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COMMERCIAL POLYMERIC MATERIALS

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COMMERCIAL POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Commodity plastics
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Specialty plastics
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Engineering plastics
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(Nylon:, PTFE, PC,
polyphenylene sulfide (PPS:,
epoxy resins, phenolics
Engineering plastics
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polyphenylene sulfide (PPS:,
epoxy resins, phenolics
Engineering plastics
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(Nylon:, PTFE, PC,
polyphenylene sulfide (PPS:,
epoxy resins, phenolics
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- Polyethylene (PE)
* High density PE (HDPE)
* Low density PE (LDPE)
* Linear low density PE (LLDPE)
* Ultra high molecular weight PE (UHMWPE)
- Polypropylene (PP)
- Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
- Polyamide 6,6 (Nylon 6,6)
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POLYETHYLENE (PE)
[CH
2
- CH
2
]
n
HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE)
LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LDPE)
LINEAR LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LLDPE)
density > 0.94 g/cm
3
density < 0.916 g/cm
3
density = 0.916 - 0.940 g/cm
3
nion nrxsi+v roivr+nvirxr (nnrr:
LDPE Homopolymer
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Low density polyethylene - Carrier
bags and bin liners.
LDPE
Polyvinyl chloride - Food trays, cling
film, bottles for squash, mineral water
and shampoo.
PVC
High-density polyethylene - Bottles for
milk and washing-up liquids.
HDPE
Polyethylene terephthalate - Fizzy drink
bottles and oven-ready meal trays.
PET
Any other plastics that do not fall into
any of the above categories. - An
example is melamine, which is often
used in plastic plates and cups.
OTHER
Polystyrene - Yoghurt pots, foam meat or
fish trays, hamburger boxes and egg
cartons, vending cups, plastic cutlery,
protective packaging for electronic
goods and toys.
PS
Polypropylene - Margarine tubs,
microwaveable meal trays.
PP
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Exhaust gas recirculation on
GDI engines
(Aramid, BASF)
Oil module housing in
the new 2.0 litre four-cylinder FSI
direct-injection petrol engine of
Volkswagen and Audi (Polyamide)
AUTOMOTIVES
AUTOMOTIVES
Automotive brake booster valve body
[Glass fiber reinforced
polyethylene terephthalate (PET)]
Bi-Xenon reflector headlamp housing
for Volvo S-80, S-60, V-70 and XC-90
models (high performance polyamide)
Chasis: Epoxy vinyl ester resin
Front and rear: PP,
reaction moldable resin
Body panel: PC/ABS, reaction
moldable resin
Truck box: Epoxy vinyl ester resin
Exterior trim: PC, PP, ABS, PC/ABS
Instrument panel: PC/ABS, PP, ABS
Molding and trim: ABS, PC, PP Steering wheel: polyurethane foam
Door panel: PP, ABS
Tyres: NR, SBR, etc.
Long glass fiber filled PP
Hot runner system (injection molding)
for door trim panel (PP) for Renault Megane
CONSTRUCTION
CONSTRUCTION
EPDM coated roofing
(Denver International Airport)
PVC roofing
(Conseco Fieldhouse)
EPDM coated AcryliTop
(Louisiana Superdome)
A shaped GRP (Kevlar aramid fibers sheathed in LDPE)
(Aberfeldy footbridge, Scotland)
Glass epoxy rod
(upgrading Manitoba bridge)
FRP composite
(Bridge deck,Illinois)
a., u.: Polyurethane
+.: a++
eo es vIve+n e: PP
s vIve+av.vva.+:sev: PE, PB
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a n+n+ave: Acrylics
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va+: PC
HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE)
[CH
2
- CH
2
]
n
Properties
- density > 0.94 g/cm
3
- stiff
- good low temperature properties - tough
- good environmental stress cracking resistance (ESCR)
Applications
- blow molded containers
- injection molded parts
- extruded pipes and profiles
LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LDPE)
Properties
- d < 0.916 g/cm
3
- crystallinity ~ 30-40%
- chemically inert - high clarity - sealability
- ease of processing - good barrier properties
Applications
- clarity film packaging
- disposable diapers
- agricultural film
- coatings e.g. milk carton, food packaging, tapes, wire & cable
[CH
2
- CH
2
]
n
LINEAR LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LLDPE)
Properties
- d = 0.916 - 0.940 g/cm
3
- high strength
- high ESCR - high toughness
Applications
- blown & cast film for stretch cling (wrap) - grocery bags
- heavy-duty shipping sacks - diaper liners
- injection molding lids - rotomold drums
- geomembrane (large extruded sheet-liners for landfills and waste pond)
ULTRA HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT
POLYETHYLENE (UHMWPE)
(MW > 3 millions !!!)
Properties
- Not melt, processed by metal processing procedures e.g.
compression molding or ram extrusion
- fine powder - unsurpassed wear resistance, toughness
- chemically inert - low friction coefficient
Applications
- handling, chemical pump parts
- feed screws
- textile and other machinery constuction
POLYPROPYLENE (PP)
[CH
2
- CH]
n
CH
3
Properties
- d = 0.90 - 0.91 g/cm
3
- Tg ~ -20
o
C , Tm ~ 160
o
C
- excellent chemical resistance - superior ESCR
- good flowability / processability
Applications
- fibers (apparel, diaper, carpet etc.)
- films (packaging for cigarettes, candies etc.)
- coating (insulation in telephone cable)
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC)
[CH
2
- CH]
n
Cl
Properties
- d = 0.90 - 0.91 g/cm
3
- Tg ~ 70
o
C
- excellent chemical resistance - superior ESCR
- good flowability / processability
Applications
- heavy-walled pressure pipe
- thin crystal clear food packaging
- window profile
- artificial leather (plasticized PVC)
POLYAMIDE 6,6 (NYLON 6,6)
[HN - C - (CH
2
)
4
- C - NH - (CH
2
)
6
]
=
O
=
O
n
Properties
- d ~ 1.14 g/cm
3
- Tg ~ 50
o
C
- max. service temperature = 120
o
C - good chemical resistance
- high strength/good mechanical properties
Applications
- automotive tubing/lines, gas tanks
- impellers/propellers
- fibers: tire cord, tennis string etc.
EPOXY RESINS
CH
2
-CHCH
2
-[-O- -C- -CH
2
-CH-CH
2
-]-O- -C- -OCH
2
CH-CH
2
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
O O
OH
n
H
2
N-R-NH
2
+
N-R-N
CH
2
-CH-
CH
2
CH
2
-CH-
CH
2
CH
2
-CH-
CH
2
CH
2
-CH-
CH
2
OH
OH
OH OH
* Note: Structure above is typically used epoxy resins.
Network structure
(. -.:.. .)
EPOXY RESINS
Properties
- high toughness
- outstanding adhesion to many substances
- good chemical/corrosion resistance
- good mechanical/electrical properties
Applications
- coatings: automotive primer coatings
- structural: military tanks,
aircraft wing skins,
pipe in the oil gas industries, circuit board substrate
NATURAL RUBBER (NR)
Properties
- high tensile strength
- good electrical insulation
- good resistance to abrasion, tear and fatigue
Applications
- large tires, vibration mounts, conveyor belts, seals, etc.
cis- 1,4-Polyisoprene
H
2
C
H
3
C
CH
2
H
C = C
n