PL/SQL Pl/SQL woks both in the Oracle Sever(through stored procedures, stored functions, database triggers and

packages), and in the Oracle Development Environment(Oracle Forms, Oracle Reports, and Oracle Graphics) It supports SQL Data types. PL SQL bridges the gap and the need for procedural programming capabilities. Benefits of PL/SQL : Improved performance : It is used to group SQl statements together within a single block and to send the entire block to the server in a single call, thereby reducing the network traffic. Modularised program Development : Group logically related statements within blocks. Nest sub-blocks inside larger blocks to build a powerful program Break down complex problems into a set of manageable, well-defined , logical modules Place reusable PL/SQL code in libraries to be shared between Oracle applications or store it in an Oracle server to make it available to any userapplication. Portability : PL/SQL programs can run anywhere the Oracle server is installed, you do not need to tailor them to each new environment. Identifiers : It allows you to declare variables, cursors, constants, and exceptions and then use them in SQL and Procedural statements. It allows to declare variable belonging to scalar, reference, composite and LOB data types Declare variable based on the columns in the tables.

Procedural language Control Structures : Execute a sequence of statements conditionally Execute a sequence of statements iteratively in a loop Process the individual rows returned by a multi-row query with an explicit cursors. Error Handling : Process Oracle-server errors with exception handling routines Declare user-defined error conditions and process them with exception-handling routines Structure of a PL/SQL Block Declare(optional) Contains all the variables, constants, cursors and user-defined exceptions that will be used in the executable section Begin(Mandatory)-----Executable section Contains SQL statements to manipulate data in the database and PL/SQl statements to manipulate data in the data-block Exception(Optional) Contains actions to be performed when errors and abnormal conditions arise in the executable section End; set serveroutput on for dbms_output.put_line to give output in SQL

declare vname students.studname%type; vtotal students.total%type; begin select studname into vname from students where rollno=1; select total into vtotal from students where rollno=1; dbms_output.put_line('Name of Student is :'||vname); dbms_output.put_line('Total of Student is :'||vtotal); end; /

PL/SQL Block Types Anonymous Blocks: These are unnamed blocks. They are declared in an application where they need to be executed and are passed to the Server for execution at run-time. Example : Triggers in Oracle Developer consists of such blocks [Declare] Begin [Exception] End; Sub-Programs : These are named PL/SQL blocks that can accept parameters and can be invoked as and when required. They are declared as Procedures or Functions. Generally use procedures to perform an action and a function to compute and return a value. Procedure name is Begin --statements [Exception] End; Function name return datatype Is Begin --statements return value; [Exception] End;

vvgrade vgrade %type:=10. Location varchar2(20) : = ‘Mumbai’. The %type attribute.Declaring PL/SQl variables Declare Birthdate date. Numeric Date and Boolean types of data types.salary%type vgrade number(7. hire date. vvflag Boolean :=TRUE 2) Composite Composite data types such as records. Example . each with it’s own name and data type. you have different kinds of data about an employee like name. Instead of hardcoding the data type and size of a variable. They have internal components that can be handled and manipulated individually. …. PL/SQL also supports Boolean datatype Character. They are of 4 types : TABLE. Deptno number(2) NOT NULL : =10. variable type_name. FALSE) vflag Boolean. allows groups of fields to be defined and manipulated in PL/SQL blocks. field declaration. This data is dissimilar in type but logically related. RECORD. TRUE .). salary. Must contain one or more components of any scalar type. Type type_name IS RECORD ( field declaration. RECORD: A record is a group of related data items stored as fields. Also known as Collections. Salary constant number : = 10000 PL/SQL variables 1) Scalar These are the data types that correspond to the data types of columns in tables.2). . Example : vsalary employees. NESTED TABLE and VARRAY. you can use the %type attribute to declare a variable according to another previously declared variable or a column of a table. Boolean data types(only stores NULL.

which stores the INDEX BY Table elements. identifier type_name. Declaring Records with %rowtype The %rowtype attribute is used to declare a record based on a collection of columns in a database table or view Example : Declare Emp_record employees%rowtype. Type type_name is Table of column_type/variable %type/table. To reference or initialize an individual field : Record_name. The number and the data types of the underlying database column may change at run time. . Emp_record. TABLE : Objects of TABLE type are called INDEX By TABLES.column%type/table. They use a primary key to provide you with array-like access to rows. The number and data types of the underlying database columns need not be known.Type emp_data IS RECORD (first_name varchar2(10).field_name. This attribute is useful when retrieving a row into variables with the Select * From tablename. last_name varchar2(10)). Can increase dynamically because it is unconstrained.%rowtype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.first_name:=’Ramesh’. emp_record emp_data. An INDEX BY Table : Is similar to an array Must contain 2 components A Primary Key of data type Binary_Integer that indexes the INDEX BY TABLE A Column of a scalar or record data type.

first_name%type INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Declare Type ename_table_type IS TABLE OF employees%rowtype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.n)-removes all elements in the range m…n from a PL SQL table.Type ename_table_type IS TABLE OF employees. it contains no keys or no values. . My_emp_table emp_table_type. Type birthdate_table_type IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Birthdate_table(1) :=sysdate-10. LAST. Ename_table(1) :=’Ramesh’. An explicit executable statement is required to initialize (populate) the Index By Table. Initially such a table is not populated. DELETE(m. Example : Set server output on.Returns the index number that preceeds the index n in a table Next(n).removes all elements from PL/SQL table DELETE(n)-removes the nth element from the PLSQL table. Birthdate_table birthdate_table_type.returns the first and last index numbers Prior(n). Following methods are used by the INDEX BY Tables : Exists(n)-returns TRUE if the nth element exists Count-returns number of elements that a PL/SQL table currently contains FIRST. Type ename_table_type IS TABLE OF employees.Returns the index number that succeeds the index n in a table TRIM-removes oen element from the end of the PL SQL Table TRIM(n)-removes n elements from the end of the PLSQL Table DELETE. Ename_table ename_table_type. Ename_table ename_table_type.first_name%type INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.

last Loop Dbms_output. End loop. Begin For i in 100 .first . v_count Loop Select * into my_emp_table(i) from employees where employee_id=i.put_line(my_emp_table(i). Conditional Constructs IF Statement If-then. my_emp_table.V_count number(3):=104. End if.first_name). If-then-else-end if. Statement 2. End loop.end if. If <condition(s)> then Statement 1. Else(optional) Statement 3. If <condition(s)> then Statement 1. Statement 4.. Statement 2. End if. .(Not a part of the syllabus) 4) LOBs Also called locators that specify the location of large objects(such as graphic images that are stored out of line. End. / 3) Reference These are the pointers to other program items.. For i in my_emp_table.

/ PL/SQL Block to display "Very Good Student". select total into vtotal from students where rollno=1. Else(optional) Statement 7. end if. begin select studname into vname from students where rollno=1.studname%type. PL/SQL Block to display "Very Good Student". vtotal students. . else dbms_output. Elsif <condition(s)> then Statement 5. Elsif <condition(s)> then Statement 3. Statement 8.total%type. if total of Rollno=1 is more than 275. and "poor student" if total less than 250 declare vname students. "Average student" if total between 250 and <275.total%type. if vtotal>=250 then dbms_output. if total of Rollno=1 is more than 275. select total into vtotal from students where rollno=1. vtotal students. end. else display "Average student" declare vname students. If <condition(s)> then Statement 1. End if. begin select studname into vname from students where rollno=1.put_line(Vname||' is an average student').If-then-elsif-elsif-else-end if. Statement 4. Statement 6.studname%type.put_line(Vname||' is a very good student'). Statement 2.

Dbms_output.put_line(Vname||' is an average student').put_line(Vname||' is a poor student'). end if. elsif vtotal>=250 and vtotal<275 then dbms_output.if vtotal>=275 then dbms_output. end. vappraisal varchar2(20). Declare vgrade char(1):=upper(‘&p_grade). / Nesting of Ifs allowed as per situation.put_line(Vname||' is a very good student'). else dbms_output. Set serveroutput on.put_line(‘Grade ‘||vgrade||’ Appraisal ‘ || vappraisal). CASE Expressions Case selector When expression1 then result1 When expression2 then result2 When expression3 then result3 When expressionN then resultN Else resultN+1(optional) End. Begin Vappraisal := CASE vgrade When ‘A’ then ‘Excellent’ When ‘B’ then ‘Very Good’ When ‘C’ then ‘Good’ Else ‘No such grade’ End. End. / .

put_line('number '|| num). b:=b+1. end. end loop Numbers 1 to 10 in order declare num number(2).put_line('Number '||x||' is Even'). end loop. statement2. dbms_output.10 loop dbms_output. end.put_line('number '|| num).20 loop if mod(x. / Print odd and even numbers from 1 to 20 and their count declare a number:=0. / Numbers 1 to 10 in reverse order declare num number(2).put_line('Number '||x||' is Odd'). end loop. begin for num in 1.put_line('There are '||b||' odd numbers'). / .LOOPS 1) For <variable> in [reverse] lowvalue.. begin For x in 1. b number:=0. end if.10 loop dbms_output.. a:=a+1. else dbms_output.put_line('There are '||a||' even numbers').highvalue loop statement1... end.2)=0 then dbms_output. dbms_output. end loop. begin for num in reverse 1.

/ .. end loop.30. / loop statement1. statement2. begin loop dbms_output. end loop.put_line(num)... end loop. end loop.10..While <condition> loop statement1. print 5.50 declare num number:=5. end..100 declare num number:=10.. print 10. end. begin while num<=100 loop dbms_output.20.20.15. num:=num+10. exit when <condition>. exit when num>50. num:=num+5.. statement2..put_line(num).

3)Fetch and process Here you actually fetch the rows into variable if required and carry out all the business logic or processing. Following are the steps followed for handling explicit cursors : 1)declare Here we declare the cursor by naming it and define the structure of the query to be performed within it. It is now possible to reopen the cursor to re-establis a fresh active set. variable 2. Declare Cursor cursor_name is Select ……. Exit When End loop. The row returned by the query are called the active set and are now available for fetching Open Cursor_name. 4)close It releases the active . Explicit Cursors Used to process each row returned by a multiple-row Select statement.CURSORS Cursors are names given to private SQL work areas created by the Oracle server to execute SQL statements and to store the processing information. Close Cursor_name . including queries that return only one row. EXPLICIT For queries that return more than one row. explicit cursors are declared and named by the programmer. and manipulated in the block’s executable section. Loop Fetch cursor_name into variable1. 2)Open This statement executes the query. There are 2 types of cursors : IMPLICIT These are declaredc by PLSQL implicitly for all DML and PLSQL Select statements.

total%type. end loop. vname.studname%type. end. exit when cstudent%notfound should be done immediately after fetch. .rollno%type. close cstudent. vtotal. dbms_output. "notfound" is a cursor attribute which is used to find whether the cursor currently contains a record or has reached the end of the file or recordset Explicit Cursor attributes %isopen – Evaluates to True if the cursor is open %notfound. Begin Open emp_cursor. last_name from employees.put_line('Total :'||vtotal). total of all the students declare cursor cstudent is Select Rollno. exit when cstudent%notfound.total from students. dbms_output. Emp_record emp_cursor%rowtype. or else the last record will be displayed twice.Evaluates to TRUE if the most recent fetch does not return a row %found.Evaluates to TRUE if the most recent fetch returns a row %rowcount-Evaluates to the number of rows returned so far Example to retrieve row from employees table and populate them to another table with a similar structure Declare Cursor emp_cursor is select empid. to print the name. vtotal students. dbms_output. / Here. If the row need to be processed in a particular order.studname.put_line('Roll number :'||vrollno). you may use the order by clause in the declaration. vname students.Do not use the INTO clause in the cursor declaration.put_line('Name :'||vname). begin Open cstudent. vrollno students. loop fetch cstudent into vrollno.

Commit.empid.put_line(‘Employee ‘ ||emp_record. Statement2. / Cursor For Loop It is a shortcut for processing explicit cursors. Each time you open the cursor with a different set of values. End if. name) values(emp_record. --implicit close and implicit loop exit End. emp_record. the previous cursor is closed and reopnened with a new set of values. Set serveroutput on. rows are fetched once for each iteration in the loop. and the cursor is closed automatically. Begin For emp_record IN emp_cursor --implicit open and fetch occurs Loop If emp_record. End loop. / Cursors with Parameters You can pass parameters to the cursors. End. Declare Cursor emp_cursor is select first_name .deptno=80 then Dbms_output. For each execution. the loop exits when the last row is processed. because the cursor is opened.last_name) End loop. Retrieving the employees one by one and printing them if they belong to department 80. deptno from employees.Loop Fetch emp_cursor into emp_record. Insert into temp_emp(empno. End loop. returning a different active set. . Close emp_cursor. Exit when emp_cursor%notfound. For record_name IN Cursor_name Loop Statement1. Thus you can open and close an explicit cursor several times in a block.first_name).

Close emp_cursor Open emp_cursor(60. because of the for update . Only that table’s rows will be locked whose column is referred to in the For update [of column] clause. : ‘ || emp_record. p_job varchar2) is select employee_id. you can lock those row retuned by the cursor through the FOR Update clause. since the update/delete which you want to perform is based on those values.put_line(‘Employee no. For emp_record IN emp_cursor Loop Dbms_output. / For Update [Of column] clause Sometimes you may want to perform some update or delete based on the values that the cursor has returned to you. when querying multiple tables with a join. and each of there formal parameters will have to be passed an ACTUAL parameter or value in the Open statement. End loop. [It is not necessary that the for update clause refers to a column .] Also.put_line(‘Employee no. Declare cursor emp_cursor(p_deptno number. ‘Programmer’). For emp_record IN emp_cursor Loop Dbms_output. Close emp_cursor End. but not the size. You have to specify the Formal parameter data types.. you need to specify the FORMAL parameters. Sometimes it may happen that the rows which you want to lock are already locked by another user/transaction. Begin Open emp_cursor(80.last_name). you can use the For update clause to ensure row locking to particular table of the join.employee_id ||’ Employee name :’ || emp_record. but it is recommended by Oracle for better readability and maintenance.In such a case. Hence it is important that no other user /transaction modifies those values. last_name from employees whre department_id=p_deptno and job_id=p_job.In the cursor declaration. End loop. : ‘ || emp_record.last_name).employee_id ||’ Employee name :’ || emp_record. To prevent any other user/transaction from changing those values. ‘Sales_Rep’).

department_id and employees. But for this you need to lock the rows with the FOR UPDATE clause so that the rows are locked on open. End if.deprtment_id=60 FOR UPDATE OF SALARY NOWAIT. you can use the NOWAIT clause with the For update clause. / Cursors with subqueries Declare Cursor my_cursor is Select t1. .10 WHERE CURRENT OF sal_cursor. so that instead of waiting indefinitely. the active set will contain the department number. salary from employees e. and the total number of employees working in that department.department_id. departments where employees. last_name. Declare Cursor emp_cursor is Select employee_id.department_id=t2.department_id=e.department_id... (Select department_id.department_id=departments. count(*) as staff from employees group by department_id) t2 where t1. without the need to refer to the ROWID.staff>=3 When this cursor is opened. Begin For emp_record in sal_cursor Loop If emp_record. t1. such that there are more than 3 employees working in each such department.salary*1. Declare Cursor sal_cursor is Select e. This is possible through the WHERE CURRENT OF clause. departments d where d.staff from departments t1.salary<5000 then Update employees set salary=emp_record.department_id and t2. End.department_id and d. End loop.clause your block will keep on waiting till the rows are released by the other user/transaction. t2.department_name. department name. last_name. Where current Of clause Sometimes you may want to update or delete the row being currently addressed. To avoid this type of waiting. department_name from employees. the control is immediately passed to your program so that it can do some other work before trying to acquire the lock.department_id=60 FOR Update of salary NOWAIT. employee_id.

and oracle server will raise them implicitly Explicitly raised : User-defined : A situation which is abnormal from the user point of view. You explicitly raise an exception by issuing the RAISE statement within the block. Declare them in the declaration section. but the PL SQl block terminates successfully. Exception types Implicitly raised : Predefined Oracle Server : 20 most common errors. the control is passed to the exception handler in the exception section. etc Non Predefined Oracle Server : Other Oracle server errors.] then Statement1. Statement2. you can specify an exception handler to perform some other actions. But. If an exception is raised and there is no corresponding exception handler.. When an exception is raised. Do not declare them and oracle server will raise them implicitly No_data_found Too_many_rows Inavlid_cursor Zero_divide Dup_val_on_index. . The exception being raised may be user-defined or pre-defined. Declare them in the declaration section and raise them explicitly Declare Begin Exception When Exception1 [or exception2…. Exceptions are raised in 2 ways : An oracle-defined error occurs and the appropriate exception is raised automatically.EXCEPTIONS An exception is an identifier in a PL SQL Block that is raised during the execution of a block that terminates it’s main body of actions. In such cases. then the control is not passed back to the enclosing block or environment or point where the exception was raised. then the PL SQL block terminates with failure and the exception is propogated to the calling environment.. If the exception is successfully handled.

each with it’s own set of actions When an exception occurs PL SQL processes only one Exception-handler before leaving the block Place the OTHERS clause after all the other exception-handlers There can be only one OTHERS clause Exceptions cannot appear anywhere else. Hence. / The exception handling section traps only those exceptions that are specified. since when the error is encountered. an error has occurred and the control is transferred to the exception handler. the control is not passed to the immediate next line. / Here. since the data is not found. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output.put_line('Check the roll number'). end. unless you use the OTHERS exception handler.put_line('the roll number is not correct').When Exception3 [or exception4…. but to the exception handler. and the line which is after the line that caused the error is not executed.total%type. [When others then Statement5. dbms_output. which traps any exception which is not yet handled. begin select total into vtotal from students where rollno=16. besides the Exception section Trapping Predefined Exceptions : declare vtotal students. others are not trapped. . Statement4.. OTHERS is the last exception handler that is defined optionally Guidelines for Trapping Exceptions : Begin the Exception-handling section with the EXCEPTION Keyword Define the required number of exception-handlers.] then Statement3. Statement6.] End.

but are not associated with name(exception name/error name).put_line('More than 1 row selected'). or by using the OTHERS handler. Exception When e_emps_existing then Dbms_output. The PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT utility tells the compiler to associate an exception name with an Oracle error number. you may refer to that exception by name and write a specific handler for it.total%type. which always return a standard Oracle server error number. end. After doing this . PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(e_emps_existing. Such errors can be trapped by declaring it first . Commit. Example : Oracle returns error number –2292 when you try to delete a parent record which has got some child records. -2292). They are raised implicitly. exception when too_many_rows then dbms_output. PRAGMA directs the PL SQL compiler to associate all occurrences of that Oracle error number with the given exception name within that block. BEGIN Delete from departments where department_id=&p_deptno. / Functions for trapping Exceptions : SQLCODE-returns the numeric value for the error code SQLERRM-Returns the message associated with the error number ‘ || . / Trapping Non-Predefined Exceptions : There are certain non-predefined standard Oracle errors.declare vtotal students. Define p_deptno=20 Declare e_emps_existing EXCEPTION. begin select total into vtotal from students where total>100.put_line(‘Cant delete department to_char(&p_deptno) ||’ It has got employees existing ‘). End.

Begin Exception When OTHERS then Rollback. v_error_message varchar2(200). v_error_code:=SQLCODE. / Trapping User-Defined Exceptions : Declare the exception in the declarative section Raise the exception in the executable section Handle the exception in the Exception-handling section declare low_mark exception. end if.english%type. insert into errors values(v_error_code. End. venglish students. end. v_error_message :=SQLERRM. exception when low_mark then dbms_output. v_error_message).SQLCODE value 0 1 +100 negative number Description No Exception encountered User-defined exception No_data_found exception Some standard Oracle server error number Example : to store all the error-numbers and error-messages in an ERRORS table Declare v_error_code number. if venglish<35 then raise low_mark.put_line('Failed in English'). / . begin select english into venglish from students where rollno=2.

/ . If SQL%NOTFOUND then Raise e_invalid_department. Commit. Define p_department_desc =’Planning n esearch’ Define p_department_number=20 Declare e_invalid_department EXCEPTION. End if. Begin For erec in emp_cursor loop Begin Select ……. since it is an update statement and not a select statement. Sub-blocks can handle an exception or pass the exception to the enclosing block Declare … … e_no_rows exception. / Here no_data_found cannot be used . Exception When e_integrity then…….if marks in english are less than 35 then the exception is raised and the message is displayed. -2292).put_line(‘No such department number’). End. End. End. End if. e_integrity exception.. Begin Update departments set department_name=’&p_department_desc’ where department_id=&p_department_number. pragma exception_init(e_integrity. Update……. Exception When e_invalid_department then Dbms_output. When e_no_rows then……. If SQL%NOTFOUND then Raise e_no_rows. End loop.

nonpredefined or userdefined error . Raise_application_error can be used in either(or both) the executable section and the exception section. Raise_application_error(error_number.specified number for exceptions between -20000 to -20999 user-specified message upto 2048 bytes long.Raise_Application_Error Procedure : This procedure is used to communicate a predefined exception/error with a nonstandard error number and a user-friendly error message from stored subprograms. error message) Error_number : Error message: must be a user. It also handles the unhandled exceptions. The error number and message are displayed to the user just like a predefined.

Formal versus Actual Parameters : Formal parameters are the variables declared in the parameter list of the procedure declaration Create or Replace procedure hikesal(p_empid number. 2000). In OUT: Passed to the procedure. …] -.. Must be passed as a variable. It’s value cannot be changed in the procedure body. Cannot be assigned a default value. or an initialised variable. p_empsal number) …. The actual parameter can be a constant. But it can take a default value. .header Is/AS --this section after is/as and before the begin is the declarative section PL SQl block --. Actual parameters are the variables or expressions passed while calling the procedure Execute hikesal(v_empid. Cannot be assigned a default value. OUT: Returned to the calling environment. declaration section.. It can stored in the database as a schema object. Create or Replace Procedure procedure_name [parameter1 [mode] datatype. expression.executable and an optional exception section The pl sql block starts with either a BEGIN or the declaration of local variables and ends with END or End procedure_name. It is a named PL SQL block that can accept parameters(called arguments). The Formal parameter acts as a constant and only takes the values passed by the calling environment. It has a Header section. and then returned to the calling environment. executable section and an optional exception-handling section. parameter2 [mode] datatype. Parameter Modes : IN(default) : Value passed to the procedure from the calling environment.Procedures A procedure is a type of sub-program that performs an action. Must be passed as a variable. End hikesal.

years number. sal into vename. year IN number) is begin if year>=60 then vsal:=vsal*1.Stored Procedure to display employee numbers and their salaries for department 10 create or replace procedure retemp(veno IN number.empno). end. vsal1 emp. vsal from emp where empno=veno.hiredate%type. end loop. dbms_output. hiredate from emp. vsal OUT number) is begin select ename. vdate1 emp.sal%type. end.put_line('Employee name is '||ve).ename%type. vs emp.put_line('Employee number is '||erec.sal%type. sal. ve. / to show increase in salary by 10 percent for all employees and an additional 5 percent for those who have completed more than 5 years of service create or replace procedure retemp(veno IN number. ve emp. end if. / main plsql block declare cursor c2 is select empno.05. / main block declare cursor c1 is select empno from emp where deptno=10. dbms_output. end. .put_line('Employee salary is '||vs). begin for erec in c1 loop retemp(erec. dbms_output.empno. vsal IN OUT number. vs). vename OUT varchar2.

sal). years). p_comm from employees where employee_id=p_id. end loop. OUT employees. Number execute query_emp(100. retemp(rec. vsal1:=rec. / at the calling environment : variable g_name varchar2(25) variable g_sal number variable g_comm. salary. dbms_output. :g_comm.put_line('Employee number '||rec. :g_sal.put_line('Employee salary '||vsal1).vsal1.employee_id%type.sal*1. p_comm.put_line('Employee salary '||vsal1). dbms_output.salary%type. p_name OUT employees.) print g_name print g_sal print The colon(:) is required to reference the host variable s in the execute command. End emp_query. p_salary.first_name%type. :g_name.1. select months_between(sysdate. dbms_output. end.begin for rec in c2 loop dbms_output. / Viewing OUT Parameters : Create or replace procedure query_emp (p_id In employees. p_salary OUT employees.commission_pct%type) is BEGIN Select first_name.empno).hiredate) INTO YEARS from emp where empno=rec. Methods of passing Actual Parameters : Positional : Here the actual parameters are passed in the order in which the Formal parameters are given with the procedure definition . commission_pct into p_name.empno.empno.put_line('Employee salary '||rec.

Named Association : Here the actual parameters are passed in ant arbitary order by associating it with the corresponding formal parameter using the => symbol. Default Option for parameters Create or Replace procedure add_dept(p_name IN departments. declare procedure p1 is begin dbms_output. and not to OUT or IN OUT Parameters. department_name.200).---Named association add_dept(p_loc=>400).location_id%type DEFAULT 100) IS Begin Insert into departments(department_id. it must me the last item declared. End add_dept. p_name=>’Medical’). Example : Execute add_dept(p_name=>’Legal’. or else there will be an error. / In Combinational method all the positional parameters must be before the named parameters. Because they are defined in the declaration section of another program/PL SQL Block/procedure. --. -. location_id) values(departments_seq. Combination : Here the first actual parameter is passed positionally and the remaining are passed using the => symbol as in named association method.one default End.nextval. Executing/Calling the above procedure : Begin add_dept. p_name.put_line('P1 is called'). their scope is limited to the parent(enclosing) block in which they are defined.department_name%type DEFAULT ‘unknown’. ----positional add_dept(p_loc=>300. p_loc). 500) -. end. .will give an error as “a positional parameter may not follow a named parameter” Declaring Local Sub-procedures : The local procedures are not stored as Schema objects.both default add_dept(‘Welfare’. P_loc IN departments. / Default values may be assigned only to In parameters . Any variable declared after the local subprogram will cause a compilation error. When you are declaring a sub-program in the declaration section of the main program.

begin p1. and dbms. / declare procedure p1. / it will show error : p1 must be declared(if procedure p1. p1. / . p2.. procedure p2 is begin dbms_output. p2.put_line('In the main block').put_line('In the main block'). is not types as line 1) The result is an infinite loop. log_exec. begin p1. procedure p1 is begin dbms_output.. SYSDATE). End log_emp. end. End del_emp. end. dbms_output. end.. dbms_output. log)date) values(USER. end. Procedure to delete an employees record and to log the entry of the user who deleted the record Create or Replace procedure del_emp(p_id IN employees.put_line('p1 called'). is never executed.put_line('p2 called').employee_id%type) IS Procedure log_emp IS Begin Insert into log_table(user_id. Begin Delete from employees where employee_id=p_id.

and the control goes to the calling program/environment. End loop. Consider the following tables LOCATIONS Location_ID City 1 Mumbai DEPARTMENTS Department_ID 5 Department_name Welfare Manager_ID 200 Location_ID 1 Create procedure Ins_dept(p_locid number) IS v_did number(4). Begin For erec in emp_cursor Loop Raise_salary(erec.employee_id). / Handled Exceptions : When an exception is raised in a called procedure. End emp_proc.Invoking a stored procedure from an anonymous block : Declare V_id number:=145. Select department_id into v_did from employees where employee_id=999. p_locid). Commit. Begin Dbms_output. the control goes immediately to it’s exception section. / Invoking a stored procedure from another Stored procedure : Create or replace procedure emp_proc IS Cursor emp_cursor is select employee_id from employees. Any DML statements issued before the exception was raised remain as part of the transaction. 200. If the exception is handled. Insert into departments values(5. / .put_line(‘Procedure INS_dept started’). Commit. End. Begin Raise_salary(v_id). …… End. then the block terminates. ‘Mumbai’.

put_line(‘Invoking Procedure INS_dept’). department/location for any . p_city). city) values(p_lid. Dbms_output. the DML in ins_dept is not rolled back. Exception When no_data_found then Dbms_output. Ins_dept(p_lid). the calling procedure terminates and the exception propagates to the calling environment.put_line(‘MAIN Procedure INS_LOC started’). and becomes a part of the transaction of procedure ins_loc procedure Execute ins_loc(1. if the exception section from the ins_loc is removed. Insert into locations(location_id. the control is passed to the calling procedure ins_loc where the exception no_data_found is handled. Select city into v_city from locations where location_id=p_lid. Suppose there is no such employee. all DML statements in the calling and called procedure remain as part of the transaction.put_line(‘No such employee’). If in the above 2 procedures. which is not handled in procedure ins_dept. Dbms_output. p_city varchar2) IS v_city varchar2(30). The procedure ins_dept is supoosed to insert a new department with department id=5. So. Thus. End. v_dname varchar2(30). If the exception is not handled by the calling procedure. department name=Welfare. Procedure ins_dept selects the department id for an employee whose employee id=999. then it raises no_data_found. Manager ID=200 at the new location inserted through INS_loc. then the DMLs in both the procedures are rolled back if no employee with employee_id=999 is found. ALL DML statements in the calling and called procedure are rolled back along with any changes to any host variables. / The procedure INS_loc inserts a new location into the locations table. ‘Mumbai’) If the exception is handled in the calling procedure. Begin Dbms_output.Create procedure Ins_loc(p_lid number.put_line(‘Inserted City ’|| v_city).

/ The type of parameter mode should be only of type IN. end. x:=f1. parameter2 [mode] datatype. a function must have a RETURN clause in the header and at least one RETURN statement in the executable section. end. whereas a procedure returns zero or more values.Functions Function is a named PL SQL block that can accept parameters and be invoked.put_line('Inside the function').put_line('value of x is'||x). A function must return a value to the calling environment.put_line('Inside the Main'). can be called thru another pl/sql block . Like a procedure. a function has a header. …] -. declarative section. If it is necessary to declare a variable it should be done in the declare part of the enclosing program declare x number.header RETURN datatype Is/AS --this section after is/as and before the begin is the declarative section PL SQl block --. begin dbms_output. return 10. executable part and an optional exception section.executable and an optional exception section End function_name. In addition. Create or Replace Function function_name [parameter1 [mode] datatype. / Global or stored function : Stored in the database Defined and saved separately. dbms_output. Function is called as part of a SQL expression or as a part of a PL SQL expression. Local functions : Not stored in database Defined and called within the same program Functions do not have declare. function f1 return number is begin dbms_output.

salary%type :=0. dbms_output. end. Begin Select salary into v_salary from employees where employee_id=p_id. to execute >@f1. to show the errors in the function coding.put_line('salary is not found'). which is a good programming practice. exception when no_data_found then dbms_output. / Executing functions : Declare a variable to hold the return value.put_line('salary is '|| vsal).sal%type. create or replace function chkemp(veno number) return boolean is vsal emp.Create or Replace Function getsal(p_id IN employees. End getsal. return false. begin select sal into vsal from emp where empno=veno. as follows : variable gsalary number execute :gsalary :=getsal(130) print gsalary try the following on emp in scott : ed f1. . / at the sql prompt :>show_error. RETURN v_salary. return true.employee_id%type) RETURN number Is v_salary employee.

main block declare y number :=&eno. end. begin flag:=chkemp(y). end. begin update emp set sal=sal+(sal*inc/100) where empno=veno. / .empno. end if. incsal number.put_line('Employee Not Existing'). return vsal. else dbms_output. sal from emp where sal<3000. dbms_output. begin for erec in c1 loop incsal:=upsal(erec.put_line('Increased salary is '||incsal||' for employee '|| erec. end. select sal into vsal from emp where empno=veno. inc number) return number is vsal number.put_line('Employee Existing'). flag boolean. / stored function to update the salaries of employees getting less than 3000 with increment of certain % percent create or replace function upsal(veno number. if flag=True then dbms_output. / select text from user_source where type ='FUNCTION' and name='UPSAL' order by line main pl/sql block declare cursor c1 is select empno. end loop.empno). incr number :=&incr. incr). commit.

08). OUT and IN OUT are available with functions. start with. salary. Advantages of Functions : To perform calculations that are complex. / INVOKING a function from a SQL Expression Suppose you have a table employees with salary column then you may use the above function as follows to calculate their tax Select empno.Although 3 parameter modes IN. order by and group by clauses Values clause of the insert command SET clause of the update command Select empno. do not use OUT and IN OUT with functions. There can be a RETURN statement in the exception section also. tax(salary) from employees. End Tax. Increase efficiency of queries by performing functions in the query rather than in the application Create or Replace Function tax(p_value IN NUMBER) Return NUMBER IS Begin Return(p_value * 0. tax(salary) from employees where tax(salary) >(select max(tax(salary)) from employees where departmentid=30) order by tax(salary) desc Restrictions on calling function : The function must be a Stored Function It must accept only IN parameters Accept the parameters whose data type must be standard SQL data type and NOT a PL SQL data type . since the purpose of a function is to accept 0 or more parameters and return a single value. rather than retrieving data into an application. awkward or unavailable with SQL Increase data independence by processing complex data at the Oracle server level(since the stored functions are stored at the server). and it involves a lot of complications and side effects. Having a function returning multiple values is a poor programming practice. Locations from where you may call a User-defined function : Select list of a SELECT command Condition of the WHERE and HAVING clause Connect by .

If a Function internally calls sub subprogram(that is another function or procedure) then that sub program even muts not violate any of the above mentioned restrictions. sysdate-10. the function cannot contain commands that end the transaction. Begin Select salary into s from employees where employee_id=95. End.’Pereira’. We are calling the function thru the update command on the same table employees.The return data types must be a standard SQL data type and NOT a PL SQL data type Restrictions from where a stored function can be called : Functions called from an Update/Delete statements on a Table XYZ cannot contain a DML statement on the table XYZ Functions called from an Update/Delete statements on a Table XYZ cannot query the table XYZ When called from an INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE/SELECT statement. Return(p_sal +100). Examples Create or Replace function abc(p_sal number) Return number is Begin Insert into employees(employee_id. appoint_date. Return (s+a). SET ROLE(session control statement). ALTER SYSTEM(system control statement). such a table is called MUTATING table . salary) valurs(1001. / The function fails with the folliwng : Update employees set salary=abc(2000) where emplyee_id=90. such a COMMIT(transaction control statement). The update statement returns an error saying that the table is mutating Aslo Create or replace function xyz( a number) retutn number is s number. or DDL commands Functions called from a SQL Expression(as shown above) cannot contain a DML Statement. The function contains a DML statement on table employees. End. / Update employees set salary=xyz(100) where employee_id=95. 10000). last_name. Here also the mutating table error is returned When the code in a function is querying or reading the data in a table which is being updated.

Procedure V/s. which is returned to the calling environment . Function Executes as a PL SQL Block Invoked as part of an expressionm Exec Proc_name Does not contain a RETURN clause in Must contain a RETURN clause in the the Header Header May or may not return values Must return a single value Used to perform a series of actions Used to compute some value.To drop a function : Drop function function_name.

DIRECT ACCESS From Hemant schema grant object –level privilge on the table employees to user Manoj Manoj has created the procedure manoj_proc that queries the Employees table in the schema Hemant INDIRECT ACCESS Manoj grants execute privilge to Saloni on his procedure manoj_proc This Saloni can access By default subprograms execute under security domain of the owner. which is called DEFINER’s-RIGHTS. The keyword PROCEDURE is used to assign such rights on Stored Procedures. not through a role If you are not the owner of a subprogram. then you must be granted access to those objects explicitly. or excute your own subprograms and those in another schema. Drop or Execute subprograms.Managing Subprograms : System privileges are required to Create. alter. then you must have EXECUTE privilege on that subprogram. There is another user MANOJ and a third USER SALONI. drop. . If a PL SQL subprogram refers to any objects that are not in the same schema. Alter. but only through a procedure manoj__proc which is created by the user MANOJ. Grant Alter any PROCEDURE to user_name. System privileges are granted by the user SYSTEM or SYS Grant Create (any) PROCEDURE to user_name. The keyword ANY means that you ca create. Grant Execute any PROCEDURE to user_name. The keyword ANY is optional for CREATE. Functions and Packages. Grant Drop any PROCEDURE to user_name. Suppose we need to ensure that SALONI can access the table EMPLOYEES in the schema HEMANT. Providing INDIRECT ACCESS to Data Suppose EMPLOYEES table in Scheme(user) HEMANT.

TRIGGER -Date of object creation -Date when object was last modified -Date and time when object was last recompiled -VALID or INVALID You can also examine the ALL_OBJECTS and DBA_OBJECTS. Package Body LINE -Line number of the source code TEXT -Text of the source code line This table contains one record for each line of code.User_Objects To obtain names of all PL/SQL stored objects within a schema. Package. Package. Function. Package Body LINE -Line number of the source code where error occurred Position -Position in the line where the error occurred Text -Text of the error message SHOW ERRORS [Function/Procedure/Package/Package body/Trigger/View This will show use the errors that occurred while trying to compile the articular program unit. FUNCTION. USER_ERRORS Name -Name of the object Type -Type of object : Procedure. USER_SOURCE Name -Name of the object Type -Type of object : Procedure. ALL_SOURCE and DBA_SOURCE contain the additional column Owner Select text from user_source where name=’PROCEDURE_name’ order by line. PACKAGE. PROCEDURE. query the user_objects USER_OBJECTS Object_name Object_Id Object_type CreateLast_DDL_Time Timestamp Status -Name of Object -Internal identifier for the object -Whether TABLE. SHOW ERRORS without any [parameter will show the compilation errors The following query will also show you an output which is similar to that of show errors . both of which contain an additional OWNER column. PACKAGE BODY. Function.

. text from user_errors where name=’proc_name’ order by line.Select line || ‘/’||position.

TRIGGERS Definition : Trigger is basically a PL/SQL block or PL/SQL procedure associated with a Table/View/Schema/Database and which executes implicitly whenever a particular event takes place Types of Triggers : Application Triggers which execute implicitly when a particular DML event occurs within an application such as Oracle Forms Developer Database Triggers which could be 1) Data Event or 2) System Event Data Event trigger fires implicitly whenever a DML operation occurs on table or a DDL event such as CREATE/ALTER are issued. It could also be an INSTEAD OF Trigger on a View. They are fired irrespective of the user connected and irrespective of the application used. System Event Triggers are fired when a system event occurs such as user logs on, user shutsdown, etc Guidelines for Designing Triggers Dos Design Triggers to guarantee that when a specific operation is performed, related actions are performed. Use Triggers only for Centralised, Global Operations that occur for the triggering event, regardless of the user or application that issues the triggering statement. Donts Do not use triggers when the functionality is already built into Oracle Server. Do not use triggers to implement integrity constraints. Use the built-in constraints Excessive use of triggers can result into complex interdependencies. If the logic is very lengthy, write a stored procedure for the same and invoke the stored procedure in the trigger body If multiple triggers of the same type are defined for a table, their order of execution is arbitary. To ensure that multiple triggers of the same type are executed in a particular order, write stored procedures for the different actions and have a single consolidated trigger in which you call those stored procedures in the required order. The Trigger Statement contains : Trigger Timing :BEFORE, AFTER for tables Triggering Event :INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE Table name :On table or view Trigger Type :Statement level or Row level Trigger Body :PL SQL block INSTEAD OF for views

BEFORE :Execute the trigger body before the triggering DML event on the table To determine whether the triggering statement should be allowed to complete To calculate some values before completing the triggering Insert or Update statement To validate or set some complex business logic To initialize some global variables or flags BEFORE :Execute the trigger body before the triggering DML event on the table To complete the triggering statement before executing the trigger body INSTEAD OF This type of trigger is used to modify data through a view that was otherwise not modifiable because of the inherently non-modifiable nature of the view. Such trigger works in the background by performing the action directly on the underlying base tables involved in the view. You may write INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statements on a view. The Triggering Event can be INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statement on a table. In case of UPDATE statement, you can specify the column, which if changed, causes the trigger to fire. The triggering event can contain one or two or all the three DML operations. The trigger type can be Statement Trigger or Row Trigger. A Statement Trigger is fired once for the triggering event. It may affect zero or more rows, but is fired only once. They are used when the trigger-action to be performed is independent of the data affected by the triggering event. A Row Trigger is fired once for each affected row. If no rows are effected, then the trigger is not fired. They are used when the trigger-action depends on the data or rows affected by the triggering event. The Trigger body defines the action that needs to be performed when the triggering action is issued. It is a PL SQL block containing SQL and PL SQL statements defining PL SQL types, item, variables, constants, cursors, exceptions, etc. You can call other PL SQL procedures or Java Procedures. Trigger size cannot be more than 32K. The Firing Sequence is as follows : BEFORE Statement Trigger -------- once BEFORE Row Trigger AFTER Row Trigger AFTER Statement Trigger -------- once for each affected row -------- once for each affected row --------- once

Syntax for Statement Level Trigger Create or Replace Trigger Trigger_name Timing Event1 or Event2 or Event3 On table_view_name Trigger_body The trigger name must be unique with respect to other triggers in the same schema. Trigger name need not be unique with respect to other schema objects like table, view, or procedure. A trigger to prevent insertion of records into the dept table on Saturdays or Sundays or on non-working hours on other days create or replace trigger check_deptno before insert on dept begin if (to_char(sysdate,'DY') in ('SAT','SUN')) or (to_char(sysdate,'HH24:MI') not between '09:00' and '17:00' ) then raise_application_error(-20500,'Insert Not allowed'); end if; end; / Raise_application_error is a server-side built-in procedure that returns an error to the user and causes the PL SQL block to fail. When the database trigger fails, the triggering statement is automatically rolledback by Oracle Server. Table : DEPT DEPTNO varchar2 DEPTNAME vrachar2 A trigger to prevent insert or update or delete operations on table dept create or replace trigger check_deptno before insert or update or delete on dept begin if deleting then raise_application_error(-20500,'Delete Not allowed'); elsif Inserting then raise_application_error(-20501,'Insert Not allowed'); elsif Updating('deptno') then raise_application_error(-20502,'Updating of deptno Not allowed'); else raise_application_error(-20503,'Updating of Table Not allowed'); end if; end; /

The WHEN clause is optional. Old_deptno varchar2(15). the WHEN clause is to restrict the Trigger action to those rows that satisfy a certain condition With ROW Level trigger only. / with the WHEN clause you can specify a condition in the brackets.'Hello'). DELETING. New_deptname varchar2(15) ) . If the condition is satisfied then only we enter into the trigger body. New_dept varchar2(15). The condition is evaluated for each row to determine whether or not the trigger body is executed. You need to use the colon(:) as a prefix in every SQL and PL SQL statement. Old_deptname varchar2(15). Thus. UPDATING(‘column’) can be used in a single trigger for combining several triggering events into one single trigger Syntax for Row Level Trigger Create or Replace Trigger Trigger_name Timing Event1 or Event2 or Event3 On table_view_name For Each Row [When (condition)] Trigger_body create or replace trigger check_dept before insert on dept for each row when(new. No colon(:) required if the Qualifiers are used in the WHEN clause. Operation For INSERT For UPDATE For DELETE Old Value NULL Value before update Value before update New Value Newly Inserted value Value after update NULL Table : AUDT_DEPT create table audt_dept ( User_name varchar2(15).deptno>50) begin raise_application_error(-20555.Special Conditional Predicates INSERTING. Time timestamp. UPDATING. we can use the OLD and NEW Qualifiers to reference the value of a column before and after the data change by prefixing the column name with the OLD and NEW Qualifiers. end.

deptno.create or replace trigger audt_dept after insert or update or delete on dept for each row begin insert into audt_dept values(user. The INSTEAD OF trigger must enforce the check. BEFORE and AFTER options are not valid.deptname). Such triggers are Row Level Triggers. this trigger is fired by Oracle sever instead of executing the triggering statement. Consider the following tables : Table Empid Empname Salary Deptno Table Deptno Deptname Totalsal : Employee : Dept_stat . :old. sysdate. :new. start. group function. INSTEAD OF Trigger It is used to modify the data where a DML statement has been issued against an inherently non-updatable view(that is views which are non-updatable because the underlying query may contain set operator. :new. end. group by clause.deptno. distinct operator or a join of 2 or more tables. :old. The WITH CHECK option for views is not enforced when insertion/updation are performed by using the INSTEAD OF Trigger. Create or Replace Trigger Trigger_name INSTEAD OF Event 1 or event2 or event3 On View_name For each row Trigger_body Even if FOR EACH ROW is omitted. connect by. Unlike other triggers. INSTEAD OF Triggers is still defined as a Row Trigger.deptname.

empid. :new. :new. d.empname. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal + :new. e.empid.deptno where empid=:old.salary . Elsif DELETING Then Delete from employee where empid=:old. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal :old.empid.deptno. End. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal-:old. e.deptno.salary where deptno=:old. End if.deptname from employee e. dept_stat d where e.salary where deptno=:new.deptno. Create or Replace Trigger New_emp_check INSTEAD OF INSERT OR DELETE OR UPDATE FOR EACH ROW Begin If INSERTING THEN Insert into employee values(:new.deptno.salary deptno=:old.salary.salary where deptno=:new.Following trigger updates the total salary in Dept_stat table whenever rows are inserted/update/deleted from the Employee table. / To Enable/Disable a Trigger Alter Trigger Trigger_name DISABLE/ENABLE To Enable/Disable all Triggers on a table Alter Table Table_name DISABLE/ENABLE ALL TRIGGERS To Recomplie a Trigger Alter Trigger Trigger_name COMPILE . Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal +(:new.salary.deptno).empid. Elsif Updating(‘Deptno’) then Update employee set deptno=:new.deptno. where Elsif UPDATING(‘SALARY’) then Update employee set salary=:new. Create view empl_view as Select e.salary where deptno=:old.:old. :new.empname.empid.deptno. e.salary where empid=:old. Update dept_stat set totalsal=totalsal+:new.deptno=d.deptno.

View or a User Triggers on System Events : Create OR Replace Trigger Trigger_name Timing Database_Event1 Or Database_Event2 or…. Package. regardless of whether it is valid or invalid. On Database/Schema : You can create triggers on DDL Statements at the DATABASE or SCHEMA Level. On Database/Schema Trigger_body . On Database/Schema Trigger_body Timing : BEFORE or AFTER DDL_Event : CREATE OR ALTER OR DROP. Causes the Oracle Server to fire the trigger whenever a Create/Alter/Drop Statement modifies a Database Object in the Data Dictionary. A Schema or Table Level Trigger fires only when that schema or table is involved. Sequence. Function. Table. Tablespace. All the triggers on a table are dropped when the table is dropped. SYSTEM LEVEL TRIGGERS Triggers on system events can be defined at the Database Level or Schema Level. Triggers A Database Level Trigger fires for all users. Trigger_body : It is a complete PL SQL Block. The DDL Triggers fire when the Object is a Cluster. Events that can cause a System Level Trigger to fire are : A DDL statement on a object in the database or schema (the trigger can be Database Level or Schema Level) Specific User or any other User logs on or off (the trigger can be Database Level or Schema Level) Database Shutdown or Startup (the trigger can be Database Level only Triggers on DDL Statements : Create OR Replace Trigger Trigger_name Timing DDL_Event1 Or DDL_Event2 or…. Trigger. Procedure. To Drop a Trigger Drop Trigger Trigger_name. Role. Synonym. Index. Type .This command is used to explicitly recompile a trigger.

SYSDATE. AFTER LOGON : Whenever a User Logs on to the Database BEFORE LOGOFF : Whenever a User Logs off the Database AFTER STARTUP : Whenever a Database is opened BEFORE SHUTDOWN: Whenever a Database is shut down These triggers can be created at the DATABASE or SCHEMA LEVEL.job_id<>’YYZ’) CALL check_sal(:new. action) values(USER. INSERT OR DELETE statement and a ROW . The CALL statement enables you to call a stored procedure. SYSDATE. / CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER logoff_trig AFTER LOGOFF ON SCHEMA BEGIN Insert into log_trig_table(userid. Java. END. Reading and Writing data using triggers follows certain rules. The procedures so called can be implemented in PL SQL. C. There is no semicolon at the end of the CALL Statement. ‘Logged Off’). CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER logon_trig AFTER LOGON ON SCHEMA BEGIN Insert into log_trig_table(userid.job_id. :new. such a table is called MUTATING table.salary) MUTATING TABLE When the code in a trigger is querying or reading the data in a table which is being updated. ‘Logged On’). action) values(USER. Create or Replace Trigger salary_check Before Update of Salary . END. A mutating table is the one that is currently being modified by an UPDATE. but SHUTDOWN and STARTUP apply only to the Database Level.Database_Events : AFTER SERVERERROR : Whenever a Server Error Message is logged. job_id ON Employees For Each Row When(new. date. date. / CALL Statement : It is recommended to create stored procedures and call them in the Trigger body rather than coding the PL SQL body in the trigger itself. which are applicable to only row level triggers or a statement level trigger that is fired because of the referential integrity constraint ON DELETE CASCADE.

select trigger_name. V_maxsal employees.) A triggered table itself is mutating. triggering_event. triggering event. created from user_objects where object_type='TRIGGER' User_Triggers : Contains name. subobject_name. type. trigger_type. status. and any other table referencing it with the FOREIGN KEY constraint is also mutating. trigger body.salary<v_minsal or :New.salary>v_maxsal then Raise_application_error(-20505. select object_name.salary%type.job_id IF :New. referencing_names. Create or Replace Trigger Check_Sal Before INSERT Or UPDATE OF salary.job_id <>’PROG’) Declare V_minsal employees. trigger_body from user_triggers table_name. (A table is not mutating for STATEMENT level triggers. job_id On Employees When (new.salary%type. / Viewing Trigger Information User_objects : Contains name and status of the trigger and the date and time when the trigger was created. Consider a trigger which checks that the salary for a new employee or an existing employee is always between the minimum and maximum salaries for that job code.’Salary Out Of Range’). BEGIN Select Min(salary).level trigger on any such event is trying to read/write data into the same table. User_errors : Contains details of the compilation errors that occurred while the trigger was compiling . table on which table was created. status. v_maxsal from employees where job_id=:new. END IF: END. max(salary) into v_minsal.

The public procedures or functions can be invoked repeatedly by other constructs in the same package or from outside the package. which are stored separately in the database. the entire package gets loaded into memory. Variables declared in the package specification are initialized to NULL by default. Package Specification is the INTERFACE to your application. When you call a packaged construct for the first time. types. Further calls to other constructs of the same package do not need any disk I/O. The package cannot be itself parameterized. Subprogram specification : Declares the PL SQL subprograms. A Package. In the Specification we declare the variables. . has two parts : Package Specification and Package Body. generally. Types of Package Constructs : Public or Global : Declared within the package specification and may be defined in the package body. called or nested. constants. Can be referenced and changed(in case of variables) outside the package and are visible to the external users. and thus implements the specification. cursors and sub programs available for use Package Body fully defines the cursors and subprograms. The Replace option drops and recreates the package specification. Private or Local : Declared and Defined within the package body. items. Can only be referenced by other constructs which are part of the same package. subprograms(procedures and functions) into one single container. This allows to change the definition of a program construct in the package body without causing the Oracle server to invalidate the other schema objects that call or reference the program construct. Public type and item declarations : Declares variables.PACKAGES It is used to group together related PL SQL Types. constants. exceptions. Creating the Package Specification Create or Replace Package package_name Is/as Public type and item declarations Subprogram specifications End package_name. exceptions or types. cursors.

But the package body can still be used to initialize items declared in the package specification. then the package body is not necessary. Begin Select max(commission_pct) into v_max_comm from employees. cursors. End validate_comm. public and private. All private constructs must be declared before they are used in the public constructs. Else return(TRUE). If p_comm>v_max_comm then return(FALSE). if a package specification does not declare subprograms and cursors and declares only types.Creating the Package Body Create or Replace Package Body package_name Is/As Private type and item declarations Subprogram Bodies(Private and Public) End package_name. The function should be called through a procedure in the same package. constants. . constants.declared and initialized procedure reset_comm(p_comm IN Number). Subprogram Bodies : Defines the PL SQL subprograms. exceptions or types. -. Write a package that contains a function that validates the commission so that the commission may not be greater than the highest commission amongst all the employees. Subprograms and Cursors are declared(without their respective bodies) in the package specification. exceptions. Create or Replace Package comm_package Is g_comm Number :=0. and they have their underlying implementation(or bodies) in the package body. END comm_package. variables.10. The Replace option drops and recreates the package body. / Create or Replace Package Body comm_package Is Function validate_comm(p_comm IN Number) Return Boolean Is v_max_comm Number. End if. Private type and item declarations : Declares variables. and this procedure should display the appropriate messages and reset and validate the prevailing commission. Thus.

’). you need to qualify it’s name with the name of the package Comm_package.936. end global_consts. The above function is a private function(declared and defined within the package body). .put_line(’20 miles = ‘ ||20*global_consts.Procedure reset_comm(p_comm IN NUMBER) Is Begin If validate_comm(p_comm) then g_comm:=p_comm.reset_comm@ny(0.reset_comm(0. hence it can be referenced by only other procedures/functions of the same package. / Execute dbms_output.15) To invoke a procedure from a package through a different schema Execute scott.’Invalid Commission’). yard_2_meter constant number :=0. Else Raise_application_error(-20210. / When you invoke a package or function from within the same package.comm_package.15) Declaring Bodiless Package Create Or Replace Package global_consts IS mile_2_kilo constant number :=1. This package specification declares public(global) variables that exist for the duration of the user session. To invoke a package procedure or function from outside the package. you need not qualify it’s name with the package name. End if.6093.reset_comm(0.25) To invoke a procedure from a package through iSQL *Plus Execute comm_package.9144.mile_2_kilo|| ‘ kms.6214. meter_2_yard constant number :=1. End comm_package. End reset_comm.reset_comm(0.15) To invoke a procedure from a package through a remote database Execute comm_package. kilo_2_mile constant number :=0.

since multiple subprograms of the same name are allowed Better Performance : Entire package loaded into memory when a package is first referenced Only one copy of the package in memory for all the users Dependency hierarchy is simplified Overloading support in Packages Packaged subprograms(procedures or functions) Overloading not possible for stand-alone subprograms. p_yard Out number) Is Begin p_yard:=p_meter * global_consts. Advantages : Modularity since it encapsulates related constructs Easier Application Design. order or data-type of the formal parameters of the subprograms. can be overloaded.meter_2_yard. since specification and body are coded and compiled separately. Added Functionality since it allows persistency of variables and cursors Overloading allowed.Referencing a Public variable from a stand-alone procedure Create or Replace procedure meter_to_yard(p_meter IN number. Hiding Information : Only package declarations made in the specification are visible and accessible to applications Private package constructs are hidden and inaccessible All the coding is hidden in the package body.:yard) > print yard To Drop the package Specification : Drop Package package_name. / at the sql prompt >variable yard number >execute meter_to_yard(1. but differing in the number. To Drop the package body : Drop Package body package_name. . Overloading is a feature which enables you to have different packaged subprograms with the same name. End meter_to_yard.

empname.empage%type default 21).empage%type default 21) Is Begin Insert into employees(empno. Procedure add_employee(p_empname IN employees.empname%type default ‘unknown’. Example : VARCHAR and STRING are PL/SQL subtypes of VARCHAR2. but the different subtypes belong to the same family. p_age IN employees.empage%type default 21). it starts searching in the enclosing scopes. Create or replace package body overload Is Procedure add_employee(p_empno IN employees. Example : NUMBER and DECIMAL datatypes belong to the same family Subprograms which differ only in the subtypes of their parameters. END overload. but the different datatypes belong to the same family. p_empname IN employees. empage) values(empnoseq.empno%type.RESTRICTIONS 1) 2) 3) Standalone subprograms cannot be overloaded Subprograms which differ only in the datatypes of their parameters. p_empname.empname%type default ‘unknown’. and if it does not find one in the current scope.empno%type. Create or replace package overload Is Procedure add_employee(p_empno IN employees. p_age IN employees. p_empname IN employees.empname%type default ‘unknown’. p_empage). As soon as the compiler finds one or more subprograms with the required name. the compiler stops the search. End add_employee. p_empname.nextval. p_empage).empname%type default ‘unknown’. Resolving a Subprogram call When a call is made to a subprogram. Procedure add_employee(p_empname IN employees. empname. order and datatypes of the actual parameters passed with the called subprogram with formal parameters of the one or more subprograms searched in a scope. It then starts matching the number. p_age IN employees. the compiler starts searching for a subprogram with that name in the current scope. p_age IN employees. empage) values(p_empno. .empage%type default 21) Is Begin Insert into employees(empno.

then to use the built-in to_char function . and the subprogram bodies go in the package body. 23) If you redeclare a built-in subprogram in another PL SQL Program unit. which means that a subprogram cannot be referenced or called before it has been declared. The formal parameter list must appear in both the forward declaration and the subprogram body. To solve this. The subprogram can be then defined after another subprogram that calls it. you need to qualify it with the package name. 32) >Execute overload. but both must appear in the same program unit. whereby you give the subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon. PL/SQL allows a special subprogram declaration called Forward declaration.add_employee(101. where they are invisible to the applications. Forward declarations are used when you need to : Define subprograms in a logical or alphabetical order Define mutually recursive subprograms(which call each other directly/indirectly) Group subprograms in a package Use Forward Declarations in the cases of private constructs or private subprograms of the package. At the SQL PROMPT >Execute overload. . To access the built-in subprogram.to_char Using Forward Declarations PL/SQL does not allow forward referencing.End add_employee END overload. Thus packages support forward declarations. you call it as :STANDARD.add_employee(’Rahul’. since the subprogram specifications go in the package specification. your local declaration overrides the built-in or standard subprogram.’Rahul’. The subprogram body can appear anywhere after the forward declaration . If you redeclare a built-in subprogram as a stand-alone subprogram then to access your sub-program you need to qualify it with your schema. Thus. since public package constructs are already declared in the package specification.TO_CHAR. if you have redeclared the to_char function. because the function to_char belongs to the builtin package STANDARD. example scott.

End forwardpack..). since such procedures are executed only once when the package is invoked within a user session. we use one-time-only procedures. In such cases. / One-time-Only Procedure When the derivation of the values is too complex it is difficult to initialize public or private variables to that value in the variable declaration. ----declare all other public procedures/functions/variables END otop. The keyword END is not used at the end of the One-Time-Only procedures.) Is begin Calc_rating(…) End. / Create or Replace Package Body otop Is ----declare all private procedures/functions/variables ----define private/public procedures/functions Begin Select rate into hra from rate_mast where rate_name=’HRA’. because the value is reset by the one-time-only procedure. Create or Replace Package otop Is Hra number. / . Procedure calc_rating(…) Is Begin End.No End for this one-time-only procedure END otop. ----. For such type of variables do not initialize them in the declaration. --forward declaration Procedure award_bonus(….Create or Replace Package Body forwardpack Is Procedure calc_rating(.

End tax_calc. If v_max_comm >=p_comm then return(TRUE). Begin return(p_value*v_rate). PERSISTENT State of a Package Create or Replace Package comm_package Is g_comm number :=10. End tax_calc_pack. / Create or Replace Package Body tax_calc_pack Is Function tax_calc(p_value in number) return number Is v_rate number :=0. End tax_calc_pack. Else return(FALSE). Begin Select max(commission_pct) into v_max_comm from employees. End if. . procedure reset_comm(p_comm in number).08. create or rollback to a savepoint or alter the system session 2) A function called from a query statement or a DML statement cannot execute a DML statement or otherwise modify the database 3) A function called from a DML statement cannot read or modify the table on which the DML was fired. end comm_package. salary from emp. Create or Replace Package tax_calc_pack Is Function tax_calc(p_value in number) return number. End validate_comm. / To use the packaged function : Select tax_calc_pack.Restrictions on Package Functions 1) A function called from a query or DML statement cannot end the current transaction.tax_calc(salary). / Create or Replace Package Body comm_package Is Function validate_comm(p_comm in number) return Boolean Is v_max_comm number.

4.9>0.5 Hence g_comm=0.3) Max_comm=0.9. since user Y did not complete his transaction.’Invalid Commission’).9) Execute comm_package.5 Execute comm_package.25) Assume maximum is 0.4>0.3 Hence g_comm=0. End reset_comm.25 Hence g_comm=0.reset_comm(0. maximum is still 0. commission_pct) values(‘Ram’.Procedure reset_comm(p_comm IN number) Is Begin If validate_comm(p_comm) then g_comm:=p_comm. End comm_package. Invalid Commission Rollback .25 User Y 0930 0935 Insert into employees(empno.3 1000 1100 1145 .reset_comm(0.reset_comm(0. Max_comm=0.4>0. max_comm is 0.5) Now maximum is 0. Max_comm=0. / Time 0900 User X Execute comm_package.4 Execute comm_package.6) For this user. Exit Logged In again Since the earlier transaction was rolled back.reset_comm(0.4.0. End if.5 is Invalid Hence. Else raise_application_error(-20210.4>0. Max_comm=0.

/ The cursor is opened in P1. Loop Fetch c1 into v_empno. Exit when c1%rowcount>=6. End pack_cur. Procedure p2 is Begin Loop Fetch c1 into v_empno. and the cursor is not closed. three rows are fetched and displayed. / Create or Replace Package Body pack_cur Is v_empno number. Exit when c1%rowcount>=3.put_line(‘Employee Number :’ || (v_empno)). the next three rows are fetched and displayed. . End pack_cur. Procedure p1. When we continue to fetch in P2. Procedure p2.Persistent State of a Packaged Cursor Create or Replace Package pack_cur Is Cursor c1 is select empno from emp order by empno desc. End p1. Dbms_output. Dbms_output. Close c1. End p2. End loop. Thus packages maintain a persistent state of the package cursors. The state does not persist across several sessions of the same user or acroos different users.put_line(‘Employee Number :’ || (v_empno)). The persistent state of a cursor/variable is maintained in a session of a user. Procedure p1 is Begin Open c1. End loop.

lname varchar2(25). based on the byte-length of the national character set To interact with LOB. graphic images. parameter or return value(result) BLOB is interpreted by the Oracle server as a bit-stream. The BFILE column stores a file locator that points to the external file LOBs are characterized in two ways : Internal LOBs(CLOB. Internal LOBs : They are stored inside the Oracle server in the LOB segment. the following interfaces are used : PL/SQL package DBMS_LOB Oracle Call Interface(OCI) Oracle Objects for Object Linking & Embediing(OLE) Pro*C/C++/Pro*COBOL precompilers JDBC Suppose you have the following table : Create table employee (emp_id number(5). unstructured data such as text. BFILEs can be accessed only in the read-only mode from an Oracle server Components of a LOB : The 2 distinct components of an LOB are : LOB value : It is the data that constitutes the real object being stored LOB locator : It is a pointer to the location of the LOB value stored inside the database The LOB value may be stored anywhere in the database. similar to LONG RAW.LOB LOB is a data type to store large. CLOB is interpreted by the Oracle server as a single-byte character stream NCLOB is interpreted by the Oracle server as a multiple-byte character stream. etc. NCLOB. video clippings. There are 4 large object data types BLOB for Binary large objects such as video clip CLOB for character large objects NCLOB for multibyte chracter large objects BFILE for a binary file stored at the OS level outside the database. photo BLOB). A BLOB< CLOB or NCLOB can be used in one of the following : Column of a table Attribute of a user-defined type PL SQL variable. resume CLOB. BLOB) stored in the database External files(BFILE) stored outside the database. fname varchar2(25). . but the LOB locator is stored in the row.

You could have done the initialization work at the time of table definition as follows : Create table employee (emp_id number(5). -.D’.write at lob location. Updating CLOB using DBMS_LOB in PL/SQL : Declare lobloc clob. photo BLOB default empty_blob()). amount :=length(text).where to start writing Begin Select resume into lobloc from employee where emp_id=10 FOR Update. resume CLOB default empty_clob(). ‘Hemant’. ‘MCA. Pangam’. -. You may initialize CLOB and BLOB columns by using the functions EMPTY_CLOB() and EMPTY_CLOB() functions respectively. values(10.’ Pangam’. ‘Hemant’. then you could have used UPDATE command. amount.’ ‘Manoj’. such columns must be made non-null. Now we can put values as follows : Insert into employee values(10. that is. ‘M. OCP’. lname varchar2(25). MCP. from where and text to write . text). offset. dbms_lob. NULL). This can be done through the insert or update statements as follows : Insert into employee empty_blob()).getlength(lobloc)+2. --serves as the LOB locator text varchar2(30000):='Corporate Trainer'. empty_clob().amount of data to be written offset number.MCDBA. MCSD. fname varchar2(25).write(lobloc.MCDBA.Tech. amount number. amount to be written. Now the columns have been initialized. OCP Ph. ‘Pangam’. MCP. Select resume from employee. ---For update locks the row and returns the LOB locator for the ---resume lob column offset :=DBMS_LOB.Before you start writing data to CLOB/BLOB columns using DBMS_LOB package or OCI(oracle call interface) . MCSD. If the record is already there. but not yet populated by data. it must contain a locator that points to an empty or populated LOB value. NULL). -. Insert into employee values(20.

dbms_lob. Use the BFILENAME function to inset values as follows.instr(resume.put_line(‘Resume is : ‘ || text). 5). -. col2 bfile). Amount:=length(text) . Begin Select resume into text from employee where emp_id=10.bmp are existing in the folder : insert into x values(‘c1’. / Removing LOBs To delete row containing LOBs : Delete from employee where emp_id=30. amount. 5. / Selecting CLOB values using DBMS_LOB select dbms_lob.bmp and c2. End. Managing BFILES Create a directory ‘saloni’ as a oracle user and give the path of the directory which contains your files as follows : Create or replace directory SALONI as ‘d:\saloni\saloni’ Give read privileges to users on that directory as follows : grant read on directory SALONI to public. ensuring tha the files c1.bmp')) .bmp')). Col2 BLOB). Select resume into lobloc from employee where emp_id=20 FOR Update. End. To disassociate a LOB value from a row: Update employee set resume =empty_clob() where emp_id=40 To Add LOB columns Alter table table_name add(col1 CLOB. text). bfilename('saloni'. 'Cor') from employee Selecting CLOB values in PL/SQL Declare Text varchar2(4000). Dbms_output.text:='Corporate Consultant cum System Analyst'. amount to be written and text to write commit. dbms_lob. bfilename('saloni'.'c1.substr(resume.append at lob location.'c2. insert into x values(‘c2’. create the following table : create table x(col1 varchar2(10).writeappend(lobloc.

Once physical files are associated with the records using SQL. dbms_lob. End loop. v_filename varchar2(20).getlength(v_file)).col1||'.fileclose(v_file). you may now use subsequent read operations on BFILE using the PL/SQL dbms_lob package and OCI. dbms_lob.put_line('Loaded File :' || v_filename ||' size : '|| dbms_lob. dbms_output.fileopen(v_file). update x set col2=v_file where current of emp_cursor. End load_emp. Begin For erec IN emp_cursor Loop v_filename:=erec. Then the following procedure is used to load a BFILE pointer to an image of each employee into the table ‘X’ using DBMS_LOB package Create or Replace procedure load_emp (p_file_loc IN varchar2) IS v_file BFILE.bmp'. v_filename). / . v_file:=BFILENAME(p_file_loc. cursor emp_cursor is select col1 from x for update.

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