ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE PETROCHEMICAL PLANT DESIGN PIP~G STRESS ANALYSIS
Prepared by Michael D Vasse
This document and the d=ign it avers are the property of BECHTEL. They are merely loaned and on the borrower’s express agreement that they will not be reproduced, copied, loaned, exhibited, or used except in the limited way and private use permitted by any written mnsent givm by the lender to the borrower.
~R ~~ON POR ~ON DESIGN ANDPIPING
DES. 6UIOE NO.
TABLE OF CONT-
1.0 2.0 3.0
PURPOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4 ASSOCIATED DESIGN GUIDES AND FORMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Design Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,.4 3.2 Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4 DEFINITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6 7 4
F :. .-
4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0
GENERAL PHILOSOPHY RESPONSIBILITIES
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GENERAL WORKING METHODS
r SPECIFIC WORKING ~~ODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 Thermal Loads and StressComidemtiom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Sustained hadsand StressComidemtiom Stress Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Dynamic andOtherhadsand 8.4 had Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Rotating Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...16 8.6 Air Cooled Heat Exchangers(Air Fans) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Shelland Tube Exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...18 8.8 FlredHeaters 8.9 Nozzle Flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...18 8.10 Buried Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...19 8.11 Cryogenic Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...21 RECOmmG AND TRANS~TTAL OF S=S ENGINEERING DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...22 9.1 Piping CriticalUlne Lii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...22 9.2 Stress Sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..22 9.3 Calculation Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..$. .$.. . ...23 9.4 Expansion Joint Data Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...23 9.5 Spring Data Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...23 CHECKING STRESS CALCULATIONS. . . . . . . . 10.l Preliinary Review... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Criticallines in Dossiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Calculations relatingto the Groups in10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...23 ...23 ...24 . . . 25 10 10 12 13 15 17 rk.
r. ,L ,. 1-
ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE
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APPENDIX A BASIC DATA REQUIRED AT START OF PROJECT AND DEFAULT VALUES FOR INITIAL CALCULATIONS. A SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR PIPING D~IGNERS TO ASS= PIPING FLEXIBILITY. PIPING Sm!j S-S SKETCH (CAD DRAFTED)
3 Pages L 2 Pages 1 Page 1 Page 1 Page r \
APPENDIX C APPENDIX D APPENDIX E
AND SUPPORTS CRITICAL LINE LIST
STRESS CALCULATION INDEX
ENGINEERING DMIGN GUIDE
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Forms P & CE L-5421 FEB 78 GR(A4) 2356 7/90 Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Bellows Expansion Joints Data Sheet Bechtel Standard Calculation Sheet. O) EDG-P5302-L EDG-(tba)-L (Rev.
3. It is a general one covering most circumstances.
1. to suit specific job or local requirement with the expressti agreement of Engineering Management. O
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. O) Pipe Suppofis. but may be deviated from.0
SCOPE This Design Guide does not cover all the technical aspects of the piping stress analysis.I .
3. (CAD Drafted) Stress and Supports Critical Line List Stress Calculation Index
ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE
Rev.0 PURPOSE The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide uniform guidelines and information for use by Piping Stress Engineers to ensure a cohesive approach to the piping stress analysis of petrochemical plants. Piping Stress Sketch.1
ASSOCIATED DESIGN GUIDES AND FORMS Design Guides EDG-P5401-L (Rev. O) (Rev.0 3. Piping Stress Critid Line List
Design Guide for Equipment and Nozzle hadings.
Identify worst operation cases before running wmputer checks. run all the nwssary cases but after a visual review of the outpufi. and “freeze” the arrangement. O
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. If these are required it tends to indicate that a re-route is necessary. b. wind earthquake.
Inform piping design of any wnfigurations that have been passed but have loads or stresses that are close to the allowable values.
ENGINEERING DWIGN GUIDE
Rev. the following poinfi should be followed:a.0
GENERAL PHILOSOPHY The basic responsibility of the Stress Engineer is to ensure that piping is routed and supported so that no damage occurs to either the pipe or associated equipment due to the effects of thermal expansion or contraction. Only enter essential results / data on stress sketches. the Cntid
5. Wherever possible.
f. The purpose of this Design Guide is to ensure the sound and uniform approach to the review of the mechanical safety of the piping and related systems and to be able to produce evidence that this has been done satisfactorily.
. shock. or loads resulting from weight. foundation settlement. etc.
4. The use of springs and snubbers should also be kept to a minimum. avoid the use of flexible connectors (bellows.0 DEFINITION Critical Line Lti (EDGP5302-L) Line List refers to the Piping Stress Critical Line List.
In this Design Guide.
e.I . pressure. etc). If a “Worst case” is not immediately obvious. pulsation. then run these cases only. Keep the designs realistic: Minimise the use of “super” special supports requiring high tolerances or complex designs. It is also to ensure that evidence of compliance with applicable codes is produ~. To aid in this endeavour.-
d. choose only the extreme cases for detailed review and results transposition with a note saying that these are the worst load/stress conditions and the other conditions that were reviewed to come to this wnclusion. Review all configurations using visual/approximate methods prior to computer calculations so the wnfigurations with obvious problems may be discussed with the piping designers prior to setting up the mmputer run.
1.1. steam-out. These include start-up.1. Review all lines on the Critical Line List and formally wmment via the Stress Sketch or Stress Comment Forms as appropriate.1.5
6. including flanged connections at equipment. Check flanges for leakage where bending moments are large. de-inking. The use of “cold spring” should be kept to a minimum and should not be used around any rotating equipment. if limiting values are not known.8
6. Evaluate nozzle loads as required and transmit to relevant section.
6. Establish with the civil/structural engineer any criteria for settlement.
.1 6.1. Establish the allowable imposed nozzle loads onto the equipment by consultation with the mechanical/equipment group at the outset of a contract Carry out a flexibility and support review of any Piping Studies produ~ if required. Continuously update the List to record the progress of work on all critical lines. Where max. operating or design temperatures appear high by mmparison with other available data.1.6
6. various wmbinations of equipment working and idle. In the early design stage. Establish all operating functions for lines to be analyzed by reference to the line designation tables and/or discussions with the systems/mechanid engineer.1.0 6. shutdown. discuss it with the systems/mechaniM engineer prior to calculation of the system. O
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Ensure that all Code. k
i. Client and Inspection Authority requirements pertaining to Piping Stress Analysis are taken into account. piperacks and any other structure.1
RESPONSIBILIT~ The Stress Engineer shall: Establish the Critical Line List. for proposals
ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE
Rev. highlighting the impact on the piping/equipment if the temperature proves inaccurate.1.
h.1. platforms. loads on pavements. bypasses in and out of use. review Piping Studies for flexibility and support of major critid lines. and comment accordingly.
The method of assessing pipes will mme under one of three categories : a.1.I
6.1. and loads not established in section 6.
6. Prepare and file all calculations in accordance with the requirements of this instruction and project requirements.1.13 6. Specify any reinforcement required at branch connections.1. -.20
7. Comment as necessary and discuss with Equipment Engineer any special requirements (eg leaving heater nozzles unrestrained so as to utilize the inherent flexibility of the tubes.1. guide and anchor loads on structures and/or foundations to Civil/Structural group. Ensure all information affecting other groups and/or Vendors is properly recorded and promptly transmitted.12
GENERAL WORKING METHODS
7.1.1. Specify any cold spring found to be necessary..16 6. and revise where necessary.22
.1.1.17 6. Caesar II. or at wncentrated loading points.
. Locate and design all spring supports and indicate required loads and movements on the Stress sketch.10. or any other program approved/specified by the client on a project. etc).18
Review Vendor’s Drawings for equipment nozzle loadings.19
6. check critid pipe supports and expansion joint installations at site prior to mechanical completion to confirm that design requirements have been met.
6.1. horizontal drums. Computer.188.8.131.52 6.15 6.11 Calculate and transmit all significant support.1.10.14
6. Check all pipe supports produced for the critical lines. (Bechtel’s ME101 LEAP.
ENGINEERING DWIGN GUIDE
Rev. loads greater than those established in section 6. In this case the piping system will be modelled and calculated using a piping stress computer program. O
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a. Investigate queries r~ived from site giving advim and solutions as necessary. (other than for intemal/extemal pressure considerations which are revered by the Piping Material Specification). Significant loads are loads greater than 5 KN or 1000 lb. Specify expansion joints as rquired. Check position of fixed and sliding supports of heat exchangers.
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The approval method is ultimately the responsibility of the individual Stress Engineer. In this case simple techniques of approximate “guided cantilever” type or by background knowledge/experien~ are used to approve the system with minimal calculations. and lines over 80mm (3’’)NB attached to sensitive equipment. charts. The following sizes must be also@ above -45°C (-43°F): Lines of 150mm (6”)NB through 300mm (12’’)NB @ under 155°C (400°F) Lines of 350mm (14”)NB and greater@ under 150°C (300”F) The above list is to be used as a guide only. or simplified computer programs are UW to prove the acceptability of the system. lined pipe) computer dculations should always be considered.g.I
b. In this case hand dculation techniques using nomography. elastic mntre method) and should be checked and approved before use. They may also be approval by comparison with similar systems. simplified formulae. and for any special piping (e. Computer Calculations : All lines not in a.
ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE
1. Lines of 100mm (8’’)NB and under@ less than 150°C (300°F) Lines of 150mm (6’’)NB and greater @ between -20°C (4°F) and 70°C (150°F)
All other lines: Lines of 80mm (3’’)NB and under. c. The basic split of calculation types is as follows: a. Simplified computer programs are hand calculator type programs that analyses simple shapes using standard calculation methods (e. Visual or Approximate : (The temperatures refer to Design temperatures)
Lines attached to rotating equipment: Lines of 50mm (2’’)NB and under. b.g.
Steam or electrical tracing.
7. additional supporting or guiding and locates any anchors or line stops required. “water hammer”. wind or any other source). O
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. snow or other environmental loadings. Movement of pipe’s attachments due to: Vessel or equipment thermal growth.
Wind. Dead weight and pressure loadings. If there-routing is not acceptable alternatives are discussed with appropriate back-up calculations until an acceptable arrangement is found. Mechanically indud vibration from compressors or other equipment. Where appropriate. Structural sway. d. wind or any other source). Pulsating flow. Vibration caused by: Earthquake.4): a.4
After a review.
7. Atmospheric and Solar Temperatures. Column or other vessel or equipment Sway.
7. c. the Stress Engineer indicates any rerouting. Thermal expansion due to : Design Temperature Steam out. Vortex Shedding.3 For all dculations. This wnsideration should include but not be restricted to the following areas (See also Paragraph 8. (from seismic. the wmbination of conditions that muld tharetidly occur so as to produ~ the maximum stress and equipment loading should be considered. b. Any Purging. sudden valve opening or closing.5
Rev. Settlement. wpies of the Stress sketch together with the Stress Sketch Continuation Sheet showing imposed loadings is passed to the Equipment group and/or the Civil/Structural group.
.see also appendix A. and the minimum temperature for cold lines.
t.8. This temperature is quoted in the line designation tables and is the maximum temperature that the line is wnsidered to see.1.1. the design temperature used.1
Thermal bads Elastic Modulus
and Stress Considerations
Thermal loads should be calculated using the elastic modulus at the maximum temperature for hot lines.
8.1 8. Generally this temperature is not considered unless adjacent connecting pipe or equipment have a higher differential between their operating temperatures. Hence they are recommendations that should be tempered by the n-ssities of the specific project concerned and good engineering judgement. Hot lines are those primarily subject to thermal expansion. 1‘C) for all hot lines and the elastic modulus at the minimum temperature for mld lines. If the line considered is un-insulated.2 Flexibility Temperatures The temperatures to be considered in thermal analysis are: a) Design/Upset Temperature. than between their design temperatures. b) Normal Operating Temperature.
ENGINEERING DWIGN GUIDE
Rev.2). Thermal stresses should be calculated using the elastic modulus at 70°F (21. This value should be wnfirmed with the systems engineer.0
SPECIFIC WORKING METHODS
This section addresses various specific topics within the scope of piping stress engineering without any reference to any specific project. if above 38°C (1OO”F)maybe up to 5 % less (dculated from installation temperature . O
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. This temperature is quoted in the line designation tables and is the temperature that the line is considered to see during normal operation. and cold lines are those primarily subject to thermal contraction. 8.
3 section 302. e) Steam tracing.I
c) Solar and Ambient Temperatures. For this case the design considered should be that the system maybe over-strained. The principal is that after a fire all affected piping would be replaced. O
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This extreme condition that is of short duration. the allowable stress may be increased by 1. but it must not fail under fire conditions. The allowable stress range may have to be redud as per table 302.33 times as per ASME B31.33 times as per ASME B3 1. h) Fire Temperatures produced by fire are a special consideration. frequency and duration of the pruss obtained.3.
ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE
Rev.) f) Regeneration
. Consideration should also be given to whether equipment and piping are st~med out together or separately.3 section 302.2. but the allowable stress may be increased by 1.4. (Electrically trad lines should be calculated using their design temperature. However. As this event is of short term duration. this should be confirmed with the equipment manufacturer as soon as possible during design. It will be considered for flexibility analysis.4. Steam out temperatures will be considered for flexibility analysis if in excess of design conditions.
. Fire temperaturesare obtained from the systems engineer. g) DeCoke
m. Steam out temperatures and the lines which will be steamed out should be established with the process group at the beginning of the project.3 to avoid fatigue failure. These temperatures should be considered when dculating line stress mges and must be wnsidered for applied loads if higher than the Design temperature.5 of ASME B3 1. Steam tracing temperature should be used for flexibility calculations if it is greater than the design temperature.2. d) Steam out.
Catalyst regeneration should be considered carefully and accurate values for temperature. It should also be considered that loads on equipment for this condition may be increased by up to 2 times for short term duration.
or if the line is buried or externally insulated the line will be at ambient condition. 8.
. and should be particularly considered in thin walled large diameter pipe.2 8. This effect should not be considered in cold lines where the pipe is contracting as it aids the contraction of the pipe and is hen= a less conservative assumption. 8. For Refractory lined pipe. then the effect of pipe bowing should be wnsidered. Temperature differentials should be obtained from the process group. 8. It is most notimble.
Where there is seen to be a differential temperature around the circumference of a pipe.1 Sustained Loads and Stress Considerations Design Pressure This Pressure is quoted in the line designation tables and is the maximum pressure that the line is considered to see.
B.2 Bourdon Tube Effect This is the stiffening effect at the elbows caused by the internal pressure tending to straighten the pipe out. For wncrete lined pipe for water lines. ..
r. as in a flare line subject to radiant heat on the top of it. .2.
ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE
Rev.3 Operating Pressure This pressure is quoted in the line designation tables. .-
. An accurate skin temperature should be obtained.
. the metal temperature will be significantly less than the commodity temperature.2.
. the expansion temperature to be used is the Solar temperature.i)
Internally Lined Pipe. O
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.. and is used in injunction with the operating temperature when dculating total operating loads on equipment
C.2. or a LNG line at start-up when the lower half of the pipe is cooled before the line fills and CQOIS the top half of the pipe.
2.7 Operating Weight
Operating weight is the weight of the pipe with all insulation. The piping wall should be sufficiently thick to resist hydrotest or air test without yielding. 2330& to model seismically generated dynamic loads as equivalent laterally loads. Itcanbe assumed that theline is not insulated during hydrotesting.I
8. 8. A Dynamic response spectrum analysis should only be mnsidered the project. 8. im.
8. 1 section UG-28 (“Thickness of Shells and Tubes under extemd pressure”) 8. then a pneumatic test may be considered.
. and all items permanently attached to it.1
Dynamic and Other Loads and Stress Considerations Seismic In the absence seq.3 8.) method imposed static if required by of project specific information use the UBC (UBC Part III sec.4 Hydrotest / Pneumatic Test The support system should be strong enough to support the pipe when it is being hydrotested with temporary supports if necessary. commodity included.2. O
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L“.3.2.8 Occasional Weight
This is an added weight that occurs occasionally such as snow.2. In addition the affects of traffic on buried pipelines should be considered. If the pipe cannot be supported or if it will cause load problems on the structural steel. wind etc.6 Vacuum Design Lines subject to vacuum or sub-sea lines with a resultant external pressure should be checked to ASME section VIII Div.
so that this condition should be kept to a minimum by using dtemative designs if possible.378~+ h= A= P = l)AP
. noticeably reciprocating compressors and pumps generate pulsations causing vibration.6&+l)AP Form F = 0. then the calculation quoted in code ANSI/ASME B31.*.3 8.
F.3. Simplified formulae to give these loads are (including an impact factor of 2): PSV Reaction: Force F = o. To minimise this problem fluid damping bottle should be designed into the system. The impact of a slug or the wave front of liquid from an opening valve onto an elbow can be excessive. (See also API 618) In some cases. and the stress engineer should ensure that the fundamental frequencies of the system (dculated from a computer dynamic analysis) is not a multiple of the operating speed of the equipment. an analog study is undertaken.3. notably that of reciprocating compressors.4
See Appendix A
PSV and Rupture Disc Reaction The load generated when a PSV opens or a Rupture Disc ruptures should always be wnsidered.3. 1 should be used to calculate the load more accurately. the stress engineer should dculate the span for the hold-downs such that the piping mechanical frequency does not match the machine’s natural frequency.
(All in mnsistent units) If the loads calculated from the above formulae are unduly large. A similar effect can occur when a valve is suddenly shut off or opened and a shock wave passes down the pipe (“Waterhammer”). O Page 14 OF 25
. Some equipment.
Rupture Disc Reaction: Where
Cplcv Orifim Area Absolute Pressure
L.. .5 Slug Flow and Valve opening/closure Slug fIow is the condition of a bolus of liquid flowing along a pipe. Similarly. usually by a s~ialist or outside consultant.
8.3. 8. ENGINEERING D~IGN GUIDE EDGP5301-L Rev.I
8.2 Dynamic loads from equipment.
4. line stops and equipment nozzles should always consider friction effects.
. The load with a 2 times impact factor is:
F =2. anchors.
Load Summary: a) bads and stresses should be considered to be caused by expansion due to the worst OR Design Temperature. Normal Operating Temperature.0x Where
(in consistent units) Force. Friction effects can never be used to reduce applied loads.4 8.I
The static force on a 90° Elbow due to slug flow impinges at 45° to the direction of flow into the elbow radially outwards from the elbow.
—. Steam out. O
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.7 Friction bads on supports. Regeneration Decoke Pipe Bowing Equipment Expansion
ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE
Loads and stresses caused by differential settlement between different supports and quipment should always be considered..—
e. Steam tracing. This often is achieved by the use of flexible piping and the use of springs. Solar / Ambient Temperatures (Depending on Insulation).3. Density of fluid Pipe internal area Fluid Velocity gravitational constant
g= 8. guides.s . .
Pipe Stress Maximum Allowable Stress wmbinations that should be considered are the maximum Stress Range (8.4.I
b) Sustained bads and Stresses should be considerd due to:
Design Pressure Hydrotest / Pneumatic Test Vacuum Design Operating Weight Occasional Weight Hydrotest Load c) Dynamic and Other Mads and Stress: Seismic Dynamic loads from equipment. Dynamic and other loads (8..4. hads on equipment and pipe supports that should be mnsidered are the maximum wmbination of cases shown in (8. except for settlement..4..
Rev. Wind PSV and Rupture Disc Reaction Slug Flow and Valve opening/closure Settlement 8.5 8.4. . Sustained Stress and mional Stress combination of cases shown in (8.1). O
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.2 Equipment and Pipe Support Loads a) Maximum allowable loads applied to equipment Nozzles should be agreed with the equipment vendor as early as possible. Dynamic and other loads (8.1).
8. 1 (a)).-
. but in the absence of any other information the values quoted in the Design Guide for Equipment and Nozzle hadings (EDG-(tba)-L) should be used.4.5.4. . except for settlement.1 (c)) need not be considered to be acting simultaneously.
8.1 (c)) need not be considered to be acting simultaneously.1
Rotating Equipment Pumps a) The kd Stress Engineer must review tie client and job s~ifications on each project to ascertain the philosophy regarding types of pumps and their allowable nozzle loads..4.
equipment cold) as well as all operating and upset conditions. Turbine piping analysis should include bypass line hot with trip and throttle valve closed (i. Otherwise. the differential expansion between the inlet and outlet manifolds should be carefully considered. When ANSI pumps are used. a) Generally.
An Air Fan with an odd number of passes has the inlet and outlet header boxes at opposite ends of the exchanger and is preferred as there is no problem with differential expansion between headers. the allowable loads on these pieces of equipment are governed by a multiple of the loads quoted in NEMA SM 23.6 8. It may be an advantage to allow some header boxes to float free and be moved by the manifold expanding through short feed lines.I
b) Generally it is recommended to use API 610 type pumps wherever possible.2
Compressors and Turbines.– i. allowable nozzle loads should be requested from the vendors. If the header box is separated into two parts instead of a design with a centre baffle.
8. Wherever possible. The location of these anchors should be carefully mnsidered to optimise the piping routing.1
Air Cooled Heat ~changers Number of passes a)
.e. the inlet and outlet are on the same header box at one end of the exchanger. Piping systems with Mission-Duo type Check Valves should be well supported because of rotational creeping of the flange faces due to the long stud bolts.6. the differential expansion between the headers is no longer a problem. A full investigation of all possible operating ~nfigurations of a set of two or more pumps should be conducted before the worst case or cases are analyzed.
ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE
Rev. With even pass Air Fans. The expansion of the tubes can be controlled by placing directional anchors at the header box. the deadweight loads on the nozzles should be as close to zero as practical by the use of spring supports (As per mmments in NEMA SM 23) Spring support variability around the equipment should be kept as low as practical to keep cold nozzle loads to a minimum.5. and adequate flexibility put into the discharge lines from the exchanger to the manifold.
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8 8. Nozzle Flexibility Loads on Columns.8. ” Bechtel S. all interconnecting pipes should be reviewed for stress. If the nozzle flexibility is not available from the equipment vendor.7 8.
8. the stress engineer should ask for back-up calculations from the vendor to prove that there will be no flange leakage. expansion joints on exchangers are not designed for appreciable lateral deflection. drums. ” EDGP5301-L Rev.2
Stacked Exchangers Where exchangers are stacked.7.7.1
Full appreciation of the effect of the external piping on the internals of the heater should be considered and full consultation with the heater vendor should be conducted to =rtain all the expansions and movementi within his heater before a rigorous stress analysis is conducted. The clearances between the header box and the steel supports as it may be necessary to cold-spring the headers to accommodate the thermal expansion. O
d) In some cases it is advisable to install thrust blocks between header boxes to remove the loads transmitted to the nozzles via friction resistanm of the header boxes. Where vendors supply exchanger arrangements that appear questionable. Fired Heaters
Exchangers equipped with bellows should be checked for loading.1
Shell and Tube Exchangers Anchor Location The stress Engineer should ensure the fixed and sliding ends are located on the ends that give the best advantage.F. Usually. it can be calculated using one of the following documents: a) b) British Standard BS5500 Appendix G : “Stresses from local loads.9 8.1
8. instead of considering it as a fixed anchor.9.7.9. Standard Drawing : C-722 : “spring Nozzles in Cylindrical Shells. tanks and horizontal vessels by wnsidering the flexibility of the nozzle connections to the vessel. r
8. If the gap between the header boxes is large (over 200mm) the use of PTFE slide pads should be considered instead of thrust blocks. deflection or angulation.2
for ro~tion of
ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE
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10. the allowable Strain is : 1.10. These anchors are designed by the civil group from loads given by the stress engineer.10 8. O
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.9 MPa) and an E value of 28.3 The Buried Pipe will have valves and other pi-s of quipment set in pits. Bijlaard. 34 (1957) “Computation of the Stresses from Local Loads on Spherid Pressure Vessels and Pressure Vessel Heads” by P.1 Buried Pipe Buried pipe. For Carbon Steel. and the stress built up in the pipe means that the temperature range of pipes that can be buried is limited.9 MPa) giving an allowable stress range (Sa) of 30 K1 (206. with an allowable hot and cold Stress of 20 ksi (137. The load applied to the anchor is the totally restrained load and is hence : (Lb) Fa = E.22 in/100 ft (1.06 mm/m) This is equivalent to a temperature range of 11‘C to 75°C 8.2
The loads built up within the fully restrained line tend to be very large. Welding Journal Research Supplement (1955) ‘Stresses from Radial bads External Moments in Cylindrical Pressure VesselsWby P.3 x I@ psi (195121 MPa).10.5) x 10-3in/in (mm/mm) 1.017 mm/m)
This is equivalent to a temperature range of 11‘C to 100”C Similarly for Austenitic Stainless Steel with an Sa value of 30 ksi (206.r(D-t)t Where e D= t = = Strain Pipe Outside Diameter Nominal Wall Thickness (in/in) (in) (in)
_ (mm) (mm)
.9 MPa) and a value of the Elastic modulus (E) of 29.e.c)
Welding Research Bulletin No.
ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE
Rev. is fully restrained with wtions above ground only partially restrained. 8.27 in/100 ft (1. Bijlaard. These items will have to be protected by anchor blocks adjacent to the pit to prevent pipe expansion into the pit. for the most part.P. and
Note: The methods and charts in (a) and (b) above were derived from (c) and (d) above. of it where it emerges
8.5 x lU psi (203395 MPa) the maximum allowable strain is : Strain = Sa/E= = (30/29.P.
Soil friction can be simplified to: f Where = Wg. (N/m) (N/m) (mm) (mm) (N/m’)
It is also necessary to know the expansion out of a buried section of pipe into the open.
..a)/f Cross Sectional Area of Pipe Metal Flow Area of Pipe Thermal Strain Elastic Modulus Poissons Ratio Hoop Stress in the Pipe Internal Pressure in the Pipe Soil Friction (in2) (in’) (in/in) (psi) (psi) (psi) (Lb/ft) (mm*) (mm? (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (N/m) _ ‘
= = = = = = =
8.d/~) Weight of soil on the pipe Weight of Pipe and Contents Pipe Diameter Height of soil above top of pipe Density of Soil (Typically 100 lb/f?) Unit mrrection coefficient Coefficient of Soil Friction (Typically = 0. D.I
As a rough guide. O
Page 20 OF 25
. if the height of the anchor block is ‘ht’ (ft) (m).fr (wS + Wp) Total Weight acting on the pipe (2.S) + P. The position where a buried line becomes fully restrained is known as the virtual anchor. its width is ‘1’ (fi) (m) and the depth of the bottom of the block from the surfam of a sandy soil is ‘H’ (ft) (m) then the maximum allowable anchor load (with a factor of safety of 1.1 Coefficient = with ht > H/2
45 in imperial units 7 in Si units.5) is ‘AL’ . The distance of the virtual anchor from where the line ceases being buried is ‘L’ (Ft) (m) Then : Where L A= a e E P s P f = ((E.H2.5)
Wg = = Ws = =
Wp D= h d K1 fr = = = = =
(Lb/ft) (Lb/ft) (Lb/ft) (in) (in) (lblft’) (12)
(N/m) m. (Lb) (KN): AL Where k = = k.p.h.
Kl)) (in) (mm)
Dw > Db
then the system is stable.Lc4/(384.e.E. To check this bowing wndition the following steps should be taken (Using nomenclature as per section 8.
8.L.ti/#) . and is more critical than other low temperature piping as: a) Special attention is required to prevent water incursion into the insulation as this will freeze and breakdown the insulation.11
Cryogenic piping includes all piping that operates below -lOO°C (-148”F). .
Calculate the theoretical height of pipe bowing @b) due to compression.5
The buried pipe must also be checked for stability to ensure that the compressive force in the restrained section does not make the pipe bow out of the ground. [e + (P.E)) .10. This is achieved by ensuring a vapour barrier around the whole system without any breaks. E.
ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE
Rev.3) a) Calculate the Critical BucNing Length Lc : Lc Where: I = = u (4.(f.4 and 8.
T *-.10. O
Page 21 OF 25
..(D2/2)]1n (in) (mm)
Calculate the pipe sag (Dw) due to weight over the same length.S/E) .I
This formula for Ws applies to fairly rigid pipe and must be re-considered for thin walled lines over 24” NB.10.E))]
. I. Db = [(4.(mu. The growth out of the buried section of the pipe into the open is ‘Def’ (in) (mm) and can be calculated from: Def = K1. otherwise extra weight should be put on tie pipe to prevent it bowing out of the ground. Dw = (Wg. L/(2. A. I/Fa)ln Pipe Section Moment of Inertia (in) (in’) (mm) (mm’) ~
preventing the formation of ice in the active internal bellows. High line movements over 75mm (3”): for piping layout. c.
Routing revisions: For piping design.2
Stress Sketches The Stress Sketch is used to transmit the following information:a. S32 and S33)
The material Elastic modulus increases by around 5% at these temperatures making the whole system stiffer and incraing loads and stresses. d. Cryogenic systems antaining bellows should not normally be hydrotested as water will tend to be caught in the convolutions forming ice that damages the convolutions during service.1
Piping Critical Line Liit The Piping Critical Line List is produced and operated in amrdance Design Guide EDG-P5302-L: Piping Stress Critical Line List. . S31. Pipe Support/ Anchor /Guide details. information to piping design.
Special care must be made with any bellows as they must be protected from icing up and being crushed. One method of doing this is to use a double bellows system separated by insulation where the external bellows is used as a vapour banier. Equipment loads: for the vessel and mechanical equipment groups. (See Standard Supports Al 1. with Engineering
9. The material of the bellows should be specially considered to prevent any brittle fracture of the thin flexing membrane..0 —
RECORDING AND TRANSMI’ITAL OF STRESS ENGINEERING DATA
Page 22 OF 25
. Cryogenic anchors and line-stops should be given special attention as they tend to be bulky and require more room than normal line-stops to install. including spring
b) Special cryogenic supports and anchors have to be used to prevent low temperatures affecting the support steel and stopping iw build-upon the suppotis creating unwanted anchor points.
Spring Data Sheets Appropriate data sheets for the type of spring designed.3
Calculation Index This will be produced in conjunction with the critical line list. -
. all Stress Sketehes shall be reviewed by the Stress Engineer to approve the general approach to the dculation and to ensure the overall dculation looks reasonable. the stress dossiers shall be maintained with details of any signifies. : P & CE L-5421 FEB 78 “Bellows Expansion Joints Data Sheet” or similar document is used for the requisition of bellows expansion joints. O
Page 23 OF 25 m
Preliminary Review At the preliminary issue stage.9.
9. The data sheets must be supplemented by a Spring Design Specification and the appropriate Paint Spification.
CHECKING STRESS CALCULATIONS n. dated with appropriate mmments relating to the aeeeptanee or otherwise. See Engineering Design Guide EDG : Critical Line List.1.
Victaulic and Viking-Johnson Type Expansion Joints These types of expansion joints fall within the category of “Piping Specials” and are therefore specified using a standard drawing sheet (Form No P & CE A-5204 or alternative) showing a sketch of the joint together with the appropriate dimensions and movements etc.nt changes marked on the redueed mpies of the stress sketches.
ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE
10.1 10. of the changes. Subsequent to this issue._
Expansion Joint Data Sheets Bellows Expansion Joints Form No. together with an index sheet and spring summary sh~t (see EDG-P5401-L “Pipe Supports”) are used to requisition Pipe Support Springs.1.
This check will require the following : a) If it does not exist.2.2
I . Check additional dculations of line weight. Ch~k of the basic Data: Temperatures. Ensure the date of the runs match the latest version in the network. Check inputted parameters (weight. Complete check of the computer input gmmetry and inputted parameters (weight. expansion rates. Check of the basic Data: Temperatures. Check results tally with values and comments shown on the stress sketch. Check that all relevant load cases have been run. the secondary runs may also be plotted. O Page 24 OF 25
General check a) If it does not exist. Commodity. sway. wind loads. Check that de compliance is documented. Insulation. Pipe Material and wall thickness against the latest line list and Piping material specification. Pressures.1
Complete check. Pipe Material and wall thickness against the latest line list and Piping material specification. applied loads and movements etc . If multiple computer runs have been run. seismic coefficients. modulus of elasticity.10. nozzle deflections etc. Check that the piping system is adequately supported / restrained. a plot of the input geometry may be creati to assist checking. the ~ndary runs may also be plotted. a plot of the input geometry may be created to assist checking. Pressures. Spot check of the computer input geometry (10% of dimensions + reviewing (a) above).).2.2
Critical lines The checking of calculations fall into 3 categories:
e) o g) h) 10. applied loads and movements etc. expansion rates. expansion rates. allowable stresses. Commodity.
ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE EDGP5301-L Rev. Insulation. If multiple computer runs have been run.
Page 25 OF 25
Rev. Check that code compliance is documented.2
The calculations falling within “General check” category (See paragraph 10.2.
. (i.2) are all computer dculations not included in 10.3.
e) f) g) h) 10. Check that all relevant load cases have been run. Chuk that the piping system is adequately supported / restrained.2..3
General Review In this case the stress sketch should be reviewed to ensure the basic temperature data relates to the latest Line List and any associated calculations are correct.3
Calculations relating to the Groups in 10.3.3.I
d) Review additional dculations of line weight.3. ensure the values are reasonable) Check results tally with values and comments shown on the stress sketch. 1) are as follows: All calculations relating to the following equipment : a) b) c) d) Air fans Compressors Turbines Arrangements temperatures.
10. wind loads.1
The calculations falling within “complete check” category (See paragraph 10. expansion rates.1.e. of three pumps connected together by piping at elevated
All other equipment where Nozzle loads are above 75% of the allowable values All calculations where the stress range is above 75% of the basic SA value in ASME B31.3. sway nozzle deflations etc. The calculations falling within “General Review” category (See paragraph 10.2. allowable stresses.3) are all non-computer calculations (approximate calculations and visual review).2. modulus of elasticity.
. “ -20°c (-4”F) to 40”C (104”F) : O“C (32”F) : 50”C (122”F) o -20”C (-4”F) to 40”C (104”F) . If the information is not readily available the values given below may be used as interim values until confirmation can be obtained from the client or appropriate authority.3 (Latest Edition)
Temperatures: England Ambient Installation solar Ambient Installation solar Ambient Installation solar Ambient Installation solar Middle East Africa.I
APPEND~ A TO ENG. O PAGE Al OF A3
Basic Data Required at the Start of a Projeet and Default values for Initial Calculations. 1 Piping Code: Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping ASME B3 1.
The following information should be confirmed with the appropriate project standards and specifications at the outset of a project. DESIGN GUIDE EDGP5301 REV. Far East & Tropical Climates All Locations : Ambient Installation solar Steam out . “ -10”C (14”F) to 300c (860F) : 5°C (41”F) : 35°C (95”F) . -20”C (-4°F) to 30°C (86”F) o : O°C (32”F) : 35°C (95”F) . A. : O°C (32”F) or 21°C (70”F) : 50”C (122”F) : O“C (32”F) to 50”C (155°F) : 20”C (68”F) : 85°C (185”F) : 150”C (302”F)
Northern Europe & Canada
Settlement 5.8 : Coefficient of Friction = 0. use a design wind speed of 40 m/s with a Topography factor S 1 of 1.0. O PAGE A2 OF A3
APPENDIX A TO ENG.5
Coefficient of Friction steel to steel Steel to Concrete S-1 to PTFE/ Polished Stainless Steel : Coefficient of Friction = 0.8.Part 2: Wind Loads . use a basic wind speed of 90 mph with a Exposure type C.
.8 lb/f~ and an Importance factor of 1.. ground roughness of 2 witi building class B (to calculate factor S2 as per table 3). qs factor of 20.4
Wind Deflection of Columns and Structures Initial calculations can use a value of L/200 where L is the elevation of the column or structure.lculatti using one of the following codes: a) Based on BS CP3 Chapter 5: Code of Basic Data for the Design of Buildings . In the absence of further information. b) Based on Uniform Building Code Part II : Wind Design In the absence of further information.
Wind Loads: Wind loads may be Ca.Chapter 5: bading .
Earthquake Values for earthquake accelerations on a plant should be established at the outset of the project. Cq factor of 0. DESIGN GUIDE EDGP5301 REV.0.. and factor S3 of 1. This should be confirmed by the vessel/structural group for the specific column of structure as soon as possible.1
A. Use : Uniform Building Code Part III : Earthquake Design . Values for absolute and differential settlement on a plant should be established at the outset of the project.
R.3 : Coefficient of Friction = 0.
Insulation Weight Until definitive values are available use 150 Kg/m3 (9.20 0.
A.51 1. Ta= T = F = K=
A. This value is known as the retirement thickness. the thinnest wall thickness required for pressure design may be too thin for reasonable mechanical strength.29 3.6/((Kh/t’”) + 15.. The Retirement thickness values to be used are: Line size Range (NB) : (in) (mm) 1/2 to 2t04 6 to 14 to 26 to 48 and 1 1/2 12 24 46 above 15 to 40 50 to 100 150 to 300 350 to 600 650 to 1150 1200 and above Retirement Thickness: (in) (mm) 0.09 0.5) [(Kh/P5) > 120] Insulation Constant = 1.08
E.12 0.4 lb/F~) or 175 Kg/m3(11 lb/ft) insulation density.
APPENDIX A TO ENG. 10
Pipe Wall Thickns
When calculating the pipe wall thicknesses for piping classes etc.15 0. if the pressure is low.02 0.8
Column Skirt Expansion The temperatures used for calculating skirt expansions are taken from the equation: Average Skirt Temp (“C)= (T-Ta)F + Ta Ambient Temp.0 Firebnck Insulated = 1. (“C) Temp @ top of Skirt (“C) 83.52 2. if the pressure design thickness calculated is less than the retirement thickness the retirement thickness should be used in its place. Thus.I . DESIGN GUTDE EDGP5301 REV.05 3. Hence a minimum thickness is required for basic mechanical strength purposes.06 0.6 Non-insulated h = Skirt Height t = Skirt wall thickness. O PAGE A3 OF A3
10”C (50”F) Length of pipe that is expanding. To dculate the required leg.2
PURPOSE The purpose of this guide is to assist the piping designers to allow for sufficient flexibility whilst routing piping.3
Values of the constant K: Material Value of K in: Imperial Units
S1 Units except NB
Carbon St~l & bw to 5Cr Steel
Alloy Steel 0. THE STRESS FLEXIBILITY EQUATION
12 Cr Steel and Austenitic Stainless Steels (Not L grade)
. This guide is NOT intended to circumvent the assessment of piping systems by the stress Engineer.
. use the following Equation:
(s= also fig Bl) Lr Where = K.APPENDIX B TO ENG. T.2
The quation is based on the guided cantilever method. 1 B1.21 1.3 (mm) (in) (“C) (mm) (in) (in) (“F) (in)
B. Constant see B2. and conservative. (D. DESIGN GUIDE EDGP5301
REV.185 0. O
PAGE B1 OF B2
A Simplified Method for Piping Designers to Asses Piping Flexibility.1 B2. F The method to be employed is simple. quick. Pipe Actual OD in inches (of Lr) Pipe Design Temperature . Le)ln Lr D= T Le= K= = = Required leg to absorb expansion of Le. but does not consider equipment loads. This is not seen as a problem as the Stress Engineers will cover this check during their review of the piping.
DESIGN GUIDE EDGP5301 REV. It does not consider imposed moments on anchor points or equipment nozzles.
r. Pipe runs with changes in diameter in length Lr.*-
Lines with a Le/D ratio less than 5 Non-Metallic Piping Using the K values given for Pipes at Temperatures over 300°C (572”F)..
B3. O PAGE B2 OF B2
APPENDIX B TO ENG.
. Hence for sensitive equipment. this method is only a first pass method for the designer to get a feeling of the sort of leg sizes that are required.
METHOD LIMITATIONS This equation becomes less accurate for pipes in the following categories:
This method is based on allowable piping stress. B1 Diagram Showing Expansion of Typical ‘L’ Shape
DESIGN GUIDE EDGP5301-L
PAGE Cl OF Cl
CAD Drafted Piping Stress Sketch : stored in file STRESS2.
.I . .DGN
APPENDIX C TO ENG.
I I I I 1
. DESIGN GUID E EDGP5301-L Stress and Supports Critical Line List: stord in file S-S1
I I t I I I I I t I
I I 1
KH2 FOR ~V&
. O .I
APPENDIX D TO ENG. .
PAGE 1)1 OF D1
1 ENGINEERING STANOMD
ST~S ~ -TS CJ?ITCM lIM L~T -Cl am mm
: ~OXUATE C&CUiTION v : Vlsuk INSPECTION
PIPING STRESS Calculation”
C : COUPuTER tiYSiS A. O
PAGE El OF El
Stress Calculation Index: stored in file S-S1..
.APPENDIX E TO ENG.DGN
STRESs REVIEW COOE (METHOD):
GUID E EDGP5301-L