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packages), and in the Oracle Development Environment(Oracle Forms, Oracle Reports, and Oracle Graphics) It supports SQL Data types. PL SQL bridges the gap and the need for procedural programming capabilities. Benefits of PL/SQL : Improved performance : It is used to group SQl statements together within a single block and to send the entire block to the server in a single call, thereby reducing the network traffic. Modularised program Development : Group logically related statements within blocks. Nest sub-blocks inside larger blocks to build a powerful program Break down complex problems into a set of manageable, well-defined , logical modules Place reusable PL/SQL code in libraries to be shared between Oracle applications or store it in an Oracle server to make it available to any userapplication. Portability : PL/SQL programs can run anywhere the Oracle server is installed, you do not need to tailor them to each new environment. Identifiers : It allows you to declare variables, cursors, constants, and exceptions and then use them in SQL and Procedural statements. It allows to declare variable belonging to scalar, reference, composite and LOB data types Declare variable based on the columns in the tables.
Procedural language Control Structures : Execute a sequence of statements conditionally Execute a sequence of statements iteratively in a loop Process the individual rows returned by a multi-row query with an explicit cursors. Error Handling : Process Oracle-server errors with exception handling routines Declare user-defined error conditions and process them with exception-handling routines Structure of a PL/SQL Block Declare(optional) Contains all the variables, constants, cursors and user-defined exceptions that will be used in the executable section Begin(Mandatory)-----Executable section Contains SQL statements to manipulate data in the database and PL/SQl statements to manipulate data in the data-block Exception(Optional) Contains actions to be performed when errors and abnormal conditions arise in the executable section End; set serveroutput on for dbms_output.put_line to give output in SQL
declare vname students.studname%type; vtotal students.total%type; begin select studname into vname from students where rollno=1; select total into vtotal from students where rollno=1; dbms_output.put_line('Name of Student is :'||vname); dbms_output.put_line('Total of Student is :'||vtotal); end; /
PL/SQL Block Types Anonymous Blocks: These are unnamed blocks. They are declared in an application where they need to be executed and are passed to the Server for execution at run-time. Example : Triggers in Oracle Developer consists of such blocks [Declare] Begin [Exception] End; Sub-Programs : These are named PL/SQL blocks that can accept parameters and can be invoked as and when required. They are declared as Procedures or Functions. Generally use procedures to perform an action and a function to compute and return a value. Procedure name is Begin --statements [Exception] End; Function name return datatype Is Begin --statements return value; [Exception] End;
Example . RECORD.Declaring PL/SQl variables Declare Birthdate date. field declaration. you have different kinds of data about an employee like name. Also known as Collections. Location varchar2(20) : = ‘Mumbai’. variable type_name. allows groups of fields to be defined and manipulated in PL/SQL blocks. each with it’s own name and data type. They are of 4 types : TABLE. salary.salary%type vgrade number(7.2). hire date. Must contain one or more components of any scalar type. NESTED TABLE and VARRAY. Numeric Date and Boolean types of data types. Instead of hardcoding the data type and size of a variable. The %type attribute. They have internal components that can be handled and manipulated individually. RECORD: A record is a group of related data items stored as fields. FALSE) vflag Boolean. Deptno number(2) NOT NULL : =10. you can use the %type attribute to declare a variable according to another previously declared variable or a column of a table. . TRUE .). PL/SQL also supports Boolean datatype Character. …. Type type_name IS RECORD ( field declaration. Boolean data types(only stores NULL. Example : vsalary employees. Salary constant number : = 10000 PL/SQL variables 1) Scalar These are the data types that correspond to the data types of columns in tables. vvflag Boolean :=TRUE 2) Composite Composite data types such as records. vvgrade vgrade %type:=10. This data is dissimilar in type but logically related.
The number and data types of the underlying database columns need not be known. TABLE : Objects of TABLE type are called INDEX By TABLES. Type type_name is Table of column_type/variable %type/table. emp_record emp_data. Can increase dynamically because it is unconstrained.column%type/table. This attribute is useful when retrieving a row into variables with the Select * From tablename.%rowtype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. To reference or initialize an individual field : Record_name.first_name:=’Ramesh’. .Type emp_data IS RECORD (first_name varchar2(10). An INDEX BY Table : Is similar to an array Must contain 2 components A Primary Key of data type Binary_Integer that indexes the INDEX BY TABLE A Column of a scalar or record data type. Emp_record. identifier type_name. They use a primary key to provide you with array-like access to rows. which stores the INDEX BY Table elements. last_name varchar2(10)). The number and the data types of the underlying database column may change at run time.field_name. Declaring Records with %rowtype The %rowtype attribute is used to declare a record based on a collection of columns in a database table or view Example : Declare Emp_record employees%rowtype.
Example : Set server output on.Type ename_table_type IS TABLE OF employees.first_name%type INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Birthdate_table(1) :=sysdate-10.Returns the index number that preceeds the index n in a table Next(n). it contains no keys or no values. Following methods are used by the INDEX BY Tables : Exists(n)-returns TRUE if the nth element exists Count-returns number of elements that a PL/SQL table currently contains FIRST. Type birthdate_table_type IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.n)-removes all elements in the range m…n from a PL SQL table.removes all elements from PL/SQL table DELETE(n)-removes the nth element from the PLSQL table. Ename_table ename_table_type. Birthdate_table birthdate_table_type. Initially such a table is not populated.Returns the index number that succeeds the index n in a table TRIM-removes oen element from the end of the PL SQL Table TRIM(n)-removes n elements from the end of the PLSQL Table DELETE.first_name%type INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. An explicit executable statement is required to initialize (populate) the Index By Table. . Type ename_table_type IS TABLE OF employees.returns the first and last index numbers Prior(n). My_emp_table emp_table_type. Declare Type ename_table_type IS TABLE OF employees%rowtype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Ename_table(1) :=’Ramesh’. DELETE(m. Ename_table ename_table_type. LAST.
last Loop Dbms_output. End. Statement 2. For i in my_emp_table. End if. .put_line(my_emp_table(i).. Begin For i in 100 .first_name). / 3) Reference These are the pointers to other program items. Conditional Constructs IF Statement If-then. End loop. End if. If <condition(s)> then Statement 1.first . If-then-else-end if. End loop. v_count Loop Select * into my_emp_table(i) from employees where employee_id=i. Else(optional) Statement 3. my_emp_table.. Statement 4. Statement 2.end if.V_count number(3):=104. If <condition(s)> then Statement 1.(Not a part of the syllabus) 4) LOBs Also called locators that specify the location of large objects(such as graphic images that are stored out of line.
/ PL/SQL Block to display "Very Good Student". if vtotal>=250 then dbms_output. end if. and "poor student" if total less than 250 declare vname students. Elsif <condition(s)> then Statement 3. if total of Rollno=1 is more than 275. if total of Rollno=1 is more than 275.put_line(Vname||' is a very good student'). Else(optional) Statement 7. "Average student" if total between 250 and <275. Statement 4. Statement 8. select total into vtotal from students where rollno=1. vtotal students.put_line(Vname||' is an average student'). vtotal students. select total into vtotal from students where rollno=1. If <condition(s)> then Statement 1.If-then-elsif-elsif-else-end if. . else dbms_output. PL/SQL Block to display "Very Good Student".total%type. Statement 6. End if. Elsif <condition(s)> then Statement 5.total%type. Statement 2. else display "Average student" declare vname students.studname%type.studname%type. begin select studname into vname from students where rollno=1. begin select studname into vname from students where rollno=1. end.
put_line(Vname||' is an average student'). Dbms_output. elsif vtotal>=250 and vtotal<275 then dbms_output. end. end if. CASE Expressions Case selector When expression1 then result1 When expression2 then result2 When expression3 then result3 When expressionN then resultN Else resultN+1(optional) End. else dbms_output. / .if vtotal>=275 then dbms_output. vappraisal varchar2(20). / Nesting of Ifs allowed as per situation. End.put_line(‘Grade ‘||vgrade||’ Appraisal ‘ || vappraisal).put_line(Vname||' is a very good student'). Begin Vappraisal := CASE vgrade When ‘A’ then ‘Excellent’ When ‘B’ then ‘Very Good’ When ‘C’ then ‘Good’ Else ‘No such grade’ End. Set serveroutput on.put_line(Vname||' is a poor student'). Declare vgrade char(1):=upper(‘&p_grade).
/ Numbers 1 to 10 in reverse order declare num number(2). end loop. / Print odd and even numbers from 1 to 20 and their count declare a number:=0. end if. end loop.highvalue loop statement1. dbms_output.put_line('There are '||a||' even numbers').put_line('number '|| num). begin For x in 1.put_line('Number '||x||' is Odd')..put_line('number '|| num).10 loop dbms_output. / . begin for num in 1.LOOPS 1) For <variable> in [reverse] lowvalue.2)=0 then dbms_output. end. b number:=0.10 loop dbms_output. statement2.. end.. end loop. begin for num in reverse 1. a:=a+1. end loop Numbers 1 to 10 in order declare num number(2).put_line('Number '||x||' is Even'). b:=b+1. dbms_output.. end.put_line('There are '||b||' odd numbers'). else dbms_output.20 loop if mod(x.
100 declare num number:=10. end loop.put_line(num).50 declare num number:=5.While <condition> loop statement1. statement2.put_line(num). num:=num+5. begin loop dbms_output. end.30.. end loop. begin while num<=100 loop dbms_output.. end.15. / ....10. / loop statement1. exit when <condition>.20. statement2. print 10.. end loop. end loop. num:=num+10.. print 5.. exit when num>50.20.
Exit When End loop. 3)Fetch and process Here you actually fetch the rows into variable if required and carry out all the business logic or processing. and manipulated in the block’s executable section. including queries that return only one row. Explicit Cursors Used to process each row returned by a multiple-row Select statement. 4)close It releases the active . Loop Fetch cursor_name into variable1. Declare Cursor cursor_name is Select ……. variable 2. EXPLICIT For queries that return more than one row. Close Cursor_name . explicit cursors are declared and named by the programmer. 2)Open This statement executes the query.CURSORS Cursors are names given to private SQL work areas created by the Oracle server to execute SQL statements and to store the processing information. The row returned by the query are called the active set and are now available for fetching Open Cursor_name. Following are the steps followed for handling explicit cursors : 1)declare Here we declare the cursor by naming it and define the structure of the query to be performed within it. It is now possible to reopen the cursor to re-establis a fresh active set. There are 2 types of cursors : IMPLICIT These are declaredc by PLSQL implicitly for all DML and PLSQL Select statements.
or else the last record will be displayed twice.put_line('Roll number :'||vrollno).total%type. vrollno students. vtotal. dbms_output. dbms_output.put_line('Total :'||vtotal). exit when cstudent%notfound should be done immediately after fetch. total of all the students declare cursor cstudent is Select Rollno. dbms_output. vname students. . vtotal students.put_line('Name :'||vname). Begin Open emp_cursor. begin Open cstudent. Emp_record emp_cursor%rowtype.rollno%type. last_name from employees. end loop.Evaluates to TRUE if the most recent fetch does not return a row %found. exit when cstudent%notfound. If the row need to be processed in a particular order. to print the name. loop fetch cstudent into vrollno. / Here. vname. end.Evaluates to TRUE if the most recent fetch returns a row %rowcount-Evaluates to the number of rows returned so far Example to retrieve row from employees table and populate them to another table with a similar structure Declare Cursor emp_cursor is select empid.Do not use the INTO clause in the cursor declaration.studname%type. close cstudent. "notfound" is a cursor attribute which is used to find whether the cursor currently contains a record or has reached the end of the file or recordset Explicit Cursor attributes %isopen – Evaluates to True if the cursor is open %notfound.total from students.studname. you may use the order by clause in the declaration.
first_name). name) values(emp_record. Statement2. Each time you open the cursor with a different set of values. Thus you can open and close an explicit cursor several times in a block. End loop. End loop. For record_name IN Cursor_name Loop Statement1. Close emp_cursor. returning a different active set. deptno from employees. Begin For emp_record IN emp_cursor --implicit open and fetch occurs Loop If emp_record.put_line(‘Employee ‘ ||emp_record. For each execution. because the cursor is opened.last_name) End loop.Loop Fetch emp_cursor into emp_record. Set serveroutput on. Commit. the previous cursor is closed and reopnened with a new set of values. End if.empid. --implicit close and implicit loop exit End. Retrieving the employees one by one and printing them if they belong to department 80. / Cursors with Parameters You can pass parameters to the cursors. End.deptno=80 then Dbms_output. emp_record. rows are fetched once for each iteration in the loop. and the cursor is closed automatically. the loop exits when the last row is processed. . Declare Cursor emp_cursor is select first_name . Exit when emp_cursor%notfound. Insert into temp_emp(empno. / Cursor For Loop It is a shortcut for processing explicit cursors.
[It is not necessary that the for update clause refers to a column . but not the size. you need to specify the FORMAL parameters.put_line(‘Employee no. End loop. and each of there formal parameters will have to be passed an ACTUAL parameter or value in the Open statement. because of the for update . since the update/delete which you want to perform is based on those values. Only that table’s rows will be locked whose column is referred to in the For update [of column] clause. Close emp_cursor Open emp_cursor(60. you can lock those row retuned by the cursor through the FOR Update clause. ‘Programmer’). last_name from employees whre department_id=p_deptno and job_id=p_job.] Also. To prevent any other user/transaction from changing those values. / For Update [Of column] clause Sometimes you may want to perform some update or delete based on the values that the cursor has returned to you.last_name). Close emp_cursor End.put_line(‘Employee no. but it is recommended by Oracle for better readability and maintenance. when querying multiple tables with a join. Declare cursor emp_cursor(p_deptno number.last_name). : ‘ || emp_record.In the cursor declaration. : ‘ || emp_record. For emp_record IN emp_cursor Loop Dbms_output.employee_id ||’ Employee name :’ || emp_record. Sometimes it may happen that the rows which you want to lock are already locked by another user/transaction. you can use the For update clause to ensure row locking to particular table of the join. ‘Sales_Rep’). For emp_record IN emp_cursor Loop Dbms_output. End loop. Hence it is important that no other user /transaction modifies those values. You have to specify the Formal parameter data types. Begin Open emp_cursor(80.In such a case.employee_id ||’ Employee name :’ || emp_record.. p_job varchar2) is select employee_id.
department_id.department_id=departments.10 WHERE CURRENT OF sal_cursor.deprtment_id=60 FOR UPDATE OF SALARY NOWAIT. departments where employees.salary<5000 then Update employees set salary=emp_record. department_name from employees.staff>=3 When this cursor is opened. the active set will contain the department number. count(*) as staff from employees group by department_id) t2 where t1.department_id and t2. End loop.clause your block will keep on waiting till the rows are released by the other user/transaction. so that instead of waiting indefinitely. the control is immediately passed to your program so that it can do some other work before trying to acquire the lock. Begin For emp_record in sal_cursor Loop If emp_record. employee_id. End if.staff from departments t1.salary*1. To avoid this type of waiting. Where current Of clause Sometimes you may want to update or delete the row being currently addressed.department_name. you can use the NOWAIT clause with the For update clause. But for this you need to lock the rows with the FOR UPDATE clause so that the rows are locked on open. salary from employees e. department name.department_id and d. Declare Cursor emp_cursor is Select employee_id.. . Declare Cursor sal_cursor is Select e. such that there are more than 3 employees working in each such department.department_id=e. This is possible through the WHERE CURRENT OF clause.department_id=t2.. (Select department_id.department_id and employees. last_name. without the need to refer to the ROWID. End. t1.department_id.department_id=60 FOR Update of salary NOWAIT. t2. and the total number of employees working in that department. departments d where d. / Cursors with subqueries Declare Cursor my_cursor is Select t1. last_name.
Declare them in the declaration section and raise them explicitly Declare Begin Exception When Exception1 [or exception2…. The exception being raised may be user-defined or pre-defined.EXCEPTIONS An exception is an identifier in a PL SQL Block that is raised during the execution of a block that terminates it’s main body of actions. Exceptions are raised in 2 ways : An oracle-defined error occurs and the appropriate exception is raised automatically.] then Statement1. . When an exception is raised. Declare them in the declaration section. etc Non Predefined Oracle Server : Other Oracle server errors. You explicitly raise an exception by issuing the RAISE statement within the block. But. Exception types Implicitly raised : Predefined Oracle Server : 20 most common errors. In such cases. If the exception is successfully handled. then the control is not passed back to the enclosing block or environment or point where the exception was raised. but the PL SQl block terminates successfully. Statement2. Do not declare them and oracle server will raise them implicitly No_data_found Too_many_rows Inavlid_cursor Zero_divide Dup_val_on_index... If an exception is raised and there is no corresponding exception handler. then the PL SQL block terminates with failure and the exception is propogated to the calling environment. you can specify an exception handler to perform some other actions. the control is passed to the exception handler in the exception section. and oracle server will raise them implicitly Explicitly raised : User-defined : A situation which is abnormal from the user point of view.
since the data is not found.put_line('Check the roll number'). Hence. besides the Exception section Trapping Predefined Exceptions : declare vtotal students. end. OTHERS is the last exception handler that is defined optionally Guidelines for Trapping Exceptions : Begin the Exception-handling section with the EXCEPTION Keyword Define the required number of exception-handlers. / Here. the control is not passed to the immediate next line. [When others then Statement5. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output.When Exception3 [or exception4….. / The exception handling section traps only those exceptions that are specified.] End. dbms_output. and the line which is after the line that caused the error is not executed. each with it’s own set of actions When an exception occurs PL SQL processes only one Exception-handler before leaving the block Place the OTHERS clause after all the other exception-handlers There can be only one OTHERS clause Exceptions cannot appear anywhere else. since when the error is encountered. others are not trapped.put_line('the roll number is not correct'). an error has occurred and the control is transferred to the exception handler. but to the exception handler. Statement6.] then Statement3. which traps any exception which is not yet handled. .total%type. begin select total into vtotal from students where rollno=16. unless you use the OTHERS exception handler. Statement4.
Example : Oracle returns error number –2292 when you try to delete a parent record which has got some child records. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(e_emps_existing. end. PRAGMA directs the PL SQL compiler to associate all occurrences of that Oracle error number with the given exception name within that block. which always return a standard Oracle server error number. but are not associated with name(exception name/error name). They are raised implicitly. End. / Trapping Non-Predefined Exceptions : There are certain non-predefined standard Oracle errors. or by using the OTHERS handler.total%type.put_line('More than 1 row selected'). Define p_deptno=20 Declare e_emps_existing EXCEPTION.put_line(‘Cant delete department to_char(&p_deptno) ||’ It has got employees existing ‘). begin select total into vtotal from students where total>100. The PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT utility tells the compiler to associate an exception name with an Oracle error number.declare vtotal students. you may refer to that exception by name and write a specific handler for it. Exception When e_emps_existing then Dbms_output. After doing this . / Functions for trapping Exceptions : SQLCODE-returns the numeric value for the error code SQLERRM-Returns the message associated with the error number ‘ || . exception when too_many_rows then dbms_output. Commit. BEGIN Delete from departments where department_id=&p_deptno. -2292). Such errors can be trapped by declaring it first .
begin select english into venglish from students where rollno=2. / . exception when low_mark then dbms_output. end. Begin Exception When OTHERS then Rollback. if venglish<35 then raise low_mark. insert into errors values(v_error_code. v_error_message).english%type.put_line('Failed in English'). v_error_message :=SQLERRM. end if. End. / Trapping User-Defined Exceptions : Declare the exception in the declarative section Raise the exception in the executable section Handle the exception in the Exception-handling section declare low_mark exception. v_error_code:=SQLCODE. v_error_message varchar2(200).SQLCODE value 0 1 +100 negative number Description No Exception encountered User-defined exception No_data_found exception Some standard Oracle server error number Example : to store all the error-numbers and error-messages in an ERRORS table Declare v_error_code number. venglish students.
End. Define p_department_desc =’Planning n esearch’ Define p_department_number=20 Declare e_invalid_department EXCEPTION. When e_no_rows then……. -2292). Begin For erec in emp_cursor loop Begin Select …….put_line(‘No such department number’). Begin Update departments set department_name=’&p_department_desc’ where department_id=&p_department_number. Exception When e_invalid_department then Dbms_output. End. End. pragma exception_init(e_integrity. since it is an update statement and not a select statement. If SQL%NOTFOUND then Raise e_no_rows.if marks in english are less than 35 then the exception is raised and the message is displayed. If SQL%NOTFOUND then Raise e_invalid_department. Update……. e_integrity exception. / . Exception When e_integrity then……. End loop. End if. Commit. End if. / Here no_data_found cannot be used . Sub-blocks can handle an exception or pass the exception to the enclosing block Declare … … e_no_rows exception..
It also handles the unhandled exceptions. error message) Error_number : Error message: must be a user. Raise_application_error(error_number.specified number for exceptions between -20000 to -20999 user-specified message upto 2048 bytes long. The error number and message are displayed to the user just like a predefined. nonpredefined or userdefined error .Raise_Application_Error Procedure : This procedure is used to communicate a predefined exception/error with a nonstandard error number and a user-friendly error message from stored subprograms. Raise_application_error can be used in either(or both) the executable section and the exception section.
. Parameter Modes : IN(default) : Value passed to the procedure from the calling environment. . 2000). It can stored in the database as a schema object. End hikesal.. …] -. Actual parameters are the variables or expressions passed while calling the procedure Execute hikesal(v_empid. The actual parameter can be a constant.Procedures A procedure is a type of sub-program that performs an action. or an initialised variable. In OUT: Passed to the procedure. parameter2 [mode] datatype. declaration section. Must be passed as a variable.executable and an optional exception section The pl sql block starts with either a BEGIN or the declaration of local variables and ends with END or End procedure_name. and then returned to the calling environment. p_empsal number) …. The Formal parameter acts as a constant and only takes the values passed by the calling environment. Cannot be assigned a default value. It has a Header section.header Is/AS --this section after is/as and before the begin is the declarative section PL SQl block --. But it can take a default value. OUT: Returned to the calling environment. Cannot be assigned a default value. Create or Replace Procedure procedure_name [parameter1 [mode] datatype. Must be passed as a variable. executable section and an optional exception-handling section. It is a named PL SQL block that can accept parameters(called arguments). It’s value cannot be changed in the procedure body. Formal versus Actual Parameters : Formal parameters are the variables declared in the parameter list of the procedure declaration Create or Replace procedure hikesal(p_empid number. expression.
years number. / to show increase in salary by 10 percent for all employees and an additional 5 percent for those who have completed more than 5 years of service create or replace procedure retemp(veno IN number.Stored Procedure to display employee numbers and their salaries for department 10 create or replace procedure retemp(veno IN number. ve.sal%type. end loop.05. vsal1 emp. vsal from emp where empno=veno.put_line('Employee salary is '||vs). / main block declare cursor c1 is select empno from emp where deptno=10. vs). dbms_output.ename%type. end. hiredate from emp. vsal IN OUT number.put_line('Employee name is '||ve). end.put_line('Employee number is '||erec. . vename OUT varchar2. vs emp.sal%type. vsal OUT number) is begin select ename. dbms_output.hiredate%type. / main plsql block declare cursor c2 is select empno. begin for erec in c1 loop retemp(erec. sal into vename. dbms_output. vdate1 emp. year IN number) is begin if year>=60 then vsal:=vsal*1.empno. sal. end.empno). ve emp. end if.
begin for rec in c2 loop dbms_output.1.put_line('Employee salary '||vsal1). p_salary.first_name%type. dbms_output. :g_sal. Methods of passing Actual Parameters : Positional : Here the actual parameters are passed in the order in which the Formal parameters are given with the procedure definition . OUT employees. end.vsal1.salary%type. Number execute query_emp(100.empno. p_comm. years). p_name OUT employees.put_line('Employee salary '||vsal1).employee_id%type. / at the calling environment : variable g_name varchar2(25) variable g_sal number variable g_comm. select months_between(sysdate.empno. dbms_output. :g_comm.hiredate) INTO YEARS from emp where empno=rec.put_line('Employee salary '||rec.sal).sal*1. :g_name.put_line('Employee number '||rec. dbms_output. p_comm from employees where employee_id=p_id. End emp_query. vsal1:=rec.empno). salary. end loop. retemp(rec.) print g_name print g_sal print The colon(:) is required to reference the host variable s in the execute command.commission_pct%type) is BEGIN Select first_name. commission_pct into p_name. / Viewing OUT Parameters : Create or replace procedure query_emp (p_id In employees. p_salary OUT employees.
one default End. and not to OUT or IN OUT Parameters.---Named association add_dept(p_loc=>400). Combination : Here the first actual parameter is passed positionally and the remaining are passed using the => symbol as in named association method. P_loc IN departments. / In Combinational method all the positional parameters must be before the named parameters. Default Option for parameters Create or Replace procedure add_dept(p_name IN departments.both default add_dept(‘Welfare’. Executing/Calling the above procedure : Begin add_dept. / Default values may be assigned only to In parameters . ----positional add_dept(p_loc=>300. p_loc). Because they are defined in the declaration section of another program/PL SQL Block/procedure. or else there will be an error. Any variable declared after the local subprogram will cause a compilation error. -. end.department_name%type DEFAULT ‘unknown’. it must me the last item declared.put_line('P1 is called'). p_name.nextval.Named Association : Here the actual parameters are passed in ant arbitary order by associating it with the corresponding formal parameter using the => symbol. their scope is limited to the parent(enclosing) block in which they are defined. declare procedure p1 is begin dbms_output. department_name. When you are declaring a sub-program in the declaration section of the main program.location_id%type DEFAULT 100) IS Begin Insert into departments(department_id. p_name=>’Medical’). 500) -. . location_id) values(departments_seq. End add_dept. --. Example : Execute add_dept(p_name=>’Legal’.will give an error as “a positional parameter may not follow a named parameter” Declaring Local Sub-procedures : The local procedures are not stored as Schema objects.200).
/ it will show error : p1 must be declared(if procedure p1. procedure p2 is begin dbms_output. log)date) values(USER. end. End del_emp. / declare procedure p1. dbms_output. is not types as line 1) The result is an infinite loop.put_line('In the main block')... dbms_output. log_exec. / . end.employee_id%type) IS Procedure log_emp IS Begin Insert into log_table(user_id. p2. begin p1. End log_emp. Procedure to delete an employees record and to log the entry of the user who deleted the record Create or Replace procedure del_emp(p_id IN employees. end. end.put_line('p1 called'). is never executed. SYSDATE). procedure p1 is begin dbms_output.put_line('p2 called'). and dbms. Begin Delete from employees where employee_id=p_id.. p2.put_line('In the main block'). p1.begin p1.
Begin Raise_salary(v_id). End.employee_id).Invoking a stored procedure from an anonymous block : Declare V_id number:=145. p_locid). / Invoking a stored procedure from another Stored procedure : Create or replace procedure emp_proc IS Cursor emp_cursor is select employee_id from employees. Insert into departments values(5. / Handled Exceptions : When an exception is raised in a called procedure. If the exception is handled. Begin Dbms_output. Select department_id into v_did from employees where employee_id=999. Begin For erec in emp_cursor Loop Raise_salary(erec. End loop. 200.put_line(‘Procedure INS_dept started’). Consider the following tables LOCATIONS Location_ID City 1 Mumbai DEPARTMENTS Department_ID 5 Department_name Welfare Manager_ID 200 Location_ID 1 Create procedure Ins_dept(p_locid number) IS v_did number(4). Commit. the control goes immediately to it’s exception section. Any DML statements issued before the exception was raised remain as part of the transaction. End emp_proc. ‘Mumbai’. Commit. then the block terminates. and the control goes to the calling program/environment. / . …… End.
If the exception is not handled by the calling procedure. Dbms_output. p_city varchar2) IS v_city varchar2(30). Suppose there is no such employee. Procedure ins_dept selects the department id for an employee whose employee id=999. Insert into locations(location_id. Thus. The procedure ins_dept is supoosed to insert a new department with department id=5. the calling procedure terminates and the exception propagates to the calling environment. Exception When no_data_found then Dbms_output. Ins_dept(p_lid).Create procedure Ins_loc(p_lid number.put_line(‘Invoking Procedure INS_dept’). Dbms_output.put_line(‘Inserted City ’|| v_city). the control is passed to the calling procedure ins_loc where the exception no_data_found is handled. So.put_line(‘No such employee’).put_line(‘MAIN Procedure INS_LOC started’). department name=Welfare. / The procedure INS_loc inserts a new location into the locations table. If in the above 2 procedures. ‘Mumbai’) If the exception is handled in the calling procedure. Manager ID=200 at the new location inserted through INS_loc. End. which is not handled in procedure ins_dept. v_dname varchar2(30). p_city). then the DMLs in both the procedures are rolled back if no employee with employee_id=999 is found. if the exception section from the ins_loc is removed. the DML in ins_dept is not rolled back. and becomes a part of the transaction of procedure ins_loc procedure Execute ins_loc(1. all DML statements in the calling and called procedure remain as part of the transaction. city) values(p_lid. Select city into v_city from locations where location_id=p_lid. then it raises no_data_found. department/location for any . ALL DML statements in the calling and called procedure are rolled back along with any changes to any host variables. Begin Dbms_output.
put_line('Inside the function'). return 10.header RETURN datatype Is/AS --this section after is/as and before the begin is the declarative section PL SQl block --. x:=f1. a function must have a RETURN clause in the header and at least one RETURN statement in the executable section. / Global or stored function : Stored in the database Defined and saved separately. can be called thru another pl/sql block . Function is called as part of a SQL expression or as a part of a PL SQL expression. end. parameter2 [mode] datatype. / The type of parameter mode should be only of type IN.executable and an optional exception section End function_name. end. executable part and an optional exception section. If it is necessary to declare a variable it should be done in the declare part of the enclosing program declare x number.put_line('value of x is'||x). Like a procedure. whereas a procedure returns zero or more values. a function has a header. Create or Replace Function function_name [parameter1 [mode] datatype. …] -. begin dbms_output. In addition.put_line('Inside the Main'). dbms_output. A function must return a value to the calling environment. function f1 return number is begin dbms_output. declarative section. Local functions : Not stored in database Defined and called within the same program Functions do not have declare.Functions Function is a named PL SQL block that can accept parameters and be invoked.
put_line('salary is not found'). dbms_output. Begin Select salary into v_salary from employees where employee_id=p_id.Create or Replace Function getsal(p_id IN employees. . End getsal.sal%type. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno=veno. to show the errors in the function coding.put_line('salary is '|| vsal). / Executing functions : Declare a variable to hold the return value. return true. end. to execute >@f1. return false. RETURN v_salary. as follows : variable gsalary number execute :gsalary :=getsal(130) print gsalary try the following on emp in scott : ed f1. create or replace function chkemp(veno number) return boolean is vsal emp.salary%type :=0.employee_id%type) RETURN number Is v_salary employee. which is a good programming practice. / at the sql prompt :>show_error.
main block declare y number :=&eno. end loop. end.empno). else dbms_output.put_line('Employee Not Existing'). begin update emp set sal=sal+(sal*inc/100) where empno=veno.empno. inc number) return number is vsal number. / stored function to update the salaries of employees getting less than 3000 with increment of certain % percent create or replace function upsal(veno number. incr number :=&incr. return vsal. incr).put_line('Increased salary is '||incsal||' for employee '|| erec. dbms_output. flag boolean. begin for erec in c1 loop incsal:=upsal(erec. / . end. end. commit. if flag=True then dbms_output. incsal number. begin flag:=chkemp(y).put_line('Employee Existing'). sal from emp where sal<3000. select sal into vsal from emp where empno=veno. / select text from user_source where type ='FUNCTION' and name='UPSAL' order by line main pl/sql block declare cursor c1 is select empno. end if.
tax(salary) from employees where tax(salary) >(select max(tax(salary)) from employees where departmentid=30) order by tax(salary) desc Restrictions on calling function : The function must be a Stored Function It must accept only IN parameters Accept the parameters whose data type must be standard SQL data type and NOT a PL SQL data type . salary. There can be a RETURN statement in the exception section also. End Tax. Having a function returning multiple values is a poor programming practice. / INVOKING a function from a SQL Expression Suppose you have a table employees with salary column then you may use the above function as follows to calculate their tax Select empno. Increase efficiency of queries by performing functions in the query rather than in the application Create or Replace Function tax(p_value IN NUMBER) Return NUMBER IS Begin Return(p_value * 0. Advantages of Functions : To perform calculations that are complex. Locations from where you may call a User-defined function : Select list of a SELECT command Condition of the WHERE and HAVING clause Connect by . order by and group by clauses Values clause of the insert command SET clause of the update command Select empno. since the purpose of a function is to accept 0 or more parameters and return a single value. and it involves a lot of complications and side effects.08).Although 3 parameter modes IN. awkward or unavailable with SQL Increase data independence by processing complex data at the Oracle server level(since the stored functions are stored at the server). do not use OUT and IN OUT with functions. OUT and IN OUT are available with functions. tax(salary) from employees. start with. rather than retrieving data into an application.
10000). Return(p_sal +100).The return data types must be a standard SQL data type and NOT a PL SQL data type Restrictions from where a stored function can be called : Functions called from an Update/Delete statements on a Table XYZ cannot contain a DML statement on the table XYZ Functions called from an Update/Delete statements on a Table XYZ cannot query the table XYZ When called from an INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE/SELECT statement. Examples Create or Replace function abc(p_sal number) Return number is Begin Insert into employees(employee_id. the function cannot contain commands that end the transaction. Here also the mutating table error is returned When the code in a function is querying or reading the data in a table which is being updated. End. / The function fails with the folliwng : Update employees set salary=abc(2000) where emplyee_id=90.’Pereira’. If a Function internally calls sub subprogram(that is another function or procedure) then that sub program even muts not violate any of the above mentioned restrictions. last_name. Return (s+a). such a COMMIT(transaction control statement). Begin Select salary into s from employees where employee_id=95. / Update employees set salary=xyz(100) where employee_id=95. We are calling the function thru the update command on the same table employees. such a table is called MUTATING table . SET ROLE(session control statement). The function contains a DML statement on table employees. salary) valurs(1001. ALTER SYSTEM(system control statement). or DDL commands Functions called from a SQL Expression(as shown above) cannot contain a DML Statement. sysdate-10. End. appoint_date. The update statement returns an error saying that the table is mutating Aslo Create or replace function xyz( a number) retutn number is s number.
which is returned to the calling environment . Procedure V/s. Function Executes as a PL SQL Block Invoked as part of an expressionm Exec Proc_name Does not contain a RETURN clause in Must contain a RETURN clause in the the Header Header May or may not return values Must return a single value Used to perform a series of actions Used to compute some value.To drop a function : Drop function function_name.
. but only through a procedure manoj__proc which is created by the user MANOJ. If a PL SQL subprogram refers to any objects that are not in the same schema. then you must be granted access to those objects explicitly. Alter. Grant Alter any PROCEDURE to user_name. Suppose we need to ensure that SALONI can access the table EMPLOYEES in the schema HEMANT. or excute your own subprograms and those in another schema. alter. DIRECT ACCESS From Hemant schema grant object –level privilge on the table employees to user Manoj Manoj has created the procedure manoj_proc that queries the Employees table in the schema Hemant INDIRECT ACCESS Manoj grants execute privilge to Saloni on his procedure manoj_proc This Saloni can access By default subprograms execute under security domain of the owner. The keyword ANY is optional for CREATE. which is called DEFINER’s-RIGHTS. Grant Execute any PROCEDURE to user_name. The keyword PROCEDURE is used to assign such rights on Stored Procedures. Providing INDIRECT ACCESS to Data Suppose EMPLOYEES table in Scheme(user) HEMANT. drop. Grant Drop any PROCEDURE to user_name. not through a role If you are not the owner of a subprogram. System privileges are granted by the user SYSTEM or SYS Grant Create (any) PROCEDURE to user_name.Managing Subprograms : System privileges are required to Create. then you must have EXECUTE privilege on that subprogram. There is another user MANOJ and a third USER SALONI. The keyword ANY means that you ca create. Functions and Packages. Drop or Execute subprograms.
Package Body LINE -Line number of the source code where error occurred Position -Position in the line where the error occurred Text -Text of the error message SHOW ERRORS [Function/Procedure/Package/Package body/Trigger/View This will show use the errors that occurred while trying to compile the articular program unit. PACKAGE BODY. ALL_SOURCE and DBA_SOURCE contain the additional column Owner Select text from user_source where name=’PROCEDURE_name’ order by line. Package Body LINE -Line number of the source code TEXT -Text of the source code line This table contains one record for each line of code. both of which contain an additional OWNER column. PACKAGE. PROCEDURE. query the user_objects USER_OBJECTS Object_name Object_Id Object_type CreateLast_DDL_Time Timestamp Status -Name of Object -Internal identifier for the object -Whether TABLE.User_Objects To obtain names of all PL/SQL stored objects within a schema. SHOW ERRORS without any [parameter will show the compilation errors The following query will also show you an output which is similar to that of show errors . Package. USER_SOURCE Name -Name of the object Type -Type of object : Procedure. TRIGGER -Date of object creation -Date when object was last modified -Date and time when object was last recompiled -VALID or INVALID You can also examine the ALL_OBJECTS and DBA_OBJECTS. FUNCTION. USER_ERRORS Name -Name of the object Type -Type of object : Procedure. Function. Function. Package.
text from user_errors where name=’proc_name’ order by line.Select line || ‘/’||position. .
TRIGGERS Definition : Trigger is basically a PL/SQL block or PL/SQL procedure associated with a Table/View/Schema/Database and which executes implicitly whenever a particular event takes place Types of Triggers : Application Triggers which execute implicitly when a particular DML event occurs within an application such as Oracle Forms Developer Database Triggers which could be 1) Data Event or 2) System Event Data Event trigger fires implicitly whenever a DML operation occurs on table or a DDL event such as CREATE/ALTER are issued. It could also be an INSTEAD OF Trigger on a View. They are fired irrespective of the user connected and irrespective of the application used. System Event Triggers are fired when a system event occurs such as user logs on, user shutsdown, etc Guidelines for Designing Triggers Dos Design Triggers to guarantee that when a specific operation is performed, related actions are performed. Use Triggers only for Centralised, Global Operations that occur for the triggering event, regardless of the user or application that issues the triggering statement. Donts Do not use triggers when the functionality is already built into Oracle Server. Do not use triggers to implement integrity constraints. Use the built-in constraints Excessive use of triggers can result into complex interdependencies. If the logic is very lengthy, write a stored procedure for the same and invoke the stored procedure in the trigger body If multiple triggers of the same type are defined for a table, their order of execution is arbitary. To ensure that multiple triggers of the same type are executed in a particular order, write stored procedures for the different actions and have a single consolidated trigger in which you call those stored procedures in the required order. The Trigger Statement contains : Trigger Timing :BEFORE, AFTER for tables Triggering Event :INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE Table name :On table or view Trigger Type :Statement level or Row level Trigger Body :PL SQL block INSTEAD OF for views
BEFORE :Execute the trigger body before the triggering DML event on the table To determine whether the triggering statement should be allowed to complete To calculate some values before completing the triggering Insert or Update statement To validate or set some complex business logic To initialize some global variables or flags BEFORE :Execute the trigger body before the triggering DML event on the table To complete the triggering statement before executing the trigger body INSTEAD OF This type of trigger is used to modify data through a view that was otherwise not modifiable because of the inherently non-modifiable nature of the view. Such trigger works in the background by performing the action directly on the underlying base tables involved in the view. You may write INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statements on a view. The Triggering Event can be INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statement on a table. In case of UPDATE statement, you can specify the column, which if changed, causes the trigger to fire. The triggering event can contain one or two or all the three DML operations. The trigger type can be Statement Trigger or Row Trigger. A Statement Trigger is fired once for the triggering event. It may affect zero or more rows, but is fired only once. They are used when the trigger-action to be performed is independent of the data affected by the triggering event. A Row Trigger is fired once for each affected row. If no rows are effected, then the trigger is not fired. They are used when the trigger-action depends on the data or rows affected by the triggering event. The Trigger body defines the action that needs to be performed when the triggering action is issued. It is a PL SQL block containing SQL and PL SQL statements defining PL SQL types, item, variables, constants, cursors, exceptions, etc. You can call other PL SQL procedures or Java Procedures. Trigger size cannot be more than 32K. The Firing Sequence is as follows : BEFORE Statement Trigger -------- once BEFORE Row Trigger AFTER Row Trigger AFTER Statement Trigger -------- once for each affected row -------- once for each affected row --------- once
Syntax for Statement Level Trigger Create or Replace Trigger Trigger_name Timing Event1 or Event2 or Event3 On table_view_name Trigger_body The trigger name must be unique with respect to other triggers in the same schema. Trigger name need not be unique with respect to other schema objects like table, view, or procedure. A trigger to prevent insertion of records into the dept table on Saturdays or Sundays or on non-working hours on other days create or replace trigger check_deptno before insert on dept begin if (to_char(sysdate,'DY') in ('SAT','SUN')) or (to_char(sysdate,'HH24:MI') not between '09:00' and '17:00' ) then raise_application_error(-20500,'Insert Not allowed'); end if; end; / Raise_application_error is a server-side built-in procedure that returns an error to the user and causes the PL SQL block to fail. When the database trigger fails, the triggering statement is automatically rolledback by Oracle Server. Table : DEPT DEPTNO varchar2 DEPTNAME vrachar2 A trigger to prevent insert or update or delete operations on table dept create or replace trigger check_deptno before insert or update or delete on dept begin if deleting then raise_application_error(-20500,'Delete Not allowed'); elsif Inserting then raise_application_error(-20501,'Insert Not allowed'); elsif Updating('deptno') then raise_application_error(-20502,'Updating of deptno Not allowed'); else raise_application_error(-20503,'Updating of Table Not allowed'); end if; end; /
'Hello'). the WHEN clause is to restrict the Trigger action to those rows that satisfy a certain condition With ROW Level trigger only. No colon(:) required if the Qualifiers are used in the WHEN clause. / with the WHEN clause you can specify a condition in the brackets. Old_deptname varchar2(15). Time timestamp.Special Conditional Predicates INSERTING.deptno>50) begin raise_application_error(-20555. DELETING. Thus. UPDATING(‘column’) can be used in a single trigger for combining several triggering events into one single trigger Syntax for Row Level Trigger Create or Replace Trigger Trigger_name Timing Event1 or Event2 or Event3 On table_view_name For Each Row [When (condition)] Trigger_body create or replace trigger check_dept before insert on dept for each row when(new. Old_deptno varchar2(15). New_deptname varchar2(15) ) . UPDATING. New_dept varchar2(15). If the condition is satisfied then only we enter into the trigger body. Operation For INSERT For UPDATE For DELETE Old Value NULL Value before update Value before update New Value Newly Inserted value Value after update NULL Table : AUDT_DEPT create table audt_dept ( User_name varchar2(15). You need to use the colon(:) as a prefix in every SQL and PL SQL statement. end. The WHEN clause is optional. we can use the OLD and NEW Qualifiers to reference the value of a column before and after the data change by prefixing the column name with the OLD and NEW Qualifiers. The condition is evaluated for each row to determine whether or not the trigger body is executed.
INSTEAD OF Trigger It is used to modify the data where a DML statement has been issued against an inherently non-updatable view(that is views which are non-updatable because the underlying query may contain set operator. :new. group by clause.deptname). end. start. The INSTEAD OF trigger must enforce the check.deptno. distinct operator or a join of 2 or more tables. sysdate. Create or Replace Trigger Trigger_name INSTEAD OF Event 1 or event2 or event3 On View_name For each row Trigger_body Even if FOR EACH ROW is omitted. group function. Consider the following tables : Table Empid Empname Salary Deptno Table Deptno Deptname Totalsal : Employee : Dept_stat . Such triggers are Row Level Triggers. INSTEAD OF Triggers is still defined as a Row Trigger. :old. Unlike other triggers. The WITH CHECK option for views is not enforced when insertion/updation are performed by using the INSTEAD OF Trigger. :old. BEFORE and AFTER options are not valid.deptname.deptno. connect by. :new. this trigger is fired by Oracle sever instead of executing the triggering statement.create or replace trigger audt_dept after insert or update or delete on dept for each row begin insert into audt_dept values(user.
Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal +(:new. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal + :new.salary where deptno=:new. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal :old.deptno where empid=:old. e.deptno. :new. e. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal+:new.empid.deptno=d.salary .deptname from employee e.deptno. d.empid.empname. End if.salary deptno=:old. :new.salary where deptno=:old. where Elsif UPDATING(‘SALARY’) then Update employee set salary=:new.deptno.deptno.empname.empid.deptno. Create view empl_view as Select e. / To Enable/Disable a Trigger Alter Trigger Trigger_name DISABLE/ENABLE To Enable/Disable all Triggers on a table Alter Table Table_name DISABLE/ENABLE ALL TRIGGERS To Recomplie a Trigger Alter Trigger Trigger_name COMPILE .empid.salary where deptno=:new. End.deptno). e.salary. :new. dept_stat d where e. Create or Replace Trigger New_emp_check INSTEAD OF INSERT OR DELETE OR UPDATE FOR EACH ROW Begin If INSERTING THEN Insert into employee values(:new.deptno.salary where empid=:old. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal-:old.deptno.salary where deptno=:old.salary.:old.empid. Elsif DELETING Then Delete from employee where empid=:old.Following trigger updates the total salary in Dept_stat table whenever rows are inserted/update/deleted from the Employee table. Elsif Updating(‘Deptno’) then Update employee set deptno=:new.
On Database/Schema Trigger_body . Table. A Schema or Table Level Trigger fires only when that schema or table is involved. Sequence. Causes the Oracle Server to fire the trigger whenever a Create/Alter/Drop Statement modifies a Database Object in the Data Dictionary. View or a User Triggers on System Events : Create OR Replace Trigger Trigger_name Timing Database_Event1 Or Database_Event2 or…. Package. regardless of whether it is valid or invalid. Events that can cause a System Level Trigger to fire are : A DDL statement on a object in the database or schema (the trigger can be Database Level or Schema Level) Specific User or any other User logs on or off (the trigger can be Database Level or Schema Level) Database Shutdown or Startup (the trigger can be Database Level only Triggers on DDL Statements : Create OR Replace Trigger Trigger_name Timing DDL_Event1 Or DDL_Event2 or…. Function. To Drop a Trigger Drop Trigger Trigger_name. Index. Procedure. Role. Synonym. The DDL Triggers fire when the Object is a Cluster. All the triggers on a table are dropped when the table is dropped. On Database/Schema : You can create triggers on DDL Statements at the DATABASE or SCHEMA Level. On Database/Schema Trigger_body Timing : BEFORE or AFTER DDL_Event : CREATE OR ALTER OR DROP. Tablespace. Trigger. Trigger_body : It is a complete PL SQL Block. SYSTEM LEVEL TRIGGERS Triggers on system events can be defined at the Database Level or Schema Level. Type . Triggers A Database Level Trigger fires for all users.This command is used to explicitly recompile a trigger.
‘Logged Off’). CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER logon_trig AFTER LOGON ON SCHEMA BEGIN Insert into log_trig_table(userid. A mutating table is the one that is currently being modified by an UPDATE. The procedures so called can be implemented in PL SQL. / CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER logoff_trig AFTER LOGOFF ON SCHEMA BEGIN Insert into log_trig_table(userid. job_id ON Employees For Each Row When(new. ‘Logged On’). END. SYSDATE. action) values(USER. AFTER LOGON : Whenever a User Logs on to the Database BEFORE LOGOFF : Whenever a User Logs off the Database AFTER STARTUP : Whenever a Database is opened BEFORE SHUTDOWN: Whenever a Database is shut down These triggers can be created at the DATABASE or SCHEMA LEVEL.salary) MUTATING TABLE When the code in a trigger is querying or reading the data in a table which is being updated. action) values(USER.job_id<>’YYZ’) CALL check_sal(:new. date. Create or Replace Trigger salary_check Before Update of Salary . There is no semicolon at the end of the CALL Statement. :new. END. Java. which are applicable to only row level triggers or a statement level trigger that is fired because of the referential integrity constraint ON DELETE CASCADE. C. but SHUTDOWN and STARTUP apply only to the Database Level. date. The CALL statement enables you to call a stored procedure. / CALL Statement : It is recommended to create stored procedures and call them in the Trigger body rather than coding the PL SQL body in the trigger itself.Database_Events : AFTER SERVERERROR : Whenever a Server Error Message is logged.job_id. INSERT OR DELETE statement and a ROW . Reading and Writing data using triggers follows certain rules. such a table is called MUTATING table. SYSDATE.
status. Create or Replace Trigger Check_Sal Before INSERT Or UPDATE OF salary.job_id IF :New.salary>v_maxsal then Raise_application_error(-20505. subobject_name.) A triggered table itself is mutating.job_id <>’PROG’) Declare V_minsal employees.’Salary Out Of Range’).level trigger on any such event is trying to read/write data into the same table. referencing_names. type. triggering event. trigger body. (A table is not mutating for STATEMENT level triggers. select trigger_name. status. / Viewing Trigger Information User_objects : Contains name and status of the trigger and the date and time when the trigger was created. Consider a trigger which checks that the salary for a new employee or an existing employee is always between the minimum and maximum salaries for that job code.salary<v_minsal or :New. User_errors : Contains details of the compilation errors that occurred while the trigger was compiling . created from user_objects where object_type='TRIGGER' User_Triggers : Contains name. trigger_body from user_triggers table_name. BEGIN Select Min(salary). max(salary) into v_minsal. table on which table was created. and any other table referencing it with the FOREIGN KEY constraint is also mutating. job_id On Employees When (new. select object_name. triggering_event. V_maxsal employees. END IF: END.salary%type. trigger_type. v_maxsal from employees where job_id=:new.salary%type.
subprograms(procedures and functions) into one single container. Creating the Package Specification Create or Replace Package package_name Is/as Public type and item declarations Subprogram specifications End package_name. cursors and sub programs available for use Package Body fully defines the cursors and subprograms.PACKAGES It is used to group together related PL SQL Types. Can be referenced and changed(in case of variables) outside the package and are visible to the external users. items. types. called or nested. cursors. Can only be referenced by other constructs which are part of the same package. A Package. Types of Package Constructs : Public or Global : Declared within the package specification and may be defined in the package body. exceptions. In the Specification we declare the variables. exceptions or types. and thus implements the specification. When you call a packaged construct for the first time. constants. This allows to change the definition of a program construct in the package body without causing the Oracle server to invalidate the other schema objects that call or reference the program construct. which are stored separately in the database. Further calls to other constructs of the same package do not need any disk I/O. Private or Local : Declared and Defined within the package body. . Variables declared in the package specification are initialized to NULL by default. The package cannot be itself parameterized. generally. the entire package gets loaded into memory. Subprogram specification : Declares the PL SQL subprograms. Public type and item declarations : Declares variables. The public procedures or functions can be invoked repeatedly by other constructs in the same package or from outside the package. The Replace option drops and recreates the package specification. Package Specification is the INTERFACE to your application. has two parts : Package Specification and Package Body. constants.
Write a package that contains a function that validates the commission so that the commission may not be greater than the highest commission amongst all the employees. Create or Replace Package comm_package Is g_comm Number :=0. The Replace option drops and recreates the package body. public and private. If p_comm>v_max_comm then return(FALSE). cursors. END comm_package.declared and initialized procedure reset_comm(p_comm IN Number). variables. Subprograms and Cursors are declared(without their respective bodies) in the package specification. and this procedure should display the appropriate messages and reset and validate the prevailing commission. constants. if a package specification does not declare subprograms and cursors and declares only types. Subprogram Bodies : Defines the PL SQL subprograms. But the package body can still be used to initialize items declared in the package specification.Creating the Package Body Create or Replace Package Body package_name Is/As Private type and item declarations Subprogram Bodies(Private and Public) End package_name. The function should be called through a procedure in the same package. constants. -. Begin Select max(commission_pct) into v_max_comm from employees. exceptions. End if.10. Thus. and they have their underlying implementation(or bodies) in the package body. Else return(TRUE). / Create or Replace Package Body comm_package Is Function validate_comm(p_comm IN Number) Return Boolean Is v_max_comm Number. then the package body is not necessary. End validate_comm. . exceptions or types. All private constructs must be declared before they are used in the public constructs. Private type and item declarations : Declares variables.
End comm_package.25) To invoke a procedure from a package through iSQL *Plus Execute comm_package. / When you invoke a package or function from within the same package.comm_package. To invoke a package procedure or function from outside the package.936.reset_comm(0.6214. yard_2_meter constant number :=0.15) To invoke a procedure from a package through a remote database Execute comm_package.’).reset_comm(0. kilo_2_mile constant number :=0. . End if. Else Raise_application_error(-20210.put_line(’20 miles = ‘ ||20*global_consts. end global_consts. / Execute dbms_output. hence it can be referenced by only other procedures/functions of the same package. This package specification declares public(global) variables that exist for the duration of the user session.6093.mile_2_kilo|| ‘ kms. you need not qualify it’s name with the package name. End reset_comm.reset_comm@ny(0. meter_2_yard constant number :=1.’Invalid Commission’). The above function is a private function(declared and defined within the package body).9144. you need to qualify it’s name with the name of the package Comm_package.reset_comm(0.15) To invoke a procedure from a package through a different schema Execute scott.Procedure reset_comm(p_comm IN NUMBER) Is Begin If validate_comm(p_comm) then g_comm:=p_comm.15) Declaring Bodiless Package Create Or Replace Package global_consts IS mile_2_kilo constant number :=1.
but differing in the number.Referencing a Public variable from a stand-alone procedure Create or Replace procedure meter_to_yard(p_meter IN number. can be overloaded. since multiple subprograms of the same name are allowed Better Performance : Entire package loaded into memory when a package is first referenced Only one copy of the package in memory for all the users Dependency hierarchy is simplified Overloading support in Packages Packaged subprograms(procedures or functions) Overloading not possible for stand-alone subprograms. / at the sql prompt >variable yard number >execute meter_to_yard(1. . order or data-type of the formal parameters of the subprograms. To Drop the package body : Drop Package body package_name. p_yard Out number) Is Begin p_yard:=p_meter * global_consts.meter_2_yard. since specification and body are coded and compiled separately. End meter_to_yard. Advantages : Modularity since it encapsulates related constructs Easier Application Design. Added Functionality since it allows persistency of variables and cursors Overloading allowed. Overloading is a feature which enables you to have different packaged subprograms with the same name. Hiding Information : Only package declarations made in the specification are visible and accessible to applications Private package constructs are hidden and inaccessible All the coding is hidden in the package body.:yard) > print yard To Drop the package Specification : Drop Package package_name.
empno%type. Example : NUMBER and DECIMAL datatypes belong to the same family Subprograms which differ only in the subtypes of their parameters. End add_employee. p_empname.empname%type default ‘unknown’.empage%type default 21) Is Begin Insert into employees(empno. p_age IN employees. It then starts matching the number. Example : VARCHAR and STRING are PL/SQL subtypes of VARCHAR2. Procedure add_employee(p_empname IN employees. Create or replace package overload Is Procedure add_employee(p_empno IN employees. empage) values(empnoseq.empage%type default 21).empage%type default 21) Is Begin Insert into employees(empno. END overload.empage%type default 21). Resolving a Subprogram call When a call is made to a subprogram. Create or replace package body overload Is Procedure add_employee(p_empno IN employees. but the different subtypes belong to the same family. As soon as the compiler finds one or more subprograms with the required name. order and datatypes of the actual parameters passed with the called subprogram with formal parameters of the one or more subprograms searched in a scope. p_empage). .empname%type default ‘unknown’. the compiler starts searching for a subprogram with that name in the current scope. Procedure add_employee(p_empname IN employees.empname%type default ‘unknown’. the compiler stops the search. p_age IN employees. p_age IN employees.RESTRICTIONS 1) 2) 3) Standalone subprograms cannot be overloaded Subprograms which differ only in the datatypes of their parameters. empage) values(p_empno. empname.nextval.empno%type. p_empname IN employees. but the different datatypes belong to the same family.empname%type default ‘unknown’. p_age IN employees. p_empname IN employees. empname. it starts searching in the enclosing scopes. p_empname. p_empage). and if it does not find one in the current scope.
Thus packages support forward declarations. . At the SQL PROMPT >Execute overload. PL/SQL allows a special subprogram declaration called Forward declaration. whereby you give the subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon. 23) If you redeclare a built-in subprogram in another PL SQL Program unit. The subprogram body can appear anywhere after the forward declaration . To access the built-in subprogram. The formal parameter list must appear in both the forward declaration and the subprogram body. The subprogram can be then defined after another subprogram that calls it. since the subprogram specifications go in the package specification.’Rahul’. since public package constructs are already declared in the package specification. you need to qualify it with the package name. To solve this.add_employee(101. Thus. if you have redeclared the to_char function.add_employee(’Rahul’. Forward declarations are used when you need to : Define subprograms in a logical or alphabetical order Define mutually recursive subprograms(which call each other directly/indirectly) Group subprograms in a package Use Forward Declarations in the cases of private constructs or private subprograms of the package. 32) >Execute overload. then to use the built-in to_char function . but both must appear in the same program unit.to_char Using Forward Declarations PL/SQL does not allow forward referencing.TO_CHAR. If you redeclare a built-in subprogram as a stand-alone subprogram then to access your sub-program you need to qualify it with your schema. example scott. and the subprogram bodies go in the package body. because the function to_char belongs to the builtin package STANDARD.End add_employee END overload. your local declaration overrides the built-in or standard subprogram. where they are invisible to the applications. you call it as :STANDARD. which means that a subprogram cannot be referenced or called before it has been declared.
No End for this one-time-only procedure END otop. End forwardpack. Create or Replace Package otop Is Hra number. / . The keyword END is not used at the end of the One-Time-Only procedures.) Is begin Calc_rating(…) End. we use one-time-only procedures. / One-time-Only Procedure When the derivation of the values is too complex it is difficult to initialize public or private variables to that value in the variable declaration. For such type of variables do not initialize them in the declaration.). Procedure calc_rating(…) Is Begin End.Create or Replace Package Body forwardpack Is Procedure calc_rating(. ----. since such procedures are executed only once when the package is invoked within a user session. because the value is reset by the one-time-only procedure. In such cases. --forward declaration Procedure award_bonus(…. / Create or Replace Package Body otop Is ----declare all private procedures/functions/variables ----define private/public procedures/functions Begin Select rate into hra from rate_mast where rate_name=’HRA’.. ----declare all other public procedures/functions/variables END otop.
Begin Select max(commission_pct) into v_max_comm from employees. End if. / To use the packaged function : Select tax_calc_pack. End tax_calc_pack. create or rollback to a savepoint or alter the system session 2) A function called from a query statement or a DML statement cannot execute a DML statement or otherwise modify the database 3) A function called from a DML statement cannot read or modify the table on which the DML was fired. salary from emp. If v_max_comm >=p_comm then return(TRUE). Begin return(p_value*v_rate). Create or Replace Package tax_calc_pack Is Function tax_calc(p_value in number) return number. end comm_package. procedure reset_comm(p_comm in number). / Create or Replace Package Body tax_calc_pack Is Function tax_calc(p_value in number) return number Is v_rate number :=0.tax_calc(salary). End tax_calc.Restrictions on Package Functions 1) A function called from a query or DML statement cannot end the current transaction. End validate_comm. End tax_calc_pack.08. Else return(FALSE). / Create or Replace Package Body comm_package Is Function validate_comm(p_comm in number) return Boolean Is v_max_comm number. . PERSISTENT State of a Package Create or Replace Package comm_package Is g_comm number :=10.
5 Execute comm_package. Invalid Commission Rollback .reset_comm(0. End reset_comm.25 Hence g_comm=0.’Invalid Commission’). Else raise_application_error(-20210. / Time 0900 User X Execute comm_package.5 Hence g_comm=0.9>0. Max_comm=0.4>0. End comm_package.reset_comm(0.3 1000 1100 1145 .0. Max_comm=0.4.4>0.25) Assume maximum is 0.4>0. Exit Logged In again Since the earlier transaction was rolled back.25 User Y 0930 0935 Insert into employees(empno. since user Y did not complete his transaction.reset_comm(0. maximum is still 0.9) Execute comm_package.Procedure reset_comm(p_comm IN number) Is Begin If validate_comm(p_comm) then g_comm:=p_comm. End if.reset_comm(0.4 Execute comm_package. commission_pct) values(‘Ram’. max_comm is 0.4.9.3 Hence g_comm=0.5 is Invalid Hence.6) For this user.3) Max_comm=0. Max_comm=0.5) Now maximum is 0.
End p2. Procedure p2 is Begin Loop Fetch c1 into v_empno. Dbms_output. When we continue to fetch in P2. / The cursor is opened in P1. Procedure p2. Dbms_output. Close c1. The state does not persist across several sessions of the same user or acroos different users. End pack_cur. End loop. Thus packages maintain a persistent state of the package cursors. Exit when c1%rowcount>=3.put_line(‘Employee Number :’ || (v_empno)). and the cursor is not closed. . End pack_cur. The persistent state of a cursor/variable is maintained in a session of a user. three rows are fetched and displayed. Procedure p1 is Begin Open c1. Loop Fetch c1 into v_empno. Exit when c1%rowcount>=6.Persistent State of a Packaged Cursor Create or Replace Package pack_cur Is Cursor c1 is select empno from emp order by empno desc. End p1.put_line(‘Employee Number :’ || (v_empno)). End loop. / Create or Replace Package Body pack_cur Is v_empno number. the next three rows are fetched and displayed. Procedure p1.
Internal LOBs : They are stored inside the Oracle server in the LOB segment. The BFILE column stores a file locator that points to the external file LOBs are characterized in two ways : Internal LOBs(CLOB. the following interfaces are used : PL/SQL package DBMS_LOB Oracle Call Interface(OCI) Oracle Objects for Object Linking & Embediing(OLE) Pro*C/C++/Pro*COBOL precompilers JDBC Suppose you have the following table : Create table employee (emp_id number(5). CLOB is interpreted by the Oracle server as a single-byte character stream NCLOB is interpreted by the Oracle server as a multiple-byte character stream. lname varchar2(25). video clippings. NCLOB. BLOB) stored in the database External files(BFILE) stored outside the database. BFILEs can be accessed only in the read-only mode from an Oracle server Components of a LOB : The 2 distinct components of an LOB are : LOB value : It is the data that constitutes the real object being stored LOB locator : It is a pointer to the location of the LOB value stored inside the database The LOB value may be stored anywhere in the database. unstructured data such as text. . etc. There are 4 large object data types BLOB for Binary large objects such as video clip CLOB for character large objects NCLOB for multibyte chracter large objects BFILE for a binary file stored at the OS level outside the database. based on the byte-length of the national character set To interact with LOB. photo BLOB). fname varchar2(25). but the LOB locator is stored in the row. A BLOB< CLOB or NCLOB can be used in one of the following : Column of a table Attribute of a user-defined type PL SQL variable. parameter or return value(result) BLOB is interpreted by the Oracle server as a bit-stream. graphic images. similar to LONG RAW. resume CLOB.LOB LOB is a data type to store large.
MCP. Now the columns have been initialized.getlength(lobloc)+2. amount. empty_clob().D’. text).write(lobloc. then you could have used UPDATE command. MCSD.amount of data to be written offset number.MCDBA. -. You may initialize CLOB and BLOB columns by using the functions EMPTY_CLOB() and EMPTY_CLOB() functions respectively.where to start writing Begin Select resume into lobloc from employee where emp_id=10 FOR Update.Before you start writing data to CLOB/BLOB columns using DBMS_LOB package or OCI(oracle call interface) . amount to be written. NULL). offset. resume CLOB default empty_clob(). MCSD. photo BLOB default empty_blob()).’ Pangam’. fname varchar2(25). Pangam’. Insert into employee values(20. Select resume from employee. lname varchar2(25). it must contain a locator that points to an empty or populated LOB value.MCDBA.Tech. MCP. -. --serves as the LOB locator text varchar2(30000):='Corporate Trainer'. If the record is already there. This can be done through the insert or update statements as follows : Insert into employee empty_blob()). but not yet populated by data. amount :=length(text). -. that is. NULL). You could have done the initialization work at the time of table definition as follows : Create table employee (emp_id number(5). amount number. ---For update locks the row and returns the LOB locator for the ---resume lob column offset :=DBMS_LOB. dbms_lob. from where and text to write . ‘Pangam’. OCP’. ‘MCA. OCP Ph.’ ‘Manoj’. Updating CLOB using DBMS_LOB in PL/SQL : Declare lobloc clob.write at lob location. such columns must be made non-null. ‘Hemant’. ‘Hemant’. Now we can put values as follows : Insert into employee values(10. values(10. ‘M.
bmp')).writeappend(lobloc.text:='Corporate Consultant cum System Analyst'. col2 bfile). dbms_lob. Select resume into lobloc from employee where emp_id=20 FOR Update. End.substr(resume. amount to be written and text to write commit. End.put_line(‘Resume is : ‘ || text). / Removing LOBs To delete row containing LOBs : Delete from employee where emp_id=30. 5).bmp are existing in the folder : insert into x values(‘c1’. Amount:=length(text) .append at lob location. / Selecting CLOB values using DBMS_LOB select dbms_lob. ensuring tha the files c1. dbms_lob. Managing BFILES Create a directory ‘saloni’ as a oracle user and give the path of the directory which contains your files as follows : Create or replace directory SALONI as ‘d:\saloni\saloni’ Give read privileges to users on that directory as follows : grant read on directory SALONI to public.'c1.bmp and c2.bmp')) . bfilename('saloni'. insert into x values(‘c2’. To disassociate a LOB value from a row: Update employee set resume =empty_clob() where emp_id=40 To Add LOB columns Alter table table_name add(col1 CLOB. Dbms_output. 'Cor') from employee Selecting CLOB values in PL/SQL Declare Text varchar2(4000). 5.'c2. create the following table : create table x(col1 varchar2(10). Col2 BLOB). Use the BFILENAME function to inset values as follows. Begin Select resume into text from employee where emp_id=10. -.instr(resume. amount. bfilename('saloni'. text).
bmp'. / . v_filename). you may now use subsequent read operations on BFILE using the PL/SQL dbms_lob package and OCI. dbms_lob. Begin For erec IN emp_cursor Loop v_filename:=erec. cursor emp_cursor is select col1 from x for update.fileclose(v_file).getlength(v_file)). dbms_lob.put_line('Loaded File :' || v_filename ||' size : '|| dbms_lob. End loop. v_file:=BFILENAME(p_file_loc.Once physical files are associated with the records using SQL. End load_emp. dbms_output.fileopen(v_file).col1||'. Then the following procedure is used to load a BFILE pointer to an image of each employee into the table ‘X’ using DBMS_LOB package Create or Replace procedure load_emp (p_file_loc IN varchar2) IS v_file BFILE. v_filename varchar2(20). update x set col2=v_file where current of emp_cursor.