G walls : 3 kN/ m Q service : 6m x 3 kN/ m2 = 18 kN/ m G + Q = 30 + 3 + 18 = 51 kN/m Deflection limit: f = l /300 under G + Q = 51 kN/m f = pl4 / 384 EI = l/300 => Irequired= 300 pl3/384E = (300 x 51 x 83) /(384 x 0,2 x 109)= 10199.104 mm4 Minimum beam section in x direction: IPE 330 (I = 11770.104 mm4) Beams in x direction. Moment resistance check. 1,35G + 1,5Q = 1,35 x 33 + 1,5 x 18 = 71,55 kN/m Beams are assumed fixed at both ends: MSd = 71,55 x 82 / 12 = 381 kNm Wpl,min = 381.106 / 355 = 1075.103 mm3 Minimum beam section in x direction: IPE 400 (Wpl = 1702.103 mm3) Beams in y direction. Deflection check. Beams are assumed fixed at both ends. Span l = 6m. Frame on line Y2 supports a width of floor = 8m G floor : 8m x 5 kN/ m2 = 40 kN/ m G walls : 3 kN/ m Q service : 8m x 3 kN/ m2 = 24 kN/ m G + Q = 67 kN/m Deflection limit: l /300 under G+Q = 67 kN/m f = pl4 / 384EI= l/300 => Irequired= 300 pl3/384E = (300 x 67 x 63 ) / (384 x 0,2 x 109 ) = 5653.104 mm4 Minimum beam section in y direction: IPE 270 (I = 5790.104 mm4)
Beams in y direction. Moment resistance check 1,35G + 1,5Q = 1,35 x 43 + 1,5 x 24 = 58 + 36 = 94,05 kN/m Beams are assumed fixed at both ends: MSd = 94,05 x 62 / 12 = 282 kNm Wpl,min = 282.106 / 355 = 795.103 mm3 Minimum beam section in y direction: IPE 360 (Wpl = 1019.103 mm3) Conclusion. For gravity loading, minimum beam sections are:  in direction x : IPE400 Wpl = 1702.103 mm3 Wpl = 1019.103 mm3  in direction y : IPE360
I =23130.104 mm4 I =16270.104 mm4
Based on these minimum sizes needed to resist gravity loading the iterative procedure for sizing the beams and columns can begin. The calculations presented below correspond to the following (slightly greater) sizes of beams and columns:  beam sections in direction x : IPE500 I = 48200.104 mm4 Wpl = 2194.103 mm3  beam sections in direction y : IPEA450 I = 29760.104 mm4 Wpl = 1494.103 mm3  columns: HE340M: I strong axis = Iy = 76370.104 mm4 Iweak axis =Iz =19710.104 mm4 3 Wpl,strong axis = 4718.103 mm Wpl,weak axis = 1953.103 mm3
105
Interior column.3 Wpl.103 mm3 Exterior node line Y2.4 (S355 steel) => reduced slenderness = 0.IPE500 2 Wpl.103 mm3 > 1. column ≥ 1.35 G + 1.3 Wpl. WBSC condition: 2Wpl.7 Euler slenderness E : 76. columns 1.103 mm3 4718. so the WBSC check becomes: Wpl.3 Wpl.85 Ac = 31580 mm2 Nb.5 kN/storey Q = 3 kN/m2 x 48 = 144 kN 1.HE340M.weak axis ≥ 1. line X2.3 M Rb f That criterion can be expressed: essed: f yd.3= 2194. and oriented as indicated in Figure 72.48 => = 0.weak axis =1953 x 2 =3906.column Grade S355 steel is chosen for both the beams and columns.103 x W 1. beams At interior nodes there are 2 beams and 2 columns intersecting. intersecting so the WBSC check becomes: Beam sections IPE500 in direction x and 2 Wpl.3 x 1494. column.5 x 144 = 622 kN/storey Compression in column at basement level: 6 x 622 = 3732 kN Approximate buckling length: 2. Axial compression check Relevant loaded area: 8 x 6 = 48 m2 Floor weight is 5 kN/m2.3 Wpl. there is 1 beam and 2 columns Conclusion.3 f yd.HE340M has Wpl.HE340M. i = 79mm): 2900/79 = 36. line Y2. column ≥ 1.3 = 2852.9 m (equal to the storey height) Slenderness (with HE340M section. Wpl.103 mm3 Wpl.3 =2852.103 mm3 > 2852.IPEA450 . Design example ‘Weak BeamStrong Column’ checks The Weak BeamStrong Column (WBSC) check is: Line Y1. Interior node.5 Q = 1.103 mm3 > 1. line X2. beam IPEA450 in direction y satisfy the WBSC condition when HE340M columns are used Interior node.19.IPE500 x 1.weak axis ≥ 1.35 x 300. G floor = 48 x 5 = 240 kN/storey G walls = (8 + 6)x 3 = 42 kN/storey G frame : 18.3 Wpl. Columns are oriented such that the strong axis bending resistance of the HE340M sections is mobilised rather than the weak axis considered above.3 Wpl.beams Wpl.85 x 31580 x 355 = 9529 kN > 3732 kN M Rc 1. Exterior node.Rd = 0. all included.103 mm3 WBSC condition satisfied.103 mm3 => WBSC condition satisfied.103 x 1. Wpl.strong axis = 4718.column 1.beams Wpl.weak axis ≥ 1.column Wpl. beam At exterior nodes.103=1942. column. so the WBSC check becomes: Wpl. so the WBSC check is satisfied ‘by inspection’.5 + 1. . so is satisfied ‘by inspection’. column.IPE500 =2194.weakaxis = 1953. weak axis.IPEA450 is a less demanding check than that for the interior node.3 Wpl. 2Wpl.
water tanks.Rd = Mpl.89 . The axial force is found as the sum of the contribution of 6 storeys: NEd = G + Ei Q = (300.9.Rd = 693 kNm are Evaluation of the seismic mass The unit used for mass is ‘kg’ (a mass of 1 kg corresponds to a 10N gravity force).2.103 kg Interestingly. for the seismic design condition. total length for one storey: 30m x 4 + 24m x6 = 264 m 300 kg/m => 79200 kg / storey G roof considers various pieces of equipment (elevator plant rooms.5 + 0.y.Rd = fyd x Wpl.Rd = 0.Rd =355 x 4718.5 x 0. the resisting moments.103 N=11210 kN n = NEd / Npl.22) = 1562.19. 106 Nmm =1674.3 (offices) and = 0. and subsequently the cost of the building. Their bending resistance has to be evaluated considering the interaction between axial force and bending. according to Eurocode 3 (EN199311 paragraph 6. In 19. Plastic moment resistance at ground level.10. For the HE340M section: Npl. Design example Interior column.17 a = (A2btf)/A = (31580 – 2 x 309 x 40)/31580 = 0.y.Rd = 1562 kNm As n < a => MN.103 Nmm = 693 kNm MN.Rd = 1562 kNm and MN.22 > 0.103= 1674. etc) with an assumed mass of 79200 kg G frame : column HE340M: 2.0.1). air conditioning.5 % of the total seismic mass (and could be approximated as a constant mass in the first iterations of a design).17)/(1.y.15 x 144) x 6 = 1932 kN The value Ei = 0.89 .y.y.106 Nmm MN. it is checked that they are greater than the design action effects considered for elements checks.z. 107 . 106 x (10.z.17 (= n) Mpl. Plastic hinges form in the bases of the columns at ground level as part of the global plastic mechanism.15 x 300 x 720 = 32400 kg /storey Seismic mass (G+ Ei Q ) of one storey: 360000 + 79200 + 38384 +32400 = 509984 kg Seismic mass m = G+ Ei Q of the building (6 storeys): 6 (storeys) x 509984= 3060.Rd (1n)/(10.Rd = Mpl. Total floor area for a single storey: 30 x 24 = 720 m2 G floor = 500 kg/ m2 x 720 = 360 000 kg /storey Partitions and façade.15 is derived from Ei = 2i with 2i = 0. the steel frame represents only 7.z.7 Kg/m = 13060 kg beams IPEA450: 30m x 4 x 67.89 kNm MN.5 (storeys occupied independently). The floors however represent 70 % of the total seismic mass m.9 m x 24 x 248 Kg/m = 17260 kg beams IPE500: 8m x 3 x 6 x 90.2 Kg/m = 8064 kg total G frame : 38384 kg/storey 2 2 Ei x Q (service load)= Ei x 300 kg/ m x 720 m = 0. so a reduction of the floor weight by means of an alternative flooring system would be an effective way to substantially reduce the earthquake actions (by reducing the seismic mass).Rd = 355 x 1953.Rd = fyd x A = 355 x 31580 =11210.y.5 a) = 1674.
19. As all storey seismic masses are equal the distribution of storey forces is triangular (see Figure 16).3 x 451 kN = 586 kN Fi Fb zi zj The resultant design base shear FbX in frame X1.9 kN F2= 55. and with a floor diaphragm that is assumed to be effective enough to evenly distribute the force. In this expression.085 H = 6x 2.5 = 1.5 kN F6= 167. would be taken equal to: = 1 + 1.72 s Calculate the corresponding design pseudo acceleration Sd (T): TC < T < TD => Sd (T)= (2.2 x 0.4 m => T = 0. Results are given in 19. L is the horizontal dimension of the building perpendicular to the earthquake in direction x (30m). then the seismic design shear FbX in one frame is: FbX = FbR /6 = 451 kN Torsional effects have to be added to the translational effects. so that: = 1 + 0.5 x ag x S x TC )/ (q x T) = (2.6 kN F5= 139.103 N = 2705 kN FbR is the total design seismic shear applied to the building in either the x or y direction (they are the same because the estimation of T is only related to the building height). Design example Evaluation of seismic design shear using the ‘lateral forces’ method In this section the approximate ‘lateral forces’ method is considered (see 18).6x/L as explained in 7.5 L (15m). where they are compared to those from a dynamic analysis. The earthquake action effects E are determined using a static analysis under the storey forces. In this example.5 x 2 x 1. . The value (1 + 0.9 m = 17.11. while ‘x’ is the distance from the centre of rigidity to the frame in which the effects of torsion are to be evauated. torsion is therefore taken into account by amplifying FbX by = 1 + 0.04 m/s2 Calculate the seismic design shear FbR FbR = m Sd (T) = 3060.3 The design shear FbX including torsional effects is therefore: FbX = 1.103 x 1. However. The greatest effect is obtained for the greatest x.5)/(4x 0.85 = 2705.6 x/L) used for is known to be close to the real value for the type of frame analysed]. at all levels. All six frames are the same. and the storey forces are given by : This corresponds to a deformed shape which is purely translational in the x or y directions. In the structure analysed. as prescribed in Eurocode 8. This means that only accidental eccentricity results in torsional forces. due to double symmetry in the x and y directions. including torsional effects. calculations are presented for frames in the x direction. which is x = 0. the example described here has been developed assuming that a final design using 3D modal response analysis will be performed after ‘satisfactory’ sizes of the beams and columns have been established. at the geometrical centre of the building.2 x/L .6 x 0.7 kN F4= 111. In this example. [Note: If the final design was to be based only on a planar analysis as described above. the centre of mass CM and the centre of rigidity CR are both.8 kN F3= 83. is: FbX = 586 kN The storey forces are: F1= 27.085 x 17. Definition of storey forces.04 x 0.43/4 = 0. Estimate the fundamental period of the structure using Table 7: T = Ct H3/4 Ct= 0.72)= 1.5 kN Earthquake action effects.
3 explained above. so that the value of ag considered for the analysis is : ag = 2 x 1.3 Q 2i Q = 0. and this is done by amplifying the action (the spectrum) by the factor = 1. while lines X2 to X5 carry 1/5 each).3 = 2.6 m/s2 109 .3 Q = 0. the mass (G+ Ei Q ) /m of beam is: G+ Ei Q = 3060000/(6 x 6 x 24)= 3542 kg/m The design peak ground acceleration is ag = 2. The vertical load (G + 2i Q) /m of beam in line X2 is: 542384 / (5 x 24m) = 4520 kg/m G + 2i Q = 45.3 Q = 360000 + 79200 + 38384 + 64800 = 542384 kg Line X2 carries 1/5 of that mass (line X1 and X6 carry each 1/10. Torsional effects have to be added to the translation effects.2 kN/m Dynamic analysis by spectral response and modal superposition method A planar analysis of a single frame in line X1 is considered.19. Design example Gravity load combined with earthquake effects Beam sections are checked under combined earthquake and coincident gravity loading using the following combination: G + 2i Q = G + 0.0 m/s2 .3 x 300 kg x 720 m2 = 64800 kg /storey The total design mass at one storey is: G + 0. The seismic mass G+ Ei Q for one frame is 1/6 of the total seismic mass of the building. As the façade in direction x is 24m long and there are six levels of beams.
35 184.70 Z X 155.13 300. Due to the SRSS (Square Root of the Sum of the Squares) combination of modes.52 221.42 61. The second modal period is T2=0.17 116.59 129. The values obtained by the dynamic analysis are smaller than those from the lateral force method.96 160.15 278.13 139. The bending moments shown in Figure 73 are a more realistic representation of the real bending moment diagram at a given time.17 s is greater than the estimated 0.97 111.05 119.97 121.04 36.17 108.26 242. Figure 74 presents bending moments under earthquake loading obtained by the dynamic analysis (spectral response – modal superposition) method. with moments at the beam ends which are of opposite sign.60 50. 63. Figure 73 Diagram of bending moments under earthquake action obtained by the lateral force method.41 154.31 477.8).70 58.88 268.43 76.91 38. due to reversal of the earthquake action.16 54.25 106.90 81.80 283.58 107.47 209. Units: kNm.60 123.46 108.40 89.7 % of the total seismic mass m.96 261. and a smaller pseudo acceleration Sd (T) corresponds to a greater period T1 for T1 > TC of the design spectrum.84 259.64 78.368 s and the second modal mass is 10.23 382.27 31.4 % of the total seismic mass m. This is due to the use of correct values of periods in the dynamic analysis.30 12.58 137.32 231.37 126.46 120.30 54.72s of the lateral force method (see 12.41 243.99 203.58 28.68 69. Bending moments at any point in the structure can be either positive or negative. The analysis also shows that first modal mass is 82.19.40 86. Figures 75 and 76 present the deformed shapes in vibration modes 1 and 2.50 101. action effects such as bending moments are all defined as positive.97 197. Design example Results of the analysis Figure 73 presents bending moments under earthquake loading obtained by the lateral force method.15 173.38 480.93 50.64 117.34 230.01 .11 266.72 269.68 226.66 78. the first mode period T1 = 1.02 66.53 172.66 198.
88 197.04 83. for one frame) and 396.) (1.19.1 at storeys 1.52 197.52 83.88 Z 103. Design example Tables 18 and 19 give details of the checks made on the limitation of P∆ effects with the results from both the lateral force method and the dynamic analysis.02 103.50 89. Figure 74 Diagram of bending moments under earthquake action from the dynamic analysis. 5. Bending moments and other action effects found from the analysis at storeys 2 and 3 have to be increased by 1/ (1.13 at storey 3).50 38.0 kN (lateral force method.54 89.96 158.02 X 321.42 77.43 111 .83 54.00 133. It can be seen that the value of the parameter does not differ much from one type of analysis to the other. 6 .35 77.96 67. The values of the resultant base shear from both methods are indicated in those tables: 586.43 321.42 77.54 54. Units: kNm. is ≤ 0. 38.00 67.04 77.16 at storey 2 and 1.2 kN (dynamic response). 4.35 158.83 133.
19. Design example Figure 75 Deformed shape in vibration mode 1 Z X Figure 76 Deformed shape in vibration mode 2 Z X .
21 203.16 x 509.70 164.2 kNm .81 261.4 kNm The maximum moment in interior columns is: 427 kNm (at the base.01 160.21 205.93 476.4 kNm Beams are IPE500 : Mpl.29 392.35 435.20 404.51 Z X 476.66 157.18 146.68 276.66 148.Rd = 1953.26 377.48 200.73 124.34 146.74 183.28 167.20 113 .61 158.62 251.72 154.08 82.Rd = 4718.61 129.14 378.68 166.65 227.19.) = 0.9 kNm > 591.97 135.8 = 591.65 163.103 x 355 = 1674.99 156.34 194.5 x 0. Exterior columns are HE340M bending about their weak axis: Mpl.41 320.35 41.054 x 1/ (1. Design example Figure 77 presents the bending moment diagram under the combination used for the checks of structural elements: E + G + 2i Q (in which bending moments are taken from the lateral force method).103 x 355 = 693.31 156.1 % This value is acceptable with infills and partitions that are independent of the structure.71 172. 343.02 509. as moments at storeys 1 and 2 are inferior to that value even with the 1/ (1.28 114.26 427.18 248.80 502.10 90.63 97.Rd = 2194.031m Ds / h = 0. raise no concerns.73 156.49 195.2 kNm Checks under the service earthquake.) increase: 1.8 kNm With the 1/ (1. Figure 77 Bending moment diagram under the combination used for the checks of structural elements: E + G + 2i Q .41 431.30 177. Units: kNm.39 472.031m / 2.44 491.22 219. which is assumed to be half of the design earthquake.71 21.92 182.26 16.at the base of columns (moments at storeys 1 and 2 are inferior to that value even with the 1/ (1.0108 = 1.66 482.51 17.103 x 355 = 778.27 219.) increase).) increase).06 234. The maximum beam moment is at storey 2: 509.59 289.58 367.82 174.68 146.9 kNm > 427 kNm The maximum moment in exterior columns is 195. with a maximum: Ds = 0. Interior columns are HE340M bending about their strong axis: Mpl.46 481. Interstorey drifts Ds are half of those given in Tables 18 and 19.3 kNm > 195.55 18.9 = 0.66 18.
9 2.Q G+ Shear at storey Ei : Ei .137 0.099 0.9 2. Modal superposition Dynamic analysis.7 326.19.087 0.216 0.054 0.Q G+ Shear at storey Ei : Ei . Lateral force method Storey Absolute displacement of the storey : Design interstorey drift (di di1): = Es + G + Ei .122 0.033 0.033 0.137 0.9 2.012 Vi [kN] Vtot [kN] Ptot [kN] hi [m] V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 26.9 2.148 q=4 dr [m] dr0 dr1 dr2 dr3 dr4 dr5 dr6 0.1 502.093 0.0 61.0 558.033 0.057 0.100 0.8 83.Q = 35.238 q=4 dr [m] dr0 dr1 dr2 dr3 dr4 dr5 dr6 0.6 42.6 139. Storey Absolute displacement of the storey : Design interstorey drift (di di 1): = Es + G + Ei .8 276.052 0.9 2.7 111.9 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.2 369.9 2.6 Ptot 1 Ptot 2 Ptot 3 Ptot 4 Ptot 5 Ptot 6 5100 h1 4250 h2 3400 h3 2550 h4 1700 h5 850 h6 2.027 0.020 0.Q =35.6 130.5 Ptot 1 Ptot 2 Ptot 3 Ptot 4 Ptot 5 Ptot 6 5100 h1 4250 h2 3400 h3 2550 h4 1700 h5 850 h6 2.086 0.9 2.0 167.3 418.42 kN/m Storey lateral forces Ei : Total cumulative gravity load at storey Ei : Storey height Ei : Interstorey drift sensitivity coefficient (Ei Ei 1) : di [m] E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 d0 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 0 0.9 50.035 0.044 0.9 2.5 Vtot 1 Vtot 2 Vtot 3 Vtot 4 Vtot 5 Vtot 6 586.027 Behaviour factor : .5 167.037 Behaviour factor : Table 19 Results from the modal superposition analysis.090 0.139 0.1 85.0 130.021 Vi [kN] Vtot [kN] Ptot [kN] hi [m] V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 27.9 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.141 0. Design example Table 18 Results from the lateral force method analysis.9 2.9 55.062 0.054 0.033 0.022 0.022 0.184 0.7 215.117 0.118 0.6 307.9 2.42 kN/m Storey lateral forces Ei : Total cumulative gravity load at storey Ei : Storey height Ei : Interstorey drift sensitivity coefficient (Ei Ei 1) : di [m] E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 d0 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 0 0.6 Vtot 1 Vtot 2 Vtot 3 Vtot 4 Vtot 5 Vtot 6 396.
8 and 9.1.2 kN MRd.1. extended end plates are welded to the IPEA450 beams during fabrication and are bolted on site to vertical plates welded to the columns flanges (see Figures 78 and 79).beam / l = 2 x 778. see Figure 79). Design of bolts.Rd applied by one flange to the end plate is: Ftr.connection ≥ 1. see below): VRd.1 x 1. Design checks are presented below for the connections in line X2 only.G = 0.9 bolts placed on both sides of the web and designed to carry the design shear in its entirety. which are similar.1.8 kN VRd. m is the distance from the bolt axis to the flange surface (70 mm.1: MRd. The bending moment MRd.2 = 1138. extended end plates are welded to the beam during fabrication and bolted to the column flanges on site. Both are made of S355 steel.Rd x > Ftr. A connection type valid for a Ductility Class DCH.2 = 180.25 = 588.Rd x x m Mpl. and a partial safety factor of 1.Rd. For row 2.5 mm < 70 mm the length of a potential vertical yield line in the column flange is (70 + 16 + 70) + (2x70) = 296 mm ≈~300 mm It can be deduced that the flange has the required resistance to accommodate the tension from the connection.7 kN VEd.7 = 448. This is an unstiffened end plate connection as shown schematically in Figure 36.Rd of an M36 grade 10. Design resistance of bolts in shear: 6 x 122.9 bolts.2 kN/m.1 ov Mpl.9 bolt in tension is: Ftr. Butt welds with adequate preparation and execution (V grooves. is selected. The design moment and shear are related to a design situation in which plastic hinges are formed at all the beams ends in line X2 (at all storeys).connection ≥ 180.25 = 735.E = 2 Mpl.Rd = MRd / (500. For yielding to develop in the beam and not in the plate the following condition should be satisfied: 4 Mpl.1.25)= 3705 kN > 448. without need of transverse stiffeners.5 / 1.connection is transferred by 4 rows of 2 M36 grade 10.19. The design values are established considering possible beam material real strength that is greater than the nominal fy =355 N/mm2.5 kN Given the design values of bending moment and shear. Design moment and shear at the connection of the IPE500 beam. 115 .5 kN (= 45.9 /8 = 194.5 kN Design bearing resistance of plate (40 mm thickness.16) =1071.70 = 414 mm.Rd = 0. the design is based on the requirements of Eurocode 3 (EN199318) with additional consideration of some specific requirements from Eurocode 8 (EN19981:2004) as explained in Sections 6. Mpl.3 kN/1.103 / 484 = 2213 kN The virtual work equation on which end plate design in EN199318 is based indicates: 4 Mpl.Rd x x m is the rotation in a plastic yield line over the width of the plate (the yield line is horizontal).Rd x = Ftr.25 x 194.8 + 1. The resistance Ftr. Design example Design of beam to column connection at an interior joint in line X2 The example connection in line X2 connects an IPE500 beam to a HE340M column. This is achieved using a ov factor.9 fu As / M2 = 0. The total design tension force Ftr. The design also involves consideration of the beam connections in line Y2. hr = 500 – 16 . As: the thickness tf of the column flange is also 40 mm the distance to the column web is (150/2) – (tw /2)= 75 – 21/2 = 64.1 x 1.5 x 8 x 45.9 = 1071 kNm VEd. Shear is transferred by 6 M20 grade 10.9 x 1000 x 817 /1.103 x 70 => t = 38.Rd = (leff x t2 x fy )/ 4 M0 leff = 300 mm M0 = 1. welding from both side) satisfy the overstrength design criterion by default so no calculation is needed. as defined in Table 9. see above) VEd. 4 is the number of yield lines when prying action is accepted – Figure 80.103 kNmm = 1138 kNm > 1071 kNm Design of end plate.G is found under G + 2i Q Design of welds between end plates and beams.Rd is the plastic moment developed along this yield line. For row 1.assemblage = (554 + 414) x 2 x 588.0 fy = 355 N/mm2 (4 x 300 x t2 x 355) /4 = 2213.1 mm as minimum => t = 40 mm Note.Rd. hr = 500 – 16 + 70 = 554 mm.25 x 778.25 = 588 kN > 448.plate= (6 x 193 x 40)/ (10 x 1.beam = 1.
Fc.Rd is taken as the shear resistance Check of column web panel in transverse compression.3 of EN199318. In the design situation plastic hinges are formed in the beam sections adjacent to the column on its left and right sides.Rd = 351 x 21 x 355 = 2616.Rd = 2213 / 4 = 553 kN Bp. 103 /(3772x40) = 7212 kN Vwb.103 √3 ) / (355 x 0.wc twc fy.Ed in the panel zone is therefore equal to: Vwp. The horizontal design shear Vwp.Rd = beff.103 N = 2185 kN > 553 kN Check of column web panel in shear.Rd The check is identical for both the end plate and the column flange since they have the same thickness (40 mm) and yield strength (355 N/mm2).c. c Neglecting VSd.Rd = (0.wc. Fc.c.0 and taking beff. The check is therefore satisfied. This check refers to cl.Rd = kwc beff.19.6 x 3.14 x 58 x 40 x 500 /1. right / (dright – 2tf.0) = 1824.Ed = Mpl.wc twc fy. 6.wc = tfb + 5(tfc + s)= 16 + 5 (40 + 27) = 351 mm (both of these are safesided assumptions) M0 =1. The resistance Bp. (Figure 78).left) + Mpl.6. left / (dleft – 2tf.25= 2185.9 fy Awc )/ (√3 x M0) = (0.2.0 ignoring the connecting plates of beams in the y direction Fc.wc.Rd.9) = 29209 mm2 The design of the connections for the beams oriented in the y direction requires two plates of 297 mm length and thickness equal to: 29209/ (2 x 297)= 49.right) + VSd.c.2 mm => 50 mm. Design example Check of resistance of end plate and column flange to punching.103 N = 2616 kN > Ftr.6. 6. and is therefore satisfied.wc / M0 The check is identical to the one above.wc / M0 A simple check is made by: setting and kwc at 1.Rd = 1824 kN << 7212 kN The column web area therefore needs to be increased by adding plates with a shear resistance of: 7212 – 1824 = 5388 kN This corresponds to an additional shear area: (5388. A more comprehensive check would include taking the connecting plates of beams in the y direction into account: beff.Rd.Rd = 2213 kN corresponding to punching out a cylinder of diameter dm of the head of the bolt (58 mm for a M36 bolt) and thickness tp of the plate (40 mm): Bp.Rd =0. Ftr.Rd > Ftr.9 x 355 x 9893) / (√3 x 1.wc = tfb + 5(tfc + s)= 16 + 5 (40 + 27+ 40 + 40)= 751 mm Check of column web panel in transverse tension.c.Rd of the end plate and of the column flange to punching by one bolt should be greater than the tension Ftr.2.wc.Rd that can be applied by that bolt: Bp.c : V = 2 x 1071.103 N Vwb.2 of EN199318. This check refers to cl. .
Using RBS would allow reduced bolt diameters and end plate thicknesses.32 (that is a 32% reduction). both in terms of P∆ effects under the design earthquake loading and interstorey drift under the serviceablity earthquake loading.Rd could be reduced by the ratio 778. IPE A 450 HE 340 M IPE 500 150 X 35 50 40 40 130 IPE A 450 117 . but would provide a useful reduction in the design moments (and shears) applied to the beam to column connections. Making use of redistribution of moments (see 10. see Figures 33 and 38) should however be considered.4 kNm (which is the worst case applied moment). At the connections to the perimeter columns. the reduction could be greater since the maximum value of MEd is only 481 kNm allowing a reduction ratio of 1. where IPE500 beams are connected into the column minor axis. This means that the section sizes chosen for the beams inevitably possess a safety margin for resistance. Reducing the beam sections locally.Rd = 778.9/591. as this would result in an unacceptable level of flexibility in the structure.61 (that is 61% reduction).4 = 1. Design example Comment on design options The design presented above is governed by the limitation of deflections.9 kNm > MEd =591. Figure 78 Plan view of beam to column connections. Such an approach would only change the structure stiffness by a few percent so it would still comply with design requirements for deformation. At the interior joints the IPE500 plastic moment Mpl. Mpl.19. close to the connections (‘dogbones’ or RBS.) would not enable smaller beam sections to be used.
rd IPE 500 HE 340 M A 60 70 70 82 82 82 82 70 . Using nominally pinned connections for the beams framing into the column minor axes would simplify the column ‘nodes’. Alternatively. For instance. IPE 500 F tr. 60 60 13.1 70 60 16 4 M 36 6 M 20 16 4 M 36 100 60 IPE A 450 100 13.19. Design example 60 100 Other design options could be considered to reduce fabrication and construction costs.1 60 IPE 500 HE 340 M Figure 80 Plastic deformation mechanism in the end plate of the IPE500 beam. while frames in lines X1. Smaller beam sections and low cost connections could be used in the frames on other grid lines. it might be interesting to reduce the number of frames that provide most of the earthquake resistance. X4 and X6 could be dedicated to earthquake resistance in the x direction. frames in lines Y1 and Y4 could be dedicated to earthquake resistance in the y direction. The loss of frame stiffness could be compensated by using deeper beam and column sections. Figure 79 Elevation of beam to column connections.
The analysis has indicated a maximum bending moment of 591.118 0.086 0. was 509. because the beams are deflection governed there is an excess of resistance which is equal to: 778.5 x (2666 – 262. a + s/2 = 162.) which are given in Table 17 should be recalculated considering the modified values of as shown in Table 20. 1/3 span = 8000 / 3 = 2666 mm Md.099 0. but experiments have shown that better ductility is achieved by locating the reduced section some distance away from the beam end. The maximum moment applied at the beam ends under the combination E + G + 2i Q .054 0.17 x 509.32.19. which results in an increase in also of 7%.8 kNm.5 x 200 = 100 mm s = 0.17 1. because all RBS will have the same dimensions at all levels. This means the limiting moment has a slightly different value.5 kNm Clearly this value is not very different from the value without RBS (591.4 kNm in the IPE500 beams in the x direction under the seismic load combination E + G + 2i Q .) .4 kN) Influence of RBS distance to connection.5) / 2666 = 537 kNm Table 20 Modified amplification factors 1/ (1. In the paragraphs that follow.65 x d = 0.057 0.) Interstorey drift sensitivity coefficient Without RBS 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.092 0.5 x b = 0. so that the design bending moment in the RBS is as follows. it is necessary to choose dimensions which comply with the guidance given in Section 10.4 = 1. without considering the amplification factors 1/ (1. In principle this could be achieved by trimming the flanges of the beam adjacent to the column connection. Influence of increase in flexibility due to RBS. 5 mm The maximum moment is obtained at the beam end.) = 1.12. Reducing the beam sections (RBS) increases frame flexibility and therefore drift by an estimated 7% (see [6] [7]).17] is considered in the design. which must be determined (see Figure 40).5 + 100 = 262.11 1.137 0. Only the worst case value [1/ (1.028 Modified amplification factors 1/ (1.4 kNm.8 = 596. Therefore the amplification factors 1/ (1.65 x 500 = 325 mm The distance from the RBS to the column face is a + s/2 (see Figure 38).17 due to the increase in flexibility: 1. the design moment in the RBS is evaluated considering these two factors. and the bending moment diagram (shown in Figure 74) can be approximated as being linear between the beam end and 1/3 span point. To take into account the fact that the RBS is located at some distance away from the column face.147 0. The objective in considering the use of reduced beam sections is to limit the beam end moment to a value at or near to 591. As mentioned in 19. Consider: a = 0. When reduced sections are used that maximum moment is amplified by 1.9 : 591.) With RBS 1. Design example Design of reduced beam sections Objective.027 With RBS 0.RBS = 596.126 0.105 0.14 1 1 1 Storey 119 . The design moment to consider is influenced by the increase in flexibility due to the reduced beam section.
connection ≥ 368 kN with RBS The reduction in design shear at the connection.1 ov Mpl.tf) = 16 x 200 x 355 (500 – 16) = 549. is therefore 28%.2tf)2 / 4 = 10. 106 Nmm = 537 kNm For fabrication purposes it is also necessary to know the radius R of the cut (see Figure 38).103 x 355 = 778.25 b Consider c= 0.G = 0. It is : VRd.connection applied to the beam end connections is: MEd..098 = 151 kN The shear VEd.20 b to 0.2 = 160.Rd.E = 2 x 537 / 7. is therefore 21%.88 = 120 mm.1 x 1.y fy = 2194. due to RBS.1 ov Ω VEd.tf) = 16 x 112 x 355 (500 – 16) = 308. 106 Nmm Moment due to root radii at webflange junctions: = (778 – 549 – 198) = 31.G in the RBS due to gravity loading G + 2i Q is : VEd. This is calculated as: R = (4c2 + s2) / 8c = (4 x 322 + 3252)/(8 x 32) = 857 mm.connection ≥ VEd = VEd. 106 Nmm RBS plastic moment: Mpl. 106 Nmm The plastic moment of a ‘reduced’ IPE500 (RBS) is calculated as follows: be = b – 2c = 200 .1 x 1. This is therefore given by: VEd. The plastic moment of an IPE500 section (without any reduction) is equal to: Wpl.4 + 1. .098 x 45. The shear in the RBS due to the earthquake action corresponds to the situation when plastic hinges form at the left and right hand ends of the beam. the RBS cut dimension c should be in the range c = 0. 5 mm MEd.connection = 1.Rd. Design moment and design shear at the connection.25 x 151 = 368 kN The design moment MEd. due to RBS.4 kN The total shear in the RBS is: VEd.19..2625 = 834 kNm Thanks to the RBS. Flange moment: be tf fy (d .(2 x 262.22 x 200 = 44 mm . the design moment MEd.25 x 537 + 368 x 0.E = 2 Mpl.1 ov VEd.E The condition was: VRd. L’= 8000 – 377 . Design example Definition of section cuts at RBS.5 x 7.G + 1.E = VEd.Rd. The reduction in design moment for the connections. 106 Nmm Web moment: tw fy (d . 106 Nmm This results from the addition of: Flange moment: b tf fy (d .G + 1.098 m VEd.E x X With X = a + s/2 = 262. The design check for shear at the connection is: VRd.RBS + VEd. As indicated in Section 9.22b = 0.RBS = ( 308 + 198 + 31 ) .connection = 1.connection ≥ 448 kN without RBS.2 x 355 x (500 – 32)2 = 198. 106 = 537.RBS / L’ in which L’ is the distance between the plastic hinges at the extremities of the beam.E =160.5) = 7098 mm = 7.connection for the beam end connections has been reduced from 1071 kNm down to 834 kNm.
Both types of reduction can bring significant reductions in cost. This reduction is also reflected in the design shear applied to the panel zone of the column.19. 121 . Design example Economy due to RBS The use of reduced beam sections will contribute significantly to the economy of the design by allowing a reduction of 28% in the design moment at the connection.
ag = I. For the horizontal components of the seismic action.Annex Annex A Definition of Eurocode 8 design response spectra. where is the viscous damping ratio of the structure. is the soil factor (see Table 2). 10 / 5 0. . Sd (T) is the design horizontal acceleration T ag TB TC TD S response spectrum.agR).5 q 2 3 TB T TC : S d T ag S 2 . is the upper limit of the period of the constant spectral acceleration branch. is the value defining the beginning of the constant displacement response range of the spectrum. Annex B ArcelorMittal Available Steels. is the vibration period of a linear singledegreeoffreedom system. These apply throughout Europe. their mechanical and chemical characteristics as well as the dimensions of the profiles can be downloaded on: http://www. is the design ground acceleration on type A ground (ag = I. The available steel grades.55 . expressed as a percentage. the design horizontal acceleration response spectrum Sd(T) is defined by the following expressions.5 q TC T TC T TD : S d T = ag S ag TD T: Sd T = ag S ag 2 .5 q TCTD T2 S (T) is the design horizontal acceleration response spectrum.agr agR : maximum reference acceleration at the level of class A bedrock. is the damping correction factor with a reference value of = 1 for 5% viscous damping.arcelormittal.com/sections 0 T TB : S d T ag S 2 3 T TB 2. is the lower limit of the period of the constant spectral acceleration branch.5 q 2.
Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Buildings. ‘Particularities raised by the evaluation of load reduction factors for the seismic design of composite steel concrete structures’. Vayas. Zacek. [4] A. Editor.Plumier.Plumier. Pinto. P. Paris.Back to the Future.Plumier.References References [1] EN 19981:2004.May 2002. July 2000. Carvalho. ISBN 2857984160. A. 1999. New Idea for Safe Structures in seismic Zones. AISC 34102. Calado. The Dogbone . Bois et Maçonnerie. European Committee for Standardisation. Doneux Editors (2001). [2] Seismic Resistance of Composite Structures . n°2. ISBN 0727733486 . Chesi. LisbonPortugal. Plumier. Presses de l’Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées.Behaviour of Seismic Resistant Braced Frames with Innovative Dissipative (INERD) Connections . [13] Fardis. Edited by F. [9] I. [16] Sanchez. Castellani. Editions Parenthèses / ISBN 2863640542. AISC Engineering Journal Second quarter 1997 . Faccioli. Design and Reliability. A. Plumier.eu. Rapport EUR 22044 EN. [18] M. Der Stahlbau 6/99. Seismic Actions and Rules for Buildings. ISBN 0415235774. 431 . Timisoara. Thanopoulos. Proceedings of the SDSS’99 Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures Colloquium. Castiglioni.2004. MAZZOLANI.2005. FEMA 350. A. C. Castiglioni. IABSE Symposium. Part 1: General Rules. Distribution of stresses in the slab of composite steel concrete moment resisting frames submitted to earthquake action.436.Report EUR 14428 EN. [15] ICONS Report 4. C. Béton. September 1998. Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil. E&F SPON Editions. Thomas Telford Publisher. XIth European Conference on Earthquake Engineering. [10] A. [8] Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings. Wiley Ed. ISBN 0888111061 [7] Recommended Seismic Design Criteria For New Steel MomentFrame Buildings. 2000. 1996. Agatino. 2006. Resistance of Steel Connections to Low Cycle Fatigue. L. A. Plumier & C. [14] Guide des Dispositions Constructives Parasismiques des Ouvrages en Acier.1992 [6] Moment Connections For Seismic Applications. Construire parasismique. Canadian Institute for Steel Construction. [11] Moment resisting Connections of Steel Frames in Seismic Areas. Doneux and A.. EUROSTEEL. ISBN 3861308126. L and Plumier.europa. [17] C. R. 2005.Designer’s Guide to Eurocode 8. Composite Steel Concrete Structures’. ISBN 9279016946.Brussels 1990. 1992 . AFPS (Association Française du Génie Parasismique).2005. [12] Two Innovations for Earthquake Resistant Design: the INERD Project.Volume 34. CEN. 123 . Plumier. Elnashai. C. Mixed Structures Including New Materials . [3] A. Publication office: Publications. [5] Paulay and Priestley.pp. Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance.( Eurocode 8). Publication of the Commission of European Communities.
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