PL/SQL Pl/SQL woks both in the Oracle Sever(through stored procedures, stored functions, database triggers and

packages), and in the Oracle Development Environment(Oracle Forms, Oracle Reports, and Oracle Graphics) It supports SQL Data types. PL SQL bridges the gap and the need for procedural programming capabilities. Benefits of PL/SQL : Improved performance : It is used to group SQl statements together within a single block and to send the entire block to the server in a single call, thereby reducing the network traffic. Modularised program Development : Group logically related statements within blocks. Nest sub-blocks inside larger blocks to build a powerful program Break down complex problems into a set of manageable, well-defined , logical modules Place reusable PL/SQL code in libraries to be shared between Oracle applications or store it in an Oracle server to make it available to any userapplication. Portability : PL/SQL programs can run anywhere the Oracle server is installed, you do not need to tailor them to each new environment. Identifiers : It allows you to declare variables, cursors, constants, and exceptions and then use them in SQL and Procedural statements. It allows to declare variable belonging to scalar, reference, composite and LOB data types Declare variable based on the columns in the tables.

Procedural language Control Structures : Execute a sequence of statements conditionally Execute a sequence of statements iteratively in a loop Process the individual rows returned by a multi-row query with an explicit cursors. Error Handling : Process Oracle-server errors with exception handling routines Declare user-defined error conditions and process them with exception-handling routines Structure of a PL/SQL Block Declare(optional) Contains all the variables, constants, cursors and user-defined exceptions that will be used in the executable section Begin(Mandatory)-----Executable section Contains SQL statements to manipulate data in the database and PL/SQl statements to manipulate data in the data-block Exception(Optional) Contains actions to be performed when errors and abnormal conditions arise in the executable section End; set serveroutput on for dbms_output.put_line to give output in SQL

declare vname students.studname%type; vtotal students.total%type; begin select studname into vname from students where rollno=1; select total into vtotal from students where rollno=1; dbms_output.put_line('Name of Student is :'||vname); dbms_output.put_line('Total of Student is :'||vtotal); end; /

PL/SQL Block Types Anonymous Blocks: These are unnamed blocks. They are declared in an application where they need to be executed and are passed to the Server for execution at run-time. Example : Triggers in Oracle Developer consists of such blocks [Declare] Begin [Exception] End; Sub-Programs : These are named PL/SQL blocks that can accept parameters and can be invoked as and when required. They are declared as Procedures or Functions. Generally use procedures to perform an action and a function to compute and return a value. Procedure name is Begin --statements [Exception] End; Function name return datatype Is Begin --statements return value; [Exception] End;

). RECORD: A record is a group of related data items stored as fields. …. RECORD. They have internal components that can be handled and manipulated individually. variable type_name. each with it’s own name and data type. Example . vvgrade vgrade %type:=10. . This data is dissimilar in type but logically related. Must contain one or more components of any scalar type. Salary constant number : = 10000 PL/SQL variables 1) Scalar These are the data types that correspond to the data types of columns in tables. vvflag Boolean :=TRUE 2) Composite Composite data types such as records. Boolean data types(only stores NULL. Location varchar2(20) : = ‘Mumbai’. allows groups of fields to be defined and manipulated in PL/SQL blocks. Instead of hardcoding the data type and size of a variable. PL/SQL also supports Boolean datatype Character. The %type attribute. Deptno number(2) NOT NULL : =10. salary.salary%type vgrade number(7. Example : vsalary employees. Also known as Collections. field declaration. hire date. Type type_name IS RECORD ( field declaration.Declaring PL/SQl variables Declare Birthdate date. Numeric Date and Boolean types of data types. NESTED TABLE and VARRAY. They are of 4 types : TABLE. FALSE) vflag Boolean. TRUE . you have different kinds of data about an employee like name.2). you can use the %type attribute to declare a variable according to another previously declared variable or a column of a table.

%rowtype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Emp_record. which stores the INDEX BY Table elements.field_name. TABLE : Objects of TABLE type are called INDEX By TABLES. The number and the data types of the underlying database column may change at run time. This attribute is useful when retrieving a row into variables with the Select * From tablename. Declaring Records with %rowtype The %rowtype attribute is used to declare a record based on a collection of columns in a database table or view Example : Declare Emp_record employees%rowtype. identifier type_name. The number and data types of the underlying database columns need not be known. Type type_name is Table of column_type/variable %type/table. An INDEX BY Table : Is similar to an array Must contain 2 components A Primary Key of data type Binary_Integer that indexes the INDEX BY TABLE A Column of a scalar or record data type. They use a primary key to provide you with array-like access to rows.Type emp_data IS RECORD (first_name varchar2(10).column%type/table. Can increase dynamically because it is unconstrained. To reference or initialize an individual field : Record_name.first_name:=’Ramesh’. . emp_record emp_data. last_name varchar2(10)).

My_emp_table emp_table_type.first_name%type INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. An explicit executable statement is required to initialize (populate) the Index By Table. Example : Set server output on.Type ename_table_type IS TABLE OF employees. LAST.returns the first and last index numbers Prior(n).first_name%type INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.Returns the index number that preceeds the index n in a table Next(n). Type ename_table_type IS TABLE OF employees. Ename_table(1) :=’Ramesh’. Type birthdate_table_type IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. it contains no keys or no values. Declare Type ename_table_type IS TABLE OF employees%rowtype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. DELETE(m. Birthdate_table birthdate_table_type. Ename_table ename_table_type.Returns the index number that succeeds the index n in a table TRIM-removes oen element from the end of the PL SQL Table TRIM(n)-removes n elements from the end of the PLSQL Table DELETE. Following methods are used by the INDEX BY Tables : Exists(n)-returns TRUE if the nth element exists Count-returns number of elements that a PL/SQL table currently contains FIRST. Initially such a table is not populated. . Ename_table ename_table_type.removes all elements from PL/SQL table DELETE(n)-removes the nth element from the PLSQL table.n)-removes all elements in the range m…n from a PL SQL table. Birthdate_table(1) :=sysdate-10.

If <condition(s)> then Statement 1. . / 3) Reference These are the pointers to other program items. End if. Statement 2. End if.. For i in my_emp_table. Statement 2. End loop.put_line(my_emp_table(i).. Else(optional) Statement 3.(Not a part of the syllabus) 4) LOBs Also called locators that specify the location of large objects(such as graphic images that are stored out of line. If-then-else-end if. Conditional Constructs IF Statement If-then.V_count number(3):=104. If <condition(s)> then Statement 1. Statement 4. v_count Loop Select * into my_emp_table(i) from employees where employee_id=i. End loop.last Loop Dbms_output.end if. Begin For i in 100 . my_emp_table. End.first .first_name).

If-then-elsif-elsif-else-end if. vtotal students.put_line(Vname||' is a very good student'). "Average student" if total between 250 and <275. Else(optional) Statement 7. select total into vtotal from students where rollno=1. end if. if vtotal>=250 then dbms_output.studname%type. else display "Average student" declare vname students. Elsif <condition(s)> then Statement 3. End if. and "poor student" if total less than 250 declare vname students. else dbms_output. select total into vtotal from students where rollno=1. Statement 8. begin select studname into vname from students where rollno=1. Elsif <condition(s)> then Statement 5.total%type. if total of Rollno=1 is more than 275.studname%type. / PL/SQL Block to display "Very Good Student". Statement 6.total%type. if total of Rollno=1 is more than 275. . vtotal students. Statement 2. end. If <condition(s)> then Statement 1.put_line(Vname||' is an average student'). PL/SQL Block to display "Very Good Student". begin select studname into vname from students where rollno=1. Statement 4.

put_line(‘Grade ‘||vgrade||’ Appraisal ‘ || vappraisal). Declare vgrade char(1):=upper(‘&p_grade). End. elsif vtotal>=250 and vtotal<275 then dbms_output. / . Set serveroutput on. Dbms_output. Begin Vappraisal := CASE vgrade When ‘A’ then ‘Excellent’ When ‘B’ then ‘Very Good’ When ‘C’ then ‘Good’ Else ‘No such grade’ End. end. end if. else dbms_output.put_line(Vname||' is a poor student').if vtotal>=275 then dbms_output.put_line(Vname||' is an average student').put_line(Vname||' is a very good student'). / Nesting of Ifs allowed as per situation. CASE Expressions Case selector When expression1 then result1 When expression2 then result2 When expression3 then result3 When expressionN then resultN Else resultN+1(optional) End. vappraisal varchar2(20).

end loop Numbers 1 to 10 in order declare num number(2).put_line('number '|| num).10 loop dbms_output. b number:=0. begin For x in 1. end loop. / Numbers 1 to 10 in reverse order declare num number(2).LOOPS 1) For <variable> in [reverse] lowvalue. / . dbms_output. end. end loop.put_line('number '|| num)..highvalue loop statement1. a:=a+1. b:=b+1. else dbms_output. / Print odd and even numbers from 1 to 20 and their count declare a number:=0.put_line('There are '||a||' even numbers').put_line('Number '||x||' is Odd'). end loop. begin for num in reverse 1.put_line('Number '||x||' is Even').2)=0 then dbms_output.. statement2. begin for num in 1. end if. end..put_line('There are '||b||' odd numbers')..10 loop dbms_output. end. dbms_output.20 loop if mod(x.

.20.. num:=num+10.20. num:=num+5.put_line(num). end loop. exit when <condition>. / ..put_line(num). print 10. / loop statement1. end. print 5.. begin loop dbms_output.. end.While <condition> loop statement1. exit when num>50...10. begin while num<=100 loop dbms_output. end loop. end loop..30. statement2.15. statement2.100 declare num number:=10. end loop.50 declare num number:=5.

Exit When End loop. and manipulated in the block’s executable section. 3)Fetch and process Here you actually fetch the rows into variable if required and carry out all the business logic or processing. The row returned by the query are called the active set and are now available for fetching Open Cursor_name.CURSORS Cursors are names given to private SQL work areas created by the Oracle server to execute SQL statements and to store the processing information. variable 2. Following are the steps followed for handling explicit cursors : 1)declare Here we declare the cursor by naming it and define the structure of the query to be performed within it. Explicit Cursors Used to process each row returned by a multiple-row Select statement. including queries that return only one row. 2)Open This statement executes the query. EXPLICIT For queries that return more than one row. 4)close It releases the active . It is now possible to reopen the cursor to re-establis a fresh active set. explicit cursors are declared and named by the programmer. Declare Cursor cursor_name is Select ……. Loop Fetch cursor_name into variable1. There are 2 types of cursors : IMPLICIT These are declaredc by PLSQL implicitly for all DML and PLSQL Select statements. Close Cursor_name .

vtotal students. end.studname.Evaluates to TRUE if the most recent fetch returns a row %rowcount-Evaluates to the number of rows returned so far Example to retrieve row from employees table and populate them to another table with a similar structure Declare Cursor emp_cursor is select empid. loop fetch cstudent into vrollno. Begin Open emp_cursor. or else the last record will be displayed twice. / Here.rollno%type. vname students. If the row need to be processed in a particular order. vname. dbms_output.put_line('Name :'||vname). end loop.put_line('Roll number :'||vrollno). close cstudent. vrollno students.Evaluates to TRUE if the most recent fetch does not return a row %found. last_name from employees. "notfound" is a cursor attribute which is used to find whether the cursor currently contains a record or has reached the end of the file or recordset Explicit Cursor attributes %isopen – Evaluates to True if the cursor is open %notfound. you may use the order by clause in the declaration. Emp_record emp_cursor%rowtype.total from students. exit when cstudent%notfound.total%type. exit when cstudent%notfound should be done immediately after fetch.put_line('Total :'||vtotal). to print the name. vtotal. . begin Open cstudent. total of all the students declare cursor cstudent is Select Rollno.Do not use the INTO clause in the cursor declaration. dbms_output.studname%type. dbms_output.

and the cursor is closed automatically.last_name) End loop. emp_record. Commit. End loop. Statement2. returning a different active set. End. Begin For emp_record IN emp_cursor --implicit open and fetch occurs Loop If emp_record. . / Cursors with Parameters You can pass parameters to the cursors. rows are fetched once for each iteration in the loop.Loop Fetch emp_cursor into emp_record. Exit when emp_cursor%notfound. Each time you open the cursor with a different set of values.first_name). Thus you can open and close an explicit cursor several times in a block. name) values(emp_record.deptno=80 then Dbms_output. Set serveroutput on. --implicit close and implicit loop exit End. the loop exits when the last row is processed. Close emp_cursor. / Cursor For Loop It is a shortcut for processing explicit cursors. deptno from employees. End if.put_line(‘Employee ‘ ||emp_record. Insert into temp_emp(empno.empid. End loop. the previous cursor is closed and reopnened with a new set of values. For record_name IN Cursor_name Loop Statement1. because the cursor is opened. Retrieving the employees one by one and printing them if they belong to department 80. Declare Cursor emp_cursor is select first_name . For each execution.

when querying multiple tables with a join. but not the size. Begin Open emp_cursor(80.last_name).In the cursor declaration. but it is recommended by Oracle for better readability and maintenance.employee_id ||’ Employee name :’ || emp_record.put_line(‘Employee no. Hence it is important that no other user /transaction modifies those values. p_job varchar2) is select employee_id.] Also.In such a case. You have to specify the Formal parameter data types. [It is not necessary that the for update clause refers to a column . because of the for update . Only that table’s rows will be locked whose column is referred to in the For update [of column] clause. last_name from employees whre department_id=p_deptno and job_id=p_job. Close emp_cursor Open emp_cursor(60. you can lock those row retuned by the cursor through the FOR Update clause. Declare cursor emp_cursor(p_deptno number. since the update/delete which you want to perform is based on those values.employee_id ||’ Employee name :’ || emp_record.put_line(‘Employee no.. For emp_record IN emp_cursor Loop Dbms_output. To prevent any other user/transaction from changing those values. End loop. ‘Programmer’). End loop. : ‘ || emp_record. / For Update [Of column] clause Sometimes you may want to perform some update or delete based on the values that the cursor has returned to you. ‘Sales_Rep’). and each of there formal parameters will have to be passed an ACTUAL parameter or value in the Open statement. Close emp_cursor End.last_name). you need to specify the FORMAL parameters. For emp_record IN emp_cursor Loop Dbms_output. Sometimes it may happen that the rows which you want to lock are already locked by another user/transaction. you can use the For update clause to ensure row locking to particular table of the join. : ‘ || emp_record.

t2. t1. End if. Where current Of clause Sometimes you may want to update or delete the row being currently addressed. / Cursors with subqueries Declare Cursor my_cursor is Select t1. you can use the NOWAIT clause with the For update clause. But for this you need to lock the rows with the FOR UPDATE clause so that the rows are locked on open.department_id.staff>=3 When this cursor is opened. (Select department_id. and the total number of employees working in that department..department_id=e.department_id.department_id and d.department_id=t2.department_id and employees.department_id=departments.department_id and t2. department name. without the need to refer to the ROWID.salary*1.deprtment_id=60 FOR UPDATE OF SALARY NOWAIT.. last_name. such that there are more than 3 employees working in each such department. Declare Cursor sal_cursor is Select e. To avoid this type of waiting. End. departments d where d. employee_id. End loop.department_id=60 FOR Update of salary NOWAIT.salary<5000 then Update employees set salary=emp_record. the control is immediately passed to your program so that it can do some other work before trying to acquire the lock. so that instead of waiting indefinitely. .department_name.clause your block will keep on waiting till the rows are released by the other user/transaction. Begin For emp_record in sal_cursor Loop If emp_record. last_name. This is possible through the WHERE CURRENT OF clause. departments where employees. the active set will contain the department number. count(*) as staff from employees group by department_id) t2 where t1.staff from departments t1. salary from employees e.10 WHERE CURRENT OF sal_cursor. department_name from employees. Declare Cursor emp_cursor is Select employee_id.

If an exception is raised and there is no corresponding exception handler.EXCEPTIONS An exception is an identifier in a PL SQL Block that is raised during the execution of a block that terminates it’s main body of actions.. Declare them in the declaration section and raise them explicitly Declare Begin Exception When Exception1 [or exception2….. But. If the exception is successfully handled. You explicitly raise an exception by issuing the RAISE statement within the block. Exceptions are raised in 2 ways : An oracle-defined error occurs and the appropriate exception is raised automatically. etc Non Predefined Oracle Server : Other Oracle server errors. The exception being raised may be user-defined or pre-defined. Do not declare them and oracle server will raise them implicitly No_data_found Too_many_rows Inavlid_cursor Zero_divide Dup_val_on_index. you can specify an exception handler to perform some other actions. Exception types Implicitly raised : Predefined Oracle Server : 20 most common errors.] then Statement1. then the PL SQL block terminates with failure and the exception is propogated to the calling environment. . then the control is not passed back to the enclosing block or environment or point where the exception was raised. and oracle server will raise them implicitly Explicitly raised : User-defined : A situation which is abnormal from the user point of view. When an exception is raised. Statement2. Declare them in the declaration section. but the PL SQl block terminates successfully. In such cases. the control is passed to the exception handler in the exception section.

] End. others are not trapped. end. / The exception handling section traps only those exceptions that are specified. [When others then Statement5.total%type. the control is not passed to the immediate next line.put_line('Check the roll number'). since when the error is encountered. / Here. but to the exception handler. begin select total into vtotal from students where rollno=16. and the line which is after the line that caused the error is not executed.] then Statement3. OTHERS is the last exception handler that is defined optionally Guidelines for Trapping Exceptions : Begin the Exception-handling section with the EXCEPTION Keyword Define the required number of exception-handlers. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output. Statement6.put_line('the roll number is not correct'). .. dbms_output. Statement4. Hence. besides the Exception section Trapping Predefined Exceptions : declare vtotal students. since the data is not found. each with it’s own set of actions When an exception occurs PL SQL processes only one Exception-handler before leaving the block Place the OTHERS clause after all the other exception-handlers There can be only one OTHERS clause Exceptions cannot appear anywhere else. an error has occurred and the control is transferred to the exception handler. which traps any exception which is not yet handled.When Exception3 [or exception4…. unless you use the OTHERS exception handler.

Define p_deptno=20 Declare e_emps_existing EXCEPTION. which always return a standard Oracle server error number. They are raised implicitly.total%type. Example : Oracle returns error number –2292 when you try to delete a parent record which has got some child records. you may refer to that exception by name and write a specific handler for it. The PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT utility tells the compiler to associate an exception name with an Oracle error number. BEGIN Delete from departments where department_id=&p_deptno. PRAGMA directs the PL SQL compiler to associate all occurrences of that Oracle error number with the given exception name within that block. or by using the OTHERS handler.put_line(‘Cant delete department to_char(&p_deptno) ||’ It has got employees existing ‘). but are not associated with name(exception name/error name). Exception When e_emps_existing then Dbms_output. Such errors can be trapped by declaring it first . / Trapping Non-Predefined Exceptions : There are certain non-predefined standard Oracle errors. End. exception when too_many_rows then dbms_output.put_line('More than 1 row selected'). After doing this . Commit. begin select total into vtotal from students where total>100. -2292). end.declare vtotal students. / Functions for trapping Exceptions : SQLCODE-returns the numeric value for the error code SQLERRM-Returns the message associated with the error number ‘ || . PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(e_emps_existing.

v_error_message :=SQLERRM. v_error_message varchar2(200). if venglish<35 then raise low_mark. exception when low_mark then dbms_output.english%type. insert into errors values(v_error_code. venglish students.put_line('Failed in English').SQLCODE value 0 1 +100 negative number Description No Exception encountered User-defined exception No_data_found exception Some standard Oracle server error number Example : to store all the error-numbers and error-messages in an ERRORS table Declare v_error_code number. end. Begin Exception When OTHERS then Rollback. / . end if. begin select english into venglish from students where rollno=2. End. v_error_code:=SQLCODE. v_error_message). / Trapping User-Defined Exceptions : Declare the exception in the declarative section Raise the exception in the executable section Handle the exception in the Exception-handling section declare low_mark exception.

Commit. / Here no_data_found cannot be used . Define p_department_desc =’Planning n esearch’ Define p_department_number=20 Declare e_invalid_department EXCEPTION. End. Begin For erec in emp_cursor loop Begin Select ……. End. End loop. Exception When e_integrity then…….. If SQL%NOTFOUND then Raise e_no_rows. since it is an update statement and not a select statement. Begin Update departments set department_name=’&p_department_desc’ where department_id=&p_department_number. / .if marks in english are less than 35 then the exception is raised and the message is displayed. Exception When e_invalid_department then Dbms_output. e_integrity exception. -2292).put_line(‘No such department number’). If SQL%NOTFOUND then Raise e_invalid_department. End. End if. pragma exception_init(e_integrity. End if. When e_no_rows then……. Sub-blocks can handle an exception or pass the exception to the enclosing block Declare … … e_no_rows exception. Update…….

The error number and message are displayed to the user just like a predefined. Raise_application_error(error_number. nonpredefined or userdefined error . It also handles the unhandled exceptions. error message) Error_number : Error message: must be a user.Raise_Application_Error Procedure : This procedure is used to communicate a predefined exception/error with a nonstandard error number and a user-friendly error message from stored subprograms. Raise_application_error can be used in either(or both) the executable section and the exception section.specified number for exceptions between -20000 to -20999 user-specified message upto 2048 bytes long.

or an initialised variable. Create or Replace Procedure procedure_name [parameter1 [mode] datatype. and then returned to the calling environment. p_empsal number) …. But it can take a default value. In OUT: Passed to the procedure. Cannot be assigned a default value. It is a named PL SQL block that can accept parameters(called arguments).executable and an optional exception section The pl sql block starts with either a BEGIN or the declaration of local variables and ends with END or End procedure_name. End hikesal. .. OUT: Returned to the calling environment. Formal versus Actual Parameters : Formal parameters are the variables declared in the parameter list of the procedure declaration Create or Replace procedure hikesal(p_empid number. Actual parameters are the variables or expressions passed while calling the procedure Execute hikesal(v_empid. Cannot be assigned a default value.. The actual parameter can be a constant. The Formal parameter acts as a constant and only takes the values passed by the calling environment. executable section and an optional exception-handling section.Procedures A procedure is a type of sub-program that performs an action. It can stored in the database as a schema object. expression. …] -.header Is/AS --this section after is/as and before the begin is the declarative section PL SQl block --. 2000). Must be passed as a variable. Must be passed as a variable. declaration section. It has a Header section. parameter2 [mode] datatype. Parameter Modes : IN(default) : Value passed to the procedure from the calling environment. It’s value cannot be changed in the procedure body.

year IN number) is begin if year>=60 then vsal:=vsal*1. / to show increase in salary by 10 percent for all employees and an additional 5 percent for those who have completed more than 5 years of service create or replace procedure retemp(veno IN number. end.put_line('Employee number is '||erec. .put_line('Employee salary is '||vs). begin for erec in c1 loop retemp(erec. vdate1 emp. years number. vsal IN OUT number. dbms_output. dbms_output. end. hiredate from emp.put_line('Employee name is '||ve).hiredate%type. vs). / main block declare cursor c1 is select empno from emp where deptno=10.05. end if. ve emp. end.empno). dbms_output. vename OUT varchar2.empno.Stored Procedure to display employee numbers and their salaries for department 10 create or replace procedure retemp(veno IN number. vsal1 emp.sal%type. sal. vs emp. / main plsql block declare cursor c2 is select empno. vsal from emp where empno=veno.ename%type. sal into vename. end loop. vsal OUT number) is begin select ename. ve.sal%type.

dbms_output.sal*1.salary%type. / at the calling environment : variable g_name varchar2(25) variable g_sal number variable g_comm.1. Number execute query_emp(100.put_line('Employee salary '||vsal1). p_salary. End emp_query. commission_pct into p_name. :g_name. p_name OUT employees. Methods of passing Actual Parameters : Positional : Here the actual parameters are passed in the order in which the Formal parameters are given with the procedure definition . vsal1:=rec. :g_comm. end loop.put_line('Employee salary '||vsal1).commission_pct%type) is BEGIN Select first_name.vsal1. :g_sal. salary. end. dbms_output.empno. retemp(rec.employee_id%type.empno. select months_between(sysdate.) print g_name print g_sal print The colon(:) is required to reference the host variable s in the execute command. years). dbms_output.put_line('Employee number '||rec. OUT employees. / Viewing OUT Parameters : Create or replace procedure query_emp (p_id In employees. p_comm from employees where employee_id=p_id.put_line('Employee salary '||rec.empno). p_salary OUT employees.begin for rec in c2 loop dbms_output.hiredate) INTO YEARS from emp where empno=rec.sal).first_name%type. p_comm.

declare procedure p1 is begin dbms_output. Example : Execute add_dept(p_name=>’Legal’. their scope is limited to the parent(enclosing) block in which they are defined.both default add_dept(‘Welfare’. Default Option for parameters Create or Replace procedure add_dept(p_name IN departments. p_name.200). Combination : Here the first actual parameter is passed positionally and the remaining are passed using the => symbol as in named association method. p_loc).will give an error as “a positional parameter may not follow a named parameter” Declaring Local Sub-procedures : The local procedures are not stored as Schema objects. p_name=>’Medical’). it must me the last item declared. department_name. Executing/Calling the above procedure : Begin add_dept. End add_dept. ----positional add_dept(p_loc=>300. Because they are defined in the declaration section of another program/PL SQL Block/procedure.put_line('P1 is called').Named Association : Here the actual parameters are passed in ant arbitary order by associating it with the corresponding formal parameter using the => symbol. / Default values may be assigned only to In parameters . . 500) -.department_name%type DEFAULT ‘unknown’. / In Combinational method all the positional parameters must be before the named parameters. end.nextval.one default End. -. P_loc IN departments.location_id%type DEFAULT 100) IS Begin Insert into departments(department_id. and not to OUT or IN OUT Parameters. --. location_id) values(departments_seq. or else there will be an error. Any variable declared after the local subprogram will cause a compilation error.---Named association add_dept(p_loc=>400). When you are declaring a sub-program in the declaration section of the main program.

log_exec. p2. end. / . / declare procedure p1. and dbms. dbms_output.put_line('p1 called'). SYSDATE).put_line('In the main block'). is never executed. is not types as line 1) The result is an infinite loop. procedure p2 is begin dbms_output. End del_emp.begin p1. log)date) values(USER..employee_id%type) IS Procedure log_emp IS Begin Insert into log_table(user_id.. end. / it will show error : p1 must be declared(if procedure p1. procedure p1 is begin dbms_output. p1. Procedure to delete an employees record and to log the entry of the user who deleted the record Create or Replace procedure del_emp(p_id IN employees. dbms_output. begin p1.. end.put_line('In the main block'). end. p2. Begin Delete from employees where employee_id=p_id.put_line('p2 called'). End log_emp.

…… End. ‘Mumbai’. 200. p_locid). Begin For erec in emp_cursor Loop Raise_salary(erec. End loop. Begin Raise_salary(v_id). the control goes immediately to it’s exception section. End emp_proc. Commit. Insert into departments values(5. Begin Dbms_output. then the block terminates. / Handled Exceptions : When an exception is raised in a called procedure. Commit.put_line(‘Procedure INS_dept started’). Consider the following tables LOCATIONS Location_ID City 1 Mumbai DEPARTMENTS Department_ID 5 Department_name Welfare Manager_ID 200 Location_ID 1 Create procedure Ins_dept(p_locid number) IS v_did number(4). End.employee_id). / Invoking a stored procedure from another Stored procedure : Create or replace procedure emp_proc IS Cursor emp_cursor is select employee_id from employees.Invoking a stored procedure from an anonymous block : Declare V_id number:=145. / . and the control goes to the calling program/environment. If the exception is handled. Select department_id into v_did from employees where employee_id=999. Any DML statements issued before the exception was raised remain as part of the transaction.

So. department/location for any . Manager ID=200 at the new location inserted through INS_loc. Select city into v_city from locations where location_id=p_lid. the calling procedure terminates and the exception propagates to the calling environment. ALL DML statements in the calling and called procedure are rolled back along with any changes to any host variables. city) values(p_lid. all DML statements in the calling and called procedure remain as part of the transaction. p_city). and becomes a part of the transaction of procedure ins_loc procedure Execute ins_loc(1. p_city varchar2) IS v_city varchar2(30). the control is passed to the calling procedure ins_loc where the exception no_data_found is handled. the DML in ins_dept is not rolled back.put_line(‘Invoking Procedure INS_dept’). Exception When no_data_found then Dbms_output. Suppose there is no such employee. ‘Mumbai’) If the exception is handled in the calling procedure. Procedure ins_dept selects the department id for an employee whose employee id=999. Begin Dbms_output. Dbms_output. which is not handled in procedure ins_dept. v_dname varchar2(30). if the exception section from the ins_loc is removed.put_line(‘Inserted City ’|| v_city). department name=Welfare. / The procedure INS_loc inserts a new location into the locations table. then the DMLs in both the procedures are rolled back if no employee with employee_id=999 is found. Ins_dept(p_lid). Insert into locations(location_id. Dbms_output.put_line(‘MAIN Procedure INS_LOC started’). Thus. If the exception is not handled by the calling procedure. The procedure ins_dept is supoosed to insert a new department with department id=5.Create procedure Ins_loc(p_lid number. End. If in the above 2 procedures. then it raises no_data_found.put_line(‘No such employee’).

end. function f1 return number is begin dbms_output. executable part and an optional exception section. / Global or stored function : Stored in the database Defined and saved separately.Functions Function is a named PL SQL block that can accept parameters and be invoked. Local functions : Not stored in database Defined and called within the same program Functions do not have declare. Like a procedure. a function must have a RETURN clause in the header and at least one RETURN statement in the executable section. return 10. / The type of parameter mode should be only of type IN. whereas a procedure returns zero or more values. …] -. declarative section. Function is called as part of a SQL expression or as a part of a PL SQL expression.executable and an optional exception section End function_name.header RETURN datatype Is/AS --this section after is/as and before the begin is the declarative section PL SQl block --.put_line('Inside the function'). In addition.put_line('Inside the Main'). If it is necessary to declare a variable it should be done in the declare part of the enclosing program declare x number. dbms_output. Create or Replace Function function_name [parameter1 [mode] datatype. begin dbms_output. end. x:=f1.put_line('value of x is'||x). parameter2 [mode] datatype. A function must return a value to the calling environment. can be called thru another pl/sql block . a function has a header.

to show the errors in the function coding. End getsal. / Executing functions : Declare a variable to hold the return value. / at the sql prompt :>show_error. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno=veno. which is a good programming practice. end.salary%type :=0. create or replace function chkemp(veno number) return boolean is vsal emp. return true.sal%type. . RETURN v_salary.put_line('salary is not found').put_line('salary is '|| vsal). dbms_output. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output. as follows : variable gsalary number execute :gsalary :=getsal(130) print gsalary try the following on emp in scott : ed f1. Begin Select salary into v_salary from employees where employee_id=p_id. return false. to execute >@f1.Create or Replace Function getsal(p_id IN employees.employee_id%type) RETURN number Is v_salary employee.

begin update emp set sal=sal+(sal*inc/100) where empno=veno. sal from emp where sal<3000. select sal into vsal from emp where empno=veno. end loop. if flag=True then dbms_output.empno). / select text from user_source where type ='FUNCTION' and name='UPSAL' order by line main pl/sql block declare cursor c1 is select empno. end. incsal number. flag boolean. / . inc number) return number is vsal number. else dbms_output. commit. begin for erec in c1 loop incsal:=upsal(erec. incr).put_line('Employee Not Existing'). incr number :=&incr. end if. dbms_output.empno. end. end.main block declare y number :=&eno. / stored function to update the salaries of employees getting less than 3000 with increment of certain % percent create or replace function upsal(veno number.put_line('Increased salary is '||incsal||' for employee '|| erec. begin flag:=chkemp(y).put_line('Employee Existing'). return vsal.

Although 3 parameter modes IN. start with. Increase efficiency of queries by performing functions in the query rather than in the application Create or Replace Function tax(p_value IN NUMBER) Return NUMBER IS Begin Return(p_value * 0. End Tax. awkward or unavailable with SQL Increase data independence by processing complex data at the Oracle server level(since the stored functions are stored at the server). tax(salary) from employees.08). Having a function returning multiple values is a poor programming practice. do not use OUT and IN OUT with functions. / INVOKING a function from a SQL Expression Suppose you have a table employees with salary column then you may use the above function as follows to calculate their tax Select empno. OUT and IN OUT are available with functions. tax(salary) from employees where tax(salary) >(select max(tax(salary)) from employees where departmentid=30) order by tax(salary) desc Restrictions on calling function : The function must be a Stored Function It must accept only IN parameters Accept the parameters whose data type must be standard SQL data type and NOT a PL SQL data type . salary. order by and group by clauses Values clause of the insert command SET clause of the update command Select empno. rather than retrieving data into an application. There can be a RETURN statement in the exception section also. since the purpose of a function is to accept 0 or more parameters and return a single value. Locations from where you may call a User-defined function : Select list of a SELECT command Condition of the WHERE and HAVING clause Connect by . and it involves a lot of complications and side effects. Advantages of Functions : To perform calculations that are complex.

/ Update employees set salary=xyz(100) where employee_id=95. the function cannot contain commands that end the transaction. The update statement returns an error saying that the table is mutating Aslo Create or replace function xyz( a number) retutn number is s number. If a Function internally calls sub subprogram(that is another function or procedure) then that sub program even muts not violate any of the above mentioned restrictions. / The function fails with the folliwng : Update employees set salary=abc(2000) where emplyee_id=90. last_name. SET ROLE(session control statement). Return (s+a). End. salary) valurs(1001. End. Begin Select salary into s from employees where employee_id=95. or DDL commands Functions called from a SQL Expression(as shown above) cannot contain a DML Statement.The return data types must be a standard SQL data type and NOT a PL SQL data type Restrictions from where a stored function can be called : Functions called from an Update/Delete statements on a Table XYZ cannot contain a DML statement on the table XYZ Functions called from an Update/Delete statements on a Table XYZ cannot query the table XYZ When called from an INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE/SELECT statement. Examples Create or Replace function abc(p_sal number) Return number is Begin Insert into employees(employee_id. We are calling the function thru the update command on the same table employees. ALTER SYSTEM(system control statement). appoint_date. such a table is called MUTATING table . such a COMMIT(transaction control statement). sysdate-10. Return(p_sal +100).’Pereira’. Here also the mutating table error is returned When the code in a function is querying or reading the data in a table which is being updated. The function contains a DML statement on table employees. 10000).

which is returned to the calling environment . Function Executes as a PL SQL Block Invoked as part of an expressionm Exec Proc_name Does not contain a RETURN clause in Must contain a RETURN clause in the the Header Header May or may not return values Must return a single value Used to perform a series of actions Used to compute some value. Procedure V/s.To drop a function : Drop function function_name.

DIRECT ACCESS From Hemant schema grant object –level privilge on the table employees to user Manoj Manoj has created the procedure manoj_proc that queries the Employees table in the schema Hemant INDIRECT ACCESS Manoj grants execute privilge to Saloni on his procedure manoj_proc This Saloni can access By default subprograms execute under security domain of the owner. or excute your own subprograms and those in another schema. The keyword ANY means that you ca create. which is called DEFINER’s-RIGHTS. There is another user MANOJ and a third USER SALONI. but only through a procedure manoj__proc which is created by the user MANOJ. Suppose we need to ensure that SALONI can access the table EMPLOYEES in the schema HEMANT. If a PL SQL subprogram refers to any objects that are not in the same schema.Managing Subprograms : System privileges are required to Create. System privileges are granted by the user SYSTEM or SYS Grant Create (any) PROCEDURE to user_name. then you must have EXECUTE privilege on that subprogram. Grant Execute any PROCEDURE to user_name. alter. Providing INDIRECT ACCESS to Data Suppose EMPLOYEES table in Scheme(user) HEMANT. The keyword PROCEDURE is used to assign such rights on Stored Procedures. Grant Alter any PROCEDURE to user_name. The keyword ANY is optional for CREATE. Functions and Packages. Drop or Execute subprograms. drop. then you must be granted access to those objects explicitly. not through a role If you are not the owner of a subprogram. Alter. . Grant Drop any PROCEDURE to user_name.

both of which contain an additional OWNER column. Function. PROCEDURE. USER_SOURCE Name -Name of the object Type -Type of object : Procedure. Package. SHOW ERRORS without any [parameter will show the compilation errors The following query will also show you an output which is similar to that of show errors . PACKAGE. TRIGGER -Date of object creation -Date when object was last modified -Date and time when object was last recompiled -VALID or INVALID You can also examine the ALL_OBJECTS and DBA_OBJECTS. Function. PACKAGE BODY. query the user_objects USER_OBJECTS Object_name Object_Id Object_type CreateLast_DDL_Time Timestamp Status -Name of Object -Internal identifier for the object -Whether TABLE. Package.User_Objects To obtain names of all PL/SQL stored objects within a schema. Package Body LINE -Line number of the source code where error occurred Position -Position in the line where the error occurred Text -Text of the error message SHOW ERRORS [Function/Procedure/Package/Package body/Trigger/View This will show use the errors that occurred while trying to compile the articular program unit. Package Body LINE -Line number of the source code TEXT -Text of the source code line This table contains one record for each line of code. ALL_SOURCE and DBA_SOURCE contain the additional column Owner Select text from user_source where name=’PROCEDURE_name’ order by line. USER_ERRORS Name -Name of the object Type -Type of object : Procedure. FUNCTION.

. text from user_errors where name=’proc_name’ order by line.Select line || ‘/’||position.

TRIGGERS Definition : Trigger is basically a PL/SQL block or PL/SQL procedure associated with a Table/View/Schema/Database and which executes implicitly whenever a particular event takes place Types of Triggers : Application Triggers which execute implicitly when a particular DML event occurs within an application such as Oracle Forms Developer Database Triggers which could be 1) Data Event or 2) System Event Data Event trigger fires implicitly whenever a DML operation occurs on table or a DDL event such as CREATE/ALTER are issued. It could also be an INSTEAD OF Trigger on a View. They are fired irrespective of the user connected and irrespective of the application used. System Event Triggers are fired when a system event occurs such as user logs on, user shutsdown, etc Guidelines for Designing Triggers Dos Design Triggers to guarantee that when a specific operation is performed, related actions are performed. Use Triggers only for Centralised, Global Operations that occur for the triggering event, regardless of the user or application that issues the triggering statement. Donts Do not use triggers when the functionality is already built into Oracle Server. Do not use triggers to implement integrity constraints. Use the built-in constraints Excessive use of triggers can result into complex interdependencies. If the logic is very lengthy, write a stored procedure for the same and invoke the stored procedure in the trigger body If multiple triggers of the same type are defined for a table, their order of execution is arbitary. To ensure that multiple triggers of the same type are executed in a particular order, write stored procedures for the different actions and have a single consolidated trigger in which you call those stored procedures in the required order. The Trigger Statement contains : Trigger Timing :BEFORE, AFTER for tables Triggering Event :INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE Table name :On table or view Trigger Type :Statement level or Row level Trigger Body :PL SQL block INSTEAD OF for views

BEFORE :Execute the trigger body before the triggering DML event on the table To determine whether the triggering statement should be allowed to complete To calculate some values before completing the triggering Insert or Update statement To validate or set some complex business logic To initialize some global variables or flags BEFORE :Execute the trigger body before the triggering DML event on the table To complete the triggering statement before executing the trigger body INSTEAD OF This type of trigger is used to modify data through a view that was otherwise not modifiable because of the inherently non-modifiable nature of the view. Such trigger works in the background by performing the action directly on the underlying base tables involved in the view. You may write INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statements on a view. The Triggering Event can be INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statement on a table. In case of UPDATE statement, you can specify the column, which if changed, causes the trigger to fire. The triggering event can contain one or two or all the three DML operations. The trigger type can be Statement Trigger or Row Trigger. A Statement Trigger is fired once for the triggering event. It may affect zero or more rows, but is fired only once. They are used when the trigger-action to be performed is independent of the data affected by the triggering event. A Row Trigger is fired once for each affected row. If no rows are effected, then the trigger is not fired. They are used when the trigger-action depends on the data or rows affected by the triggering event. The Trigger body defines the action that needs to be performed when the triggering action is issued. It is a PL SQL block containing SQL and PL SQL statements defining PL SQL types, item, variables, constants, cursors, exceptions, etc. You can call other PL SQL procedures or Java Procedures. Trigger size cannot be more than 32K. The Firing Sequence is as follows : BEFORE Statement Trigger -------- once BEFORE Row Trigger AFTER Row Trigger AFTER Statement Trigger -------- once for each affected row -------- once for each affected row --------- once

Syntax for Statement Level Trigger Create or Replace Trigger Trigger_name Timing Event1 or Event2 or Event3 On table_view_name Trigger_body The trigger name must be unique with respect to other triggers in the same schema. Trigger name need not be unique with respect to other schema objects like table, view, or procedure. A trigger to prevent insertion of records into the dept table on Saturdays or Sundays or on non-working hours on other days create or replace trigger check_deptno before insert on dept begin if (to_char(sysdate,'DY') in ('SAT','SUN')) or (to_char(sysdate,'HH24:MI') not between '09:00' and '17:00' ) then raise_application_error(-20500,'Insert Not allowed'); end if; end; / Raise_application_error is a server-side built-in procedure that returns an error to the user and causes the PL SQL block to fail. When the database trigger fails, the triggering statement is automatically rolledback by Oracle Server. Table : DEPT DEPTNO varchar2 DEPTNAME vrachar2 A trigger to prevent insert or update or delete operations on table dept create or replace trigger check_deptno before insert or update or delete on dept begin if deleting then raise_application_error(-20500,'Delete Not allowed'); elsif Inserting then raise_application_error(-20501,'Insert Not allowed'); elsif Updating('deptno') then raise_application_error(-20502,'Updating of deptno Not allowed'); else raise_application_error(-20503,'Updating of Table Not allowed'); end if; end; /

If the condition is satisfied then only we enter into the trigger body. DELETING. No colon(:) required if the Qualifiers are used in the WHEN clause. end.'Hello'). The condition is evaluated for each row to determine whether or not the trigger body is executed. Operation For INSERT For UPDATE For DELETE Old Value NULL Value before update Value before update New Value Newly Inserted value Value after update NULL Table : AUDT_DEPT create table audt_dept ( User_name varchar2(15). Thus. UPDATING(‘column’) can be used in a single trigger for combining several triggering events into one single trigger Syntax for Row Level Trigger Create or Replace Trigger Trigger_name Timing Event1 or Event2 or Event3 On table_view_name For Each Row [When (condition)] Trigger_body create or replace trigger check_dept before insert on dept for each row when(new. the WHEN clause is to restrict the Trigger action to those rows that satisfy a certain condition With ROW Level trigger only. The WHEN clause is optional. Old_deptname varchar2(15). / with the WHEN clause you can specify a condition in the brackets. Time timestamp. we can use the OLD and NEW Qualifiers to reference the value of a column before and after the data change by prefixing the column name with the OLD and NEW Qualifiers. UPDATING. Old_deptno varchar2(15). New_deptname varchar2(15) ) . You need to use the colon(:) as a prefix in every SQL and PL SQL statement.deptno>50) begin raise_application_error(-20555.Special Conditional Predicates INSERTING. New_dept varchar2(15).

Unlike other triggers.deptno. :new. connect by.deptname). :new. distinct operator or a join of 2 or more tables. this trigger is fired by Oracle sever instead of executing the triggering statement. INSTEAD OF Triggers is still defined as a Row Trigger. The INSTEAD OF trigger must enforce the check. Such triggers are Row Level Triggers. Consider the following tables : Table Empid Empname Salary Deptno Table Deptno Deptname Totalsal : Employee : Dept_stat . :old.deptname.create or replace trigger audt_dept after insert or update or delete on dept for each row begin insert into audt_dept values(user. start. group function. INSTEAD OF Trigger It is used to modify the data where a DML statement has been issued against an inherently non-updatable view(that is views which are non-updatable because the underlying query may contain set operator. sysdate. :old. group by clause.deptno. The WITH CHECK option for views is not enforced when insertion/updation are performed by using the INSTEAD OF Trigger. BEFORE and AFTER options are not valid. Create or Replace Trigger Trigger_name INSTEAD OF Event 1 or event2 or event3 On View_name For each row Trigger_body Even if FOR EACH ROW is omitted. end.

Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal + :new.salary. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal :old.salary where deptno=:old.empname. e.salary deptno=:old. End. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal+:new.empid.deptno where empid=:old. :new.deptno. d.Following trigger updates the total salary in Dept_stat table whenever rows are inserted/update/deleted from the Employee table. :new.empid.deptname from employee e. dept_stat d where e.salary where deptno=:new.deptno. e. Create or Replace Trigger New_emp_check INSTEAD OF INSERT OR DELETE OR UPDATE FOR EACH ROW Begin If INSERTING THEN Insert into employee values(:new. Elsif Updating(‘Deptno’) then Update employee set deptno=:new.:old.empname.salary where deptno=:new.salary where empid=:old.salary.salary . Elsif DELETING Then Delete from employee where empid=:old.deptno.deptno. End if.deptno). :new.deptno.deptno. e. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal +(:new.deptno.empid. where Elsif UPDATING(‘SALARY’) then Update employee set salary=:new. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal-:old.deptno=d. / To Enable/Disable a Trigger Alter Trigger Trigger_name DISABLE/ENABLE To Enable/Disable all Triggers on a table Alter Table Table_name DISABLE/ENABLE ALL TRIGGERS To Recomplie a Trigger Alter Trigger Trigger_name COMPILE .empid.empid. Create view empl_view as Select e.salary where deptno=:old.

All the triggers on a table are dropped when the table is dropped. View or a User Triggers on System Events : Create OR Replace Trigger Trigger_name Timing Database_Event1 Or Database_Event2 or…. On Database/Schema : You can create triggers on DDL Statements at the DATABASE or SCHEMA Level. Function. Events that can cause a System Level Trigger to fire are : A DDL statement on a object in the database or schema (the trigger can be Database Level or Schema Level) Specific User or any other User logs on or off (the trigger can be Database Level or Schema Level) Database Shutdown or Startup (the trigger can be Database Level only Triggers on DDL Statements : Create OR Replace Trigger Trigger_name Timing DDL_Event1 Or DDL_Event2 or…. Synonym. Package. Sequence.This command is used to explicitly recompile a trigger. Table. Index. Trigger. A Schema or Table Level Trigger fires only when that schema or table is involved. Trigger_body : It is a complete PL SQL Block. On Database/Schema Trigger_body Timing : BEFORE or AFTER DDL_Event : CREATE OR ALTER OR DROP. The DDL Triggers fire when the Object is a Cluster. Procedure. Role. To Drop a Trigger Drop Trigger Trigger_name. Causes the Oracle Server to fire the trigger whenever a Create/Alter/Drop Statement modifies a Database Object in the Data Dictionary. Triggers A Database Level Trigger fires for all users. On Database/Schema Trigger_body . Type . Tablespace. SYSTEM LEVEL TRIGGERS Triggers on system events can be defined at the Database Level or Schema Level. regardless of whether it is valid or invalid.

/ CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER logoff_trig AFTER LOGOFF ON SCHEMA BEGIN Insert into log_trig_table(userid. END. Reading and Writing data using triggers follows certain rules. which are applicable to only row level triggers or a statement level trigger that is fired because of the referential integrity constraint ON DELETE CASCADE.job_id. AFTER LOGON : Whenever a User Logs on to the Database BEFORE LOGOFF : Whenever a User Logs off the Database AFTER STARTUP : Whenever a Database is opened BEFORE SHUTDOWN: Whenever a Database is shut down These triggers can be created at the DATABASE or SCHEMA LEVEL. date. END. such a table is called MUTATING table. job_id ON Employees For Each Row When(new. but SHUTDOWN and STARTUP apply only to the Database Level. ‘Logged On’). INSERT OR DELETE statement and a ROW . Create or Replace Trigger salary_check Before Update of Salary . The procedures so called can be implemented in PL SQL. / CALL Statement : It is recommended to create stored procedures and call them in the Trigger body rather than coding the PL SQL body in the trigger itself. A mutating table is the one that is currently being modified by an UPDATE. The CALL statement enables you to call a stored procedure. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER logon_trig AFTER LOGON ON SCHEMA BEGIN Insert into log_trig_table(userid. action) values(USER. date.Database_Events : AFTER SERVERERROR : Whenever a Server Error Message is logged. action) values(USER. Java. C.salary) MUTATING TABLE When the code in a trigger is querying or reading the data in a table which is being updated. :new. SYSDATE.job_id<>’YYZ’) CALL check_sal(:new. There is no semicolon at the end of the CALL Statement. SYSDATE. ‘Logged Off’).

salary%type. status. User_errors : Contains details of the compilation errors that occurred while the trigger was compiling . table on which table was created. max(salary) into v_minsal. created from user_objects where object_type='TRIGGER' User_Triggers : Contains name.salary<v_minsal or :New. trigger_type. v_maxsal from employees where job_id=:new. select object_name.’Salary Out Of Range’).job_id IF :New.level trigger on any such event is trying to read/write data into the same table. (A table is not mutating for STATEMENT level triggers. Create or Replace Trigger Check_Sal Before INSERT Or UPDATE OF salary.salary%type. END IF: END. triggering event. trigger body. V_maxsal employees. and any other table referencing it with the FOREIGN KEY constraint is also mutating.salary>v_maxsal then Raise_application_error(-20505. select trigger_name. referencing_names.job_id <>’PROG’) Declare V_minsal employees. triggering_event. BEGIN Select Min(salary). type. Consider a trigger which checks that the salary for a new employee or an existing employee is always between the minimum and maximum salaries for that job code. subobject_name. trigger_body from user_triggers table_name. job_id On Employees When (new. / Viewing Trigger Information User_objects : Contains name and status of the trigger and the date and time when the trigger was created.) A triggered table itself is mutating. status.

subprograms(procedures and functions) into one single container. types. constants. Can only be referenced by other constructs which are part of the same package. The Replace option drops and recreates the package specification. Can be referenced and changed(in case of variables) outside the package and are visible to the external users. Private or Local : Declared and Defined within the package body. which are stored separately in the database. exceptions. The package cannot be itself parameterized. Subprogram specification : Declares the PL SQL subprograms. Types of Package Constructs : Public or Global : Declared within the package specification and may be defined in the package body. cursors. The public procedures or functions can be invoked repeatedly by other constructs in the same package or from outside the package. This allows to change the definition of a program construct in the package body without causing the Oracle server to invalidate the other schema objects that call or reference the program construct.PACKAGES It is used to group together related PL SQL Types. Further calls to other constructs of the same package do not need any disk I/O. A Package. In the Specification we declare the variables. constants. has two parts : Package Specification and Package Body. cursors and sub programs available for use Package Body fully defines the cursors and subprograms. Public type and item declarations : Declares variables. Package Specification is the INTERFACE to your application. exceptions or types. When you call a packaged construct for the first time. . Creating the Package Specification Create or Replace Package package_name Is/as Public type and item declarations Subprogram specifications End package_name. called or nested. the entire package gets loaded into memory. items. generally. and thus implements the specification. Variables declared in the package specification are initialized to NULL by default.

Create or Replace Package comm_package Is g_comm Number :=0. Subprograms and Cursors are declared(without their respective bodies) in the package specification. If p_comm>v_max_comm then return(FALSE). if a package specification does not declare subprograms and cursors and declares only types. Else return(TRUE). constants. Begin Select max(commission_pct) into v_max_comm from employees. Private type and item declarations : Declares variables. Subprogram Bodies : Defines the PL SQL subprograms. The Replace option drops and recreates the package body. / Create or Replace Package Body comm_package Is Function validate_comm(p_comm IN Number) Return Boolean Is v_max_comm Number. Thus. End validate_comm. But the package body can still be used to initialize items declared in the package specification. -. . END comm_package. constants.declared and initialized procedure reset_comm(p_comm IN Number).10. variables. All private constructs must be declared before they are used in the public constructs. public and private. and this procedure should display the appropriate messages and reset and validate the prevailing commission. The function should be called through a procedure in the same package.Creating the Package Body Create or Replace Package Body package_name Is/As Private type and item declarations Subprogram Bodies(Private and Public) End package_name. then the package body is not necessary. exceptions. Write a package that contains a function that validates the commission so that the commission may not be greater than the highest commission amongst all the employees. exceptions or types. End if. cursors. and they have their underlying implementation(or bodies) in the package body.

Else Raise_application_error(-20210.mile_2_kilo|| ‘ kms.’Invalid Commission’). To invoke a package procedure or function from outside the package. yard_2_meter constant number :=0.comm_package.25) To invoke a procedure from a package through iSQL *Plus Execute comm_package. you need to qualify it’s name with the name of the package Comm_package. / When you invoke a package or function from within the same package. end global_consts. End if.reset_comm(0. hence it can be referenced by only other procedures/functions of the same package. The above function is a private function(declared and defined within the package body).936.reset_comm@ny(0. End comm_package.15) Declaring Bodiless Package Create Or Replace Package global_consts IS mile_2_kilo constant number :=1.6214. / Execute dbms_output. you need not qualify it’s name with the package name.9144.15) To invoke a procedure from a package through a different schema Execute scott.15) To invoke a procedure from a package through a remote database Execute comm_package.Procedure reset_comm(p_comm IN NUMBER) Is Begin If validate_comm(p_comm) then g_comm:=p_comm. meter_2_yard constant number :=1.’).6093.put_line(’20 miles = ‘ ||20*global_consts. This package specification declares public(global) variables that exist for the duration of the user session.reset_comm(0. End reset_comm.reset_comm(0. . kilo_2_mile constant number :=0.

Referencing a Public variable from a stand-alone procedure Create or Replace procedure meter_to_yard(p_meter IN number. p_yard Out number) Is Begin p_yard:=p_meter * global_consts. Advantages : Modularity since it encapsulates related constructs Easier Application Design. Overloading is a feature which enables you to have different packaged subprograms with the same name. / at the sql prompt >variable yard number >execute meter_to_yard(1. since multiple subprograms of the same name are allowed Better Performance : Entire package loaded into memory when a package is first referenced Only one copy of the package in memory for all the users Dependency hierarchy is simplified Overloading support in Packages Packaged subprograms(procedures or functions) Overloading not possible for stand-alone subprograms. can be overloaded.meter_2_yard. since specification and body are coded and compiled separately. To Drop the package body : Drop Package body package_name. Hiding Information : Only package declarations made in the specification are visible and accessible to applications Private package constructs are hidden and inaccessible All the coding is hidden in the package body. but differing in the number. . order or data-type of the formal parameters of the subprograms.:yard) > print yard To Drop the package Specification : Drop Package package_name. Added Functionality since it allows persistency of variables and cursors Overloading allowed. End meter_to_yard.

. p_empage). the compiler starts searching for a subprogram with that name in the current scope. but the different datatypes belong to the same family. empname. p_empage). Procedure add_employee(p_empname IN employees. empage) values(p_empno. the compiler stops the search.empage%type default 21) Is Begin Insert into employees(empno.empno%type.empname%type default ‘unknown’. p_age IN employees.empname%type default ‘unknown’.empage%type default 21). As soon as the compiler finds one or more subprograms with the required name. Procedure add_employee(p_empname IN employees. but the different subtypes belong to the same family. Example : VARCHAR and STRING are PL/SQL subtypes of VARCHAR2. Create or replace package body overload Is Procedure add_employee(p_empno IN employees.empage%type default 21).empname%type default ‘unknown’.RESTRICTIONS 1) 2) 3) Standalone subprograms cannot be overloaded Subprograms which differ only in the datatypes of their parameters. Resolving a Subprogram call When a call is made to a subprogram. Create or replace package overload Is Procedure add_employee(p_empno IN employees. p_empname. Example : NUMBER and DECIMAL datatypes belong to the same family Subprograms which differ only in the subtypes of their parameters. order and datatypes of the actual parameters passed with the called subprogram with formal parameters of the one or more subprograms searched in a scope. p_empname. End add_employee.nextval. p_empname IN employees. It then starts matching the number. empname.empage%type default 21) Is Begin Insert into employees(empno. END overload.empno%type. p_age IN employees. and if it does not find one in the current scope. p_empname IN employees. empage) values(empnoseq.empname%type default ‘unknown’. p_age IN employees. p_age IN employees. it starts searching in the enclosing scopes.

32) >Execute overload. To access the built-in subprogram. where they are invisible to the applications. then to use the built-in to_char function . The formal parameter list must appear in both the forward declaration and the subprogram body. since public package constructs are already declared in the package specification. Forward declarations are used when you need to : Define subprograms in a logical or alphabetical order Define mutually recursive subprograms(which call each other directly/indirectly) Group subprograms in a package Use Forward Declarations in the cases of private constructs or private subprograms of the package. . your local declaration overrides the built-in or standard subprogram. The subprogram can be then defined after another subprogram that calls it.to_char Using Forward Declarations PL/SQL does not allow forward referencing. if you have redeclared the to_char function. The subprogram body can appear anywhere after the forward declaration . you call it as :STANDARD. If you redeclare a built-in subprogram as a stand-alone subprogram then to access your sub-program you need to qualify it with your schema. you need to qualify it with the package name. and the subprogram bodies go in the package body. since the subprogram specifications go in the package specification.add_employee(101. To solve this. because the function to_char belongs to the builtin package STANDARD.add_employee(’Rahul’.End add_employee END overload. At the SQL PROMPT >Execute overload. 23) If you redeclare a built-in subprogram in another PL SQL Program unit.TO_CHAR. PL/SQL allows a special subprogram declaration called Forward declaration. example scott. but both must appear in the same program unit. Thus packages support forward declarations.’Rahul’. whereby you give the subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon. Thus. which means that a subprogram cannot be referenced or called before it has been declared.

/ . In such cases.Create or Replace Package Body forwardpack Is Procedure calc_rating(.. because the value is reset by the one-time-only procedure. / Create or Replace Package Body otop Is ----declare all private procedures/functions/variables ----define private/public procedures/functions Begin Select rate into hra from rate_mast where rate_name=’HRA’. End forwardpack. ----.No End for this one-time-only procedure END otop. The keyword END is not used at the end of the One-Time-Only procedures. --forward declaration Procedure award_bonus(…. ----declare all other public procedures/functions/variables END otop. since such procedures are executed only once when the package is invoked within a user session. Create or Replace Package otop Is Hra number. / One-time-Only Procedure When the derivation of the values is too complex it is difficult to initialize public or private variables to that value in the variable declaration. Procedure calc_rating(…) Is Begin End. we use one-time-only procedures. For such type of variables do not initialize them in the declaration.) Is begin Calc_rating(…) End.).

Restrictions on Package Functions 1) A function called from a query or DML statement cannot end the current transaction. / To use the packaged function : Select tax_calc_pack. Begin return(p_value*v_rate). salary from emp. End tax_calc_pack. End tax_calc_pack. End validate_comm. . end comm_package.tax_calc(salary). create or rollback to a savepoint or alter the system session 2) A function called from a query statement or a DML statement cannot execute a DML statement or otherwise modify the database 3) A function called from a DML statement cannot read or modify the table on which the DML was fired.08. / Create or Replace Package Body tax_calc_pack Is Function tax_calc(p_value in number) return number Is v_rate number :=0. If v_max_comm >=p_comm then return(TRUE). PERSISTENT State of a Package Create or Replace Package comm_package Is g_comm number :=10. / Create or Replace Package Body comm_package Is Function validate_comm(p_comm in number) return Boolean Is v_max_comm number. End tax_calc. Create or Replace Package tax_calc_pack Is Function tax_calc(p_value in number) return number. Begin Select max(commission_pct) into v_max_comm from employees. procedure reset_comm(p_comm in number). End if. Else return(FALSE).

Else raise_application_error(-20210. Max_comm=0.5 Execute comm_package.4. Invalid Commission Rollback .5 is Invalid Hence.reset_comm(0. End if. max_comm is 0.9) Execute comm_package.6) For this user. Max_comm=0.4.4 Execute comm_package.25 User Y 0930 0935 Insert into employees(empno.9>0.5 Hence g_comm=0. End reset_comm.3 Hence g_comm=0.4>0.reset_comm(0. / Time 0900 User X Execute comm_package. commission_pct) values(‘Ram’.25 Hence g_comm=0.reset_comm(0.4>0. maximum is still 0. Max_comm=0.reset_comm(0. Exit Logged In again Since the earlier transaction was rolled back.9. since user Y did not complete his transaction.4>0.Procedure reset_comm(p_comm IN number) Is Begin If validate_comm(p_comm) then g_comm:=p_comm.3) Max_comm=0. End comm_package.’Invalid Commission’).25) Assume maximum is 0.5) Now maximum is 0.0.3 1000 1100 1145 .

End pack_cur. Procedure p1 is Begin Open c1. End loop. the next three rows are fetched and displayed. End loop. and the cursor is not closed. Exit when c1%rowcount>=3. End pack_cur. The persistent state of a cursor/variable is maintained in a session of a user. End p2. When we continue to fetch in P2. / Create or Replace Package Body pack_cur Is v_empno number. / The cursor is opened in P1. End p1. Close c1. Dbms_output. The state does not persist across several sessions of the same user or acroos different users. three rows are fetched and displayed. Loop Fetch c1 into v_empno. Dbms_output.put_line(‘Employee Number :’ || (v_empno)). Thus packages maintain a persistent state of the package cursors. Procedure p1.put_line(‘Employee Number :’ || (v_empno)). . Procedure p2 is Begin Loop Fetch c1 into v_empno. Procedure p2.Persistent State of a Packaged Cursor Create or Replace Package pack_cur Is Cursor c1 is select empno from emp order by empno desc. Exit when c1%rowcount>=6.

Internal LOBs : They are stored inside the Oracle server in the LOB segment. but the LOB locator is stored in the row. photo BLOB). lname varchar2(25). video clippings. The BFILE column stores a file locator that points to the external file LOBs are characterized in two ways : Internal LOBs(CLOB. the following interfaces are used : PL/SQL package DBMS_LOB Oracle Call Interface(OCI) Oracle Objects for Object Linking & Embediing(OLE) Pro*C/C++/Pro*COBOL precompilers JDBC Suppose you have the following table : Create table employee (emp_id number(5). A BLOB< CLOB or NCLOB can be used in one of the following : Column of a table Attribute of a user-defined type PL SQL variable. . resume CLOB. graphic images. There are 4 large object data types BLOB for Binary large objects such as video clip CLOB for character large objects NCLOB for multibyte chracter large objects BFILE for a binary file stored at the OS level outside the database. parameter or return value(result) BLOB is interpreted by the Oracle server as a bit-stream. CLOB is interpreted by the Oracle server as a single-byte character stream NCLOB is interpreted by the Oracle server as a multiple-byte character stream. unstructured data such as text. similar to LONG RAW. BFILEs can be accessed only in the read-only mode from an Oracle server Components of a LOB : The 2 distinct components of an LOB are : LOB value : It is the data that constitutes the real object being stored LOB locator : It is a pointer to the location of the LOB value stored inside the database The LOB value may be stored anywhere in the database.LOB LOB is a data type to store large. based on the byte-length of the national character set To interact with LOB. BLOB) stored in the database External files(BFILE) stored outside the database. NCLOB. etc. fname varchar2(25).

Tech. dbms_lob. empty_clob(). You could have done the initialization work at the time of table definition as follows : Create table employee (emp_id number(5). Now we can put values as follows : Insert into employee values(10. MCSD. fname varchar2(25). resume CLOB default empty_clob(). Updating CLOB using DBMS_LOB in PL/SQL : Declare lobloc clob. Select resume from employee. NULL). -. amount. from where and text to write . values(10. MCP. amount to be written.MCDBA. offset. NULL).where to start writing Begin Select resume into lobloc from employee where emp_id=10 FOR Update. OCP Ph. such columns must be made non-null. Insert into employee values(20. it must contain a locator that points to an empty or populated LOB value.amount of data to be written offset number. then you could have used UPDATE command. that is. OCP’. Pangam’.write(lobloc.’ Pangam’. ‘Pangam’.’ ‘Manoj’. ‘M. This can be done through the insert or update statements as follows : Insert into employee empty_blob()). -. amount number. ‘Hemant’. ---For update locks the row and returns the LOB locator for the ---resume lob column offset :=DBMS_LOB.write at lob location. text). Now the columns have been initialized.Before you start writing data to CLOB/BLOB columns using DBMS_LOB package or OCI(oracle call interface) .D’. photo BLOB default empty_blob()). ‘Hemant’. but not yet populated by data. MCSD.getlength(lobloc)+2. --serves as the LOB locator text varchar2(30000):='Corporate Trainer'. lname varchar2(25). ‘MCA.MCDBA. You may initialize CLOB and BLOB columns by using the functions EMPTY_CLOB() and EMPTY_CLOB() functions respectively. MCP. amount :=length(text). -. If the record is already there.

End. create the following table : create table x(col1 varchar2(10). insert into x values(‘c2’.bmp')) . amount. bfilename('saloni'. text).substr(resume. Dbms_output. Managing BFILES Create a directory ‘saloni’ as a oracle user and give the path of the directory which contains your files as follows : Create or replace directory SALONI as ‘d:\saloni\saloni’ Give read privileges to users on that directory as follows : grant read on directory SALONI to public. Use the BFILENAME function to inset values as follows. Select resume into lobloc from employee where emp_id=20 FOR Update.writeappend(lobloc. -. 'Cor') from employee Selecting CLOB values in PL/SQL Declare Text varchar2(4000). amount to be written and text to write commit. Amount:=length(text) . / Selecting CLOB values using DBMS_LOB select dbms_lob. dbms_lob.put_line(‘Resume is : ‘ || text). col2 bfile).text:='Corporate Consultant cum System Analyst'.bmp and c2. 5). To disassociate a LOB value from a row: Update employee set resume =empty_clob() where emp_id=40 To Add LOB columns Alter table table_name add(col1 CLOB. dbms_lob. ensuring tha the files c1. 5.append at lob location.bmp')).instr(resume. bfilename('saloni'. Col2 BLOB).'c1.'c2.bmp are existing in the folder : insert into x values(‘c1’. End. Begin Select resume into text from employee where emp_id=10. / Removing LOBs To delete row containing LOBs : Delete from employee where emp_id=30.

dbms_lob.Once physical files are associated with the records using SQL.fileclose(v_file). / . dbms_lob.getlength(v_file)).bmp'. update x set col2=v_file where current of emp_cursor. you may now use subsequent read operations on BFILE using the PL/SQL dbms_lob package and OCI. Then the following procedure is used to load a BFILE pointer to an image of each employee into the table ‘X’ using DBMS_LOB package Create or Replace procedure load_emp (p_file_loc IN varchar2) IS v_file BFILE.col1||'. v_filename). Begin For erec IN emp_cursor Loop v_filename:=erec.put_line('Loaded File :' || v_filename ||' size : '|| dbms_lob. v_file:=BFILENAME(p_file_loc. End loop. End load_emp. dbms_output. cursor emp_cursor is select col1 from x for update. v_filename varchar2(20).fileopen(v_file).

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