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y METABOLISM - CARBOHYDRATES - PROTEIN - LIPIDS BODY FLUIDS : URINE AND BLOOD VITAMINS AND MINERALS HORMONES y y y
-are chemical substances that act as control agents in the body, often regulating metabolic pathways. - ´chemical messengersµ of the body. -help to adjust physiological processes such as digestion, metabolism, growth, and reproduction. HORMONES SOURCE PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS
Controls blood-glucose level and storage of glycogen
Stimulates conversion of glycogen to glucose; raises blood glucose
Stimulates contraction of the muscles and secretions of milk by the mammary glands
Controls water excretion by the kidneys ; stimulates constriction of the blood vessels
Stimulates the adrenal cortex,which,in turn, releases several steroid hormones
salt and water balance formation and storage of glycogen Thyroxine & triiodothyronine Thyroid Gland Increases the metabolic rate of carbohydrates and proteins Parathyroid hormone Parathyroid Gland Regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphate in the body Calcitonin Thyroid gland Prevents the rise of calcium in the blood above the required level Gastrin Stomach Stimulates secretion of gastric juice Secretin Duodenum Stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice . accelerates the hearbeat.Prolactin Pituitary Gland Stimulates milk production by mammary glands after birth of a baby Epinephrine(ADRENALIN) Adrenal Gland Stimulates rise in blood pressure.decreases secretion insulin and increases blood glucose Cortisone Adrenal Gland Helps control carbohydrate metabolism .
Estrogen Ovaries Stimulates development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics Progesterone Ovaries Stimulates female sexual characteristics and maintain pregnancy Testosterone Testes Stimulates development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics .
tomatoes. formed from provitamin in the skin when exposed to sunlight Meat . bloodshot eyes. meat. cholecalciferol. POOR teeth and gums . green vegetable. egg yolk. liver. cheese. widely distributed in foods Eggs. anemia Skin disorders (dermatitis) Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin ) Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Cereals. fish liver oil. whole grain cereals. liver Beriberii ( nervous system disorders. nuts. fish. D3) Vitamin E (a-tocopherol) RICKETS ( low blood calcium level. produced in the intestines by bacterial reactions. fatigue ) Sores on the tongue and lips. wheat germ oil. Soft bones. K1: menquinone. liver. liver . D2. cheese. milk. distorted skeletal structure) Not definitely known in humans Vitamin K (Phylloquinone. fresh vegetables. green vegetables. green Vitamin B12( cynocobalamin) Vitamin c ( ascorbic acid ) Pernicious anemia Scurvy ( bleeding gums. eggs. meat Citrus fruits. butter. fish liver oil Egg yolk. night blindness Important dietary sources Some deficiency symptoms Vitamin D ( ergocalciferol . Note: Vitamins are often classified according to their solubility. nuts Meat. Eggs. Vitamins FAT SOLUBLE Vitamin A( Retinol) Green and yellow vegetables. K2) WATER SOLUBLE Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Blood is slow to clot ( antihemorrhagic vitamin) Meat. yeast. heart diseases. eggs.VITAMINS AND MENIRALS VITAMINS ² are a group of naturally occurring organic compounds that are essential for good nutrition and that must be supplied in the diet. those which are fat soluble and water soluble. liver. loose .
beriberi ( the thiamin-deficiency disease) grew to epidemic proportions. while functions Vitamin K enables blood clotting to occur normally. Vitamins are required in only small amounts and are classed as MICRONUTRIENTS. Vitamin C can be destroyed by exposure to air . Left uncorrected. diarrhea. and cooking. As much as 50-60% of the water soluble vitamins in vegetables can be lost during cooking. rickets. Thus. weight loss ) Pellagra ( dermatitis. mental disorders) Skin disorders ( dermatitis) Macrocytic . pernicious anemia. yeast. swollen joints. The biochemistry of life cannot continue without vitamins. Each vitamin serves atleast one specific purpose for an organism. One function of Vitamin A is to furnish the pigment that makes vision possible. Vitamin D acts as a regulator of Ca metabolism.anemia . yeast. Niacin and riboflavin are key components in almost in all cellular redox reaction. A seemingly balanced diet may be deficient in vitamins . yeast . whole wheat Vitamin H ( biotin) Folic acid Liver. gastrointestinal disorders Niacin ( nicotinic acid and amide) Meat. green leaves A prolonged lack of vitamins in diet leads to vitamin deficiency diseases such as beriberi. a vitamin deficiency may be irreversible. whet germ. Removal of the outside hull from grains drastically decreases their B vitamin content. due to losses incurred in food processing . and scurvy. slow healing of wounds. . when polished rice became a dietary staple in the Orient. storing.vegetables teeth. egg yolk Liver. pellagra.
possibly elevated serum cholesterol Zinc Growth depression. and phosphate ( phosphorus) . calcium . possible growth effect Calcification. changes of ossification. Trace Elements. interaction with iron.are required in much smaller amounts. magnesium . chloride. skin lesions . B12 deficiency Not known Anemia. depression of immunocompetence . potassium . superoxide Dismutase enzyme Oxygen and electron transport Part of Vitamin B12 Interaction with iron absorption Oxidative enzymes. change in acuity of taste Not known Arsenic Not known . possibly risk factor for osteoporosis Not known Silicon Vanadium Chromium Not known Relative insulin resistance . sexual immaturity. crosslinking of elastin connective protein Numerous enzymes involved in energy metabolism and in the transcription and transition Not known Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Anemia Only as vit. TWO TYPES OF ELEMENTS : Major Elements ² ingested in large amounts Include sodium . possibly of bones .MENIRALS ² are classified as micronutrients . ELEMENT Fluorine FUNCTIONS Structure of teeth . impaired glucose tolerance . possible function in connective tissue Not known Efficient use of insulin HUMAN DEFICIENCY SIGNS Increased incidence of dental caries. elevated serum lipids Manganese Mucopolysaccharide metabolism.
and chloride. Unfortunately. cretinism Meniral nutrients differ from organic nutrients in that body. in general. Relatively large amounts of iron are required for hemoglobin replenishment.Although these elements are required for good health. This is especially true for the higher iron RDA for women. in addition. They are required in small amounts 2. Food contains only minute quantities of them.1 -0. Usually. The Major minerals-sodium. Many enzyme reactions require an optimal salt concentration of 0. aldehyde. This element is part of hemoglobin . the oxygen ² binding protein of the blood. The exact function of many trace elements remains unknown. 1. they can also be toxic if ingested in quantities that are too large. including being required by some enzymes. Calcium and magnesium serve many roles in the body . Nutritionist have established RDAs for some of these minerals and warn against excess intake.Selenium Gluthatione perodixase .3 M. .are responsiblefor maintaining the appropriate salt levels in the body fluids. and sulfide oxidase enzymes Constituent of thyroid hormones Endemic heart problems conditioned by selenium deficiency Not known Molybdenum Iodine Goiter . many foods are not rich enough in iron to provide the necessary RDA. a normal diet contains adequate quantities of all trace elements. The notable exception to the preceding generalizations is iron. depression of thyroid function. uses minerals in the ionic form in which they are absorbed . individual elements serve specific functions. Therefore. interaction with heavy metals Xanthine. Trace elements are similar to vitamins in that . nutritionists sometimes recommend a daily iron dietary supplement . potassium.
growth.the reductive synthesis of molecules. Metabolic pathways contribute to catabolism .Metabolism Metabolism is the mechanism of living cells to extract.g. It is important to realize that pathways. digestion) and physiological activity of an organism. convert and store energy from nutrients.the oxidative degradation of molecules. . be they catabolic or anabolic in nature. are interdependent and controlled (e. and anabolism .g. hormones) by the energy needs (e. Metabolism is a complex network of chemical reactions within the confines of a cell that can be analyzed in self-contained parts called pathways. work.
Glucose 6-phosphate is formed when the 6th carbon on the glucose molecule is phosphorylated by an ATP molecule. This process is known as glycolysis. it has be broken down into two pyruvate molecules (the ionized form of pyruvic acid). it is important to consider how glucose is able to provide energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to various cells and tissues. 2. 4. 6diphosphate. 6-diphosphate is processed by an enzyme into two glyceraldehyde 3phosphate molecules. Glucose 6-phosphate is converted into a 5-carbon ring isomer. . and produces four ATP molecules and two NADH2+ molecules. fructose 6-phosphate. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm and can occur without the presence of oxygen and is the primary energy source for most organisms. Fructose 1. This process consumes two ATP molecules.Carbohydrates Since all digestible forms of carbohydrates are eventually transformed into glucose. Glycolysis Before glucose can be converted into ATP. Glycolysis is summarized below: 1. 3. Fructose 6-phosphate is phosphorylated by another ATP to form fructose 1.
6.3-diphosphoglycerate molecules phosphorylate ADP (adenine diphosphate) to yield two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate and two ATPs are produced. losing hydrogen atoms and gaining phosphate groups to form 1.5. The two phospoenolpyruvate phosphorylates two ADPs and produces two more ATPs and two molecules of pyruvate. The two 2-phosphoglycerate molecules are dehydrated and forms two high-energy phosphoenolpyruvate molecules. 7. Two molecules of NAD+ are converted into NADH2+ in the process. forming 2phosphoglycerate. 9. Two 1. The phosphate groups on 3-phosphoglycerate move to the 2nd carbon. Two molecules of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate are oxidized. 3-diphosphoglycerate. . 8.
Aerobic Respiration The pyruvate produced in glycolysis undergoes further breakdown through a process called aerobic respiration in most organisms. In order to use that energy. and the Electron Transport Chain. also known as the citric acid cycle.After the glucose molecule has been converted two pyruvate. To do so. . the cell must convert it into the form of ATP. Aerobic respiration is divided into two processes: the Krebs cycle. which produces ATP through chemiosmotic phosphorylation. it is then sent to the Kreb Cycle to be converted into more usable forms of energy. pyruvate molecules are processed through the Kreb Cycle. This process requires oxygen and yields much more energy than glycolysis. The energy conversion is as follows: C6H12O6 + 6O<SUB<2< sub> -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (ATP) Krebs Cycle The pyruvate molecules produced during glycolysis contain a lot of energy in the bonds between their molecules.
and two ATP.. 4.1. converting FAD to FADH2. Isocitrate is oxidized to form the 5-carbon -ketoglutarate. six NADH2+. Malate is oxidized to oxaloacetate. Because glycolysis produces two pyruvate molecules from one glucose. Fumarate is hydrolized to form malate. Succinyl CoA releases coenzyme A and phosphorylates ADP into ATP. . Succinate is oxidized to fumarate. Citrate is converted into its isomer isocitrate. An enzyme called coenzyme A is combined with the remaining acetyl to make acetyl CoA which is then fed into the Krebs Cycle. they represent energy available to do work. receiving high energy electrons from the pyruvic acid molecules that were dismantled in the Krebs Cycle. two FADH2. This is achieved by removing a CO2 molecule from pyruvate and then removing an electron to reduce an NAD+ into NADH. The steps in the Krebs Cycle are summarized below: 2. 5. For each molecule of glucose. 8. Citrate is formed when the acetyl group from acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate from the previous Krebs cycle. Prior to entering the Krebs Cycle. These carrier molecules transport the high energy electrons and their accompanying hydrogen protons from the Krebs Cycle to the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. 9. 3. each glucose is processes through the kreb cycle twice. 7. yielding CO2 and NADH2+.. Therefore. 6. reducing NAD+ to NADH2+. Electron Transport Chain What happens to the NADH2+ and FADH2 produced during the Krebs cycle? The molecules have been reduced. The -ketoglutarate is oxidized to succinyl CoA. We are now back at the beginning of the Krebs Cycle. pyruvate must be converted into acetyl CoA (pronounced: acetyl coenzyme A). This step releases one molecule of CO2 and reduces NAD+ to NADH2+.
The final transfer involves the combining of electrons and H2 atoms with oxygen to form water. However. The metabolism of lipids involves the following processes: . and FADH2 to FAD. Fats can be utilised for energy or may be stored as adipose tissue. the only path that the protons have is through enzyme complexes within the inner membrane. the electrons and hydrogen protons cease to flow through the electron transport system. Since an electrochemical osmotic gradient supplies the energy. The molecules that take part in the transport of these electrons are referred to as the electron transport chain. the electron carriers within the membrane. Once the electrons (originally from the Krebs Cycle) have yielded their energy. If this happens. triglycerides and phospholipids. they combine with oxygen to form water. the proton concentration gradient will not be sufficient to power the synthesis of ATP. The main components of these are fatty acids which are released when the lipids are broken down. The electrons are then passed from molecule to molecule in the inner membrane of the mitochondron. NADH2+ is oxidized to NAD+. If the oxygen supply is cut off. That is. Lipid /fat Lipids are basically the fats in the body which include cholesterol. the entire process is referred to as chemiosmotic phosphorylation. the hydrogen protons tend to move down the concentration gradient from the outer compartment to the inner compartment. losing some of their energy at each step. bonding phosphate to ADP in an enzymatically-mediated reaction. The free energy of the hydrogen protons is used to form ATP by phosphorylation. The high energy electrons are transferred to ubiquinone (Q) and cytochrome c molecules. This high concentration of hydrogen protons produces a free energy potential that can do work. The protons therefore pass through the channel lined with enzymes. Fatty acids are absorbed through the intestine and are taken up via the lymphatic system. The process can be summarized as follows: the electrons that are delivered to the electron transport system provide energy to "pump" hydrogen protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane to the outer compartment.In a number of steps utilizing enzymes on the membrane.
lipids aren't soluble in the blood so their stores can be difficult to access. However. It is caused by metabolism of predominantly fats in the absence of sufficient carbohydrate metabolism. Ketosis Ketosis refers to an increased concentration of ketone bodies within the blood.Lipolysis: This refers to the breakdown of the fats into their fatty acid and other components. The latter is converted into pyruvic acid which can enter the Krebs cycle. When carbohydrates are unavailable for energy the body switches to metabolism of fatty acids. The body takes these from adipose tissue (the body's fat stores). diabetes mellitus (as insulin is not available to transport glucose to cells) and occasionally occurs when diets consist almost entirely of fat. Lipid metabolism is efficient in terms of ATP production. Therefore they aren't relied on for the production of large amounts of ATP in a short time but rather are used when carbohydrate supplies are limited. Some of these agents can enter directly into the Krebs cycle for oxidation. Triglycerides get broken down into fatty acids and glycerol. Some ketones can be excreted in the breath and give it a sweet smell (acetone breath). It is thus a feature of starvation. ATP is generated from this process as well as acetyl-CoA which can enter the Krebs cycle and produce more energy. The most common ketone produced is acetic acid. The fatty acids generated can either be broken down for energy or may be converted to ketone bodies within the liver. Protein . Beta-oxidation: This refers to the breakdown of fatty acids within the mitochondria.
Oxidation of amino acids: This refers to the breakdown of ketoacids and generation of ATP. the amino acids may be used to generate energy. Amino acids are classified as essential (meaning they are required in the diet as the body can't synthesise them) and nonessential (meaning the body can generate them if needed). The amount of ATP produced from protein metabolism is slightly less than glucose metabolism for equivalent weights. Urea can then be excreted in the urine. Ammonia is generated by this process which is converted to urea by the liver. Normally the amino acids will be recycled and used to produce new proteins. When proteins are digested. The following processes occur in protein metabolism: Deamination: The first step in breaking down amino acids is removal of the amino group (the part of the amino acid structure containing nitrogen and hydrogen). The correct balance of amino acids is needed so that all important proteins can be synthesised. This should only occur when carbohydrate and fat energy stores are depleted as proteins make up several important structures in the body. However if energy sources are limited. The amino acid is converted to a compound called a ketoacid which can enter the Krebs cycle. the bonds between amino acids are broken and they are released. similar to acetyl-CoA in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. . Approximately 20 different amino acids make up the building blocks of all proteins. If they are extensively metabolized it may interfere with the function of tissues. The main component of proteins is amino acids.The body consists of a large variety of proteins with various structures and functions.
2.Body Fluids: Urine Formation: 1. potassium ions (K+). and certain drugs out of the blood and into the kidney tubules. Reabsorption of water and dissolved substances out of the kidney tubules back into the blood (note that this process prevents substances needed by the body from being lost in the urine). Properties: What is a typical normal volume of urine ? 1-2 litres / 24 hours per normal adult. where they are eventually eliminated in the urine. . 3. Secretion of hydrogen ions (H+). ammonia (NH3). Filtration of water and dissolved substances out of the blood in the glomeruli and into Bowman's capsule.
and therefore cause it to have a lighter colour. Colour: Typically yellow-amber but varies according to recent diet and the concentration of the urine. . (The converse is also true. pH (acidity . The real significance of pH in terms of physical chemistry is that pH is a measure of the activity of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution. The pH of a substance (solution) is usually represented as a number in the range 0 (strong acid) to 14 (strong alkali.) Smell: The smell of urine may provide health information. What are the physical characteristics of normal urine ? Volume (as mentioned above) is one of the physical characteristics of urine. For example. and density. The actual quantity per person per day is affected by factors such as: * recent fluid intake (water. Other physical characteristics that can apply to urine include colour. Pure water is "neutal" in the sense that it is neither neither acid nor alkali. turbidity (transparency). and other food/drinks that include water) * diet * temperature * blood pressure * general health (some disease states may affect urine volume/time) * mental state. Drinking more water generally tends to reduce the concentration of urine.However. also known as a "base").alkalinity). Acidity: pH is a measure of the acidity (or alkalinity) of a solution. the amount per day varies considerably. smell (odour). urine of diabetics may have a sweet or fruity odour due to the presence of ketones (organic molecules of a particular structure). it therefore has a pH of 7.
95% of the volume of normal urine is due to water.6 .035. leucomia then excess amount of protein is detected in urine.The pH of normal urine is generally in the range 4. For example. What is contained in normal urine ? Approx. B.8). But when albumin and globulin are found in illness condition then it is called Proteinuria. The other 5% consists of solutes (chemicals that are dissolved in the water). . 1. This is true . but also contains some other substances dissolved in the "water". This is the ratio of the weight of a volume of a substance compared with the weight of the same volume of distilled water. nephrosis. It is of two types. Given that urine is mostly water. Abnormal constituents A.001 to 0. Density: Density is also known as "specific gravity".the density of normal urine is in the range 0. its density is expected to be close to.0. high protein diets result in more acidic urine. but slightly greater than.0. Much of the variation is due to diet. Some of these solutes are the results of normal biochemical activity within the cells of the body. such as pharmaceutical drugs. Other solutes may be due to chemicals that originated outside of the body. but vegetarian diets generally result in more alkaline urine (both within the typical range 4. When a patient is suffering from nephritis.8. GLUCOSE : When the amount of glucose is increased in urine and the urine is capable to reduce the Benedict's reagent and Feeling's reagent then the condition is called Glucosuria. PROTEIN : In normal condition we excrete 20-80 mg protein in a day.6 . a typical average being around 6.
Waste products of metabolism (e. Nutrients (such as glucose. Enzymes. lactose.g. lactosuria and galactosuria respectively.g. Blood A. water. D. Functions of Blood 1. Hormones. urea). The condition when lipid is detected in urine is called lipuria. oxygen. amino acids. micro-nutrients (vitamins & minerals). CARBOHYDRATES OTHER THAN GLUCOSE : Other carbohydrates like fructose. mental excitement or illness. fatty acids. But during heavy Diabetes or due to over drinking of alcohol or due to intake of rich fish liver oil lipids are detected in the urine. glycerol). C. FAT : In normal healthy condition human urine does not contain any fat. galactose may be appeared in the urine due to different reasons.1. . carbon dioxide). Temporary Glucosuria : It occurs due to heavy intake of glucose. Transports: Dissolved gases (e. Diabetic Glucosuria : It is occurred during when a patient is suffering from Diabetes mellitus. If those are detected then the conditions are called fructosuria. 2.
Blood cells (incl. which may contain around 10g salt per day B.4. 'Blood Cells'. 4. i. Regulation of Body Fluid Electrolytes Excess salt is removed from the body in urine.8 to 7. 36 times every 24 hours.e.) 5. Controls pH The pH of blood must remain in the range 6.Plasma proteins (associated with defence. 2. white blood cells 'leucocytes'. These include: 55%-Plasma 45%-Components. and red blood cells 'erythrocytes'). . otherwise it begins to damage cells. Maintains Body Temperature 3. (Toxins also leave the body in the form of sweat. Toxins removed from the blood by the kidneys leave the body in the urine. Composition of Blood Blood consists of many components (constituents). Removes toxins from the body The kidneys filter all of the blood in the body (approx. 8 pints). such as blood-clotting and anti-bodies).
below). Blood plasma proteins (albumin. This is the straw-coloured fluid in which the blood cells are suspended. and calcium ions. Haem Erythrocytes have a "prosthetic group" (meaning "in addition to" . The following table includes further general information about the constituents of blood. and consists of: Dissolved substances including electrolytes such as sodium. 99% are erythrocytes (red blood cells) and 1% are leucocytes (white blood cells) and thrombocytes (blood platelets). potassiun. Erythrocytes (Red blood cells) Immature erythrocytes have a nucleus but mature erythrocytes have no nucleus. Structure Functions Plasma Normal blood plasma is 90-92 % water. maintaining this within a range at which the cells can thrive. The medium in which the blood cells are transported around the body (by the blood vessels) and are able to operate effectively. Hormones. The Carry oxygen (process described in more detail .in this case. in addition to the cell). chlorine. Helps to control the pH of the blood and the body tissues. globulin. Helps to maintain optimum body temperature throughout the organism.Of these. manganese. Helps to maintain an ideal balance of electrolytes in the blood and tissues of the body. . fibrinogen).
g. Haem combines with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin: . Agranular (do not contain granules): e.000 . 4.the purpose of which is to prevent loss of body fluids. There are approx. Neutrophils. Have a longevity of a few hours to a few days (but some can remain for many years).active component of this prosthetic group is Haem. There are different types of leucocytes (described in more detail below). (Bile breaks down fats.000 leucocytes per micro-litre of blood. and the blood pigments form bile salts. continued in section below. Blood platelets are cell fragments.5 . Leucocytes (White blood cells) Major part of the immune system. . Erythrocytes are eventually broken down by the spleen into the blood pigments bilinubin and bilviridin. Eosinophils.. Basophils. and iron. 5.) Have a longevity of approx. These components are then transported by the blood to the liver where the iron is re-cycled for use by new erythrocytes.g. Disk-shaped. Haem relies on the presence of iron (Fe). Trombocytes (Platelets) To facilitate blood clotting .10.8 million erythrocytes per micro-litre of healthy blood (though there are variations between racial groups and men/women). 120 days. There are approx.. Monocytes. classified as: Granular: e.5. Lymphocytes.
Diameter 2-4 um (1 micro-metre = 1 um = 0.000 platelets per micro-litre of blood.000 . The Oxygenation of Blood The oxygenation of blood is the function of the erythrocytes (red blood cells) and takes place in the lungs. While in the lungs: 1. .000001m). Oxygen (breathed into the lungs) combines with haemoglobin in the blood as it passes through the lung capillaries. Carbon Dioxide diffuses out of the blood into the lungs. The sequence of events of the blood becoming oxygenated (in the lungs) then oxygenating the tissues (in the body) is as follows: The Right Ventricle (of the heart) sends de-oxygenated blood to the lungs.400. 150. 3. Oxyhaemoglobin returns to the heart via the pulmonary vein and then enters the systemic circulation via the aorta. and 2. Have a longevity of approx. 5-9 days. There are approx. Have many granules but no nucleus.
There is a low concentration of oxygen in the body tissues. They combat microbes by the process of phagocytosis. Destruction of bacteria with lysozyme and strong oxidants. These produce anti-bodies and include: * T-Cells * B-Cells * Natural Killer Cells Monocytes: Approx. Due to the high concentration of oxygen in the blood and the low concentration of oxygen in the tissues. Phagocytosis..) Blood returns from the tissues back to the heart via the superior vena cava (from the upper-body) and the inferior vena cava (from the lower-body) 4.. Types of Leucocytes (White Blood Cells) Lymphocytes: Approx. 4% of leucocytes are monoocytes. They also contain waste products of the metabolism (such as carbon dioxide). These are also known as phagocytes. . Diameter 10-12 micro-metres. 24% of leucocytes are lymphocytes. Basophils: 60-70% of leucocytes are basophils. (95% of this carbon dioxide dissolves in the blood plasma. Neutrophils: . the high concentration of carbon dioxide in the tissues diffuses into the blood.
Eosinophils: 0. Combat the effects of histamine in allergic reactions. histamine. Diameter 10-12 micro-metres. Liberate heparin. 24% of leucocytes are lymphocytes. Approx. These produce anti-bodies and include: *T-Cells *B-Cells *Natural Killer Cells . Destroy some parasitic worms. and seratonin in allergic reactions. Phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes. intensifying inflammatory response. Diameter 8-10 micro-metres.5-1% of leucocytes are eosinophils.2-4% of leucocytes are neutrophils.
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