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Agenda
• Properties of sound • Analog audio • Digital audio • Audio file formats • Sound recording • Sound editing

Introduction
• Audio is the reproduction of sound - important
means of communication. audio.

• There are a number of advantages of using • most obvious: interface for visual disabilities

Properties of Sound
• Sound is a pressure
wave created by successively vibrating matter back and forth. the form of a sine wave.

• The sound wave is in

Frequency
• The number of air pressure oscillations per
second at a fixed point by a sound wave second

• Measured in Hertz (Hz) - number of waves per • Audible range (human) = 20 Hz - 20 kHz • this is where the sensation of pitch
originates

Frequency & Pitch

Frequency & Pitch
Frequency Pitch

Frequency & Pitch
Frequency Pitch Pitch

Frequency

Frequency & Pitch
Frequency Pitch Pitch

Frequency

Wavelength
• The distance between waves

Amplitude
• The height of the
wave

• Measured in decibels
(dB or dBA)

Intensity vs. Loudness
• Amplitude can be thought of as the intensity of
sound and is measurable.

• Loudness of sound is a perception. • Sound can be perceived differently at the various • Individuals also have different hearing capacities.

frequencies (1 kHz-4 kHz is more sensitive than the lower and the higher) What is loud to one person may not be loud to another, which why loudness is a perception and cannot be measured.

dBA
10 20 30 50 60 110 120 110-120 130 180

Sound
Normal breathing Whispering at 5 ft Soft whispering Rainfall Normal conversation Shouting in the ear Thunder Rock concert Air raid Rocket launching from pad

Analog Audio
• analog = the

measurement of continuous change or movement over a period of time

Digital Audio
• The reproduction of sound using digital
information

• The value of the signal is sampled at regular
intervals by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC)

Basic Terminology & Properties of DA

• Channels • Sampling rate • Bit depth • Quality and file size • Compression • Audio codecs

Channels
Stereo

Mono

Channels
Stereo
e s se d l c om p r i le w i l An u n gi t a l f e o di e s i ze o f a s te r c e t h e t w i n o f i le . b mo

Mono

Sampling Rate
• ADC - the signal is sampled at regular intervals • The value of each sample is rounded to the
nearest integer in a scale that varies according to the resolution of the signal

Sampling Rate
• The accuracy the
reproduction to the source depends on how often the sample is taken.

Common DA Sampling Rate
8,000 Hz telephone, adequate for human speech 22,050 Hz radio 32,000 Hz miniDV digital camcorder CD, commonly used with MPEG-1 audio 44,100 Hz (VCD, SVCD, MP3) digital sound used for digital TV, DVD, DAT, 48,000 Hz films and professional audio 96,000 or 192,400 Hz DVD-audio and HD-DVD audio tracks

Bit Depth
• The number of bits used to describe each of
the samples taken from the sampling rate

• Higher bit-depth audio will sound better
than lower one

• the potential accuracy of a digital audio

Quality & File Size
• Make the highest level (if possible) ~ 16-bit
44kHz Stereo

• this produces a large file size, however, high
audio clarity

• Chances to manipulate such file (to make it
smaller) :

• reduce the sampling rate • make it mono

Compression
• Digital audio files can also
be compressed to reduce file size (MP3) is a common

• MPEG-1 Audio layer-3

Compression
• Digital audio files can also
be compressed to reduce file size (MP3) is a common

• MPEG-1 Audio layer-3

Compression
Audio Quality

• Digital audio files can also
be compressed to reduce file size (MP3) is a common

• MPEG-1 Audio layer-3

Compression
Audio Quality

• Digital audio files can also
be compressed to reduce file size (MP3) is a common

• MPEG-1 Audio layer-3

Compression
Audio Quality

• Digital audio files can also
be compressed to reduce file size (MP3) is a common

• MPEG-1 Audio layer-3
File Size

Compression
Audio Quality

• Digital audio files can also
be compressed to reduce file size (MP3) is a common

Lossless
WMA

• MPEG-1 Audio layer-3
File Size

Compression
Audio Quality

• Digital audio files can also
be compressed to reduce file size (MP3) is a common

Lossless
WMA

• MPEG-1 Audio layer-3

Lossy
MP3 Real Audio

File Size

Compression
Audio Quality

• Digital audio files can also
be compressed to reduce file size (MP3) is a common

“later editing”

Lossless
WMA

• MPEG-1 Audio layer-3

Lossy
MP3 Real Audio

File Size

Compression
Audio Quality

• Digital audio files can also
be compressed to reduce file size (MP3) is a common

“later editing”

Lossless
WMA

• MPEG-1 Audio layer-3

Lossy
MP3 Real Audio

“transmission”
File Size

Audio Codecs
• An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

Audio Codecs
• An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

Audio Codecs
• An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

Audio Codecs
• An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

Audio Codecs
• An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

Audio Codecs
• An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

codec y

Audio Codecs
• An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

codec y

Audio Codecs
• An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

codec y

Audio Codecs
• An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

codec y

codec x

Audio Codecs
• An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

codec y

codec x

✘ ✔

Audio Codecs
• An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

codec y

Audio codecs

codec x

✘ ✔

Audio File Formats
• An audio file format is a container format for storing
data on a computer system.

• AIF format • developed by Apple Computer • supported by most web browsers • AU format most • one of theformat on the common
web

• WAV format • Microsoft’s audio format • also one of the mostthe common format on
web

• MP3 • most widespread form of audio on the Internet • playable on various players

• created by Sun Microsystems

MIDI Format
• Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) is
typically used to play music.

• MIDI files contain a set of instruction that the
computer sends to a sound card, synthesizer, or other device.

• Such instructions (note and instrument

description) describe how to play the sound, rather than recording an actual rendition of the sound.

Sound Recording

Sound Recording

Sound Recording

Sound Recording

Sound Recording

Sound Recording

Sound Editing
• Audacity - it’s GNU GPL license, it’s free, it’s cross
platform.

• Tracks • Waveform display • Selection • Trim • Amplify • Pitch • and many more....

Digital Audio
Technologies & Applications

Portable Music Players

Before Digital

Before Digital
70s

Before Digital
70s

Before Digital
70s

CD on market (1982)

CD on market (1982)
i t al! D ig I t ’s

Not quite portable, is it?

Digital files? Compress ‘em

Digital files? Compress ‘em

CODECS

Digital files? Compress ‘em
ATRAC

CODECS
Vorbis (OGG) AAC

WMA

Digital files? Compress ‘em

CODECS MP3

Digital Audio Players

Digital Audio Players
1997 - MPMan
SaeHan Infomation Systems

Eiger Labs MPMAN F10 (1998) 32 MB

Digital Audio Players
1997 - MPMan
SaeHan Infomation Systems

1998 - Rio PMP300

Diamond Multimedia

Eiger Labs MPMAN F10 (1998) 32 MB

32 MB Internal Memory SmartMedia Memory Slot

Digital Audio Players

Digital Audio Players
2000 - Creative NOMAD Jukebox
Creative Labs

6 GB Harddisk $500

The Revolution

The Revolution

The Revolution
October 2001 - 1st iPod Introducing

iPod Family

Get quick and instant access to your content with multi-touch navigation. With a 3.3-inch screen and vivid 16:9 OLED display (480x272 resolution), premium entertainment is at your fingertips.*

Tune into all your favorite stations with crystal-clear reception. With an integrated HD Radio receiver, you can access a variety of HD Radio stations at no additional cost. Plus, tag the songs you like for later purchase.

Watch supported 720p HD movies, TV shows and videos in high definition on your HDTV through the Zune HD & AV Dock (sold separately). Or take them with you for premium entertainment on the go. Additional dock and HDTV are required.*

Connect, update, and buy content wirelessly from Wi-Fi hot spots. Stream millions of songs over WiFi directly to your Zune HD and turn it into a portable digital jukebox.

Surf the web anytime, anywhere you have a Wi-Fi connection. Enjoy your favorite websites with a full-featured web browser including tap-to-zoom technology, built-in accelerometer, and touchscreen QWERTY keyboard.

iTunes + iTunes Music Store

Online Music Stores

Podcast

AudioBooks

Text-to-Speech

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ที่มา: สํานักงานสถิติแห่งชาติ

DAISY (Digital Accessibility Information System)

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