PL/SQL Pl/SQL woks both in the Oracle Sever(through stored procedures, stored functions, database triggers and

packages), and in the Oracle Development Environment(Oracle Forms, Oracle Reports, and Oracle Graphics) It supports SQL Data types. PL SQL bridges the gap and the need for procedural programming capabilities. Benefits of PL/SQL : Improved performance : It is used to group SQl statements together within a single block and to send the entire block to the server in a single call, thereby reducing the network traffic. Modularised program Development : Group logically related statements within blocks. Nest sub-blocks inside larger blocks to build a powerful program Break down complex problems into a set of manageable, well-defined , logical modules Place reusable PL/SQL code in libraries to be shared between Oracle applications or store it in an Oracle server to make it available to any userapplication. Portability : PL/SQL programs can run anywhere the Oracle server is installed, you do not need to tailor them to each new environment. Identifiers : It allows you to declare variables, cursors, constants, and exceptions and then use them in SQL and Procedural statements. It allows to declare variable belonging to scalar, reference, composite and LOB data types Declare variable based on the columns in the tables.

Procedural language Control Structures : Execute a sequence of statements conditionally Execute a sequence of statements iteratively in a loop Process the individual rows returned by a multi-row query with an explicit cursors. Error Handling : Process Oracle-server errors with exception handling routines Declare user-defined error conditions and process them with exception-handling routines Structure of a PL/SQL Block Declare(optional) Contains all the variables, constants, cursors and user-defined exceptions that will be used in the executable section Begin(Mandatory)-----Executable section Contains SQL statements to manipulate data in the database and PL/SQl statements to manipulate data in the data-block Exception(Optional) Contains actions to be performed when errors and abnormal conditions arise in the executable section End; set serveroutput on for dbms_output.put_line to give output in SQL

declare vname students.studname%type; vtotal students.total%type; begin select studname into vname from students where rollno=1; select total into vtotal from students where rollno=1; dbms_output.put_line('Name of Student is :'||vname); dbms_output.put_line('Total of Student is :'||vtotal); end; /

PL/SQL Block Types Anonymous Blocks: These are unnamed blocks. They are declared in an application where they need to be executed and are passed to the Server for execution at run-time. Example : Triggers in Oracle Developer consists of such blocks [Declare] Begin [Exception] End; Sub-Programs : These are named PL/SQL blocks that can accept parameters and can be invoked as and when required. They are declared as Procedures or Functions. Generally use procedures to perform an action and a function to compute and return a value. Procedure name is Begin --statements [Exception] End; Function name return datatype Is Begin --statements return value; [Exception] End;

Type type_name IS RECORD ( field declaration. vvflag Boolean :=TRUE 2) Composite Composite data types such as records. FALSE) vflag Boolean. Must contain one or more components of any scalar type. NESTED TABLE and VARRAY. Location varchar2(20) : = ‘Mumbai’. They have internal components that can be handled and manipulated individually. salary. This data is dissimilar in type but logically related. you can use the %type attribute to declare a variable according to another previously declared variable or a column of a table.). allows groups of fields to be defined and manipulated in PL/SQL blocks. RECORD. Example . PL/SQL also supports Boolean datatype Character. Example : vsalary employees.salary%type vgrade number(7. each with it’s own name and data type. Instead of hardcoding the data type and size of a variable. The %type attribute.Declaring PL/SQl variables Declare Birthdate date. …. Numeric Date and Boolean types of data types. Salary constant number : = 10000 PL/SQL variables 1) Scalar These are the data types that correspond to the data types of columns in tables. variable type_name. RECORD: A record is a group of related data items stored as fields. Boolean data types(only stores NULL. vvgrade vgrade %type:=10. TRUE . . They are of 4 types : TABLE. field declaration. Deptno number(2) NOT NULL : =10.2). hire date. Also known as Collections. you have different kinds of data about an employee like name.

The number and the data types of the underlying database column may change at run time. Type type_name is Table of column_type/variable %type/table. . which stores the INDEX BY Table elements.first_name:=’Ramesh’.%rowtype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. last_name varchar2(10)). An INDEX BY Table : Is similar to an array Must contain 2 components A Primary Key of data type Binary_Integer that indexes the INDEX BY TABLE A Column of a scalar or record data type. emp_record emp_data. Can increase dynamically because it is unconstrained. Declaring Records with %rowtype The %rowtype attribute is used to declare a record based on a collection of columns in a database table or view Example : Declare Emp_record employees%rowtype. TABLE : Objects of TABLE type are called INDEX By TABLES. This attribute is useful when retrieving a row into variables with the Select * From tablename. identifier type_name.field_name. Emp_record. They use a primary key to provide you with array-like access to rows.Type emp_data IS RECORD (first_name varchar2(10). To reference or initialize an individual field : Record_name. The number and data types of the underlying database columns need not be known.column%type/table.

Initially such a table is not populated.Returns the index number that preceeds the index n in a table Next(n). Type birthdate_table_type IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Birthdate_table birthdate_table_type. My_emp_table emp_table_type. DELETE(m. it contains no keys or no values.Type ename_table_type IS TABLE OF employees.n)-removes all elements in the range m…n from a PL SQL table. Example : Set server output on. Ename_table(1) :=’Ramesh’.removes all elements from PL/SQL table DELETE(n)-removes the nth element from the PLSQL table. . Declare Type ename_table_type IS TABLE OF employees%rowtype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Ename_table ename_table_type. LAST.returns the first and last index numbers Prior(n).first_name%type INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. An explicit executable statement is required to initialize (populate) the Index By Table.first_name%type INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Following methods are used by the INDEX BY Tables : Exists(n)-returns TRUE if the nth element exists Count-returns number of elements that a PL/SQL table currently contains FIRST.Returns the index number that succeeds the index n in a table TRIM-removes oen element from the end of the PL SQL Table TRIM(n)-removes n elements from the end of the PLSQL Table DELETE. Birthdate_table(1) :=sysdate-10. Type ename_table_type IS TABLE OF employees. Ename_table ename_table_type.

For i in my_emp_table. End loop.end if. Conditional Constructs IF Statement If-then. End if. Statement 2. If <condition(s)> then Statement 1..(Not a part of the syllabus) 4) LOBs Also called locators that specify the location of large objects(such as graphic images that are stored out of line. Else(optional) Statement 3. End loop. / 3) Reference These are the pointers to other program items. End. Statement 4. v_count Loop Select * into my_emp_table(i) from employees where employee_id=i. If-then-else-end if.first . Begin For i in 100 . If <condition(s)> then Statement 1.. .put_line(my_emp_table(i). Statement 2. my_emp_table. End if.first_name).V_count number(3):=104.last Loop Dbms_output.

end.studname%type. if vtotal>=250 then dbms_output.studname%type. "Average student" if total between 250 and <275. begin select studname into vname from students where rollno=1. end if.If-then-elsif-elsif-else-end if. Elsif <condition(s)> then Statement 3. Statement 8. select total into vtotal from students where rollno=1.put_line(Vname||' is a very good student'). vtotal students. Elsif <condition(s)> then Statement 5.total%type. vtotal students. . End if. PL/SQL Block to display "Very Good Student".put_line(Vname||' is an average student'). / PL/SQL Block to display "Very Good Student". and "poor student" if total less than 250 declare vname students. Statement 6. If <condition(s)> then Statement 1. if total of Rollno=1 is more than 275. select total into vtotal from students where rollno=1. else dbms_output. else display "Average student" declare vname students.total%type. if total of Rollno=1 is more than 275. Else(optional) Statement 7. Statement 4. Statement 2. begin select studname into vname from students where rollno=1.

Dbms_output. Set serveroutput on. CASE Expressions Case selector When expression1 then result1 When expression2 then result2 When expression3 then result3 When expressionN then resultN Else resultN+1(optional) End. end if. vappraisal varchar2(20). end. Begin Vappraisal := CASE vgrade When ‘A’ then ‘Excellent’ When ‘B’ then ‘Very Good’ When ‘C’ then ‘Good’ Else ‘No such grade’ End. elsif vtotal>=250 and vtotal<275 then dbms_output.if vtotal>=275 then dbms_output. else dbms_output.put_line(Vname||' is an average student'). / . / Nesting of Ifs allowed as per situation.put_line(Vname||' is a very good student'). Declare vgrade char(1):=upper(‘&p_grade).put_line(‘Grade ‘||vgrade||’ Appraisal ‘ || vappraisal). End.put_line(Vname||' is a poor student').

LOOPS 1) For <variable> in [reverse] lowvalue. else dbms_output.. begin for num in 1. end. end loop. b number:=0. dbms_output. / .. begin For x in 1.put_line('Number '||x||' is Even'). end loop Numbers 1 to 10 in order declare num number(2). statement2. begin for num in reverse 1..put_line('There are '||b||' odd numbers'). b:=b+1. end. / Numbers 1 to 10 in reverse order declare num number(2).put_line('Number '||x||' is Odd')..put_line('There are '||a||' even numbers').2)=0 then dbms_output.10 loop dbms_output. / Print odd and even numbers from 1 to 20 and their count declare a number:=0. dbms_output. end loop. end.highvalue loop statement1. end loop.10 loop dbms_output. a:=a+1.20 loop if mod(x.put_line('number '|| num). end if.put_line('number '|| num).

num:=num+10.20..30. end loop. begin while num<=100 loop dbms_output..100 declare num number:=10. statement2... print 5.20. print 10.put_line(num). statement2. end loop. num:=num+5. end loop.. exit when num>50. end loop..While <condition> loop statement1. exit when <condition>.put_line(num). begin loop dbms_output. / .15.. / loop statement1.10. end..50 declare num number:=5. end.

explicit cursors are declared and named by the programmer. Close Cursor_name . The row returned by the query are called the active set and are now available for fetching Open Cursor_name. Following are the steps followed for handling explicit cursors : 1)declare Here we declare the cursor by naming it and define the structure of the query to be performed within it. 3)Fetch and process Here you actually fetch the rows into variable if required and carry out all the business logic or processing. EXPLICIT For queries that return more than one row. It is now possible to reopen the cursor to re-establis a fresh active set. including queries that return only one row. variable 2. Explicit Cursors Used to process each row returned by a multiple-row Select statement. Exit When End loop. 4)close It releases the active . There are 2 types of cursors : IMPLICIT These are declaredc by PLSQL implicitly for all DML and PLSQL Select statements. Declare Cursor cursor_name is Select ……. Loop Fetch cursor_name into variable1. 2)Open This statement executes the query. and manipulated in the block’s executable section.CURSORS Cursors are names given to private SQL work areas created by the Oracle server to execute SQL statements and to store the processing information.

rollno%type. vname students. begin Open cstudent. dbms_output. "notfound" is a cursor attribute which is used to find whether the cursor currently contains a record or has reached the end of the file or recordset Explicit Cursor attributes %isopen – Evaluates to True if the cursor is open %notfound.put_line('Name :'||vname). exit when cstudent%notfound.put_line('Roll number :'||vrollno).Do not use the INTO clause in the cursor declaration. vtotal students. total of all the students declare cursor cstudent is Select Rollno.Evaluates to TRUE if the most recent fetch does not return a row %found.put_line('Total :'||vtotal). dbms_output. . loop fetch cstudent into vrollno. close cstudent.total from students. Begin Open emp_cursor.studname. end loop. exit when cstudent%notfound should be done immediately after fetch. you may use the order by clause in the declaration. vrollno students. last_name from employees. vname. to print the name. vtotal. end. Emp_record emp_cursor%rowtype. or else the last record will be displayed twice. If the row need to be processed in a particular order. / Here.studname%type. dbms_output.Evaluates to TRUE if the most recent fetch returns a row %rowcount-Evaluates to the number of rows returned so far Example to retrieve row from employees table and populate them to another table with a similar structure Declare Cursor emp_cursor is select empid.total%type.

deptno=80 then Dbms_output. Begin For emp_record IN emp_cursor --implicit open and fetch occurs Loop If emp_record. emp_record. For record_name IN Cursor_name Loop Statement1. End loop. / Cursors with Parameters You can pass parameters to the cursors. Thus you can open and close an explicit cursor several times in a block.put_line(‘Employee ‘ ||emp_record. . End if. rows are fetched once for each iteration in the loop. Commit. For each execution.empid. End.Loop Fetch emp_cursor into emp_record. name) values(emp_record. Retrieving the employees one by one and printing them if they belong to department 80. the loop exits when the last row is processed. deptno from employees. and the cursor is closed automatically.last_name) End loop. --implicit close and implicit loop exit End. Declare Cursor emp_cursor is select first_name . returning a different active set. Exit when emp_cursor%notfound.first_name). Set serveroutput on. Close emp_cursor. / Cursor For Loop It is a shortcut for processing explicit cursors. Insert into temp_emp(empno. Statement2. the previous cursor is closed and reopnened with a new set of values. because the cursor is opened. End loop. Each time you open the cursor with a different set of values.

] Also. and each of there formal parameters will have to be passed an ACTUAL parameter or value in the Open statement. but it is recommended by Oracle for better readability and maintenance. Sometimes it may happen that the rows which you want to lock are already locked by another user/transaction.. For emp_record IN emp_cursor Loop Dbms_output. You have to specify the Formal parameter data types. since the update/delete which you want to perform is based on those values. : ‘ || emp_record.put_line(‘Employee no.put_line(‘Employee no. End loop. Declare cursor emp_cursor(p_deptno number. [It is not necessary that the for update clause refers to a column . Close emp_cursor Open emp_cursor(60. Close emp_cursor End. you need to specify the FORMAL parameters. ‘Programmer’). you can lock those row retuned by the cursor through the FOR Update clause.In such a case.employee_id ||’ Employee name :’ || emp_record. Hence it is important that no other user /transaction modifies those values. when querying multiple tables with a join.employee_id ||’ Employee name :’ || emp_record. but not the size. For emp_record IN emp_cursor Loop Dbms_output.last_name).last_name). last_name from employees whre department_id=p_deptno and job_id=p_job. you can use the For update clause to ensure row locking to particular table of the join.In the cursor declaration. Only that table’s rows will be locked whose column is referred to in the For update [of column] clause. / For Update [Of column] clause Sometimes you may want to perform some update or delete based on the values that the cursor has returned to you. To prevent any other user/transaction from changing those values. Begin Open emp_cursor(80. because of the for update . : ‘ || emp_record. End loop. ‘Sales_Rep’). p_job varchar2) is select employee_id.

Begin For emp_record in sal_cursor Loop If emp_record. (Select department_id. last_name. End loop.clause your block will keep on waiting till the rows are released by the other user/transaction.department_id. count(*) as staff from employees group by department_id) t2 where t1. without the need to refer to the ROWID. employee_id. Declare Cursor sal_cursor is Select e.department_id. such that there are more than 3 employees working in each such department.. salary from employees e. department_name from employees. so that instead of waiting indefinitely. / Cursors with subqueries Declare Cursor my_cursor is Select t1.department_id=departments. department name.department_id=t2. End. End if. t2.department_id and d. departments d where d.salary<5000 then Update employees set salary=emp_record.10 WHERE CURRENT OF sal_cursor.salary*1. the control is immediately passed to your program so that it can do some other work before trying to acquire the lock. and the total number of employees working in that department.department_id=60 FOR Update of salary NOWAIT.department_id and t2.staff>=3 When this cursor is opened.department_name.staff from departments t1.department_id and employees. .department_id=e.. To avoid this type of waiting. Where current Of clause Sometimes you may want to update or delete the row being currently addressed. the active set will contain the department number. you can use the NOWAIT clause with the For update clause. But for this you need to lock the rows with the FOR UPDATE clause so that the rows are locked on open. departments where employees. t1. This is possible through the WHERE CURRENT OF clause. last_name.deprtment_id=60 FOR UPDATE OF SALARY NOWAIT. Declare Cursor emp_cursor is Select employee_id.

Exceptions are raised in 2 ways : An oracle-defined error occurs and the appropriate exception is raised automatically.. If the exception is successfully handled. the control is passed to the exception handler in the exception section. If an exception is raised and there is no corresponding exception handler. Exception types Implicitly raised : Predefined Oracle Server : 20 most common errors. You explicitly raise an exception by issuing the RAISE statement within the block. Declare them in the declaration section and raise them explicitly Declare Begin Exception When Exception1 [or exception2…. But. Statement2. The exception being raised may be user-defined or pre-defined.] then Statement1. but the PL SQl block terminates successfully. . When an exception is raised.. Do not declare them and oracle server will raise them implicitly No_data_found Too_many_rows Inavlid_cursor Zero_divide Dup_val_on_index. and oracle server will raise them implicitly Explicitly raised : User-defined : A situation which is abnormal from the user point of view. In such cases. you can specify an exception handler to perform some other actions.EXCEPTIONS An exception is an identifier in a PL SQL Block that is raised during the execution of a block that terminates it’s main body of actions. then the control is not passed back to the enclosing block or environment or point where the exception was raised. etc Non Predefined Oracle Server : Other Oracle server errors. then the PL SQL block terminates with failure and the exception is propogated to the calling environment. Declare them in the declaration section.

but to the exception handler.put_line('the roll number is not correct'). others are not trapped.. unless you use the OTHERS exception handler. each with it’s own set of actions When an exception occurs PL SQL processes only one Exception-handler before leaving the block Place the OTHERS clause after all the other exception-handlers There can be only one OTHERS clause Exceptions cannot appear anywhere else. since when the error is encountered. begin select total into vtotal from students where rollno=16. Hence. Statement6.When Exception3 [or exception4…. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output.] then Statement3. an error has occurred and the control is transferred to the exception handler. which traps any exception which is not yet handled.] End. [When others then Statement5. Statement4. . the control is not passed to the immediate next line. dbms_output. end. and the line which is after the line that caused the error is not executed.put_line('Check the roll number').total%type. / Here. since the data is not found. OTHERS is the last exception handler that is defined optionally Guidelines for Trapping Exceptions : Begin the Exception-handling section with the EXCEPTION Keyword Define the required number of exception-handlers. / The exception handling section traps only those exceptions that are specified. besides the Exception section Trapping Predefined Exceptions : declare vtotal students.

total%type. PRAGMA directs the PL SQL compiler to associate all occurrences of that Oracle error number with the given exception name within that block. exception when too_many_rows then dbms_output.declare vtotal students. BEGIN Delete from departments where department_id=&p_deptno. or by using the OTHERS handler. which always return a standard Oracle server error number. Exception When e_emps_existing then Dbms_output. begin select total into vtotal from students where total>100. / Functions for trapping Exceptions : SQLCODE-returns the numeric value for the error code SQLERRM-Returns the message associated with the error number ‘ || . / Trapping Non-Predefined Exceptions : There are certain non-predefined standard Oracle errors. you may refer to that exception by name and write a specific handler for it. -2292). but are not associated with name(exception name/error name). end. Commit.put_line(‘Cant delete department to_char(&p_deptno) ||’ It has got employees existing ‘). PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(e_emps_existing. They are raised implicitly. Define p_deptno=20 Declare e_emps_existing EXCEPTION. After doing this .put_line('More than 1 row selected'). Such errors can be trapped by declaring it first . End. The PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT utility tells the compiler to associate an exception name with an Oracle error number. Example : Oracle returns error number –2292 when you try to delete a parent record which has got some child records.

end. begin select english into venglish from students where rollno=2. v_error_message). if venglish<35 then raise low_mark.english%type.put_line('Failed in English'). venglish students. insert into errors values(v_error_code. v_error_message varchar2(200). exception when low_mark then dbms_output. End. / . v_error_message :=SQLERRM. / Trapping User-Defined Exceptions : Declare the exception in the declarative section Raise the exception in the executable section Handle the exception in the Exception-handling section declare low_mark exception.SQLCODE value 0 1 +100 negative number Description No Exception encountered User-defined exception No_data_found exception Some standard Oracle server error number Example : to store all the error-numbers and error-messages in an ERRORS table Declare v_error_code number. end if. Begin Exception When OTHERS then Rollback. v_error_code:=SQLCODE.

/ Here no_data_found cannot be used . End if. Exception When e_invalid_department then Dbms_output. Exception When e_integrity then……. End loop. Sub-blocks can handle an exception or pass the exception to the enclosing block Declare … … e_no_rows exception. e_integrity exception. If SQL%NOTFOUND then Raise e_no_rows. Define p_department_desc =’Planning n esearch’ Define p_department_number=20 Declare e_invalid_department EXCEPTION. Commit. Update……. End if. End. Begin For erec in emp_cursor loop Begin Select ……. since it is an update statement and not a select statement. / . Begin Update departments set department_name=’&p_department_desc’ where department_id=&p_department_number. End.put_line(‘No such department number’).. -2292). pragma exception_init(e_integrity. When e_no_rows then……. End. If SQL%NOTFOUND then Raise e_invalid_department.if marks in english are less than 35 then the exception is raised and the message is displayed.

It also handles the unhandled exceptions. error message) Error_number : Error message: must be a user. Raise_application_error can be used in either(or both) the executable section and the exception section.Raise_Application_Error Procedure : This procedure is used to communicate a predefined exception/error with a nonstandard error number and a user-friendly error message from stored subprograms. nonpredefined or userdefined error . The error number and message are displayed to the user just like a predefined. Raise_application_error(error_number.specified number for exceptions between -20000 to -20999 user-specified message upto 2048 bytes long.

…] -. Actual parameters are the variables or expressions passed while calling the procedure Execute hikesal(v_empid. executable section and an optional exception-handling section. Formal versus Actual Parameters : Formal parameters are the variables declared in the parameter list of the procedure declaration Create or Replace procedure hikesal(p_empid number. Must be passed as a variable. 2000). The actual parameter can be a constant. It’s value cannot be changed in the procedure body. .. and then returned to the calling environment. But it can take a default value. parameter2 [mode] datatype.. Cannot be assigned a default value.executable and an optional exception section The pl sql block starts with either a BEGIN or the declaration of local variables and ends with END or End procedure_name. It has a Header section. expression. Create or Replace Procedure procedure_name [parameter1 [mode] datatype.header Is/AS --this section after is/as and before the begin is the declarative section PL SQl block --. End hikesal. Cannot be assigned a default value. or an initialised variable. OUT: Returned to the calling environment. The Formal parameter acts as a constant and only takes the values passed by the calling environment. It is a named PL SQL block that can accept parameters(called arguments). In OUT: Passed to the procedure. Parameter Modes : IN(default) : Value passed to the procedure from the calling environment. p_empsal number) …. It can stored in the database as a schema object.Procedures A procedure is a type of sub-program that performs an action. Must be passed as a variable. declaration section.

year IN number) is begin if year>=60 then vsal:=vsal*1. sal into vename. vs).sal%type.empno). / main plsql block declare cursor c2 is select empno. vsal from emp where empno=veno. vename OUT varchar2. end. years number. end if. end loop. dbms_output. sal. end.05.ename%type. . ve emp. / main block declare cursor c1 is select empno from emp where deptno=10. hiredate from emp.sal%type. end. / to show increase in salary by 10 percent for all employees and an additional 5 percent for those who have completed more than 5 years of service create or replace procedure retemp(veno IN number. vsal OUT number) is begin select ename. vdate1 emp.put_line('Employee number is '||erec. dbms_output.put_line('Employee name is '||ve).Stored Procedure to display employee numbers and their salaries for department 10 create or replace procedure retemp(veno IN number. vs emp. ve. begin for erec in c1 loop retemp(erec.put_line('Employee salary is '||vs). vsal1 emp. vsal IN OUT number.empno.hiredate%type. dbms_output.

Number execute query_emp(100. years). :g_comm. End emp_query.empno). p_comm from employees where employee_id=p_id. retemp(rec. select months_between(sysdate. dbms_output.empno.vsal1.1. end loop. / Viewing OUT Parameters : Create or replace procedure query_emp (p_id In employees. :g_sal.sal).sal*1.put_line('Employee number '||rec.employee_id%type. dbms_output. salary.) print g_name print g_sal print The colon(:) is required to reference the host variable s in the execute command.empno. / at the calling environment : variable g_name varchar2(25) variable g_sal number variable g_comm. end. p_salary. OUT employees. commission_pct into p_name.first_name%type. vsal1:=rec.hiredate) INTO YEARS from emp where empno=rec. p_comm. p_salary OUT employees.begin for rec in c2 loop dbms_output.commission_pct%type) is BEGIN Select first_name.put_line('Employee salary '||vsal1). :g_name. Methods of passing Actual Parameters : Positional : Here the actual parameters are passed in the order in which the Formal parameters are given with the procedure definition .put_line('Employee salary '||vsal1).salary%type. p_name OUT employees. dbms_output.put_line('Employee salary '||rec.

----positional add_dept(p_loc=>300. p_name=>’Medical’). or else there will be an error.Named Association : Here the actual parameters are passed in ant arbitary order by associating it with the corresponding formal parameter using the => symbol. department_name. it must me the last item declared.one default End.both default add_dept(‘Welfare’. / Default values may be assigned only to In parameters . 500) -. Because they are defined in the declaration section of another program/PL SQL Block/procedure. Combination : Here the first actual parameter is passed positionally and the remaining are passed using the => symbol as in named association method. P_loc IN departments.will give an error as “a positional parameter may not follow a named parameter” Declaring Local Sub-procedures : The local procedures are not stored as Schema objects.location_id%type DEFAULT 100) IS Begin Insert into departments(department_id. p_name.put_line('P1 is called'). their scope is limited to the parent(enclosing) block in which they are defined. location_id) values(departments_seq. --. -.---Named association add_dept(p_loc=>400). Any variable declared after the local subprogram will cause a compilation error. Default Option for parameters Create or Replace procedure add_dept(p_name IN departments. . p_loc). end. and not to OUT or IN OUT Parameters. When you are declaring a sub-program in the declaration section of the main program. Executing/Calling the above procedure : Begin add_dept. declare procedure p1 is begin dbms_output.department_name%type DEFAULT ‘unknown’.nextval. Example : Execute add_dept(p_name=>’Legal’. / In Combinational method all the positional parameters must be before the named parameters. End add_dept.200).

put_line('p2 called'). SYSDATE). begin p1. / . p2. is never executed. dbms_output. log_exec. p1. log)date) values(USER. end.put_line('p1 called').. / declare procedure p1. p2. end.employee_id%type) IS Procedure log_emp IS Begin Insert into log_table(user_id.begin p1.. end. End del_emp. end.put_line('In the main block'). is not types as line 1) The result is an infinite loop. / it will show error : p1 must be declared(if procedure p1.put_line('In the main block'). Begin Delete from employees where employee_id=p_id. procedure p1 is begin dbms_output. and dbms. Procedure to delete an employees record and to log the entry of the user who deleted the record Create or Replace procedure del_emp(p_id IN employees. dbms_output.. procedure p2 is begin dbms_output. End log_emp.

End loop. Select department_id into v_did from employees where employee_id=999. End. then the block terminates.Invoking a stored procedure from an anonymous block : Declare V_id number:=145. Consider the following tables LOCATIONS Location_ID City 1 Mumbai DEPARTMENTS Department_ID 5 Department_name Welfare Manager_ID 200 Location_ID 1 Create procedure Ins_dept(p_locid number) IS v_did number(4). Any DML statements issued before the exception was raised remain as part of the transaction. End emp_proc. the control goes immediately to it’s exception section. If the exception is handled.put_line(‘Procedure INS_dept started’). Commit. Insert into departments values(5. / Handled Exceptions : When an exception is raised in a called procedure. p_locid). Begin For erec in emp_cursor Loop Raise_salary(erec. / . and the control goes to the calling program/environment.employee_id). …… End. Commit. Begin Dbms_output. / Invoking a stored procedure from another Stored procedure : Create or replace procedure emp_proc IS Cursor emp_cursor is select employee_id from employees. 200. Begin Raise_salary(v_id). ‘Mumbai’.

ALL DML statements in the calling and called procedure are rolled back along with any changes to any host variables. the calling procedure terminates and the exception propagates to the calling environment. p_city). Dbms_output. Dbms_output. Manager ID=200 at the new location inserted through INS_loc. p_city varchar2) IS v_city varchar2(30). city) values(p_lid. then it raises no_data_found. Ins_dept(p_lid). Thus. Insert into locations(location_id. So.Create procedure Ins_loc(p_lid number. if the exception section from the ins_loc is removed. department/location for any . all DML statements in the calling and called procedure remain as part of the transaction. then the DMLs in both the procedures are rolled back if no employee with employee_id=999 is found. End.put_line(‘Inserted City ’|| v_city). and becomes a part of the transaction of procedure ins_loc procedure Execute ins_loc(1. ‘Mumbai’) If the exception is handled in the calling procedure.put_line(‘MAIN Procedure INS_LOC started’). Exception When no_data_found then Dbms_output.put_line(‘Invoking Procedure INS_dept’). If in the above 2 procedures. Suppose there is no such employee. the control is passed to the calling procedure ins_loc where the exception no_data_found is handled. Begin Dbms_output. / The procedure INS_loc inserts a new location into the locations table. Select city into v_city from locations where location_id=p_lid.put_line(‘No such employee’). the DML in ins_dept is not rolled back. The procedure ins_dept is supoosed to insert a new department with department id=5. v_dname varchar2(30). Procedure ins_dept selects the department id for an employee whose employee id=999. which is not handled in procedure ins_dept. department name=Welfare. If the exception is not handled by the calling procedure.

/ The type of parameter mode should be only of type IN.executable and an optional exception section End function_name.put_line('Inside the function'). end. x:=f1. Local functions : Not stored in database Defined and called within the same program Functions do not have declare. end.put_line('Inside the Main'). In addition. function f1 return number is begin dbms_output.put_line('value of x is'||x). dbms_output. A function must return a value to the calling environment. executable part and an optional exception section. a function must have a RETURN clause in the header and at least one RETURN statement in the executable section. …] -. Like a procedure. / Global or stored function : Stored in the database Defined and saved separately. declarative section. parameter2 [mode] datatype. return 10. Function is called as part of a SQL expression or as a part of a PL SQL expression. can be called thru another pl/sql block . a function has a header.Functions Function is a named PL SQL block that can accept parameters and be invoked.header RETURN datatype Is/AS --this section after is/as and before the begin is the declarative section PL SQl block --. Create or Replace Function function_name [parameter1 [mode] datatype. begin dbms_output. whereas a procedure returns zero or more values. If it is necessary to declare a variable it should be done in the declare part of the enclosing program declare x number.

to execute >@f1.put_line('salary is not found'). RETURN v_salary. as follows : variable gsalary number execute :gsalary :=getsal(130) print gsalary try the following on emp in scott : ed f1. . which is a good programming practice. Begin Select salary into v_salary from employees where employee_id=p_id.employee_id%type) RETURN number Is v_salary employee. End getsal. / at the sql prompt :>show_error.Create or Replace Function getsal(p_id IN employees.salary%type :=0. end. return false. dbms_output.put_line('salary is '|| vsal). to show the errors in the function coding. / Executing functions : Declare a variable to hold the return value. create or replace function chkemp(veno number) return boolean is vsal emp. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output.sal%type. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno=veno. return true.

main block declare y number :=&eno. if flag=True then dbms_output. end. commit. / . incsal number. incr).empno). / stored function to update the salaries of employees getting less than 3000 with increment of certain % percent create or replace function upsal(veno number.put_line('Increased salary is '||incsal||' for employee '|| erec. end loop. begin for erec in c1 loop incsal:=upsal(erec. begin flag:=chkemp(y). end. else dbms_output. / select text from user_source where type ='FUNCTION' and name='UPSAL' order by line main pl/sql block declare cursor c1 is select empno. return vsal. select sal into vsal from emp where empno=veno. dbms_output. sal from emp where sal<3000.empno. begin update emp set sal=sal+(sal*inc/100) where empno=veno.put_line('Employee Not Existing'). inc number) return number is vsal number.put_line('Employee Existing'). end if. end. flag boolean. incr number :=&incr.

tax(salary) from employees where tax(salary) >(select max(tax(salary)) from employees where departmentid=30) order by tax(salary) desc Restrictions on calling function : The function must be a Stored Function It must accept only IN parameters Accept the parameters whose data type must be standard SQL data type and NOT a PL SQL data type . There can be a RETURN statement in the exception section also. OUT and IN OUT are available with functions. awkward or unavailable with SQL Increase data independence by processing complex data at the Oracle server level(since the stored functions are stored at the server). since the purpose of a function is to accept 0 or more parameters and return a single value. Increase efficiency of queries by performing functions in the query rather than in the application Create or Replace Function tax(p_value IN NUMBER) Return NUMBER IS Begin Return(p_value * 0.08). rather than retrieving data into an application. tax(salary) from employees. Having a function returning multiple values is a poor programming practice. start with. Locations from where you may call a User-defined function : Select list of a SELECT command Condition of the WHERE and HAVING clause Connect by . do not use OUT and IN OUT with functions. order by and group by clauses Values clause of the insert command SET clause of the update command Select empno. / INVOKING a function from a SQL Expression Suppose you have a table employees with salary column then you may use the above function as follows to calculate their tax Select empno. and it involves a lot of complications and side effects. End Tax. Advantages of Functions : To perform calculations that are complex.Although 3 parameter modes IN. salary.

Return(p_sal +100). or DDL commands Functions called from a SQL Expression(as shown above) cannot contain a DML Statement. the function cannot contain commands that end the transaction. If a Function internally calls sub subprogram(that is another function or procedure) then that sub program even muts not violate any of the above mentioned restrictions. The update statement returns an error saying that the table is mutating Aslo Create or replace function xyz( a number) retutn number is s number. salary) valurs(1001. SET ROLE(session control statement). such a COMMIT(transaction control statement). End. Examples Create or Replace function abc(p_sal number) Return number is Begin Insert into employees(employee_id. such a table is called MUTATING table . We are calling the function thru the update command on the same table employees. / The function fails with the folliwng : Update employees set salary=abc(2000) where emplyee_id=90. Return (s+a). Here also the mutating table error is returned When the code in a function is querying or reading the data in a table which is being updated.The return data types must be a standard SQL data type and NOT a PL SQL data type Restrictions from where a stored function can be called : Functions called from an Update/Delete statements on a Table XYZ cannot contain a DML statement on the table XYZ Functions called from an Update/Delete statements on a Table XYZ cannot query the table XYZ When called from an INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE/SELECT statement. sysdate-10.’Pereira’. appoint_date. End. 10000). The function contains a DML statement on table employees. last_name. ALTER SYSTEM(system control statement). / Update employees set salary=xyz(100) where employee_id=95. Begin Select salary into s from employees where employee_id=95.

which is returned to the calling environment .To drop a function : Drop function function_name. Procedure V/s. Function Executes as a PL SQL Block Invoked as part of an expressionm Exec Proc_name Does not contain a RETURN clause in Must contain a RETURN clause in the the Header Header May or may not return values Must return a single value Used to perform a series of actions Used to compute some value.

DIRECT ACCESS From Hemant schema grant object –level privilge on the table employees to user Manoj Manoj has created the procedure manoj_proc that queries the Employees table in the schema Hemant INDIRECT ACCESS Manoj grants execute privilge to Saloni on his procedure manoj_proc This Saloni can access By default subprograms execute under security domain of the owner. alter. Grant Alter any PROCEDURE to user_name. but only through a procedure manoj__proc which is created by the user MANOJ. Alter.Managing Subprograms : System privileges are required to Create. Suppose we need to ensure that SALONI can access the table EMPLOYEES in the schema HEMANT. not through a role If you are not the owner of a subprogram. System privileges are granted by the user SYSTEM or SYS Grant Create (any) PROCEDURE to user_name. Grant Execute any PROCEDURE to user_name. then you must be granted access to those objects explicitly. then you must have EXECUTE privilege on that subprogram. Providing INDIRECT ACCESS to Data Suppose EMPLOYEES table in Scheme(user) HEMANT. The keyword PROCEDURE is used to assign such rights on Stored Procedures. or excute your own subprograms and those in another schema. Drop or Execute subprograms. There is another user MANOJ and a third USER SALONI. drop. . which is called DEFINER’s-RIGHTS. Grant Drop any PROCEDURE to user_name. The keyword ANY means that you ca create. Functions and Packages. If a PL SQL subprogram refers to any objects that are not in the same schema. The keyword ANY is optional for CREATE.

FUNCTION. ALL_SOURCE and DBA_SOURCE contain the additional column Owner Select text from user_source where name=’PROCEDURE_name’ order by line.User_Objects To obtain names of all PL/SQL stored objects within a schema. query the user_objects USER_OBJECTS Object_name Object_Id Object_type CreateLast_DDL_Time Timestamp Status -Name of Object -Internal identifier for the object -Whether TABLE. both of which contain an additional OWNER column. Package Body LINE -Line number of the source code where error occurred Position -Position in the line where the error occurred Text -Text of the error message SHOW ERRORS [Function/Procedure/Package/Package body/Trigger/View This will show use the errors that occurred while trying to compile the articular program unit. USER_ERRORS Name -Name of the object Type -Type of object : Procedure. Function. Package. Function. USER_SOURCE Name -Name of the object Type -Type of object : Procedure. PACKAGE BODY. SHOW ERRORS without any [parameter will show the compilation errors The following query will also show you an output which is similar to that of show errors . Package. TRIGGER -Date of object creation -Date when object was last modified -Date and time when object was last recompiled -VALID or INVALID You can also examine the ALL_OBJECTS and DBA_OBJECTS. PACKAGE. PROCEDURE. Package Body LINE -Line number of the source code TEXT -Text of the source code line This table contains one record for each line of code.

. text from user_errors where name=’proc_name’ order by line.Select line || ‘/’||position.

TRIGGERS Definition : Trigger is basically a PL/SQL block or PL/SQL procedure associated with a Table/View/Schema/Database and which executes implicitly whenever a particular event takes place Types of Triggers : Application Triggers which execute implicitly when a particular DML event occurs within an application such as Oracle Forms Developer Database Triggers which could be 1) Data Event or 2) System Event Data Event trigger fires implicitly whenever a DML operation occurs on table or a DDL event such as CREATE/ALTER are issued. It could also be an INSTEAD OF Trigger on a View. They are fired irrespective of the user connected and irrespective of the application used. System Event Triggers are fired when a system event occurs such as user logs on, user shutsdown, etc Guidelines for Designing Triggers Dos Design Triggers to guarantee that when a specific operation is performed, related actions are performed. Use Triggers only for Centralised, Global Operations that occur for the triggering event, regardless of the user or application that issues the triggering statement. Donts Do not use triggers when the functionality is already built into Oracle Server. Do not use triggers to implement integrity constraints. Use the built-in constraints Excessive use of triggers can result into complex interdependencies. If the logic is very lengthy, write a stored procedure for the same and invoke the stored procedure in the trigger body If multiple triggers of the same type are defined for a table, their order of execution is arbitary. To ensure that multiple triggers of the same type are executed in a particular order, write stored procedures for the different actions and have a single consolidated trigger in which you call those stored procedures in the required order. The Trigger Statement contains : Trigger Timing :BEFORE, AFTER for tables Triggering Event :INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE Table name :On table or view Trigger Type :Statement level or Row level Trigger Body :PL SQL block INSTEAD OF for views

BEFORE :Execute the trigger body before the triggering DML event on the table To determine whether the triggering statement should be allowed to complete To calculate some values before completing the triggering Insert or Update statement To validate or set some complex business logic To initialize some global variables or flags BEFORE :Execute the trigger body before the triggering DML event on the table To complete the triggering statement before executing the trigger body INSTEAD OF This type of trigger is used to modify data through a view that was otherwise not modifiable because of the inherently non-modifiable nature of the view. Such trigger works in the background by performing the action directly on the underlying base tables involved in the view. You may write INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statements on a view. The Triggering Event can be INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statement on a table. In case of UPDATE statement, you can specify the column, which if changed, causes the trigger to fire. The triggering event can contain one or two or all the three DML operations. The trigger type can be Statement Trigger or Row Trigger. A Statement Trigger is fired once for the triggering event. It may affect zero or more rows, but is fired only once. They are used when the trigger-action to be performed is independent of the data affected by the triggering event. A Row Trigger is fired once for each affected row. If no rows are effected, then the trigger is not fired. They are used when the trigger-action depends on the data or rows affected by the triggering event. The Trigger body defines the action that needs to be performed when the triggering action is issued. It is a PL SQL block containing SQL and PL SQL statements defining PL SQL types, item, variables, constants, cursors, exceptions, etc. You can call other PL SQL procedures or Java Procedures. Trigger size cannot be more than 32K. The Firing Sequence is as follows : BEFORE Statement Trigger -------- once BEFORE Row Trigger AFTER Row Trigger AFTER Statement Trigger -------- once for each affected row -------- once for each affected row --------- once

Syntax for Statement Level Trigger Create or Replace Trigger Trigger_name Timing Event1 or Event2 or Event3 On table_view_name Trigger_body The trigger name must be unique with respect to other triggers in the same schema. Trigger name need not be unique with respect to other schema objects like table, view, or procedure. A trigger to prevent insertion of records into the dept table on Saturdays or Sundays or on non-working hours on other days create or replace trigger check_deptno before insert on dept begin if (to_char(sysdate,'DY') in ('SAT','SUN')) or (to_char(sysdate,'HH24:MI') not between '09:00' and '17:00' ) then raise_application_error(-20500,'Insert Not allowed'); end if; end; / Raise_application_error is a server-side built-in procedure that returns an error to the user and causes the PL SQL block to fail. When the database trigger fails, the triggering statement is automatically rolledback by Oracle Server. Table : DEPT DEPTNO varchar2 DEPTNAME vrachar2 A trigger to prevent insert or update or delete operations on table dept create or replace trigger check_deptno before insert or update or delete on dept begin if deleting then raise_application_error(-20500,'Delete Not allowed'); elsif Inserting then raise_application_error(-20501,'Insert Not allowed'); elsif Updating('deptno') then raise_application_error(-20502,'Updating of deptno Not allowed'); else raise_application_error(-20503,'Updating of Table Not allowed'); end if; end; /

No colon(:) required if the Qualifiers are used in the WHEN clause. The WHEN clause is optional. You need to use the colon(:) as a prefix in every SQL and PL SQL statement. UPDATING(‘column’) can be used in a single trigger for combining several triggering events into one single trigger Syntax for Row Level Trigger Create or Replace Trigger Trigger_name Timing Event1 or Event2 or Event3 On table_view_name For Each Row [When (condition)] Trigger_body create or replace trigger check_dept before insert on dept for each row when(new. we can use the OLD and NEW Qualifiers to reference the value of a column before and after the data change by prefixing the column name with the OLD and NEW Qualifiers. If the condition is satisfied then only we enter into the trigger body. Thus. / with the WHEN clause you can specify a condition in the brackets. the WHEN clause is to restrict the Trigger action to those rows that satisfy a certain condition With ROW Level trigger only. DELETING. Old_deptno varchar2(15).'Hello'). end. Operation For INSERT For UPDATE For DELETE Old Value NULL Value before update Value before update New Value Newly Inserted value Value after update NULL Table : AUDT_DEPT create table audt_dept ( User_name varchar2(15). New_deptname varchar2(15) ) .deptno>50) begin raise_application_error(-20555. New_dept varchar2(15). The condition is evaluated for each row to determine whether or not the trigger body is executed. Old_deptname varchar2(15). Time timestamp. UPDATING.Special Conditional Predicates INSERTING.

The WITH CHECK option for views is not enforced when insertion/updation are performed by using the INSTEAD OF Trigger. sysdate. :new.create or replace trigger audt_dept after insert or update or delete on dept for each row begin insert into audt_dept values(user. Such triggers are Row Level Triggers. BEFORE and AFTER options are not valid.deptname. INSTEAD OF Triggers is still defined as a Row Trigger. :old. Consider the following tables : Table Empid Empname Salary Deptno Table Deptno Deptname Totalsal : Employee : Dept_stat . end. group by clause.deptno. :old. Unlike other triggers. The INSTEAD OF trigger must enforce the check. Create or Replace Trigger Trigger_name INSTEAD OF Event 1 or event2 or event3 On View_name For each row Trigger_body Even if FOR EACH ROW is omitted.deptname). :new. INSTEAD OF Trigger It is used to modify the data where a DML statement has been issued against an inherently non-updatable view(that is views which are non-updatable because the underlying query may contain set operator. connect by. this trigger is fired by Oracle sever instead of executing the triggering statement. distinct operator or a join of 2 or more tables.deptno. start. group function.

:new. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal+:new.empid. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal :old. :new.deptno. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal-:old.salary where empid=:old.deptname from employee e.deptno. e. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal +(:new.empid. e.salary .empid. where Elsif UPDATING(‘SALARY’) then Update employee set salary=:new.Following trigger updates the total salary in Dept_stat table whenever rows are inserted/update/deleted from the Employee table.salary where deptno=:old.salary where deptno=:old. d. e.deptno.deptno. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal + :new.salary.deptno. Create view empl_view as Select e.empname.salary deptno=:old.deptno.:old.empname.salary where deptno=:new. Elsif DELETING Then Delete from employee where empid=:old.deptno).deptno=d.salary where deptno=:new. End if. End.empid. :new.empid.salary.deptno where empid=:old.deptno. Create or Replace Trigger New_emp_check INSTEAD OF INSERT OR DELETE OR UPDATE FOR EACH ROW Begin If INSERTING THEN Insert into employee values(:new. Elsif Updating(‘Deptno’) then Update employee set deptno=:new. / To Enable/Disable a Trigger Alter Trigger Trigger_name DISABLE/ENABLE To Enable/Disable all Triggers on a table Alter Table Table_name DISABLE/ENABLE ALL TRIGGERS To Recomplie a Trigger Alter Trigger Trigger_name COMPILE . dept_stat d where e.

Role. Trigger. On Database/Schema Trigger_body Timing : BEFORE or AFTER DDL_Event : CREATE OR ALTER OR DROP. SYSTEM LEVEL TRIGGERS Triggers on system events can be defined at the Database Level or Schema Level. Trigger_body : It is a complete PL SQL Block. Package. View or a User Triggers on System Events : Create OR Replace Trigger Trigger_name Timing Database_Event1 Or Database_Event2 or…. Events that can cause a System Level Trigger to fire are : A DDL statement on a object in the database or schema (the trigger can be Database Level or Schema Level) Specific User or any other User logs on or off (the trigger can be Database Level or Schema Level) Database Shutdown or Startup (the trigger can be Database Level only Triggers on DDL Statements : Create OR Replace Trigger Trigger_name Timing DDL_Event1 Or DDL_Event2 or…. Function. On Database/Schema Trigger_body . regardless of whether it is valid or invalid. Type . To Drop a Trigger Drop Trigger Trigger_name. On Database/Schema : You can create triggers on DDL Statements at the DATABASE or SCHEMA Level. Table. All the triggers on a table are dropped when the table is dropped. Tablespace. The DDL Triggers fire when the Object is a Cluster. Sequence. Triggers A Database Level Trigger fires for all users. Index. Procedure. Causes the Oracle Server to fire the trigger whenever a Create/Alter/Drop Statement modifies a Database Object in the Data Dictionary. A Schema or Table Level Trigger fires only when that schema or table is involved. Synonym.This command is used to explicitly recompile a trigger.

The procedures so called can be implemented in PL SQL. ‘Logged On’). job_id ON Employees For Each Row When(new. :new. The CALL statement enables you to call a stored procedure. action) values(USER. SYSDATE. but SHUTDOWN and STARTUP apply only to the Database Level.salary) MUTATING TABLE When the code in a trigger is querying or reading the data in a table which is being updated. / CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER logoff_trig AFTER LOGOFF ON SCHEMA BEGIN Insert into log_trig_table(userid.job_id. action) values(USER. such a table is called MUTATING table. which are applicable to only row level triggers or a statement level trigger that is fired because of the referential integrity constraint ON DELETE CASCADE.job_id<>’YYZ’) CALL check_sal(:new. Reading and Writing data using triggers follows certain rules. END. ‘Logged Off’). END. Java. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER logon_trig AFTER LOGON ON SCHEMA BEGIN Insert into log_trig_table(userid. SYSDATE. Create or Replace Trigger salary_check Before Update of Salary .Database_Events : AFTER SERVERERROR : Whenever a Server Error Message is logged. AFTER LOGON : Whenever a User Logs on to the Database BEFORE LOGOFF : Whenever a User Logs off the Database AFTER STARTUP : Whenever a Database is opened BEFORE SHUTDOWN: Whenever a Database is shut down These triggers can be created at the DATABASE or SCHEMA LEVEL. date. INSERT OR DELETE statement and a ROW . / CALL Statement : It is recommended to create stored procedures and call them in the Trigger body rather than coding the PL SQL body in the trigger itself. date. A mutating table is the one that is currently being modified by an UPDATE. There is no semicolon at the end of the CALL Statement. C.

table on which table was created. trigger_type. subobject_name. V_maxsal employees. trigger_body from user_triggers table_name. (A table is not mutating for STATEMENT level triggers. status. max(salary) into v_minsal. v_maxsal from employees where job_id=:new. and any other table referencing it with the FOREIGN KEY constraint is also mutating.salary>v_maxsal then Raise_application_error(-20505. trigger body. triggering_event. Create or Replace Trigger Check_Sal Before INSERT Or UPDATE OF salary.salary<v_minsal or :New. select trigger_name. / Viewing Trigger Information User_objects : Contains name and status of the trigger and the date and time when the trigger was created. created from user_objects where object_type='TRIGGER' User_Triggers : Contains name. select object_name.job_id <>’PROG’) Declare V_minsal employees. referencing_names.) A triggered table itself is mutating.’Salary Out Of Range’).job_id IF :New.salary%type. triggering event.level trigger on any such event is trying to read/write data into the same table.salary%type. type. Consider a trigger which checks that the salary for a new employee or an existing employee is always between the minimum and maximum salaries for that job code. END IF: END. BEGIN Select Min(salary). status. job_id On Employees When (new. User_errors : Contains details of the compilation errors that occurred while the trigger was compiling .

Private or Local : Declared and Defined within the package body. the entire package gets loaded into memory. cursors. exceptions. exceptions or types.PACKAGES It is used to group together related PL SQL Types. This allows to change the definition of a program construct in the package body without causing the Oracle server to invalidate the other schema objects that call or reference the program construct. Can be referenced and changed(in case of variables) outside the package and are visible to the external users. A Package. which are stored separately in the database. Variables declared in the package specification are initialized to NULL by default. types. Types of Package Constructs : Public or Global : Declared within the package specification and may be defined in the package body. called or nested. When you call a packaged construct for the first time. has two parts : Package Specification and Package Body. Subprogram specification : Declares the PL SQL subprograms. In the Specification we declare the variables. The Replace option drops and recreates the package specification. The public procedures or functions can be invoked repeatedly by other constructs in the same package or from outside the package. Public type and item declarations : Declares variables. generally. items. cursors and sub programs available for use Package Body fully defines the cursors and subprograms. . constants. constants. Further calls to other constructs of the same package do not need any disk I/O. Creating the Package Specification Create or Replace Package package_name Is/as Public type and item declarations Subprogram specifications End package_name. The package cannot be itself parameterized. Package Specification is the INTERFACE to your application. Can only be referenced by other constructs which are part of the same package. and thus implements the specification. subprograms(procedures and functions) into one single container.

constants. End validate_comm. then the package body is not necessary. constants. exceptions. END comm_package. End if. / Create or Replace Package Body comm_package Is Function validate_comm(p_comm IN Number) Return Boolean Is v_max_comm Number. and they have their underlying implementation(or bodies) in the package body. . Subprogram Bodies : Defines the PL SQL subprograms. Else return(TRUE). if a package specification does not declare subprograms and cursors and declares only types. The Replace option drops and recreates the package body. Begin Select max(commission_pct) into v_max_comm from employees. Private type and item declarations : Declares variables. exceptions or types. and this procedure should display the appropriate messages and reset and validate the prevailing commission. All private constructs must be declared before they are used in the public constructs. variables. Thus. Create or Replace Package comm_package Is g_comm Number :=0. If p_comm>v_max_comm then return(FALSE).10. Write a package that contains a function that validates the commission so that the commission may not be greater than the highest commission amongst all the employees.declared and initialized procedure reset_comm(p_comm IN Number). Subprograms and Cursors are declared(without their respective bodies) in the package specification. But the package body can still be used to initialize items declared in the package specification. The function should be called through a procedure in the same package. public and private. -. cursors.Creating the Package Body Create or Replace Package Body package_name Is/As Private type and item declarations Subprogram Bodies(Private and Public) End package_name.

To invoke a package procedure or function from outside the package.reset_comm(0. kilo_2_mile constant number :=0.reset_comm@ny(0. End if. end global_consts. you need to qualify it’s name with the name of the package Comm_package.’Invalid Commission’).reset_comm(0.comm_package.15) To invoke a procedure from a package through a remote database Execute comm_package.put_line(’20 miles = ‘ ||20*global_consts.15) Declaring Bodiless Package Create Or Replace Package global_consts IS mile_2_kilo constant number :=1. End comm_package.25) To invoke a procedure from a package through iSQL *Plus Execute comm_package. / When you invoke a package or function from within the same package. / Execute dbms_output.reset_comm(0. hence it can be referenced by only other procedures/functions of the same package.6093. yard_2_meter constant number :=0. The above function is a private function(declared and defined within the package body). End reset_comm. Else Raise_application_error(-20210.6214.mile_2_kilo|| ‘ kms. you need not qualify it’s name with the package name. This package specification declares public(global) variables that exist for the duration of the user session.15) To invoke a procedure from a package through a different schema Execute scott.9144. . meter_2_yard constant number :=1.936.’).Procedure reset_comm(p_comm IN NUMBER) Is Begin If validate_comm(p_comm) then g_comm:=p_comm.

End meter_to_yard.Referencing a Public variable from a stand-alone procedure Create or Replace procedure meter_to_yard(p_meter IN number. since multiple subprograms of the same name are allowed Better Performance : Entire package loaded into memory when a package is first referenced Only one copy of the package in memory for all the users Dependency hierarchy is simplified Overloading support in Packages Packaged subprograms(procedures or functions) Overloading not possible for stand-alone subprograms. . can be overloaded. Overloading is a feature which enables you to have different packaged subprograms with the same name. order or data-type of the formal parameters of the subprograms. Added Functionality since it allows persistency of variables and cursors Overloading allowed.meter_2_yard. Advantages : Modularity since it encapsulates related constructs Easier Application Design. since specification and body are coded and compiled separately.:yard) > print yard To Drop the package Specification : Drop Package package_name. To Drop the package body : Drop Package body package_name. / at the sql prompt >variable yard number >execute meter_to_yard(1. but differing in the number. p_yard Out number) Is Begin p_yard:=p_meter * global_consts. Hiding Information : Only package declarations made in the specification are visible and accessible to applications Private package constructs are hidden and inaccessible All the coding is hidden in the package body.

p_empname. Procedure add_employee(p_empname IN employees. It then starts matching the number. empname. it starts searching in the enclosing scopes. empname.empname%type default ‘unknown’.empage%type default 21) Is Begin Insert into employees(empno. End add_employee.empage%type default 21). END overload. and if it does not find one in the current scope. but the different subtypes belong to the same family.nextval.empage%type default 21) Is Begin Insert into employees(empno. order and datatypes of the actual parameters passed with the called subprogram with formal parameters of the one or more subprograms searched in a scope. p_empname IN employees. p_age IN employees. Example : NUMBER and DECIMAL datatypes belong to the same family Subprograms which differ only in the subtypes of their parameters. Procedure add_employee(p_empname IN employees. Create or replace package body overload Is Procedure add_employee(p_empno IN employees.empage%type default 21). p_empname. the compiler stops the search. p_age IN employees. p_empage). Resolving a Subprogram call When a call is made to a subprogram. but the different datatypes belong to the same family. p_age IN employees. p_age IN employees. p_empname IN employees. Example : VARCHAR and STRING are PL/SQL subtypes of VARCHAR2.empname%type default ‘unknown’. the compiler starts searching for a subprogram with that name in the current scope.empname%type default ‘unknown’.RESTRICTIONS 1) 2) 3) Standalone subprograms cannot be overloaded Subprograms which differ only in the datatypes of their parameters. empage) values(empnoseq.empno%type. As soon as the compiler finds one or more subprograms with the required name. . empage) values(p_empno.empno%type. Create or replace package overload Is Procedure add_employee(p_empno IN employees.empname%type default ‘unknown’. p_empage).

and the subprogram bodies go in the package body. if you have redeclared the to_char function. To solve this. you call it as :STANDARD. example scott. your local declaration overrides the built-in or standard subprogram. The subprogram can be then defined after another subprogram that calls it. because the function to_char belongs to the builtin package STANDARD.’Rahul’.add_employee(’Rahul’. At the SQL PROMPT >Execute overload. whereby you give the subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon. . but both must appear in the same program unit. where they are invisible to the applications.add_employee(101. Thus. since public package constructs are already declared in the package specification.to_char Using Forward Declarations PL/SQL does not allow forward referencing. If you redeclare a built-in subprogram as a stand-alone subprogram then to access your sub-program you need to qualify it with your schema.End add_employee END overload. since the subprogram specifications go in the package specification. PL/SQL allows a special subprogram declaration called Forward declaration. Forward declarations are used when you need to : Define subprograms in a logical or alphabetical order Define mutually recursive subprograms(which call each other directly/indirectly) Group subprograms in a package Use Forward Declarations in the cases of private constructs or private subprograms of the package. Thus packages support forward declarations. which means that a subprogram cannot be referenced or called before it has been declared. The subprogram body can appear anywhere after the forward declaration . then to use the built-in to_char function . 23) If you redeclare a built-in subprogram in another PL SQL Program unit. To access the built-in subprogram. you need to qualify it with the package name. 32) >Execute overload. The formal parameter list must appear in both the forward declaration and the subprogram body.TO_CHAR.

Procedure calc_rating(…) Is Begin End..Create or Replace Package Body forwardpack Is Procedure calc_rating(. For such type of variables do not initialize them in the declaration. ----declare all other public procedures/functions/variables END otop. The keyword END is not used at the end of the One-Time-Only procedures. we use one-time-only procedures. because the value is reset by the one-time-only procedure. --forward declaration Procedure award_bonus(…. / . since such procedures are executed only once when the package is invoked within a user session.No End for this one-time-only procedure END otop.). / One-time-Only Procedure When the derivation of the values is too complex it is difficult to initialize public or private variables to that value in the variable declaration. Create or Replace Package otop Is Hra number. / Create or Replace Package Body otop Is ----declare all private procedures/functions/variables ----define private/public procedures/functions Begin Select rate into hra from rate_mast where rate_name=’HRA’. In such cases. End forwardpack.) Is begin Calc_rating(…) End. ----.

tax_calc(salary). Else return(FALSE). .Restrictions on Package Functions 1) A function called from a query or DML statement cannot end the current transaction. Begin Select max(commission_pct) into v_max_comm from employees. End validate_comm. PERSISTENT State of a Package Create or Replace Package comm_package Is g_comm number :=10. Create or Replace Package tax_calc_pack Is Function tax_calc(p_value in number) return number. End if. salary from emp. end comm_package. / Create or Replace Package Body tax_calc_pack Is Function tax_calc(p_value in number) return number Is v_rate number :=0. End tax_calc_pack. / Create or Replace Package Body comm_package Is Function validate_comm(p_comm in number) return Boolean Is v_max_comm number. create or rollback to a savepoint or alter the system session 2) A function called from a query statement or a DML statement cannot execute a DML statement or otherwise modify the database 3) A function called from a DML statement cannot read or modify the table on which the DML was fired. If v_max_comm >=p_comm then return(TRUE).08. procedure reset_comm(p_comm in number). Begin return(p_value*v_rate). / To use the packaged function : Select tax_calc_pack. End tax_calc_pack. End tax_calc.

4 Execute comm_package.4>0.0.5) Now maximum is 0. max_comm is 0. End if.reset_comm(0. Max_comm=0.9>0.25 Hence g_comm=0. Max_comm=0. Else raise_application_error(-20210.25 User Y 0930 0935 Insert into employees(empno.reset_comm(0.6) For this user.4. since user Y did not complete his transaction.4.3 1000 1100 1145 .’Invalid Commission’). / Time 0900 User X Execute comm_package.5 Execute comm_package.3 Hence g_comm=0. End reset_comm.4>0.3) Max_comm=0.4>0. End comm_package.Procedure reset_comm(p_comm IN number) Is Begin If validate_comm(p_comm) then g_comm:=p_comm.9) Execute comm_package.reset_comm(0. Max_comm=0. Exit Logged In again Since the earlier transaction was rolled back. Invalid Commission Rollback .reset_comm(0. commission_pct) values(‘Ram’.25) Assume maximum is 0. maximum is still 0.9.5 Hence g_comm=0.5 is Invalid Hence.

End p1. . Loop Fetch c1 into v_empno. End loop. Exit when c1%rowcount>=6. The state does not persist across several sessions of the same user or acroos different users. Dbms_output.Persistent State of a Packaged Cursor Create or Replace Package pack_cur Is Cursor c1 is select empno from emp order by empno desc. Procedure p2. Thus packages maintain a persistent state of the package cursors. End pack_cur. End p2. Close c1. Exit when c1%rowcount>=3. Procedure p1 is Begin Open c1. The persistent state of a cursor/variable is maintained in a session of a user. End pack_cur. End loop. When we continue to fetch in P2. and the cursor is not closed. Procedure p2 is Begin Loop Fetch c1 into v_empno.put_line(‘Employee Number :’ || (v_empno)). three rows are fetched and displayed. / Create or Replace Package Body pack_cur Is v_empno number. Dbms_output. the next three rows are fetched and displayed. Procedure p1. / The cursor is opened in P1.put_line(‘Employee Number :’ || (v_empno)).

BLOB) stored in the database External files(BFILE) stored outside the database. parameter or return value(result) BLOB is interpreted by the Oracle server as a bit-stream. similar to LONG RAW. NCLOB. graphic images. CLOB is interpreted by the Oracle server as a single-byte character stream NCLOB is interpreted by the Oracle server as a multiple-byte character stream. resume CLOB. photo BLOB). but the LOB locator is stored in the row. A BLOB< CLOB or NCLOB can be used in one of the following : Column of a table Attribute of a user-defined type PL SQL variable. BFILEs can be accessed only in the read-only mode from an Oracle server Components of a LOB : The 2 distinct components of an LOB are : LOB value : It is the data that constitutes the real object being stored LOB locator : It is a pointer to the location of the LOB value stored inside the database The LOB value may be stored anywhere in the database. . The BFILE column stores a file locator that points to the external file LOBs are characterized in two ways : Internal LOBs(CLOB. based on the byte-length of the national character set To interact with LOB. unstructured data such as text.LOB LOB is a data type to store large. There are 4 large object data types BLOB for Binary large objects such as video clip CLOB for character large objects NCLOB for multibyte chracter large objects BFILE for a binary file stored at the OS level outside the database. video clippings. fname varchar2(25). the following interfaces are used : PL/SQL package DBMS_LOB Oracle Call Interface(OCI) Oracle Objects for Object Linking & Embediing(OLE) Pro*C/C++/Pro*COBOL precompilers JDBC Suppose you have the following table : Create table employee (emp_id number(5). Internal LOBs : They are stored inside the Oracle server in the LOB segment. lname varchar2(25). etc.

MCP. ‘Hemant’. it must contain a locator that points to an empty or populated LOB value. You could have done the initialization work at the time of table definition as follows : Create table employee (emp_id number(5). MCSD. lname varchar2(25). You may initialize CLOB and BLOB columns by using the functions EMPTY_CLOB() and EMPTY_CLOB() functions respectively. MCP. ‘Hemant’. offset. NULL). If the record is already there. from where and text to write . Now we can put values as follows : Insert into employee values(10. text). values(10.D’.Tech. NULL). OCP Ph. dbms_lob. ‘Pangam’. but not yet populated by data.MCDBA. amount :=length(text). ‘M. photo BLOB default empty_blob()). Updating CLOB using DBMS_LOB in PL/SQL : Declare lobloc clob. amount number. This can be done through the insert or update statements as follows : Insert into employee empty_blob()). -.getlength(lobloc)+2.’ Pangam’. OCP’.write at lob location. Now the columns have been initialized. then you could have used UPDATE command. -. MCSD.Before you start writing data to CLOB/BLOB columns using DBMS_LOB package or OCI(oracle call interface) . Select resume from employee. amount.amount of data to be written offset number. ---For update locks the row and returns the LOB locator for the ---resume lob column offset :=DBMS_LOB.write(lobloc. Pangam’. empty_clob(). amount to be written. -. fname varchar2(25). that is. resume CLOB default empty_clob(). --serves as the LOB locator text varchar2(30000):='Corporate Trainer'. Insert into employee values(20. ‘MCA.MCDBA.’ ‘Manoj’. such columns must be made non-null.where to start writing Begin Select resume into lobloc from employee where emp_id=10 FOR Update.

col2 bfile). End. create the following table : create table x(col1 varchar2(10). amount. Amount:=length(text) . ensuring tha the files c1.bmp and c2.writeappend(lobloc. amount to be written and text to write commit.substr(resume.append at lob location.bmp')). / Selecting CLOB values using DBMS_LOB select dbms_lob. Use the BFILENAME function to inset values as follows. Dbms_output.instr(resume. text). dbms_lob.'c2.put_line(‘Resume is : ‘ || text). -.bmp')) .text:='Corporate Consultant cum System Analyst'. 5. Managing BFILES Create a directory ‘saloni’ as a oracle user and give the path of the directory which contains your files as follows : Create or replace directory SALONI as ‘d:\saloni\saloni’ Give read privileges to users on that directory as follows : grant read on directory SALONI to public.'c1. End. To disassociate a LOB value from a row: Update employee set resume =empty_clob() where emp_id=40 To Add LOB columns Alter table table_name add(col1 CLOB. / Removing LOBs To delete row containing LOBs : Delete from employee where emp_id=30. Select resume into lobloc from employee where emp_id=20 FOR Update.bmp are existing in the folder : insert into x values(‘c1’. dbms_lob. Col2 BLOB). bfilename('saloni'. 5). Begin Select resume into text from employee where emp_id=10. bfilename('saloni'. 'Cor') from employee Selecting CLOB values in PL/SQL Declare Text varchar2(4000). insert into x values(‘c2’.

/ . End loop.fileopen(v_file). v_filename).col1||'. you may now use subsequent read operations on BFILE using the PL/SQL dbms_lob package and OCI. End load_emp. v_file:=BFILENAME(p_file_loc.put_line('Loaded File :' || v_filename ||' size : '|| dbms_lob. cursor emp_cursor is select col1 from x for update.fileclose(v_file). update x set col2=v_file where current of emp_cursor. dbms_output.Once physical files are associated with the records using SQL. Then the following procedure is used to load a BFILE pointer to an image of each employee into the table ‘X’ using DBMS_LOB package Create or Replace procedure load_emp (p_file_loc IN varchar2) IS v_file BFILE.getlength(v_file)). v_filename varchar2(20). dbms_lob.bmp'. Begin For erec IN emp_cursor Loop v_filename:=erec. dbms_lob.

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