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Oil and Gas Production Systems
Lecture notes for course ta4490 ‘Production Optimisation’
J.D. Jansen and P.K. Currie
Version 5c, March 2004
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 Page ii
Title: Modelling and Optimisation of Oil and Gas Production Systems
Version: 5c
Date: March 2004
Type of report: Lecture notes
Course code: ta4490 (Production Optimisation)
Authors: J.D. Jansen and P.K.Currie.
Part of these notes (in particular parts of chapters 6 and 7, and chapter 8)
have been based on the lecture notes from P.K. Currie for the former
course ‘Foundations of Production Technology’ (mp3440). J.D. Jansen
adapted and expanded the material for ta4490 and wrote the new
chapters 1 to 5 and parts of 6 and 7, the appendices, and most of the
MATLAB files. D.R. Brouwer assisted with the development of some of
the MATLAB practicals.
Postal address: Section Petroleum Engineering
Department of Geotechnology
Delft University of Technology
P.O. Box 5028
2600 GA Delft
The Netherlands
Email: j.d.jansen@citg.tudelft.nl
Copyright © 2004 Section Petroleum Engineering
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in
any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or
otherwise, without permission of the Section Petroleum Engineering.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 Page iii
Contents
1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................... 1
1.1 What will be covered in this chapter?.................................................................................... 1
1.2 Production system modelling and optimisation .................................................................... 1
1.3 Overview of the course for 2004 ............................................................................................. 3
1.4 Unit systems and notation convention.................................................................................... 4
1.5 Exercises ................................................................................................................................... 5
2 PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELLING................................................................ 7
2.1 What will be covered in this chapter?.................................................................................... 7
2.2 Production systems .................................................................................................................. 7
2.3 System models ........................................................................................................................ 10
2.4 Nodal analysis......................................................................................................................... 13
2.5 Exercises ................................................................................................................................. 17
3 OPTIMISATION OBJECTIVES AND CONSTRAINTS ...................................... 19
3.1 What will be covered in this chapter?.................................................................................. 19
3.2 Economic objectives............................................................................................................... 19
3.3 Environmental objectives...................................................................................................... 24
3.4 Technical objectives ............................................................................................................... 24
3.5 Constraints ............................................................................................................................. 25
3.6 Exercises ................................................................................................................................. 25
4 PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS........................................................... 29
4.1 What will be covered in this chapter?.................................................................................. 29
4.2 Fluid properties...................................................................................................................... 29
4.3 Pressuretemperature phase diagram.................................................................................. 32
4.4 Equations of state................................................................................................................... 34
4.5 Oil models ............................................................................................................................... 36
4.6 Exercises ................................................................................................................................. 38
5 SINGLEPHASE FLOW IN WELLS AND PIPELINES....................................... 39
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 Page iv
5.1 What will be covered in this chapter?.................................................................................. 39
5.2 Governing equations.............................................................................................................. 39
5.3 Pressure drop analysis........................................................................................................... 42
5.4 Exercises ................................................................................................................................. 48
6 MULTIPHASE FLOW IN WELLS, PIPELINES AND CHOKES ....................... 49
6.1 What will be covered in this chapter?.................................................................................. 49
6.2 Flow regimes........................................................................................................................... 49
6.3 Slip and holdup..................................................................................................................... 50
6.4 Gradient curves...................................................................................................................... 53
6.5 Intake pressure curves for describing tubing performance............................................... 54
6.6 Multiphase flow through chokes ......................................................................................... 56
6.7 Exercises ................................................................................................................................. 59
7 INFLOW PERFORMANCE................................................................................. 61
7.1 What will be covered in this chapter?.................................................................................. 61
7.2 The importance of inflow performance ............................................................................... 61
7.3 Governing equations.............................................................................................................. 62
7.4 Inflow performance relationships ........................................................................................ 65
7.5 Formation damage and skin ................................................................................................. 70
7.6 Multilayer inflow performance ........................................................................................... 73
7.7 Related topics that have not been considered in this chapter ............................................ 74
8 OIL WELL PRODUCTIVITY ............................................................................... 75
8.1 What will be covered in this chapter?.................................................................................. 75
8.2 Optimising well productivity ................................................................................................ 75
8.3 Oil well completions............................................................................................................... 75
8.4 Production rate of a vertical well operating at given tubing head pressure..................... 75
8.5 Production rate of a vertical well operating through a surface choke.............................. 78
8.6 Summary of analysis methods .............................................................................................. 80
8.7 Field development planning and field management ........................................................... 80
8.8 Shortterm optimisation of well performance..................................................................... 81
8.9 Longterm optimisation of well performance...................................................................... 83
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 Page v
8.10 Productivity of horizontal wells............................................................................................ 84
8.11 Related topics that have not been considered in this chapter ............................................ 85
APPENDIX A – SI UNITS AND FIELD UNITS.......................................................... 87
A.1 Conversion factors ....................................................................................................................... 87
A.2 SI prefixes .................................................................................................................................... 88
A.3 Standard conditions ..................................................................................................................... 88
A.4 Force, mass and acceleration of gravity..................................................................................... 88
A.5 Amount of substance and molar mass........................................................................................ 89
APPENDIX B – FLUID PROPERTIES AND CORRELATIONS ............................... 91
B.1 Fluid properties ............................................................................................................................ 91
B.2 Oil correlations ............................................................................................................................. 93
B.3 Gas correlations............................................................................................................................ 98
APPENDIX C – NUMERICAL METHODS .............................................................. 107
C.1 Root finding ................................................................................................................................ 107
C.2 Differential equations ................................................................................................................ 108
APPENDIX D  ANSWERS TO EXERCISES.......................................................... 111
D.1 Answers for Chapter 1  Introduction...................................................................................... 111
D.2 Answers for Chapter 2 – Production system modelling ......................................................... 112
D.3 Answers for Chapter 3 – Optimisation objectives and constraints ....................................... 112
D.4 Answers for Chapter 4 – Properties of reservoir fluids.......................................................... 114
D.5 Answers for Chapter 5 – Singlephase flow in wells and pipelines........................................ 116
D.6 Answers for Chapter 6 – Multiphase flow in wells, pipelines and chokes ........................... 118
APPENDIX E – MATLAB MFILES......................................................................... 119
E.1 Conversion factors...................................................................................................................... 119
E.2 Economics ................................................................................................................................... 119
E.3 Exercises...................................................................................................................................... 119
E.4 Fluid flow .................................................................................................................................... 119
E.4 Fluid properties .......................................................................................................................... 120
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 Page vi
REFERENCES......................................................................................................... 121
GLOSSARY ............................................................................................................. 125
INDEX....................................................................................................................... 127
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 1
1 Introduction
1.1 What will be covered in this chapter?
• The role of production system modelling and optimisation in the petroleum life cycle.
• An overview of the course.
• Unit and notation conventions.
1.2 Production system modelling and optimisation
Figure 1.1 displays a highlevel overview of activities during oil and gas exploration and
production (E&P). This process diagram, often referred to as the petroleum life cycle model
can be indefinitely refined to display subactivities at deeper levels. The course Production
optimisation (ta4490) is of relevance to the development and production phases of the
petroleum life cycle, in particular to the subactivities involving field development planning
(FDP), detailed design of wells and facilities, and operation of wells and facilities.
Explore Produce Abandon Appraise Develop
Figure 1.1: Petroleum life cycle model.
1.2.1 Development phase
Unlike what is suggested in Figure 1.1, the petroleum life cycle is not just a sequential
process without feedback and repetition of activities. In particular during the design phase, a
lot of activities are performed in an iterative fashion. Figure 1.2, for example, displays some
of the activities involved in designing a well during a field development project, clearly
indicating the iterative nature of the process. At a higher level, several cycles of reappraisal
(e.g. based on production performance or new seismic data), redevelopment (e.g. through re
completion of existing wells, or infill drilling of new ones), and production may take place
during the life of a field. Each of these activities involves aspects of production optimisation.
The key objective during field development is maximization of the economic benefits within
the constraints of the project. This optimisation process involves comparison of a large
number of development concepts, usually in combination with a large number of subsurface
models to reflect geological uncertainties. Early cooperation of between geophysicists,
geologists, reservoir engineers, production engineers and well engineers, supported by the
appropriate integrated organizational structure and systems (software) is essential to achieve
the objective.
Traditionally, the concept of production optimisation is used in a somewhat more narrow
context. For example, the textbooks of Brown (1984) and Beggs (1991) focus on optimising
the various components in the flow path from the reservoir to the separator, and elaborate on
the detailed analysis of flow in flowlines, chokes, wells and the nearwell section of the
reservoir, as indicated in the centre part of Figure 1.2. The traditional use of the term
production optimisation sometimes also implies the design and analysis of artificial lift
methods and stimulation treatments.
All of these optimisation activities require the use of some kind of model of the production
system. Traditionally these consisted of relatively simple mathematical models, accessible to
hand analysis, sometimes with the aid of charts or tables. Nowadays, the models are usually
much more complicated and require the use of a computer.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 2
Select targets
Design
well
trajectory
Results OK?
Assess
drillability
Establish
drill string
stresses
Establish
borehole
stability
N
Design
completion
over reservoir
Establish
inflow
performance
Design tubing
Establish
tubing
performance
Assess
well
productivity
Results OK?
N
Select
completion
concept
Establish
production
profile
Assess
economics
Perform
reservoir
simulation
Results OK?
Geological
model
Reservoir
properties
Fluid
properties
Production
constraints
Drilling rig
constraints
N
End
Y
Y
Y
Figure 1.2: An example of iterative processes during well design in a field development
project. Not shown are the links to other iterative activities during the development process
such as geological modelling or design of surface facilities.
1.2.2 Production phase
Figure 1.3 shows a representation of oil and gas production as a feedback control process,
involving measurement, modelling and control. Two major feedback cycles occur, each on its
own time scale; see e.g. Rossi et al. (2000):
• Daily production control: On a scale of days to weeks, typical input variables are
wellhead choke settings, water injection pressures, or lift gas rates. Measured output from
the process includes production variables such as pressures, and oil, gas and water rates.
Control will often be driven by short time optimisation objectives, for example
production targets or utilization rates of surface facilities. Models of flow through wells
and surface facilities can play an important role in the process of optimising daily
production. A typical shorttime optimisation problem is the distribution of a limited
amount of lift gas over a number of producing wells such that oil production is
maximized.
• Reservoir management: On a time scale of months to years, the production process
essentially consists of draining the reservoir. In addition to the variables that control daily
production, input includes production engineering activities such as water or gas shut off,
recompletion, stimulation or even sidetracking or infill drilling. Measured output
involves production histories, well tests and reservoir images obtained from time lapse
seismic or other sources. Control is usually focused on maximizing the asset revenues,
which often translates into maximizing ultimate recovery and minimizing operating
expenditure. System modelling will often involve extensive reservoir simulation, in
addition to wellbore and surface flow modelling. In particular when redevelopment
activities are initiated at a later stage in the producing life of a field, the reservoir
management process coincides in many aspects with the field development process
described above.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 3
Sensors
System model
Control
actions
Measured
output
System
(reservoir, wells
& facilities)
Input Output
CONTROL MEASURE
MODEL
Figure 1.3: Oil and gas production represented as a feedback control process, involving
measurement, modelling and control.
Sometimes shortterm production optimisation is considered to be an activity for production
engineers only, whereas reservoir management would then be the exclusive domain of the
reservoir engineering discipline. Such a distinction is somewhat artificial and both activities
are closely linked. An important production engineering activity is surveillance, the
systematic collection and analysis of well and facilities performance data. Such production
data are not only essential to optimise the production system, but also for long term reservoir
management. In turn, the understanding of the long term field development objectives is
essential to produce a reservoir in an optimal fashion. Because of the need to perform the
shortterm and longterm optimisation activities in an integrated fashion, many oil companies
have reorganized their production organizations around assets, rather than around the
traditional disciplines.
1.3 Overview of the course for 2004
1.3.1 Relationships with other courses
Prerequisites for this course are:
• Drilling and production engineering (ta 3430).
• Properties of hydrocarbons and oilfield fluids (ta3410).
• Knowledge of physical transport phenomena as covered e.g. in Fluid flow, heat and mass
transfer (ta 3220).
• Knowledge of elementary differential equations as covered e.g. in Differential equations
(wi2034ta).
The course provides the knowledge of production engineering needed for
• Field development project (ta4031).
1.3.2 Course material
The course treats aspects of production optimisation in the traditional sense as well as in the
wider context. The course material is completely covered in these lecture notes apart from
multiphase flow. This topic is treated in more detail in the SPE monograph Multiphase
Flow in Wells by Brill and Mukherjee (1999) of which the following sections form an
obligatory part of the course material:
• Chapter 1: Introduction.
• Chapter 2: Singlephaseflow concepts: 2.1 – 2.4.2.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 4
• Chapter 3: Multiphaseflow concepts: 3.1 – 3.4.
• Chapter 4: Multiphase flow pressure gradient predictions: 4.1, 4.2 pp. 2931 (Hagedorn
& Brown method) and pp. 4446 (Mukherjee & Brill method), 4.3 and 4.6.
In addition,
• Chapter 6 – Well design applications,
is strongly recommended as background reading. Copies of the monograph are available via
the SPE or at the ‘dictatenverkoop’. A few copies can be borrowed from the TA library.
1.3.3 Exercises
Exercises are provided at the end of some chapters. Answers to the exercises can be found in
Appendix D. Most of the exercises can be performed by hand, with a simple calculator, but
some of them are more easily performed with the aid of a spreadsheet. Alternatively, you
may want to use the MATLAB routines available from Blackboard. Make sure you inspect the
content of the routines to understand their functionality. Some workedout MATLAB exercises
can be downloaded from Blackboard, see the file ‘Exercises.zip’. Proficiency in MATLAB is
not required for the examination. However, MATLAB exercises are an important ingredient of
the five afternoons of computer practical which form an obligatory part of the course. Topics
covered include
• introduction to MATLAB,
• black oil properties
• multiphase flow in wells, and
• well performance.
Some of the practical exercises will be signed off and need to be completed to obtain a valid
examination result.
1.3.4 Examination
Examination will cover
• awareness of all topics covered in the course material,
• understanding of the physical principles, and
• skills in performing engineering calculations.
The latter includes in particular
• units conversion,
• cash flow analysis,
• hydrocarbon property calculations (e.g. use of black oil correlations),
• wellbore flow analysis (single phase and multiphase Hagedorn & Brown and Mukherjee
and Brill methods),
• use of gradient curves, and
• use of inflow, tubing, well and choke performance relationships to perform nodal
analysis.
Material covered during the computer exercises may form part of the examination.
The examination will be written and ‘open book’, i.e. course material may be taken to the
exam. Additional notes and worked exercises are not allowed. A calculator will be needed.
Some worked exams are provided via Blackboard.
1.4 Unit systems and notation convention
Mostly, we will present formulas, data and example calculations in SI units. Occasionally we
will add the corresponding field units to allow easy comparison with results from literature,
or to give you a feel for units often still used in oil field practice. The expression ‘SI units’ is
used loosely to indicate both ‘strict’ SI units and ‘allowable’ units. The ‘strict’ units can be
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 5
subdivided in the seven ‘base’ SI units (m, kg, s, A, K, mol and cd) and ‘derived’ SI units
such as °C, N, or J. The ‘allowable’ SI units are those defined in SPE (1982) and include d
(day) and a (year). For further information on the use of SI units see SPE (1982), which also
contains an extensive list of conversion factors. A brief list of conversion factors is given in
Appendix A of these lecture notes. In addition, a number of MATLAB ‘mfiles’ for units
conversion can be downloaded from Blackboard, see the file ‘Conversion factors.zip’. They
have a selfexplanatory syntax. E.g. to convert a value of 1000 psi into Pa type
» from_psi_to_Pa(1000)
which produces the answer
ans = 6894757 .
SI units will be quoted directly in the text. NonSI units will be enclosed in round brackets,
whenever there is a chance for confusion. To distinguish between temperatures expressed in
°C (or °F) and absolute temperatures expressed in K (or °R), we will label absolute
temperatures with a subscript: T
abs
. Dimensions will be enclosed in square brackets. For
example, we could write:
“The well was completed with a 0.114 m (4 ½ inch) tubing.”, or
“J
s
is expressed in m
2
day
1
Pa
1
(bbl day
1
psia
1
ft
1
) and has dimensions [L
3
m
1
t]”.
Following the SPE standards, we indicate the dimensions as follows:
L is length,
m is mass,
n is amount,
q is electrical charge,
t is time, and
T is temperature.
For variables we will predominantly use SPE symbols as recommended in SPE (1993).
Variables are always written in italics.
1.5 Exercises
Note: The following exercises involve unit conversions. Consult Appendix A for conversion
factors and additional information. In addition, you may want to make use of the MATLAB
‘mfiles’ for unit conversion that can be downloaded from Blackboard; see the file
‘Conversion factors.zip’.
1.1 A well produces 12000 bpd of oil at a GOR of 1500 scf/stb. The oil gravity is 38 °API
and the gas gravity is 0.82. What are the oil and gas production rates and densities in SI
units?
1.2 A mixture of 1 lbmmole of C
1
and 0.3 lbmmole of CO
2
is kept at a temperature of 83
°R and a pressure of 30 psig. What are the mass, the temperature and the pressure of the
gas mixture in SI units?
1.3 Calculate the pressure in Pa and in psi in a well open to the atmosphere and filled with
salt water (specific gravity 1.03) at a depth of 2000 m.
1.4 The pressure drop over a choke for an incompressible liquid is given by
∆p v g C
c
= ρ
2 2
288
c h
,
where ∆p is the pressure drop expressed in psi, ρ is the liquid density in lbm/ft
3
, v is the
liquid velocity in ft/s, and C is a dimensionless choke coefficient. The nature of the
dimensional constant g
c
is discussed in Appendix A . Convert the expression to SI units.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 7
2 Production system modelling
2.1 What will be covered in this chapter?
• A brief description of a typical oil and gas production system.
• Systems analysis; some basic concepts and the analogy between hydraulical, electrical
and mechanical systems.
• A first look at multiphase flow; in particular the difference between phase flow rates and
component flow rates.
• Nodal analysis; a specific application of systems analysis to production systems.
• Stability of operating point; theoretical background to a typical aspect of multiphase
wellbore flow.
Note: Various concepts covered in this chapter, especially those in Section 2.4, may seem
somewhat abstract at this stage. However, they will be of relevance later on, in particular in
Chapters 3, 5 and 8. You may want to just read through these parts on the first reading, and
only study them in more detail at a later stage.
2.2 Production systems
The main functions of an oil and gas production system are to
• provide a conduit for the flow of fluids from the reservoir to the off take point at
surface, and sometimes also from the surface to the subsurface,
• separate the produced reservoir fluids from each other,
• minimize the production or the negative effects of byproducts,
• store the produced fluids if they cannot immediately be exported
• measure the amounts of fluids produced and control the production process
• provide a part of the energy required to transport fluids through the system.
The basic elements of a production system are, see Figures 2.1 to 2.3:
• the nearwellbore area of the reservoir, i.e. a zone of several meters in radial direction
around the wells at the depth of the reservoir,
• the wells from the reservoir to the well head at surface,
• the flowlines from the well heads to the surface facilities,
• the surface facilities, consisting of separators, pumps, compressors and other
equipment for treatment and measurement, and
• storage tanks and pipelines up to the off take point or sales point, which can e.g. be a
valve at the entrance of a gas transport pipeline or the offloading point of an oil
terminal supplying tankers.
Each element of the system can be subdevided in subelements. In particular, the flow path
through the wellbore may consist of
• perforations in the formation (i.e. the rock) and the cement around the casing, and in
the casing itself,
• sand control equipment consistsing of densely packed gravel (well sorted sand) or
metal screens at the bottom of the well,
• the tubing, a pipe running from the bottom of the well to surface,
• a surfacecontrolled subsurface safety valve (SCSSV) to closein the well if surface
control is accidentally lost, and
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 8
well head
reservoir
reservoir
well head
casing
perforations
tubing
slotted pipe
well head
reservoir
reservoir
well head
casing
perforations
tubing
slotted pipe
Figures 2.1 and 2.2: Schematics of a vertical and a horizontal well. The vertical well is
completed with a tubing, a packer and a perforated casing. The horizontal well is completed
with a tubing, a packer and an uncemented slotted pipe.
• the well head, a collection of manually or remotelycontrolled valves to shutin the
well and allow access to the well with wireline tools, and a chokeor bean, a variable
size restriction to control the flow from the well. Well heads are often called
christmas trees (Xmas trees).
The downhole equipment in a well is usually referred to as the completion. Some wells are
not completed with a cemented production casing over their entire depth, but have an open
hole completion (just a hole in the rock without pipe, also called barefoot completion), or an
uncemented perforated or slotted pipe in the reservoir. There is always a cemented casing
present running from the top of the reservoir (the seal or the cap rock) to surface to avoid
uncontrolled flow of reservoir fluids. The tubing is usually anchored to the casing just above
the reservoir with the aid of an inflatable rubber packer. As opposed to the casing, which is
cemented in place, the tubing can be changedout if it is worn or corroded, or if the flowing
behaviour of the well can be improved by changing the tubing diameter. Some wells have a
dual completion, which means two tubings, each producing from a different reservoir at a
different depths.
The surface facilities are usually more complicated than depicted in Figure 2.3. Often two or
more separators are mounted in series, to allow a stepwise reduction of the pressure, rather
than a single pressure drop. The reason to perform the separation in steps is to maximize the
amount of oil. During separation of light and heavy hydrocarbon components, a certain
amount of intermediate components disappear with the lighter ones. The lower the pressure
drop that the mixture experiences, the less intermediate components disappear. A multiple
separator configuration also allows to cope with a drop in tubing head pressure (the pressure
in the tubing at the wellhead), an effect that often occurs during the life of a well when water
production increases and oil production drops. In that case it is possible to connect the well to
the lowpressure separator directly, while those wells that still produce at high tubing head
pressures remain connected to the highpressure separator. The pressure in the stock tank is
always atmospheric, because crude oil (degassed and dewatered oil) is transported under
atmospheric conditions.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 9
A special role is played by the test separator, a separate, small, separator equipped with
measurement equipment for oil, gas and water flow rates. Indvidual wells can be rerouted to
the test separator to measure their oil, gas and water production. Such a production test,
which takes several hours to obtain accurate data, is typically performed once a month for
each well, and forms traditionally the only way to assess a well’s production. Increasingly,
however, more continuous measurements are being applied, e.g. with the aid of multiphase
flow meters directly connected to the flowlines. Some form of continuous measurement of
pressures and temperatures at various parts of the surface production system is quite
common. Downhole measurements with the aid of permanent downhole gauges (PDGs) are
less common, although their application is steadily growing. Automatic measurements are
usually stored in an electronic process control system, that may also allow full control of the
surface facilities from a local or even remote control room. Such a level of instrumentation
and automated process control is quite common in expensive, high production operations,
typically in an offshore environment. However, many production facilities, especially those
on land, are relative simple and are still operated manually.
Gas production often requires specialised gas treatment facilities to dry the gas and remove
corrosive components such as H
2
S or CO
2
. Furthermore, various types of pumps and
compressors, both centrifugal and reciprocating, are applied to export oil and gas or to
reinject produced water or gas into the subsurface. Gas compression is also often used to
enable gas lift, which is the injection of gas into the wellbore to reduce the hydrostatic head
of the liquid and thus to increase production. This is an example of artificial lift, the process
of supplying external energy to force the wellbore liquid from the reservoir to surface.
Artificial lift is required when the reservoir pressure is too low to make the well flow
naturally, a situation that often occurs at a later stage in the life of the reservoir. The most
well known methods, apart from gas lift, are pumping with beam pumps (‘nodding donkeys’)
or electric submersible pumps (ESPs). Fur further information on surface facilities, see e.g.
Chilingarian et al. (1987) or Arnold and Stewart (1998). For further information on artifical
lift, see e.g. Economides et al.(1994).
oil &
water
water
separator
stock tank
oil
header
flow lines
wellheads
water injection pump
oil export pump
gas
compressor
oil &
water
water
separator
stock tank
oil
header
flow lines
wellheads
water injection pump
oil export pump
gas
compressor
Figure 2.3: Surface facilities. The five wellheads are connected to four production wells and
one water injector. Oil is exported to a terminal, gas into an export pipeline.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 10
2.3 System models
2.3.1 Topology
Flow through a complicated system, like a production system, must be broken down into its
component parts for analysis. During the course, we will examine the flow behaviour in
several of the component parts: the inflow into the wells, the flow within the wells, and the
flow through chokes and flowlines. But in performing these separate detailed analyses, it is
essential that we realize that we are looking at only components of a larger system.
Optimising the performance of each separate component will not normally result in an
optimised system. For example, if we improve the well inflow behaviour so much that the
tubing is unable to handle the production, we have wasted money.
We can describe the components of a production system as a network of elements connected
at nodes. E.g., the flow from the reservoir through the well, the surface facilities and the
pipeline could be represented as a series of elements and nodes as shown in Figure 2.1. The
figure represents the simplest form of a network: a cascade or chain of elements were each
node is connected to not more than two elements. In reality, a production system is not a
cascade, and the associated network has a more complex topology. For example it may
contain branches, i.e. three or more elements connected at a node. A next step in complexity
involves loops: a chain of elements with a begin and end connected to the same node. Figure
2.2 displays a production system with several nested loops, formed by multiple wells, one of
which is a multilateral, connecting two reservoirs to a single production facility. If we look
in detail at some of the other components of the system, we can further refine the system
model. The manifold may have more complexity, the facilities will consist of many
components, and the pipeline may have branches with flow coming in from other fields.
Reservoir Choke Well
Near
well bore
Flow line Manifold Facilities Pipeline
Figure 2.1: Network representation of a production system.
2.3.2 Flow and effort variables
The interaction between the various elements in a singlephase fluid flow network can
usually be described in terms of two pairs of variables: pressure and flow rate, and
temperature and heat flow. They are examples of pairs of effort and flow variables, concepts
which play a key role in the branch of engineering known as systems dynamics. Other
familiar pairs of effort and flow variables are the electric potential and current used in
electrical network analysis, force and velocity used in mechanical systems analysis, and
torque and angular velocity used also in mechanics. A common feature of most pairs of effort
and flow variables is that their product represents power flow, also known as energy rate or
energy per unit time:
dt
dE
M v F I V q p = = = = ω * * * * , (2.1)
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 11
Facilities Pipeline
Near
well bore
Lateral
branch
Choke Well Flow line
Near
well bore
Main
bore
Manifold
Upper
reservoir
Choke Well Flow line
Near
well bore
Choke Well Flow line
Near
well bore
Choke Well Flow line Manifold
Lower
reservoir
Near
well bore
Figure 2.2: Production system represented as a network with branches and loops.
where the various symbols have been defined in Table 2.1, together with their SI units and
physical dimensions. Equation 2.1 is only valid for consistent sets of units, such as SI units.
For use with field units it will be necessary to introduce numerical factors, for example to
account for differences between quantities expressed in feet and inches. Furthermore, it
should be noted that the product of temperature and heat flow is not power flow. A more
consistent representation of thermal systems is possible in terms of temperature and entropy
flow, but the resulting system description is complex and outside the scope of this course. For
an indepth treatment of system dynamics, see Karnopp and Rosenberg (2000).
2.3.3 Element equations
In the following we consider singlephase flow of a fluid with density and viscosity that are
functions of pressure and temperature. For the sake of simplicity, we neglect the occurrence
of heat flow, and assume that the temperature distribution within the system is known. Within
an element of a production system, pressure and temperature will generally be functions of
Table 2.1: Analogies between system variables in different domains.
Hydraulics Electricity Translation Rotation Heat flow
Effort Pressure Potential Force Torque Temperature
Symbol p V F M T
abs
SI units Pa V N N m K
Dimension
[L
1
m t
2
] [L
2
m q
1
t
2
] [L m t
2
] [L
2
m t
2
] [T]
Flow Flow rate Current Velocity Angular vel. Heat fl. rate
Symbol q I v ω Q
SI units m
3
s
1
A m s
1
rad s
1
J
Dimension [L
3
t
1
] [q t
1
] [L t
1
] [t
1
] [L
2
m t
3
]
Product p q = dE/dt V I = dE/dt F v = dE/dt Mω = dE/dt T
abs
Q ≠ dE/dt
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 12
time t and spatial coordinates x, y, and z. Most elements, however can be represented as one
dimensional systems with a single spatial coordinate s. Furthermore, we generally restrict
ourselves to the analysis of steady state flow, i.e. flow independent of t. If we consider for
example a wellbore element, we can then describe the flow behaviour with the following
variables:
pressure p(q,ρ,s,z,α,T), flow rate q(p,ρ,s,z,α,T), density ρ(p,T), and viscosity µ(p,T) (2.2)
where alonghole distance s is the independent variable, while vertical depth from surface
z(s), wellbore inclination α(s), and temperature T(s) are given functions of s. We need four
equations to solve for the four unknowns p, q, ρ and µ. In Chapter 5 we will discuss the
nature of these equations in detail. Here we only state that it is generally possible to solve the
equations over the length of an element and express the pressure and flow rate at one end of
the element in terms of the pressure and flow rate at the other end with inputoutput
relationships:
p f p q
q f p q
out in in
out in in
=
=
R
S

T

1
2
,
,
b g
b g
, (2.3)
where f
1
and f
2
are functions. They are usually strongly nonlinear, and cannot be obtained in
closed form, but may need to be determined numerically as will be treated in more detail in
Chapter 5. The density and viscosity can be computed anywhere in the element since they are
a function of p and T only.
We could have expressed equations (2.3) in terms of mass flow rates w
in
= q
in
ρ
in
and w
out
=
q
out
ρ
out
instead of volume flow rates q
in
and q
out
. In that case we would have found that w
out
=
w
in
because we consider a steady state situation and therefore no mass can accumulate in an
element. The same result could have been reached by expressing q
in
and q
out
in terms of a
reference flow rate at a given pressure and temperature. In the oil industry such a reference
flow rate is usually defined at standard conditions, representing ‘typical’ atmospheric
conditions: 15 °C and 100 kPa. In that case equations (2.3) reduce to
p f p q
out in sc
=
3
, b g , (2.4
where f
3
is another nonlinear function, and where the subscript sc indicates standard
conditions. Equation (2.4) illustrates that singlephase flow through an element can be
completely determined with a single relation between pressure and flow rate. In theory it is
also possible to derive the flow rate from the pressure drop with the aid of the inverse
relation:
q f p p
sc in out
=
4
, b g . (2.5)
For flow in oil and gas production systems, the situation is usually more complex, because
we encounter multiphase flow, involving a gas phase, one or two liquid phases (oil and
water) and sometimes even solid phases (e.g. wax, asphaltenes, hydrates, ice). As a result we
cannot use a single rate q to characterize the flow. In the following, we restrict ourselves to
gasliquid twophase flow. Even so, each of the two phases may contain a large number of
hydrocarbon components in a composition that varies with pressure and temperature. In this
course, we will further restrict ourselves by considering an oilgas system composed of two
pseudocomponents that are present in the gas and the oil phase in a variable composition
depending on the local pressure and temperature. Each of the two phases will have its own
density and viscosity, while in addition the interfacial tension σ comes into play. Often the
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 13
pseudo components are chosen as the gas and oil that result from surface separation at
standard conditions. We can then either express the inputoutput relationships in terms of
local oil and gas phase flow rates q
o
and q
g
, or in terms of the reference component flow rates
q
o,sc
and q
g,sc
:
p f p q q
q f p q q
q f p q q
out in o in g in
o out in o in g in
g out in o in g in
=
=
=
R
S


T


5
6
7
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, , ,
, , ,
d i
d i
d i
or p f p q q
out in o sc g sc
=
8
, ,
, ,
d i
. (2.6), (2.7).
As was the case in singlephase flow, the difference between flowin and flowout vanishes
in the equations expressed in (component) flow rates at standard conditions, i.e. q
o,in
= q
o,out
=
q
o
, and q
g,in
= q
g,out
= q
g
. Equation (2.7) shows that also for twophase flow the pressure drop
over an element can be reduced to a single expression in terms of the flow rates. In this case,
however, we cannot reconstruct the flow rates from the pressure drop using the inverse of
equation (2.7) alone, and we need a second equation that provides information about the ratio
of the flow rates q
o,sc
and q
g,sc
.
2.3.4 System equations
The inputoutput representations (2.3), (2.4), (2.6) and (2.7) are of course perfectly suited for
the analysis of cascade systems with the aid of a marching algorithm. We can then start from
the known values for pressure and flow rate(s) at one end of the system, and work our way
through to the other end by using the inputoutput relations f
i
for the elements one after each
other. Also a system with branches, but without loops, can be analysed using this approach.
For a system with loops, however, the situation is more complicated, and needs to be
analysed with techniques similar to those used in analysis of electrical networks. The same
approach can be used for the analysis of multicomponent fluid flow networks, and obviously
the number of equations increases with the number of components taken into account.
Furthermore, the analysis could be extended to include the temperature T and heat flow rate
Q in the system. Mass flow and heat flow are strongly coupled through convective heat
transport and viscous dissipation. Therefore, in the most general situation of fully thermal
compositional network analysis, we end up with a large system of coupled nonlinear
equations that may require considerable computing power. Such an analysis is outside the
scope of this course. A good introduction to the mathematical background of network
analysis is given in Strang (1986).
2.4 Nodal analysis
2.4.1 Principle
The analysis of cascade systems with the aid of a marching algorithm is known in the oil
industry as nodal analysis. Written in capitals, NODAL' analysis has even been registered as
a trade mark by a major service company.
For any given cascade network, we can march either from begin to end or vice versa. If we
know the pressure and the flow rate at one of the ends, such a onepass analysis is sufficient
to obtain the pressures and flow rates at all nodes. However, often we know the value of one
variable at each end of the cascade. For example we may know the reservoir pressure and the
manifold pressure at the ends of a cascade representing a single well. In that case we need to
guess the flow rate at one of the ends and repeat the marching algorithm several times, either
upward or downward, to establish the correct flow rate in an iterative fashion. With correct
flow rate we mean the flow rate that gives the correct pressure at the other end.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 14
Instead of marching all the way from one end to the other, we could just as well perform two
shorter marches, each one starting at an end and finishing in a joint node, also referred to as
analysis node. Furthermore, instead of performing the iteration automatically, we could plot
the two pressures (topdown and bottomup) at that particular node for a large number of
flow rates and determine the correct flow rate graphically. This is indeed the approach
followed in traditional nodal analysis of production systems, which was developed in the
1950s and relied on tabulated pressure drop values and graphical analysis rather than
computer methods.
2.4.2 Classical procedure
In traditional nodal analysis, popular choices for the analysis node are those representing
• the flowing bottomhole pressure, p
wf
, at the bottom of the tubing,
• the flowing tubing head pressure, p
tf
, just upstream of the wellhead choke,
• the flowline pressure, p
fl
, at the entrance of the flowline just downstream of the
wellhead choke, or
• the manifold pressure, p
mf
, at the end of the flowline.
Frequently used abbreviations for (flowing) tubing head pressure and (flowing) bottomhole
pressure are (F)THP and (F)BHP, where the adjective flowing is used to distinguish the
pressures from the closedin or static values for THP and BHP which occur when the well is
closedin at surface.
Sometimes different names are used for pressure drop calculations depending on whether the
algorithm marches in the direction of the flow or against it. If, for a given input pressure and
flow rate, we calculate the output pressure, this is known as a pressure drop calculation.
Alternatively, if we specify the output pressure, and calculate the input pressure for a cascade
at the given flow rate, this is called an operating point calculation. For example, if the THP is
specified and the BHP is calculated, this is an operating point calculation. If the BHP is
specified and the THP is calculated, it is called a pressure drop calculation. In practice, we
use a mixture of pressure drop and operating point calculations to analyse the particular
feature of a production system, as shown in Figure 2.3.
For example, we may want to look at the effect of inflow performance on the production rate
q
o,sc
of a well, for a given manifold pressure. We choose the bottom of the tubing as the
analysis node. For a fixed (surface) flow rate q
o,sc
, we work back down the well, using
operating point calculations for the various components (choke and tubing) and determine the
pressure at the analysis node. Repeating this procedure for different flow rates, gives a
relationship between the flow rate q
o,sc
and the pressure p
wf
at the analysis node. Such a pq
relationship we call an operating point performance curve.
Analysis
node
Operating point calculation Pressure drop calculation
Known
p and q
Known
p and q
Analysis
node
Analysis
node
Operating point calculation Pressure drop calculation
Known
p and q
Known
p and q
Known
p and q
Known
p and q
Figure 2.3: Procedure for nodal analysis.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 15
Similarly, starting from the given reservoir pressure, we can perform pressure drop
calculations for each component (reservoir, near wellbore region, perforations etc.) to
determine a pressure drop performance curve for p
wf
and q
o,sc
. These two curves can be
plotted on the same pq graph. There will be two possibilities, as shown in Figure 2.4.
1. The two curves do not intersect. The system cannot be operated under the assumed
conditions (given reservoir and manifold pressure).
2. The curves intersect at one or more points. Because the relationship between pressure
drop and flow rate is nonlinear for most elements of the production system, the pq
graphs are usually curved and may intersect at more than one point. Typically, we
encounter two intersections, one representing a stable and one an unstable (physically
unrealistic) operating point.
2.4.3 Stability of an operating point
To understand why an operating point can be unstable, we need to consider the dynamics of
the system. Nodal analysis is based on the steadystate relationship between pressure drop
and flow rate. For example, the operating point and pressure drop performance curves in
Figure 2.4 can be represented schematically as:
( ) ( ) q g p q f p = = and , (2.8)
where f and g are nonlinear functions. The flow rate q refers to the oil flow rate at standard
conditions q
o,sc
, but in this section we will drop the subscript ‘o,sc’ to avoid confusion with
the subscript ‘0’ (zero) used to indicate an operating point. In an operating point (p
0
, q
0
) we
find that
( ) ( )
0 0 0 0
and q g p q f p = = . (2.9)
We are interested in the effect of small disturbances p
~
on the flow in the neighbourhood of
an operating point:
Pressure drop
peformance curve
Operating point
performance curve
p
q
Operating point
performance curve
p
q
Pressure drop
peformance curve
Unstable operating point
Stable operating point
p=g(q)
p=f(q)
Figure 2.4: Nodal analysis using performance curves. Left: no intersection between curves.
Right: two intersections representing two operating points, of which only one is physically
realistic.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 16
( ) ( ) q q g p p q q f p p
~ ~
and
~ ~
0 0 0 0
+ = + + = + . (2.10)
Because we only consider small disturbances, we can linearize f and g. In other words, we
can take the Taylor expansions for f and g around q
0
, defined as
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ...
2
1
...
2
1
2
0 2
2
0 0
2
0 2
2
0 0
0 0
0 0
+ − ∗


.

\

+ − ∗


.

\

+ =
+ − ∗


.

\

+ − ∗


.

\

+ =
= =
= =
q q
dq
g d
q q
dq
dg
q g g
q q
dq
f d
q q
dq
df
q f f
q q q q
q q q q
(2.11)
and maintain only the constant and linear terms. If we substitute expansions (2.11) into
equations (2.9) and (2.10) and subtract the results, we obtain linear relations for p
~
and q
~
:
q g p q f p
~ ~
and
~ ~
′ = ′ = , (2.12)
where f′ and g′ are constants that follow from equations (2.11) as:
′ =
F
H
G
I
K
J
′ =
F
H
G
I
K
J
= =
f
df
dq
g
dg
dq
q q q q
0 0
and . (2.13)
Small fluctuations in flow rate imply that the flow accelerates and decelerates with small
amounts. These accelerations cause pressure fluctuations which we can represent in equations
(2.12) by adding inertia terms. We now assume that f represents the pressure drop
performance curve, and g the operating point performance curve. In that case we can write
dt
q d
g q g p
dt
q d
f q f p
in in
~
~ ~
and
~
~ ~
+ ′ = − ′ = , (2.14)
where f
in
≥ 0 and g
in
≥ 0. The two equations (2.14) are relationships between the pressure and
the flow rate in the analysis point and represent the effect of the flow dynamics in the well
upstream and downstream of that point respectively. The two acceleration terms have
different signs because an increase in pressure in the analysis node causes a deceleration of
the flow in the upstream part of the system and an acceleration of the flow in the downstream
part. In the operating points the pressures resulting from the upstream and the downstream
part have to be equal, and therefore we can write:
dt
q d
g q g
dt
q d
f q f
in in
~
~
~
~
+ ′ = − ′ , (2.15)
which can be rewritten as
( ) ( ) 0
~
~
= ′ − ′ − + q g f
dt
q d
g f
in in
. (2.16)
Equation (2.16) is a linear first order differential equation for q
~
. To obtain a complete
solution we need one initial condition. If we assume that a pressure disturbance with
magnitude
0
~
q takes place at time t = 0, the initial condition becomes:
0
~ ~
: 0 q q t = = . (2.17)
Solving equation (2.16) results in
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 17
~
exp q C
f g
f g
t
in in
=
′ − ′
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
, (2.18)
where C is an integration constant which can be determined with the aid of initial condition
(2.17). That results in
0
~
q C = , and therefore
~ ~
exp q q
f g
f g
t
in in
=
′ − ′
+
F
H
G
I
K
J 0
. (2.19)
Equation (2.19) represents an exponentially growing or decreasing magnitude of disturbance
q
~
with time, depending on the sign of (f′ – g′ ) / (f
in
+ g
in
). Because we defined that f
in
≥ 0
and g
in
≥ 0, it is the sign of (f′ – g′ ) that determines the stability of the flow in an operating
point. With the aid of equation (2.13) we can interpret f′ and g′ as the slopes of the pressure
drop performance curve and the operating point performance curve. Note that a performance
curve that decreases with increasing q has a negative slope. Referring back to Figure 2.4, we
find that the operating point to the left is unstable, and the one to the right stable. Stable
wellbore flow can therefore only occur at the pressure and flow rate corresponding to the
operating point to the right.
2.5 Exercises
2.1 An electric motor operates with 90 % efficiency at 300 V and draws a current of 16 A.
The shaft of the motor rotates with 240 revolutions per minute (rpm) and drives an oil
pump, via a reduction gear with an efficiency of 98 %. The pump creates a pressure
differential of 160 kPa at a flow rate of 22 * 10
3
m
3
/s. What is the torque generated by
the motor? What is the efficiency of the pump?
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 19
3 Optimisation objectives and constraints
3.1 What will be covered in this chapter?
• Economic objectives. Particular attention is paid to the importance of discounting to
capture the effect of time in economic optimisation.
• Environmental objectives.
• Technical objectives.
• Constraints imposed by nature, technology and socioeconomic conditions.
3.2 Economic objectives
3.2.1 Cash flow analysis
Optimisation of a process requires a clearly defined objective together with the relevant
constraints. In most E&P projects, the objective is to maximize the economic value of the
project in some sense. Figure 3.1 displays a typical annual cash flow of an oil or gas
development project, i.e. the yearly difference between cashin, consisting of revenues from
oil or gas sales, and cashout consisting of capital expenditure (CAPEX), operating
expenditure (OPEX), royalties and taxes. The sum of OPEX and CAPEX is also known as
technical costs, the sum of royalties and taxes as host government take. OPEX is often
devided in a fixed part, expressed as a percentage of the cumulative project CAPEX, and a
variable part, expressed as a cost per unit of liquid or gas produced. The sum of CAPEX and
OPEX per unit volume of oil produced is known as the unit technical cost (UTC), which is a
frequently used indicator of the costefficiency of production operations. Royalties are a
percentage of the oil produced and are payed either in the form of money or ‘in kind’, i.e. in
the form of oil. Taxes are paid in the form of a percentage of the taxable income which
consists of the revenues minus the sum of the royalties, the OPEX and the depreciation. In
the context of project economics, depreciation is a fiscal tool to spread the CAPEX spent in
one year over several fiscal years, and rules for depreciation are set by the host government.
The annual cashflow F
k
in year k can therefore be expressed as
,
government take revenues technical costs
k k k o k k k R o k R bt k
F R E p N O C r p N T I = − = − − − −
, (3.1)
where R are the revenues, E are the expenses, p
o
is the oil price, N is the annual production,
O is the OPEX, C is the CAPEX, r
R
is the royalty rate, and T
R
is the tax rate, and where I
bt
is
the taxable income (or income before tax) defined as
( ) ( )
K k k k k R k o k bt
C C C D O r N p I
− +
− − − = , , , 1
1 ,
, (3.2)
where D is the depreciation function and K the number of years over which the CAPEX can
be depreciated. In it’s simplest form, known as straight line depreciation, the CAPEX is
simply devided in equal parts over a period of K years. Figure 3.2 displays the cumulative
cash flow corresponding to Figure 3.1. It illustrates the initial maximum exposure (expressed
in $) caused by upfront investments, the breakeven point or payout time (expressed in
years), when the investments are recovered through the revenues, and the cumulative cash
surplus (expressed in $) at the end of the project life.
3.2.2 Discounting
The cash flows in Figures 3.1 and 3.2 are given in ‘constant value money’, i.e. they do not
take into account inflation. If we would take into account inflation, the resulting cumulative
cash flow in ‘money of the day’, would be higher, but we will not address this issue further.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 20
However, we will take into account another effect: Money has a tendency of apparently
loosing its value during the course of a project because it could have been used for other,
more profitable, investments. In the analysis of project economics, this effect is taken into
account through discounting the project cash flow, i.e. through reducing the value of money
over time to reflect the return on investment that could have been made by investing the
money elsewhere. The interest rate of this imaginary alternative investment is known as the
discount rate, and we can therefore write
( )
n
disc alt
R S S 100 / 1+ = , (3.3)
where
S
alt
is the value in year n from the alternative investment of S expressed in $,
S is the sum of money invested in year 0 in $,
R
disc
is the discount rate in % per year, and
n is the number of years since the investment.
The value of a sum S to be paid or received in year n should therefore be reduced to a
discounted value S
disc
according to
( )
factor discount
100 1
1
(
¸
(
¸
+
∗ = ∗ =
n
disc alt
disc
R
S
S
S
S S , (3.4)
50
25
0
25
50
75
100
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Time from start of project [years]
Figure 3.1: Annual cash flow of a typical oil or gas development project.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 21
200
100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Time from start of project [years]
breakeven point
maximum exposure
ultimate
cash surplus
(NPV@0%)
NPV@5%
NPV@10%
NPV@15%
Figure 3.2: Cumulative cash flow corresponding to the values of Figure 3.1.
where the multiplication factor at the righthand side is known as the discount factor.
Discounting is a method to quantify the effect that it is economically attractive to receive
payments as early as possible: until they have been received they cannot be used by the
receiver to make a return on investment and therefore gradually loose value. Conversely, it is
economically attractive to delay expenses, because until the money actually changes hands,
the spending party can use it to make a return, which effectively results in a reduced
expenditure. The discounted cumulative cash surplus of a project is often referred to as the
net present value (NPV) at a particular discount rate. Because of the large influence of oil
prices on revenues and therefore on E&P project economics, the NPV is usually quoted
together with the oil price and the discount rate used for its computation.
During the design phase of a development project, in particular during the FDP phase, the
objective is maximization of the NPV within the constraints of the project. This involves
comparison of a large number of development concepts, usually in combination with a
number of potential subsurface models to reflect geological uncertainties. An important
aspect is the phasing of the investments, because money spent at a later date has effectively a
lower value, because it has been discounted. Similarly, oil produced during the early days of
the project has a more beneficial effect on the NPV than oil produced at a later date, and
sometimes expensive completion concepts may be justified based on their potential to speed
up production. For a more detailed treatment of cash flow analysis and other aspects of
petroleum economics, see e.g. Seba (1998).
3.2.3 Example
A well could be completed with a 0.089 m (3½ inch) tubing at a cost of 160,000 $. The
expected daily production rates are given in allowable SI units and field units in columns 2
and 3 of Table 3.1. Alternatively, the well could be completed with a 0.102 m (4 inch) tubing
at a cost of 210,000 $, resulting in a production rate according to columns 4 and 5 of Table
3.1. Reservoir simulations indicate that the 0.102 m completion will stop producing after
8 years because of lift dieout caused by an increased watercut. Recompletion with a 0.089
m tubing, at a cost of 800,000 $ for the workover, will extend the life of the well with
another 6 years, during which time it will produce just as if it were completed with a 0.089 m
tubing right from the start.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 22
Table 3.1: Daily production rates for two tubing sizes.
Time
(year)
Production rate
0.089 m (3½ inch)
tubing
Production rate
0.114 m (4 inch)
tubing
m
3
/d bpd m
3
/d bpd
1 119.3 750 141.5
890
2 119.3 750 141.5
890
3 119.3 750 141.5
890
4 115.3 725 132.0
830
5 91.4 575 91.4
575
6 55.7 350 42.1
265
7 31.8 200 15.9
100
8 27.8 175 4.0
25
9 24.6 155
10 22.3 140
11 20.7 130
12 19.9 125
13 19.1 120
14 8.0 50
Question:
What is the most economic completion under an assumption of an oil price of 15 $/bbl, and
using a discount rate of 12%? To simplify the analysis, assume that the government take is
only in the form of a 20% royalty, and no taxes are being paid.
Answer:
Column 2 of Table 3.2 displays the differential daily oil production ∆q
o
of the two
completions, and column 3 the associated yearly differential revenues ∆R computed as:
365
o o
R p q ∆ = ∗∆ ∗ , (3.5)
where p
o
is the oil price in $/bbl. Column 4 displays the differential annual expenses ∆E.
They are zero except for 50,000 $ in year 1 because of the difference in initial completion
costs, and 800,000 $ in year 9 for the workover and recompletion. After year 9, there is no
difference in revenues or expenses, and we do not have to consider this period in the rest of
the analysis. The differential annual cash flow, taking into account the 20% royalties, can be
expressed as ( ) 1 0.2 F R E ∆ = − ∗∆ − ∆ and is given in column 5. The discounted differential
annual cash flow ∆F
disc
is obtained by reducing the value of ∆F according to equation (3.4)
resulting in
( ) 1 100
disc n
disc
F
F
R
∆
∆ =
+
. (3.6)
Summation of the discounted differential annual cash flow results in the discounted
cumulative differential cash surplus, in other words, the differential NPV. As displayed at the
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 23
bottom of column 6 of Table 3.2, the undiscounted cumulative differential cashflow is just
negative, suggesting that the recompletion option is unattractive. However, the discounted
differential cashflow equals nearly 780,000 dollar, which clearly indicates that under a
15 $/bbl oil price and a 12 % discount rate it is economical to initially complete the well with
the larger size tubing and pay for the extra costs of the workover in year 9. The reason for the
difference is the strong production increase during early years which is much heavier
weighted than the reduced production and the workover costs later in time. Note: A further
improvement in NPV could be obtained by changing out the tubing earlier; see exercise 3.4.
Table 3.2: Differential NPV calculation.
Time (year) Differential
production
rate (bpd)
Differential
annual
revenue ($)
Differential
annual
expenses ($)
Differential
annual cash
flow ($)
Discounted
differential
annual cash
flow ($)
1 140 766,500 50,000 563,200 502,857
2 140 766,500 0 613,200 488,839
3 140 766,500 0 613,200 436,464
4 105 574,875 0 459,900 292,275
5 0 0 0 0 0
6 85 465,375 0 372,300 188,619
7 100 547,500 0 438,000 198,129
8 150 821,250 0 657,000 265,351
9 0 800,000 800,000 288,488
190 1,040,250 850,000 17,800 779,848
3.2.4 Treatment of uncertainties
Geological or operational uncertainties may have an effect on the economics of a production
optimisation project. For example the time to remove the packer and the tubing from a well
during a workover may vary strongly because of corrosion and ageing of the packer elements.
Sometimes it is possible to make an estimate of the probability of occurrence of uncertain
events, and in that case one can compute the riskweighted NPV of the project which is also
known as the expected monetary value (EMV). For example, operational experience in a
certain area may have revealed that there is an 80% chance of performing a tubing change
out in 4 days, but a 20 % chance that it takes about two weeks. At a rig rate of 100,000 $/d
such a delay of 10 days would mean an increase in the workover costs of 1,000,000 $.
Applying this situation to the example given in Section 3.2.3 above, the discounted additional
costs would be
( )
9
1, 000, 000
360, 610
1 12 100
=
+
$ . (3.7)
In that case the EMV of the tubing changeout option would be given by
( ) 0.8 779, 848 0.2 779, 848 360, 610 707, 726
e
V = ∗ + ∗ − = $. (3.8)
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 24
3.3 Environmental objectives
Economic aspects of an oil and gas development project cannot be considered in isolation
from the environmental aspects and the social impact on the population in the
neighbourhood. Environmental objectives can be specified in terms of allowable limits such
as the amount of residual oil in discharged water, the amount of hydrocarbons vented during
processing, or the noise level of production facilities. These limits may originate from local,
national or international legislation or from an oil company’s own policies and environmental
targets. Sometimes it is possible to translate environmental objectives directly into economic
ones, for example through imposing a financial penalty on discharges. Often, however, this is
not possible and environmental objectives have to be balanced against economic objectives,
both during the field development process, as well as during the producing life of the field.
Essential in an upfront reduction of the environmental impact of a development process is to
consider the process of hydrocarbon production from cradle to grave, including waste
generation and handling, and abandonment of the facilities. Waste management should focus
on minimization, reuse, and recycling of waste and only thereafter consider the best option
for disposal. The major waste stream from a production process is water. Unfortunately, also
gas is often considered an unwanted byproduct, in particular when there is no local market to
sell it. The most widely accepted solution for produced water and gas disposal is reinjection
in the subsurface, although this is also not without environmental risks, in particular when
there is a possibility that produced water may pollute freshwater bearing aquifers. Disposal
of produced water at sea, after treatment to minimize the oilinwater content, may in some
instances be acceptable; surface disposal (flaring) of gas is almost never. Minimization of
water and gas production are therefore usually the most important environmental objectives.
Other commonly encountered environmental objectives are minimization of the discharges
from drilling and workover operations, and minimization of the land take by production
facilities and pipelines. This may lead to field development with deviated wells and clustered
wellheads in a small number of surface locations. For further information on environmental
aspects of oil and gas production see e.g. Reis (1996).
3.4 Technical objectives
During the design process of a production system it is often not feasible to directly assess the
economic and environmental consequences of technical solutions. Similarly, during
production operations it may be impossible to directly assess the consequences of operational
activities. Therefore, it is necessary to specify technical objectives, that can serve as
intermediate goals during the development and production processes.
A production system is designed to transfer hydrocarbons at the point of delivery to the
customer, and return waste products to the subsurface or treatment facilities. The delivery
commitment for hydrocarbons is usually in terms of volume and, in case of gas projects,
pressure and composition. Thus an important technical objective is to design the production
system such that it can sustain the required system capacity or throughput, making allowance
of course for normal downtime. This involves matching of the various components in the
flow path from the reservoir to the point of delivery to ensure maximum flow rate at a given
pressure drop, or minimum pressure drop at a given flow rate. This optimisation process
should take into account that the reservoir pressure and the composition of produced fluids
change drastically over the life of the reservoir. A related technical objective is to ensure a
production stream that will remain stable over a considerable part of the of the producing life
of the reservoir. As will be shown during the course, improperly designed components in a
well may result in unstable flow, or, in the worst case no flow at all.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 25
Technical objectives during production are usually shortterm production targets or facility
utilization rates, and cost reduction. The most important longerterm technical objective is
maximizing ultimate recovery. As already discussed in Section 1.2, short term production
optimisation and longer term reservoir management are closely linked, both in the
development phase as well as in the production phase of the petroleum life cycle.
3.5 Constraints
Many constraints have to be taken into account during production optimisation.
Location: In particular the difference between onshore and offshore has dramatic
consequences. In deep offshore locations well construction and well servicing are extremely
costly and therefore justify development concepts that would not be economically onshore.
Reservoir and fluid properties: High reservoir pressures and temperatures can severely
influence the design of wells and processing facilities. Similar effects have the presence of
aggressive components such as H
2
S or CO
2
in the reservoir fluids.
Time: Lead time for the procurement of well tubulars or production equipment may exceed
many months and is often more than a year. Furthermore, the time spent on engineering and
design optimisation needs to be balanced against the economic objective to produce oil as
early as possible.
Legislation and regulations: Legislation, tax regimes and operating agreements with the host
government may influence the development concept. E.g., many governments do not allow
commingled production, i.e. production from different reservoirs through a single tubing.
Also, the extent to which development expenses can be treated as CAPEX or OPEX can lead
to major differences in taxation for different development concepts.
Standardization: Oil company regulations for standardization sometimes limit the scope for
detailed optimisation of a design on a project by project basis. Obviously, the idea is that
these shortterm losses are offset against the longer term benefits of standardized equipment,
such as simplified maintenance and reduced stock levels of spare parts.
Rig capacity and availability: The scope for complicated wells may be reduced by technical
limits of the available drilling rigs, in particular hoisting and pumping capacity required for
extendedreach wells. Opportunities for well modification or repair (workover) may be
restricted by limited availability of workover rigs.
Many more constraints may be encountered during the various activities involved in
production optimisation. Sometimes environmental objectives can be considered as
constraints for economic or technical optimisation, or vice versa.
3.6 Exercises
Cash flow calculations can be most easily performed with the aid of a spreadsheet.
Alternatively, you may want to use the MATLAB routines available from Blackboard; see the
file ‘Economics.zip’. Make sure you inspect the content of the routines to understand their
functionality.
3.1 What is the discounted value of a sum of 10*10
6
$ after 5, 10 and 20 years at a discount
rate of 7%?
3.2 What is the NPV of the following cash flow at discount rates of 0 and 15%?
Table 3.3: Undiscounted cash flow
Time (year) 1 2 3 4 5 6
Cash flow (10
6
$) 5.3 1.2 1.8 3.9 2.5 1.4
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 26
3.3 In a field development plan (FDP) it is proposed to drill 10 wells, phased as indicated in
Table 3.4 below, at a cost of 5 million $ each. The wells are expected to produce
according to Table 3.5, starting the year after they have been drilled. The oil company’s
guidelines for project screening use an oil price of 15 $/bbl and a discount rate of 15%.
The asset manager challenges the FDP and states that an aggressive use of multilateral
(ML) wells could improve the project economics. He states that 5 ML wells could give
the same production as the 10 proposed wells, at a cost of 8 million $ per well. The FDP
project team responds that they have looked into this option, but that the long lead time
for equipment makes the proposal unattractive, because the first two wells would be
delayed by a year. Make a quick reevaluation of the two options. Disregard royalties
and taxes. Make use of the ML well drilling sequence presented in Table 3.4, and the
cash flow analysis for a well drilled in year 1 presented in Table 3.5. Is there a better
option?
Table 3.4: Drilling sequence for conventional and ML wells
Year 1 2 3
Conv. well 1,2 3,4,5,6 7,8,9,10
ML well  1,2,3 4,5
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 27
Table 3.5: Production profile and cash flow analysis for a conventional well drilled in
year 1.
Year Oil rate
(bpd)
Yearly
prod.
(10
6
bbl)
Cash in
(10
6
$)
Cash
out
(10
6
$)
Cash
flow
(10
6
$)
Cash
flow
@ 15%
(10
6
$)
Cum.
disc.
cash
flow
(10
6
$)
1 0 0.000 0 5.00 5.00 4.35 4.35
2 5000 1.825 27.38 27.38 20.70 16.36
3 4800 1.752 26.28 26.28 17.28 33.63
4 2500 0.913 13.69 13.69 7.83 41.46
5 1900 0.694 10.40 10.40 5.17 46.63
6 1400 0.511 7.67 7.67 3.32 49.95
7 1000 0.365 5.48 5.48 2.06 52.01
8 700 0.256 3.83 3.83 1.25 53.26
9 500 0.183 2.74 2.74 0.78 54.04
10 400 0.146 2.19 2.19 0.54 54.58
11 350 0.128 1.92 1.92 0.41 54.99
12 300 0.110 1.64 1.64 0.31 55.30
13 300 0.110 1.64 1.64 0.27 55.57
14 300 0.110 1.64 1.64 0.23 55.80
15 300 0.110 1.64 1.64 0.20 56.00
16 300 0.110 1.64 1.64 0.18 56.18
17 300 0.110 1.64 1.64 0.15 56.33
18 300 0.110 1.64 1.64 0.13 56.46
19 300 0.110 1.64 1.64 0.12 56.58
20 300 0.110 1.64 1.64 0.10 56.68
3.4 Consider the example in Section 3.2.3. Determine the optimal time to change out the
0.102 m (4 inch) tubing for the 0.89 m (3½ inch) tubing. How far should the oil price
drop before changing out the tubing becomes unattractive at a discount rate of 12%?
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 29
4 Properties of reservoir fluids
4.1 What will be covered in this chapter?
• The most common fluid properties used in petroleum engineering.
• The pressuretemperature phase diagram, and the associated classification of reservoirs
types and hydrocarbon fluids.
• Black oil and volatile oil models.
• Black oil correlations.
4.2 Fluid properties
The thermodynamic properties of reservoir fluids, like pressure, temperature, density or
viscosity, can have a strong influence on the flow in a well and the production rate. An
overview of the subject was given in course ta 3410 ‘Properties of hydrocarbons and oilfield
fluids’; see Zitha and Currie (2000). For further engineeringoriented information see also
Whitson and Brulé (2000), Danesh (1998), McCain (1990), Ahmed (1989) or Pedersen,
Fredenslund and Thomassen (1989), while for a more theoretical treatment see Firoozabadi
(1999). For a general introduction to thermodynamics see e.g. Moran and Shapiro (1998).
During the exploration and appraisal phase of an oil or gas field, determination of the fluid
properties is an important activity. Fluid samples, often called bottomhole samples, can be
collected from the bottom of the wellbore with the aid of specialized wire line tools. Also,
samples can be collected from the production stream to surface if a well test is performed.
Specialized laboratories perform pressurevolumetemperature (PVT) analyses to determine
the composition, i.e. the type and relative quantity of each component in the fluid mixture,
and the properties of the fluids at a wide range of pressures and temperatures. The
composition is usually specified in terms of fractions of the various components per kmol or
lbmmole of fluid sample. For a good description of the reporting of other properties, see
Whitson and Brulé (2000). Some important properties of the most frequently encountered
reservoir fluid components have been reproduced in Tables B.1 and B.2 in Appendix B.
To analyse multiphase flow of hydrocarbons in production systems we need to know the
state, i.e. the thermodynamic condition, of the fluid mixture in each point of the production
system. Apart from the thermodynamic properties of the components, this requires
knowledge of the phase behaviour of the mixture. We usually distinguish three distinct
phases: gas, oil and water, where we consider oil and water as different phases because they
are immiscible. In this course we will not consider the effect of the presence of a solid phase
as may occur when e.g. asphaltenes or waxes are present. To what extent the various
components of a reservoir fluid mixture are in the liquid or the gas phase is fully determined
by the composition of the mixture, and a minimal set of fluid properties, the state variables:
pressure, volume and temperature. The state variables are related to each other through an
equation of state (EOS), an algebraic relationship that will be discussed in more detail in
Section 4.4 below. Therefore it suffices to know only two of the three variables to completely
specify the state of an oilgas mixture.
It is customary to specify fluid properties at a reference state. In the E&P industry, this is
done through the definition of a reference pressure and temperature, known as standard
conditions: a pressure p
sc
= 100 kPa (14.7 psi) and a temperature T
sc
= 15 °C (60 °F), which
can be considered as typical for atmospheric conditions in temperate climates. Oil at standard
conditions is often referred to as stock tank oil, gas at surface conditions sometimes as stock
tank gas. The term separator gas usually refers to gas at a slightly higher than atmospheric
pressure, and should not be confused with gas at standard conditions. The fluid properties that
are of most interest for production engineering calculations are:
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 30
• Oil density at standard conditions ρ
o,sc
. In SI units, this is the density of the oil in kg/m
3
.
In field units, oil density is usually specified by the oil specific gravity γ
o
, which is the
density of the oil relative to that of pure water, both measured at standard conditions;
ρ
w,sc
= 999 kg m
3
(62.4 lbm ft
3
or 8.34 lbm gal
1
). However it is common to also use the
API gravity γ
API
, which is related to the specific gravity as γ
o
= 141.5 / (131.5 + γ
API
), and
therefore to the density as ρ
o
= 141.5 * 10
3
/ (131.5 + γ
API
).
• Gas density at standard conditions ρ
g,sc
or gas specific gravity γ
g
. The latter is the density
of the gas relative to air, both measured at standard conditions; ρ
air,sc
=1.23 kg m
3
(76.3 *
10
3
lbm ft
3
). This is equal to the ratio of the gas molar mass M to the molar mass of air;
M
air
= 28.97 kg kmol
1
(lbm lbmmole
1
).
• Water density at standard conditions ρ
w,sc
or water specific gravity γ
w
, which is the
density of the formation water relative to that of pure water, both measured at standard
conditions. The formation water will contain many dissolved salts. An equivalent
measurement is therefore the NaCl equivalent water salinity.
• Bubble point pressure p
b
. This is the pressure at which first gas is formed when oil is
subjected to a decreasing pressure at a given temperature. If the pressure at the top of a
reservoir is above the bubble point pressure, all gas is dissolved in the oil. However, if the
top part of the reservoir is below bubble point pressure, a gas cap exists, and the oil is
gassaturated. The bubble point pressure is therefore also known as the saturation
pressure. Going deeper down in the reservoir, the pressure increases, and when the
bubble point pressure is reached we encounter the gasoil contact (GOC).
• Solution gasoil ratio R
s
. This is the volume of stock tank gas which will dissolve in a
unit volume of stock tank oil when both are transferred to the given pressure and
temperature conditions. R
s
, which is also referred to as gas solubility, is a ratio of
volumes, and hence dimensionless, but it is dependent on the choice of units (m
3
/m
3
or
scf/stb). The abbreviation ‘scf’ indicates ‘standard cubic feet’ or ‘ft
3
at standard
conditions’; ‘stb’ indicates ‘standard barrel’ or ‘bbl at standard conditions’.
• Producing gasoil ratio R
p
. This is the volume of stock tank gas which will dissolve in a
unit volume of stock tank oil when both are transferred to bubble point pressure at
reservoir temperature. The producing gasoil ratio (GOR) R
p
is therefore equal to the
solution GOR R
s
at (or above) bubble point pressure and at reservoir temperature. Just
like R
s
, R
p
is a ratio of volumes, and hence dimensionless, but dependent on the choice of
units (m
3
/m
3
or scf/stb). R
p
can be determined from a laboratory analysis of a bottomhole
sample in a socalled separator test or flash test where oil at bubble point pressure and
reservoir temperature is brought to standard conditions. Oil with a very low producing
GOR is often referred to as dead oil. The same indication is also used for oil after it has
released its gas during the separation process at surface.
• Solution oilgas ratio r
s
. This is the volume of stock tank oil which will vaporize in a unit
volume of stock tank gas, when both are transferred to the given pressure and temperature
conditions. The oilgas ratio (OGR) plays an important role in the production of gas
condensates, and is therefore also referred to as solution condensategas ratio or simply
condensategas ratio (CGR). Also r
s
is a ratio of volumes, and hence dimensionless, but it
is dependent on the choice of units (m
3
/m
3
or stb/scf).
• Producing oilgas ratio r
p
. In analogy to the producing GOR, this is the volume of stock
tank oil (or condensate) which will vaporize in a unit volume of stock tank gas, when
both are transferred to the dew point pressure at reservoir temperature. The producing
OGR r
p
is therefore equal to the solution OGR r
s
at (or above) dew point pressure and at
reservoir temperature. The same comments on dimensions apply as were made for r
s
. Gas
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 31
with a very low producing OGR is referred to as dry gas. Note that the same indication is
also used for gas after it has been dried during processing at surface.
• Oil formation volume factor B
o
. This is the volume occupied by one stock tank unit
volume of oil, transferred to another condition with a given pressure p and temperature T,
where it will include dissolved gas. In reservoir engineering, B
o
is usually specified at
reservoir conditions p
R
and T
R
, but in production engineering, B
o
may also be specified at
other conditions that occur in between the reservoir and the separator. B
o
is a ratio of
volumes, and hence dimensionless, and, unlike the GOR and OGR, it is independent of
the choice of units (m
3
/m
3
or bbl/stb).
• Gas formation volume factor B
g
. This is the volume occupied by a unit volume of gas at
standard conditions, transferred to another condition with a given pressure p and
temperature T, where it will include the oil that was present as condensate at standard
conditions. B
g
is also a dimensionless ratio of volumes, but in field units different
definitions can be used, leading to a dependency on the choice of units (m
3
/m
3
, ft
3
/scf, or
bbl/scf).
• Water formation volume factor B
w
. Not surprisingly, this is the volume occupied by a unit
volume of water at standard conditions, transferred to another condition with a given
pressure p and temperature T. Also B
w
is dimensionless, but independent of the choice of
units (m
3
/m
3
or bbl/stb). B
w
usually has a value very close to one, because of the low
compressibility and low gas solubility capacity of water.
• Oil, gas and water viscosities: Usually the dynamic viscosities are used, with SI units Pa s
or field units cp. The viscosities are strongly varying functions of temperature.
• Interfacial tensions σ
og
, σ
ow
, σ
gw.
These quantities, in theory, play a role in multiphase
flow behaviour in production systems, however to a much lesser extent than in flow
through porous media. They occasionally occur in models for multiphase flow through
pipes.
q
g,sc
q
g
q
o,sc
q
o
R
s
1 1
r
s
B
o
B
g
At standard
conditions
At downhole
conditions
oil gas
Figure 4.1: Oil and gas volume flows at different pressures.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 32
A simple interpretation of the oil and gas formation volume factors is depicted in Figure 4.1.
When an amount of B
o
m
3
of oil at downhole conditions is brought to surface it yields one m
3
of stock tank oil, and R
s
m
3
of stock tank gas. Or, when one m
3
of oil at downhole conditions
is brought to surface it yields 1/B
o
m
3
of stock tank oil and R
s
/B
o
m
3
of stock tank gas.
Although the oil itself slightly expands under reducing pressure, the escaping gas makes the
oil effectively shrink when it comes to surface. Therefore the ratio 1/B
o
is known as the
shrinkage factor, where 1/B
o
< 1. Similarly, when an amount of B
g
m
3
of gas at downhole
conditions is brought to surface it yields one m
3
of stock tank gas, and r
s
m
3
of stock tank oil
(condensate). Even at large amounts of condensate dropout, the gas still expands so much
under reducing pressure, that the ratio 1/B
g
is always much larger than one. In gas
engineering it is common practice to use the symbol E to indicate this gas expansion factor: E
= 1/B
g
, where E and B
g
are both expressed in m
3
/m
3
or ft
3
/ft
3
.
Related to the fluid properties R
s
, R
p
, r
s
and r
p
defined above are two frequently used process
parameters:
• Gasoil ratio R
go
. This is the ratio of the gas and oil flow rates measured at surface during
actual production: R
go
= q
g,sc
/ q
o,sc
. If water is present in the production stream we can
extend the concept of the GOR to a gasliquid ratio (GLR) R
gl
= q
g,sc
/ (q
o,sc
+
q
w,sc
). These
quantities are also referred to as the actual GOR and GLR, or, confusingly, as the
producing GOR and GLR. When producing oil from a reservoir above bubble point
pressure, R
go
will be identical to R
p
, and therefore to R
s
at bubble point pressure and
reservoir temperature. However, if the reservoir is below bubble point pressure, free gas
may be produced from the gas cap together with the associated gas that is released from
the oil during its travel up the wellbore, and R
go
may be considerably above R
p
. In
general, when reservoir engineers refer to the producing GOR, they mean R
p
, i.e. the fluid
property. When production engineers refer to the producing GOR, they usually mean R
go
,
i.e. the process parameter.
• Oilgas ratio r
og
. In analogy to the GOR, this is the ratio of the oil and gas flow rates
measured at surface: r
og
= q
o,sc
/ q
g,sc
. As mentioned before, the OGR plays an important
role in the production of gascondensates, and is therefore also referred to as CGR. The
same comments on dimensions apply as were made for r
s
.
A third frequently used process parameter concerns the combined production of water and
oil:
• Wateroil ratio R
wo
. This is the volume of water produced at surface together with a unit
volume of oil, both measured at standard conditions, or, in terms of flow rates: R
wo
= q
w,sc
/ q
o,sc
. An alternative measure is the watercut: the fraction (or percentage) of water in the
total volume of produced liquids (oil and water) measured at standard conditions: f
w,sc
=
q
w,sc
/ (q
o,sc
+ q
w,sc
). Both measures are dimensionless, and independent on the choice of
units (m
3
/m
3
or stb/stb). Oil with a zero or very low wateroil ratio (WOR) is often
referred to as dry oil. Sometimes the concept of base sediment and water (BSW) is used
to indicate the amount of solids and water as a fraction of the total amount of solids and
liquids in the wellbore flow. Because the amount of solids is usually very low, the BSW
value is in practice almost identical to the watercut.
4.3 Pressuretemperature phase diagram
Figure 4.2 displays the phase diagram for a hydrocarbon mixture. To the left of the bubble
point line, the system acts as a single phase liquid and all the gas is dissolved. To the right of
the dewpoint line the system acts as a gas. Moving from left to right at a pressure above the
cricondenbar we experience a gradual transition from liquid to gas. However, if the bubble
point line is crossed when coming from the liquid phase, gas is liberated to form a twophase
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 33
system. Moving further towards the dew point line, an increasing amount of gas comes out of
solution. Conversely, if the dew point line is crossed when coming from the gas phase, liquid
condenses. At the critical point, the distinction between liquid and gas cannot be made,
because at that particular pressure and temperature the liquid and gas phases have identical
densities. Also shown in Figure 4.2 is the classification of reservoir types based on this
diagram.
• Undersaturated oil reservoirs have initial pressures above the bubble point line and
temperatures to the left of the critical point. During production of a reservoir, the
reservoir pressure will drop while the reservoir temperature remains unchanged. This can
be represented by a vertical line in pT space. When the line crosses the bubble point line,
gas is liberated and a gas cap is formed.
• Saturated oil reservoirs or gas cap reservoirs have initial pressures already below the
bubble point line.
• Gascondensate reservoirs have initial pressures above the dew point line, and initial
temperatures between the critical temperature and the cricondentherm. During production
of a gascondensate reservoir, condensation occurs when the pressure drops below the
dew point line. This effect, which is called retrograde condensation., may seem
somewhat counterintuitive because we usually experience condensation when the
pressure of a gasliquid mixture increases rather than decreases. Although it appears from
the phase diagram that at even lower pressures the condensate would return to the gas
phase again, this is usually not the case. Because the condensed liquids are much less
mobile than the gas, they stay behind in the matrix while the gas is produced. As a result,
the reservoir fluid composition changes and the entire phase diagram changes its form
and moves to the right such that vaporization of the remaining condensate will never
occur.
• Dry gas reservoirs have temperatures to the right of the cricondentherm and do not
experience this problem.
B
u
b
b
l
e
p
o
i
n
t
l
i
n
e
D
e
w
p
o
i
n
t
l
i
n
e
0%
10%
30%
60%
100%
Precentage liquid
p
T
Oil reservoir
Gas
condensate
reservoir
Dry gas
reservoir
Critical
point
Cricondentherm
Cricondenbar
Figure 4.2: Phase diagram for a hydrocarbon system.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 34
Using a similar terminology but a slightly different classification, we can distinguish four
categories of hydrocarbon fluids:
• Black oil: oil for which the producing gasoil ratio R
p
< 350 m
3
/m
3
(about 2000 scf/stb).
• Volatile oil: oil for which the producing gasoil ratio R
p
> 350 m
3
/m
3
(about 2000 scf/stb).
• Gas condensate: gascondensate for which the producing condensategas ratio r
p
> 30
m
3
/million m
3
(about 5 stb/million scf).
• Dry gas: a gas or gas/condensate for which the producing condensategas ratio r
p
<
30 m
3
/million m
3
(about 5 stb/million scf).
As shown in Figure 4.3, when oil flows up the production tubing, it follows a path in pT
space in which gas is liberated and expands as it goes up the tubing. As a result, the amount
of liquid decreases, so there is a shrinkage in the volume of oil. Furthermore, unlike the
pressure drop in the reservoir, which is isothermal, the pressure drop in the tubing is
accompanied by a drop in temperature. When producing from a gas reservoir, this may result
in condensation of liquids and the formation of wet gas.
4.4 Equations of state
4.4.1 Vapourliquid equilibrium
As discussed in Section 4.2, an equation of state (EOS) specifies an algebraic relationship
between state variables. More specifically, we address the relationship between pressure,
volume and temperature. With the aid of such an EOS, all properties of hydrocarbon mixtures
as required in production engineering can be determined, provided an accurate compositional
description is available from laboratory experiments on fluid samples. In particular, we can
use an EOS to determine the socalled equilibrium factors (K values) that are needed to
describe the equilibrium between components in the liquid and the vapour phase. The K
values allow us to compute the composition of the liquid and the gas phases in a multiphase
fluid mixture at any given pressure and temperature. These so called flash calculations or
liquidliquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations that use an EOS to determine the K values,
require a level of numerical computation outside the scope of this course. For more
information on the EOSbased approach, see Whitson and Brulé (2000), Danesh (1998) or
Firoozabadi (1999).
B
u
b
b
l
e
p
o
i
n
t
l
i
n
e
D
e
w
p
o
i
n
t
l
i
n
e
p
T
Reservoir
pressure and
temperature
Bottomhole
pressure and
temperature
Wellhead
pressure and
temperature
Terminal
pressure and
temperature
Path in
pT space
Figure 4.3: Path in pT space as the oil/gas mixture flows from the reservoir to the terminal.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 35
4.4.2 Singlephase gas compressibility
Another use of an EOS is to describe the change in volume of oil or gas under changing
pressure and temperature. The relationship between the properties of an ideal gas follow from
the EOS known as the ideal gas law which can be expressed as
abs
nRT pV = or
M
mRT
pV
abs
= or
M
RT p
abs
g
=
ρ
. (4.1, 4.2, 4.3)
where
p is pressure, Pa, (psia),
V is volume, m
3
, (ft
3
)
n is the amount of gas, kmol, (lbmmole)
R is the universal gas constant equal to 8314 J K
1
kmol
1
, (10.73 psia ft
3
°R
1
lbm
mole
1
),
T
abs
is absolute temperature K, (°R),
m is mass, kg, (lbm),
ρ
g
is gas density, kg m
3
, (lbm ft
3
)
M is molar mass, kg kmol
1
, (lbm (lbmmole)
1
).
See Section A.5 of Appendix A for the numerical relationship between the molar mass M,
which is also known as the molecular weight, the specific gravity γ
g
and the density ρ
g,sc
.
The ideal gas law is only valid at pressures much below those normally encountered in the
E&P industry. Approximate relationships valid at higher pressures are given by
abs
nZRT pV = , or
M
mZRT
pV
abs
= or
M
ZRT p
abs
g
=
ρ
, (4.4, 4.5, 4.6)
where Z is the gas deviation factor, also known as the gas compressibility factor or simply
the Z factor. Correlations developed by Standing and Katz (1942) are normally used to
extend this relationship to hydrocarbon gas mixtures; see Appendix B. An expression for the
gas formation volume factor follows from the gas law for nonideal gasses as:
,
, , ,
g g g sc
sc abs
g
g sc g sc g sc abs sc
q V
p T Z
B
q V pT Z
ρ
ρ
= = = = . (4.7)
4.4.3 Singlephase oil compressibility
Oil compressibility is usually described with the aid of an experimentally determined
compressibility coefficient that is itself a function of pressure, temperature and composition.
The large heat capacity of an oil reservoir allows the assumption that oil expansion in the
reservoir during production is an isothermal process. When flowing through the wellbore to
surface, the fluid mixture gradually cools down, but it is often still assumed that the
expansion occurs isothermally, although with a compressibility coefficient that gradually
changes with decreasing pressure and temperature. The isothermal oil compressibility
coefficient c
o
is defined as the (negative) increase in volume per unit of pressure, ∂V/∂p, per
unit of volume V, at constant temperature T:
c p
V
V
p
o
T
b g = −
∂
∂
F
H
G
I
K
J
1
. (4.8)
An empirical correlation for c
o
is given in Section B.2.5 in Appendix B. Equation (4.8) can be
interpreted as a differential equation in V and p that allows for separation of variables:
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 36
∂
= − ∂
V
V
c p p
o
b g . (4.9)
We define a ‘boundary condition’ by specifying that V(p
ref
) = V
ref
, and assume that the
dependence of c
o
on p is small enough to linearize the righthand side of equation (4.9). The
solution can then be written as:
V V c p p
ref o ref
= − − exp
d i
. (4.10)
Remembering that c
o
is a function of p and T, equation (4.10) can be interpreted as an
equation of state which describes the PVT behaviour of singlephase oil. Because the density
ρ
ο
is inversely proportional to the volume V we can also write equation (4.10) as
( )
,
exp
o o ref o ref
c p p ρ ρ
(
= −
¸ ¸
. (4.11)
A natural choice for the reference pressure p
ref
is the bubble point pressure at temperature T,
leading to
( ) exp
o ob o b
c p p ρ ρ = − (
¸ ¸
for p > p
b
, (4.12)
where the values of p
b
and ρ
ob
can be determined from laboratory experiments or from
empirical correlations as discussed in Appendix B. For pressures above the bubble point
pressure the oil formation volume factor is therefore given by:
( ) ( )
, ,
,
exp exp
o sc o sc
o
o o b ob o b
o sc o ob
V
B c p p B c p p
V
ρ ρ
ρ ρ
= = = − − = − − ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
. (4.13)
4.4.4 Multiphase gas and oil compressibility
For a multicomponent oilgas mixture, the prediction of PVT properties, and therefore of the
formation volume factors B
g
and B
o
, can be performed by combining a compositional analysis
with a semiempirical EOS. However, in this course we will follow a simpler approach as
described in the following section.
4.5 Oil models
4.5.1 Compositional models
In a compositional model of a twophase hydrocarbon mixture, the composition of the liquid
and the gas phase are functions of pressure and temperature and need to be determined with
flash calculations using an EOS. Hydrocarbon mixtures may consist of many tens of
components, and a full compositional analysis taking into account all components would be
very time consuming. Furthermore, it is often quite difficult to accurately establish the
amount and the properties of all components, in particular those with a high molar mass, the
so called the heavy fractions. Therefore it is customary to lump these into a pseudo
component. This is typically done for heptane and all heavier fractions, in which case the
pseudo component is referred to as C
7+
. In its most simple form, a compositional model
consists of only two pseudo components, one for the lighter and one for the heavier
hydrocarbons, usually referred to as heavies and lights. Such a twocomponent model or
binary mixture model is too crude to accurately describe the behaviour of gascondensate
systems. However, it is usually sufficient to describe the behaviour of black oils or even
volatile oils.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 37
4.5.2 Volatile oil model
The volatile oil model is a twocomponent model, that accounts for compositional variations
in both the liquid and the gas phase. The pseudo components in the volatile oil model are
stock tank oil and stock tank gas which can each be characterized with a single parameter
only: ρ
o,sc
and ρ
g,sc
(or γ
g
) in SI units, or γ
o
(or γ
API
) and γ
g
in field units. The change in state
with changing pressure and temperature is then described in terms of the change in densities
of the oil and gas phases, with the aid of the oil and gas formation volume factors B
o
and B
g
and the solution gasoil and oilgas ratios R
s
, and r
s
. With the aid of Figure 4.1 we can derive
the mass balance equations for oil and gas that are brought from downhole conditions to
standard conditions:
B R
B r
o o o sc s g sc
g g g sc s o sc
ρ ρ ρ
ρ ρ ρ
= +
= +
, ,
, ,
,
,
(4.14, 4.15)
which give us the required expressions in terms of densities:
ρ
ρ ρ
o
o sc s g sc
o
R
B
=
+
, ,
and ρ
ρ ρ
g
s o sc g sc
g
r
B
=
+
, ,
. (4.16, 4.17)
Since B
g
, B
o
, R
s
and r
s
are functions of pressure and temperature, equations (4.16) and (4.17)
can be interpreted as equations of state. They can be conveniently written in matrix form, and
if we also include the water density this results in
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
g
o
w
g
s
g
s
o o
g sc
o sc
w sc
B
r
B
R
B B
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
=
L
N
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
1
0
1
0
0 0 1
,
,
,
or
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
g sc
o sc
w sc
g
s s
o s
s s
g s
s s
o
s s
g
o
w
B
R r
B r
R r
B R
R r
B
R r
,
,
,
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
=
−
−
−
−
− −
L
N
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
1 1
0
1 1
0
0 0 1
, (4.18, 4.19)
where we have assumed that B
w
= 1, which implies that gas solubility, compressibility, and
thermal expansion for water are so small that they can be neglected. The inverse relationship
(4.19) has been obtained with the aid of Cramer’s rule for inversion of a matrix. We can use
Figure 4.1 to derive similar matrix expressions for the volume flow rates, resulting in
,
,
,
1
0
1
0
0 0 1
s
g g
g sc g
s
o sc o
o o
w sc w
R
B B
q q
r
q q
B B
q q
(
(
(
( (
(
( (
=
(
( (
(
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
(
(
¸ ¸
or
q
q
q
B
R r
B R
R r
B r
R r
B
R r
q
q
q
g
o
w
g
s s
g s
s s
o s
s s
o
s s
g sc
o sc
w sc
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
=
−
−
−
−
− −
L
N
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
1 1
0
1 1
0
0 0 1
,
,
,
. (4.20, 4.21)
Determination of the values of B
g
, B
o
, R
s
and r
s
as a function of pressure and temperature is
usually done with the aid of PVT tests and compositional analysis. This is outside the scope
of our course, and therefore we will only use an even further simplified model, as described
in the following section. Several varieties of the volatile oil model have been developed,
sometimes under the name modified black oil model; see Whitson and Brulé (2000) for an
overview.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 38
4.5.3 Black oil model and black oil correlations
A further simplified model of twophase hydrocarbon mixture behaviour is the socalled
black oil model. The black oil model is also a twocomponent model, which, however,
assumes a constant composition of the gas phase and only accounts for compositional
variations in the liquid phase. The relevant equations of the model follow directly from those
of the volatile oil model by substitution of r
s
= 0.
During the early development phase of an oil field no fluid samples may be available. In that
case it is necessary to fall back on correlations, which are relationships for ‘typical’ oil and
gas compositions, based on experimental data. Especially for black oils such correlations can
be quite accurate. In addition, production engineering calculations based on correlations
require much less computational effort than calculations based on compositional analysis
using an EOS. Therefore, black oil correlations are widely used. However, to describe the
behaviour of volatile oil or gascondensate systems, correlations are of very limited value,
and performance of PVT analyses on fluid samples is essential to allow proper compositional
calculations.
The standard reference for black oil correlations is Standing (1952). Many other correlations
have been developed over the past half century, and a few have been reproduced in
Appendix B of these lecture notes. An extensive overview is given in Appendix B of Brill
and Mukherjee (1999), while further information can be found in the references mentioned in
Section 4.2 above.
4.6 Exercises
For exercises 4.1 to 4.5, you should use the oil and gas correlations given in Appendix B. The
correlations have been programmed in MATLAB routines which are available from
Blackboard; see the file ‘Fluid properties.zip’. However, the exercises can also be performed
by hand calculation.
4.1 An oil reservoir has a pressure of p
R
= 17 MPa and a temperature of 76 °C. The bubble
point pressure of the oil is p
b
= 19.5 MPa. The gas and oil densities at standard
conditions are ρ
g
= 1.11 kg/m
3
and ρ
o
= 910 kg/m
3
. What is the solution GOR?
4.2 Refer to question 4.1 above. What is the specific gravity of the gas produced at surface?
And what is the density of the gascap gas just above the GOC in the reservoir?
4.3 Refer to question 4.1 above. What are the oil and gas viscosities if the reservoir pressure
is 22 MPa and all other parameters remain the same?
4.4 Refer to question 4.3 above. What is the compressibility coefficient c
o
of the oil?
4.5 Consider a well that produces dry oil with a GOR R
go
of 250 m
3
/m
3
. The production
history shows no indication of free gas production. The density of the gas and oil at
standard conditions are given by ρ
g,sc
= 1.02 kg m
3
and
ρ
o,sc
= 805 kg m
3
. What is the oil
formation volume factor at the following pressure and temperature combinations: p = 15
MPa and T = 85 °C, and p = 30 MPa and T = 105 °C?
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 39
5 Singlephase flow in wells and pipelines
5.1 What will be covered in this chapter?
• A derivation of the governing equations for singlephase gas and liquid flow.
• The Moody diagram for friction forces in pipe flow.
• Pressure drop analysis of singlephase oil and gas flow with MATLAB.
• Analytical approximations for the pressure drop in wells or pipelines.
5.2 Governing equations
5.2.1 Mass balance, momentum balance and equation of state
In this section we will derive the equations for singlephase fluid flow in a pipeline, flowline
or wellbore under the assumption that the temperature profile along the conduit is known. For
a detailed treatment of the nature of the equations, see e.g. Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot
(2002), or Bobok (1993) who also treat the case where the temperature is not known in
advance.
Consider a section of an inclined pipeline with constant crosssectional area; see Figure 5.1.
We can write the mass balance per unit time for the section as:
mass in mass out mass accumulated
v
A v A ds v ds A ds
s s t
ρ ρ
ρ ρ
∂ ∂ ∂   
− + + =
 
∂ ∂ ∂
\ .\ .
, (5.1)
where
A is the crosssectional area of the pipe, m
2
,
ρ is the fluid density, kg m
3
,
v is the fluid velocity averaged over the crosssection, m s
1
,
s is the coordinate along the pipe, m, and
t is time, s.
Initially we assume that the fluid velocity is always positive, i.e. that the fluid always flows in
the positive coordinate direction. The momentum balance can then be written as:
A v A
s
ds v
v
s
ds Ap A p
p
s
ds
F s ds F v ds A
v
t
ds
g f
ρ ρ
ρ
ρ ρ µ
ρ
2
2
momentum in momentum out pressure forces
gravity force friction force momentum accumulated
= ,
− +
∂
∂
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
∂
∂
F
H
G
I
K
J
+ − +
∂
∂
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
+
∂
∂
, , , b g b g
b g
(5.2)
where
p is the pressure, Pa,
F
g
(ρ,s) is the gravity force per unit length, N m
1
,
F
f
(ρ,µ,v) is the friction force per unit length, N m
1
, and
µ is the dynamic viscosity, Pa s.
The nature of the gravity force F
g
(ρ,s) and the friction force F
f
(ρ,µ,v) will be discussed in
more detail in Sections 5.2.2 and 5.2.3 below. The viscosity µ is a known function of pressure
and temperature, where the temperature is a known function of s. A third equation for the
remaining unknown variables ρ, v and p is given by the equation of state for the fluid. For
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 40
example, if we consider the flow of singlephase gas, we can use equation (4.6) derived in
Section 4.4, while for singlephase oil flow we can use equation (4.11). If we expand
equations (5.1) and (5.2), drop all terms higher than first order in the differentials, and
simplify the results, we can write the three equations as
∂
∂
= −
∂
∂
∂
∂
= −
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
+ +
=
= −
R
S




T




ρ ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ ρ
v
s t
v
s
v
t
p
s
F
A
F
A
Mp
ZRT
c p p
g f
abs
o ref o ref
b g
c h
b g
d i
,
for gas , or
for oil ,
2
,
exp
,
(5.3,5.4, 5.5, 5.6)
where the compressibility c
o
and the gas deviation factor Z are known functions of p and T,
while, as discussed above, T itself (and therefore also T
abs
) is a known function of s.
θ
ds
s
z
Figure 5.1: Segment of an inclined pipeline.
5.2.2 Gravity force
The gravity force is defined as
( ) ( ) , sin
g
F s g s ds ρ ρ θ = − , (5.7)
where
g is the acceleration of gravity, m s
2
, and
θ(s) is the pipeline inclination, rad.
In pipeline engineering, the inclination θ is defined as the angle of the pipeline axis with the
respect to the horizontal plane. The term sin θ, which can be positive or negative, is therefore
a measure of the change in elevation z of the pipeline axis per unit length of measured
distance s. The inclination is usually known as a function of s, either theoretically as one of
the design parameters of the pipeline, or actually from measured data obtained during a
pipeline survey.
In well engineering it is common practice to define the wellbore geometry with a slightly
different set of parameters, see Figure 5.2. The inclination α of the well is defined as the
angle between the wellbore axis an the vertical direction. The term cos α is therefore a
measure of the change in true vertical depth z, which is measured downwards, per unit length
of s, which is now known as along hole depth, or measured depth, and naturally is also
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 41
positive in downward direction. As a result of the different definition of the inclination, and
because s is positive going downwards, the gravity force follows as
F s g s ds
g
ρ ρ α , cos b g b g = , (5.8)
Note that the choice for a downward positive direction of s also implies that wellbore flow to
surface has a negative velocity. We will therefore use the sign convention that flow rates
related to oil, gas or water production have a negative sign, whereas alll flow rates related to
injection are positive. We will use this convention for flow in pipelines, flowlines, wellbores
and the nearwellbore area in the reservoir.
5.2.3 Friction force
The frictional loss for singlephase flow in pipes with a circular cross section can be
expressed as; see e.g. Brill and Mukherjee (1999):
F v s
A d
f v v v
d
f v q q
f
ρ
ρ
µ ρ
ρ
π
µ ρ
, ,
, , , , *
b g
b g b g = − ∗ = −
2
8
2 5
, (5.9)
where
d is the inside diameter of the pipe, m,
f is the dimensionless Moody (1944) friction factor, and
q = v/A is the flow rate, m
3
s
1
.
Note the use of the absolute sign in the definition of the friction force: the dependency of the
friction force on −vv (or −qq) implies that it is always pointing in a direction opposite to the
velocity (or the flow rate). The friction factor f is a function of µ, ρ and v (or q) through its
dependence on the Reynolds number N
Re
which is defined as
d
q v d
N
Re
µ
ρ
π µ
ρ
4
= = , (5.10)
where, as discussed before, we assume that µ is a known function of p and T(s). N
Re
is also a
function of the dimensionless pipe roughness ε, defined as
α
ds
s z
Figure 5.2: Segment of a deviated well.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 42
d
e
= ε , (5.11)
where e is the pipe roughness expressed in m, which we assume to be a constant. For
Reynolds numbers lower than 2000 the flow is laminar, and f is given explicitly by
Re
N
f
64
= , (5.12)
while for Reynolds numbers larger than 3000 the flow is turbulent and f is given implicitly by
the Colebrook (1939) equation:


.

\

+ − =
f N f
Re
7 . 18
2 log 2 74 . 1
1
10
ε . (5.13)
Figure 5.3 displays the change of friction factor f with increasing Reynolds number N
Re
for
various values of the dimensionless roughness ε. For flow in the intermediate regime,
characterized by Reynolds numbers between 2000 and 3000, we can use a linear interpolation
between equations (5.12) and (5.13). The figure has been generated with the aid of the
MATLAB file Moody_friction_factor.m.
5.3 Pressure drop analysis
5.3.1 Pressure drop components
Equations (5.3) and (5.4) can be combined and rewritten in terms of pressure drop per unit
length ∂p/∂s. If we furthermore restrict the analysis to steadystate flow, in other words if we
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8
10
2
10
1
Reynolds number N
Re
, –
F
r
i
c
t
i
o
n
f
a
c
t
o
r
f
,
–
Dimensionless eccentricity ε , –
0.05
0.02
0.01
0.005
0.002
0.001
0.0005
0.0002
0.0001
0.00005
0.00002
0.00001
0.000005
0.000001 10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8
10
2
10
1
Reynolds number N
Re
, –
F
r
i
c
t
i
o
n
f
a
c
t
o
r
f
,
–
Dimensionless eccentricity ε , –
0.05
0.02
0.01
0.005
0.002
0.001
0.0005
0.0002
0.0001
0.00005
0.00002
0.00001
0.000005
0.05
0.02
0.01
0.005
0.002
0.001
0.0005
0.0002
0.0001
0.00005
0.00002
0.00001
0.000005
0.000001
Figure 5.3: Friction factor f as function of Reynolds number
Re
N for various values of
dimensionless roughness ε.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 43
assume that ρ, v and p are only functions of s and not of t, this pressure drop equation can be
written as
head loss frictional loss acceleration loss
sin
2
dp dv
g f v v v
ds d ds
ρ
ρ θ ρ = − − −
, (5.14)
where we have taken into account the possibility of negative fluid velocities (which,
according to our sign convention correspond to production) through the use of the absolute
velocity v.
The head loss is the static change in pressure caused by the change in pipeline elevation. In
nearhorizontal pipelines this component is negligible, but it is usually the most important
component in a well. The pressure between surface and bottomhole changes greatly, simply
due to the weight of the column of fluid in the well, even if it is not flowing.
The frictional loss is caused by the dissipation of energy by viscous forces in the fluid. This
term depends strongly on the fluid properties, the flow regime (laminar or turbulent) and the
fluid velocity. It is usually the most important component in pipelines.
The acceleration loss is caused by the change in momentum when the fluid is accelerated in
the well due to expansion. Generally this term is less important, but it can become of
significance for very high rate gas wells.
5.3.2 Singlephase oil flow
At steady state conditions, it follows from equation (5.3) that the product ρv remains constant
along the pipeline. Therefore we can express v in terms of the constant mass flow w through
the line, or, alternatively, in terms of a reference density and reference oil flow rate for which
we can choose values at standard conditions:
v
w
A
=
1
ρ
or
, , ,
1
o sc o sc o o sc
q B q
v
A A
ρ
ρ
= = . (5.15, 5.16)
Note that we omit the subscript ‘o’ in ρ
o
to keep the equations more readable. The
acceleration term ρ,v dv/ds in equation (5.14) can be rewritten with the aid of the relationship
dv
ds
dv
d
d
dp
dp
ds
v
c
dp
ds
c v
dp
ds
dv
d
o
d
dp
o
= − = − − = −
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
, (5.17)
where we made use of equations (5.6) to compute dρ/dp and (5.15) or (5.16) to compute
dv/dρ. Taking due account of the signs of the various terms it follows that
ρ ρ v
dv
ds
c v
dp
ds
o
= −
2
. (5.18)
However, the compressibility of singlephase oil is usually very small (c
o
<< 1), which
implies that the density ρ and velocity v can be considered as constants and that the
acceleration term can be neglected. If we take the constant oil density as the density at the
standard conditions, we can write the governing set of equations for steadystate singlephase
oil flow by simplifying equations (5.6), (5.14) and (5.16), resulting in:
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 44
,
,
sin
2
o sc
o sc
dp
g f v v
ds d
q
v
A
ρ
ρ θ
ρ ρ
¦
= − −
¦
¦
¦
=
´
¦
= ¦
¦
¹
(5.19, 5.20, 5.21)
Equations (5.19) to (5.21) form a set of three differentialalgebraic equations for the three
unknowns ρ, v and p. The differential equation is of first order, and therefore requires one
boundary condition, specifying the pressure p at a certain value of s:
s s p s p = = :
b g , (5.22)
where we have used a hat above the variables to indicate that their value is prescribed. The
solution to the equation can then be expressed as
ˆ
ˆ sin
2
s
s
p p g f v v ds
d
ρ
ρ θ
 
= − + ∗

\ .
∫
. (5.23)
In the general case, where θ and f are functions of s, it may not be possible to obtain the
integral in closed form, in which case it could be obtained numerically with the aid of one of
the standard integration routines in MATLAB, see Section C.2 in Appendix C.
Now consider the case of a pipeline with constant inclination θ. If we furthermore assume a
constant temperature along the line, the viscosity remains nearly constant and therefore also
the friction factor f. Alternatively, we could approximate nonconstant inclinations and
friction factors with their average values θ
av
and f
av
. The integration then becomes trivial, and
the pressure p is a linear function of the measured distance s:
( )
ˆ ˆ sin
2
av av
p p g f v v s s
d
ρ
ρ θ
 
= − + ∗ −

\ .
. (5.24)
5.3.3 Singlephase gas flow
In the case of steadystate singlephase gas flow, we can use equations (5.5) and (5.15) or
(5.16) to derive that
dv
ds
dv
d
d
dp
dp
ds
v
p Z
dZ
dp
dp
ds
v
p Z
dZ
dp
dp
ds
dv
d
d
dp
= − = − − +
F
H
G
I
K
J
= − +
F
H
G
I
K
J
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ ρ
ρ
ρ
1 1
, (5.25)
and therefore that
ρ ρ v
dv
ds
v
p Z
dZ
dp
dp
ds
= − +
F
H
G
I
K
J
2
1 1
. (5.26)
The governing set of equations for steadystate singlephase gas flow through a pipeline then
follows by combining equations (5.5), (5.14), (5.16) and (5.26), modifying them where
necessary to be applicable to gas:
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 45
dp
ds
v
p Z
dZ
dp
g
d
f v v
v
q
A
Mp
ZRT
g sc g sc
abs
= − +
F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
O
Q
P
− − ∗
L
N
M
O
Q
P
=
=
R
S




T




−
1
1 1
2
1
2
1
ρ ρ θ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
sin ,
, ,
,
.
(5.27, 5.28, 5.29)
In line with the discussion on singlephase oil flow, the set of equations (5.27) to (5.29)
requires a single initial condition and can then be solved numerically with the aid of MATLAB.
It follows from equation (5.27) that the pressure drop dp/ds approaches infinity when the first
term at the righthand side approaches zero. This happens when the absolute value of the
velocity approaches
1
1 1
s
dZ dp
v
p Z dp d
ρ
ρ
−
(  
= + =
( 
\ . ¸ ¸
, (5.30)
which can be interpreted as the sonic velocity for gas under isothermal conditions. The ratio
v/v
s
is therefore a measure for the importance of acceleration losses. Generally, they can be
neglected. Only in very highrate gas wells, or in a situation of uncontrolled gas flow, such as
a wellbore blowout, the gas velocity in a well may approach the sonic velocity.
An approximate analytical solution can be obtained by assuming that the acceleration losses
may be neglected, i.e. that v << v
s
, and that f, T
abs
, θ and Z may be taken as constant
‘average’ values f
av
, T
av,abs
, θ
av
, and Z
av
over the length of the pipeline. In that case the set of
equations reduces to a single differential equation in p:
dp
ds
k p
k
p
= +
1
2
(5.31)
where the coefficients k
1
and k
2
are given by
k
Mg
Z RT
av
av av abs
1
= −
sin
,
θ
and k
Z RT f q q
d M
av av abs av g sc g sc g sc
2
2
2 5
8
= −
, , , ,
ρ
π
, (5.32, 5.33)
and where we used the relationship A = πd
2
/4. Equation (5.31) can be rewritten as
2 2 2
1
2
2
p
dp
ds
k p k = + and therefore as
d p
ds
k p k
2
1
2
2
2 2
c h
= + , (5.34, 5.35)
which has as solution
( )
2 2
1
1
exp 2
k
p C k s
k
= − . (5.36)
If we use boundary condition (5.22) to solve for the integration constant C we arrive at
( )
2 2 2
1
1 1
ˆ ˆ exp 2
k k
p p k s s
k k
 
= + − − (

¸ ¸
\ .
. (5.37)
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 46
Usually it will be necessary to perform one or more iterations to obtain the average values f
av
,
T
av,abs
, θ
av
, and Z
av
because they depend on the unknown pressure p(s). For further analytical
solutions of the singlephase gas flow equation, in particular for wells, we refer to Hagoort
(1988).
5.3.4 Element equations
Referring back to Chapter 2, we can now determine the element equations for single phase
well or pipeline flow that were already specified in concise form in equation (2.4) as
p f p q
out in sc
=
3
, b g . (5.38)
If we choose the boundary condition at the inflowend of the element, i.e. p p
in
= , we can
compute the pressure p
out
at the outflowend through numerical integration of the systems of
equations (5.27) to (5.29), or directly from the analytical expressions (5.24) or (5.37),
depending on the assumptions and the required accuracy. The velocity v appearing in all
these expressions can be related to q
sc
with the aid of equation (5.16) or its equivalent for gas,
keeping in mind that negative values of q and v indicate flow in a production situation.
The MATLAB file well_p_tf.m provides an element equation according to expression
(5.38), that can be used to compute the THP (output pressure) p
tf
of a singlephase liquid or
gas well for a known BHP (input pressure) p
wf
; i.e. a pressure drop calculation. A file to
compute p
wf
for a known p
tf
, i.e. an operating point calculation, is well_p_wf.m. Similarly
the files flowline_p_mf.m and flowline_p_fl.m can be used for flowlines to compute
the manifold pressure for a given flowline pressure and vice versa. Examples of how to use
these files are provided by the MATLAB script files example_flowline and
example_wellbore. The files can be downloaded from Blackboard; see the file ‘Fluid
forces.zip’.
With the aid of these files it is possible to create plots of the wellbore pressure p as a function
of measured depth s. Such plots are often referred to as traverses, and an example of how to
create them with the MATLAB files listed above is given in the script file
example_traverse.m. It is also possible to repeat the computation of the BHP, at a fixed
THP, for a large number of flow rates. This results in a so called tubing intake curve or intake
pressure curve which depicts the BHP as a function of flow rate; see the script file
example_intake_curve.m.
Figures 5.4 and 5.5 depict traverses for a dry gas well with parameters given in Table 5.1.
They were both computed for the same BHP, but different flow rates and therefore different
THPs. Figure 5.4 corresponds to a relatively low rate, where gravity losses dominate the
pressure drop over the well. Figure 5.5 corresponds to twice the rate, and it can be seen that
friction losses play a much larger role. Acceleration losses are of no significance, and only in
Figure 5.5 they can be noticed, for very low pressures close to the surface. Going from the
bottom of the well to the surface, the gravity losses gradually decrease because the density of
the gas decreases, as can be clearly observed in Figure 5.5. Because the mass flow rate
remains the same, the reduction in density with elevation also causes an increase in volume
flow rate and therefore in gas velocity. The increased velocity, in turn, results in an increase
of the friction losses, which is also clearly visible in Figure 5.5.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 47
Figure 5.4: Traverse for a lowrate singlephase gas well.
Figure 5.5: Traverse for the same well as in Figure 5.4 but at a higher rate.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 48
Table 5.1: Parameter values for Figures 5.4 and 5.5.
Parameter SI units Field units
Inclination α 0 rad 0 deg.
Diameter d 62.3 * 10
3
m 2.453 in
Roughness e 30 * 10
6
m 0.0012 in
FBHP p
wf
29.0 * 10
6
Pa 4206 psi
FTHP Fig. 5.4 p
tf
19.2 * 10
6
Pa 2785 psi
FTHP Fig. 5.5 p
tf
1.5 * 10
6
. Pa 218 psi
Rate Fig. 5.4 q
g,sc
−4.31 m
3
/s −13.15 * 10
6
ft
3
/d
Rate Fig. 5.5 q
g,sc
−8.62 m
3
/s −26.30 * 10
6
ft
3
/d
Dens./gravity ρ
g,sc
/ γ
g
0.95 kg/m
3
0.77 
FBHT T
wf
120 °C 248 °F
FTHT T
tf
30 °C 86 °F
Well depth z
tot
3000 m 9843 ft
Viscosity µ
g
Carr, Kobayashi and Burrows (1954) correlation
5.4 Exercises
Exercises 5.1 and 5.3 can be performed by hand calculation. The other two require the use of
MATLAB. Some guidance on the use of the required numerical integration routines is given in
C.2 of Appendix C. The workedout MATLAB exercises can be downloaded from Blackboard,
see the file ‘Exercises.zip’
5.1 Singlephase oil is pumped uphill through a pipeline under a 1.5 degree angle over a
length of 3 km. The oil has a density of 850 kg/m
3
, the pipeline has an inside diameter of
232 mm and a roughness of 0.003 mm, the ambient temperature is 45 °C, and the
pipeline pressure at the inlet is 10 bar. What is the outlet pressure for a flow rate q
o
=
−5000 m
3
/d? Hint: Use the Dempsey deadoil correlation (B. 119) to compute the
viscosity and equation (5.24) to compute the pressure drop. Choose the origin at the
outlet of the pipeline.
5.2 Compare the results of question 5.1 with the results from using the MATLAB mfile
flowline_p_mf. You may want to inspect the file example_flowline.m to get
started.
5.3 The gas well of Figure 5.5 has friction and Z factors that change only slightly over the
height of the well. Their average values are Z
av
= 0.96 and f
av
= 0.0166. Verify the
numerical results of Figure 5.5 with the aid of the approximate analytical solution
described in Section 5.3.3.
5.4 Refer to the last paragraph of Section C.2.2 in Appendix C. Use MATLAB file
example_flowline.m as a template and write a script file to check the absolute and
relative errors in the BHP for the example of Figure 5.5.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 49
6 Multiphase flow in wells, pipelines and chokes
6.1 What will be covered in this chapter?
• Some introductory aspects of twophase gasliquid flow in wells and pipelines.
• Pressure gradient curves for a well.
• Tubing performance description with intake pressure curves.
• Multiphase flow through chokes.
Multiphase flow will not be treated in detail in these lecture notes, since the majority of the
material is covered in the SPE Monograph Multiphase flow in wells by Brill and Mukherjee
(1999) of which several sections form obligatory material for this course; see Section 1.3.2.
Furthermore, several aspects have already been covered in ta3470 Flow and heat transport. A
fundamental treatment of twophase flow is given in the course tn3782 Applied multiphase
flows; see Oliemans (1998). Other usefull reference texts are Wallis (1969), Bobok (1993)
and Hasan and Kabir (2002).
6.2 Flow regimes
A typical feature of multiphase (gasliquid) flow is the occurrence of radically different flow
regimes depending on the gasliquid ratio and the gas and liquid velocities. The flow regimes
for gasliquid flow in horizontal pipelines are shown in Figure 6.1. They are generally known
as follows, although some authors use a classification with more categories:
• Singlephase liquid flow.
• Bubble flow.
• Slug flow.
• Stratified flow.
• Annular flow.
• Mist flow (fully dispersed liquid mist).
For vertical flow in a well, a similar flow pattern classification can be made. This is shown in
Figure 6.2. The flow regimes are the same as those in horizontal flow except for the absence
of stratified flow and the occurrence of churn flow as an intermediate regime between slug
Annular flow
Mist flow
Slug flow
Bubble flow
Single phase liquid flow
Stratified flow
Figure6.1: Flow regimes in horizontal twophase flow.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 50
Single
phase
liquid
flow
Bubble
flow
Slug
flow
Churn
flow
Annular
flow
Mist
flow
Figure 6.2: Flow regimes in twophase vertical flow.
and annular flow. Furthermore, the slug flow regime is now somewhat different, and displays
bulletshaped slugs that remain more or less centred in the wellbore.
To describe flow in real pipelines or wells the inclination of the pipe has to be taken into
account to give a full map of multiphase effects. For an indepth treatment of omniangle
flow maps based on physical principles, see Oliemans (1998) and Hasan and Kabir (2002).
Several simpler, but less accurate, approaches based on empirical correlations are discussed
in Brill and Mukherjee (1999). In a vertical oil well, the pressure decreases as the oil flows
from bottom to top of the well. Thus, all of the flow patterns shown in Figure 6.2 may arise.
Generally, however, over most of their length, most oil wells operate in the bubble flow and
slug flow regimes, while most gas wells operate in the annular flow regime. It is a formidable
task to try to solve the equations, based on the laws of physics, which govern these types of
flow. There are numerical simulators which attempt this for sensitive industrial processes that
need very careful modelling. Within the oil industry, a simpler approach is often adopted.
Empirical correlations have been developed, based on extensive experiments. Some of these
correlations have been published, others remain proprietary to oil companies or service
companies. These correlations differ in complexity. Some are proposed as valid for all flow
regimes, while others have separate correlations for each different regime. Some methods try
to include some basic physics, such as modelling the behaviour of gasliquid interfaces, while
others rely on a purely empirical approach. For an overview we refer again to Brill and
Mukherjee (1999) and for an indepth treatment to Oliemans (1998) and Hasan and Kabir
(2002). Many of these correlations are usually built into modern well simulators. Care needs
to be taken because correlations are often suitable for only certain types of well. Note that, as
discussed in Chapter 3, the correlations used for the oil properties will affect the results, and
may contribute to the inaccuracy.
6.3 Slip and holdup
One of the complicating factors in the description of multiphase flow is the difference in
velocity between the phases. It is generally assumed that water and oil travel at the same
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 51
speed, known as the liquid velocity, although in reality this is not always the case, in
particular for stratified flow. However, most computational methods do take into account the
difference between the liquid velocity and the gas velocity which is known as slip between
the two phases. But before considering phase velocities, it is useful to address phase flow
rates. The ratio of the local oil flow rate q
o
and the local total liquid flow rate q
l
= q
o
+ q
w
is
known as the oil fraction, while a similar definition holds for the water fraction:
, .
o o w w
o w
l o w l o w
q q q q
f f
q q q q q q
= = = =
+ +
(6.1, 6.2)
Here we use the word “local” to refer to local pressure and temperature conditions. To obtain
the expressions in terms of flow rates at standard conditions, the appropriate formation
volume factors and solution ratios need to be introduced according to equations (4.21).
However, we do not imply that “local” refers to a very small length scale, i.e. we are not
interested in fluctuations in flowrates or velocities as a result of smallscale flow features
such as slugs or bubbles. Instead, all quantities should be interpreted as averaged over a
distance much larger than the smallscale features, i.e. in the order of meters. Note that from
equations (6.1) and (6.2) it follows that f
o
+ f
w
= 1. The gas fraction and the liquid fraction are
defined in the same fashion, although we will indicate them with a λ instead of an f:
, ,
g g
l l
g l
m g l m g l
q q
q q
q q q q q q
λ λ = = = =
+ +
(6.3, 6.4)
where the quantity q
m
= q
g
+ g
l
= q
g
+ q
o
+ q
w
is known as the mixture flow rate. Note that also
λ
g
+ λ
l
= 1. Because of slip the fractions of a unit volume of pipe that are occupied by gas and
liquid are generally not equal to the gas and liquid fractions as given in equations (6.3) and
(6.4). In upward flow, as occurs in a production well or an uphill pipeline, the gas usually
travels faster than the liquid, and liquid holdup occurs. In downward flow, as occurs in a
downhill pipeline, the liquid may travel faster than the gas, in which case the gas is held up.
The expression “holdup” is also often used in the oil industry to indicate the volume
fractions occupied by gas and liquid, although in upward flow the gas is not actually held up,
but to the contrary is speeded up. The gas and liquid holdups H
g
and H
l
are defined as
, ,
g g
l l
g l
V A
V A
H H
V A V A
= = = = (6.5, 6.6)
where V
g
and V
l
are the fractions of a reference volume of pipe that are being occupied by gas
and liquid and V = V
g
+ V
l
is the total reference volume. Similarly, A
g
and A
l
are the parts of
the pipe’s crosssectional area occupied by the gas and the liquid respectively, and
A = A
g
+ A
l
is the total crosssectional area. Note that volumes and areas should be interpreted
as quantities averaged over a length that is suffuciently large to suppress the effect of small
scale flow features. Just as was the case for fractions, H
g
+ H
l
= 1. An alternative way to
express the equations for phase fractions (6.3) and (6.4) and phase holdups (6.5) and (6.6)
makes use of variables known as the local or insitu phase velocities
, ,
g
l
g l
g l
q
q
v v
A A
= = (6.7, 6.8)
the superficial phase velocities
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 52
, ,
g
l
sg sl
q
q
v v
A A
= = (6.9, 6.10)
and the mixture velocity
.
g l
m sg sl
q q
v v v
A
+
= + = (6.11)
Substitution of these expressions in equations (6.3) and (6.4) results in
,
sg
sl
g l
m m
v
v
v v
λ λ = = , (6.12, 6.13)
while substitution in equations (6.5) and (6.6) gives
, .
sg
sl
g l
g l
v
v
H H
v v
= = (6.14, 6.15)
Most computational methods for multiphase flow simulation make use of experimental
correlations for the liquid holdup expressed as functions of fluid properties, flow rates, pipe
diameter and inclination. Equations (6.9), (6.10), (6.14) and (6.15) can then be used to
compute the gas and liquid velocities for given flow rates according to
( )
, .
1
g
l
g l
l l
q
q
v v
H A H A
= =
−
(6.16, 6.17)
If there is no slip, the local phase velocities v
g
and v
l
are both identical to the mixture velocity
v
m
and therefore the holdups as expressed in equations (6.14) and (6.15) become identical to
the phase fractions as expressed in equations (6.12) and (6.13). Other names for phase
fraction are therefore noslip holdup, or noslip volume fraction. Alternatively, the
expressions phase content or input fraction are being used in some publications to identify
what we call phase fraction. Another name for holdup is insitu volume fraction, while for
gas also the term void fraction is found. In analogy to porousmedia flow the term saturation
could also be applied. However, we will stick to the oil industry convention and speak of gas
and liquid holdups. Other multiphase flow concepts used in litterature are the slip velocity
defined as v
s
= v
g
– v
l
, and the gas and liquid mass fractions x
g
and x
l
defined as
,
g g g
l l l
g l
g l g g l l g l g g l l
w q
w q
x x
w w q q w w q q
ρ
ρ
ρ ρ ρ ρ
= = = =
+ + + +
, (6.18, 6.19)
where w
g
and w
l
are the gas and liquid mass flow rates, and where x
g
is also known as the
quality of the gasliquid mixture. To illustrate the effect of slip on the liquid fraction and the
liquid holdup Figure 6.3 gives an example of stratified flow where the liquid flow rate equals
onethird of the gas flow rate. In case of no slip between the phases the liquid holdup is
equal to the liquid fraction and 25% of the pipe’s crosssectional area is occupied by liquid.
However, if the gas flows twice as fast as the liquid, the liquid fraction remains the same but
the liquid holdup increases such that 40% of the area is occupied by liquid.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 53
1
3
1
3
1
1 4
l
l
g l
q
q q
λ = = =
+ +
1
3
1
3
1
1 4
l
l
g l
A
H
A A
= = =
+ +
2
3
2
3
2
1 5
l
l
g l
A
H
A A
= = =
+ +
1
3
1
3
1
1 4
l
l
g l
q
q q
λ = = =
+ +
slip:
1
1
2
3
3
1
1 3
2
2
l g
g
l
l g
l
g
l g
q q
q
q
A A
v
v
v v
¹
=
¦
¦
= = =
`
¦
=
¦
)
2 5
3 5
1
1
1
3
3
3
g
l g
l
l g
l g
l g
q
q q
q
A A
v v
v v
¹
=
¦
= = =
`
¦
=
)
no slip:
1 4
3 4
1
3
1
3
1
1 4
l
l
g l
q
q q
λ = = =
+ +
1
3
1
3
1
1 4
l
l
g l
A
H
A A
= = =
+ +
1
3
1
3
1
1 4
l
l
g l
q
q q
λ = = =
+ +
1
3
1
3
1
1 4
l
l
g l
A
H
A A
= = =
+ +
2
3
2
3
2
1 5
l
l
g l
A
H
A A
= = =
+ +
1
3
1
3
1
1 4
l
l
g l
q
q q
λ = = =
+ +
2
3
2
3
2
1 5
l
l
g l
A
H
A A
= = =
+ +
1
3
1
3
1
1 4
l
l
g l
q
q q
λ = = =
+ +
slip:
1
1
2
3
3
1
1 3
2
2
l g
g
l
l g
l
g
l g
q q
q
q
A A
v
v
v v
¹
=
¦
¦
= = =
`
¦
=
¦
)
2 5
3 5
slip:
1
1
2
3
3
1
1 3
2
2
l g
g
l
l g
l
g
l g
q q
q
q
A A
v
v
v v
¹
=
¦
¦
= = =
`
¦
=
¦
)
slip:
1
1
2
3
3
1
1 3
2
2
l g
g
l
l g
l
g
l g
q q
q
q
A A
v
v
v v
¹
=
¦
¦
= = =
`
¦
=
¦
)
2 5
3 5
2 5
3 5
2 5
3 5
1
1
1
3
3
3
g
l g
l
l g
l g
l g
q
q q
q
A A
v v
v v
¹
=
¦
= = =
`
¦
=
)
no slip:
1 4
3 4
1
1
1
3
3
3
g
l g
l
l g
l g
l g
q
q q
q
A A
v v
v v
¹
=
¦
= = =
`
¦
=
)
no slip:
1
1
1
3
3
3
g
l g
l
l g
l g
l g
q
q q
q
A A
v v
v v
¹
=
¦
= = =
`
¦
=
)
no slip:
1 4
3 4
1 4
3 4
1 4
3 4
Figure 6.3: Illustration of the effect of slip between the gas and liquid phases on the liquid
fraction λ
l
(no effect) and the liquid holdup H
l
(increases for increasing slip velocity).
6.4 Gradient curves
Before the advent of modern computers, the practice was to present empirical correlations for
wellbore pressure drop in the form of gradient curves. Although these curves are nowadays
hardly used, they give some insight into the effect of the various parameters. The gradient
curve graphs are valid only for vertical wells. Their vertical axis represents the difference in
vertical depth between two points in the wellbore, the horizontal axis the corresponding
pressure difference. An example is given in Figure 6.4, which was generated with the aid of
the DunsRos correlation for 3000 bpd flow with a GLR of 2000 scf/stb and zero watercut in
a 4½″ tubing; see Duns and Ros (1963).
Note that the vertical axis represents the difference in depth. The absolute depth is not
relevant. The slope of the gradient curves reduces with depth. This is a result of the gas being
compressed, the average density increasing, and the pressure gradient increasing, while the
other frictional effects on the pressure drop remain roughly constant. For very low pressures,
the pressure gradient starts to increase again. This is a result of increasing importance of the
frictional effects at high production rates, low pressures and high gasoil ratios.
How are gradient curves used? Consider Figure 6.5. Suppose the pressure at depth 4000 ft is
known to be 3800 psia, and we wish to determine the pressure at 1500 ft. As shown in
Figure 6.5, we select the point on the curve at pressure 3800 psia. We go horizontally across
to the vertical axis and go up by the depth difference of 2500 ft. Going back to the gradient
curve, we read off the pressure at 1500 ft as 300 psia. In this way we can read off the pressure
drop over any portion of the tubing if we know the pressure at one of these two depths. An
extensive collection of gradient curves is presented in Beggs (1991).
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 54
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
Pressure difference (psia)
Depth difference (100 ft)
41/2“ tubing
3000 bbl/day
2000 scf/stb
0% watercut
Figure 6.4: Example of a gradient curve.
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
Pressure difference (psia)
Depth difference (100 ft)
3800 psia
2500
ft
300 psia
Figure 6.5: How to use a gradient curve.
6.5 Intake pressure curves for describing tubing performance
As discussed in Section 2.3.3 of Chapter 2, the multiphase flow equations for a wellbore
element specify a relation between the oil and gas flow rates q
o,sc
and q
g,sc
and the wellbore
pressure drop ∆p = p
in
 p
out
; see equation (2.7). If we know the gasoil ratio R
go
, we can also
determine the flow rates from the pressure drop, although in an iterative fashion. However,
usually it is one of the pressures which is unknown. If the flowing wellbore pressure p
wf
is
specified, then the THP p
tf
can be calculated with a pressure drop calculation. Usually,
however, the p
tf
is determined by the operating conditions, and p
wf
is calculated with an
operating point calculation. By performing successive operating point calculations, while
varying one of the process variables, we can generate what are called tubing intake curves or
intake pressure curves since they give the intake pressure p
wf
at the bottom of the tubing
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 55
required to flow the well against a given surface backpressure. Typical examples are shown
in Figures 6.6, 6.7 and 6.8 below.
friction
hydrostatic
R
p
p
wf
optimum GOR
Figure 6.6: Intake pressure curve for varying gasoil ratios.
Figure 6.6 shows the intake pressure curve which is generated if the oil production rate q
o,sc
is
held constant while the GOR R
go
is varied. This curve illustrates some of the peculiarities of
twophase flow. At zero GOR, the well is producing only liquid. Since the production rate is
low, the friction is low, and the intake pressure is close to the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid
column. If gas is introduced, the liquid column gets lighter, and hence the hydrostatic
pressure decreases, and the intake pressure decreases. This effect continues as the GOR
increases, but at the same time the frictional pressure drop slowly increases, because of the
increased total mass flow of oil and gas. At a certain point, the friction pressure drop starts to
dominate, and the intake pressure starts to increase again. The minimum intake pressure
corresponds to an optimum GOR. At this point the gas is most effective in lifting the liquid.
Therefore for a well flowing a given volume of liquid, there is an optimum GOR which will
minimize the pressure drop over the tubing. This effect plays an important role in gaslift
optimisation.
In wells which are naturally flowing, without gas lift, Figure 6.6 is not of much interest, since
the GOR is fixed. Instead, the intake pressure curve as a function of tubing diameter (Figure
6.7) or as a function of production rate (Figure 6.8) are used. In Figure 6.7 it is seen that there
is an optimum tubing size (for a fixed production rate). As expected, below this optimum, the
pressure decreases as the tubing diameter increases, since it is easier to flow the fluid through
a wider tube. But above the optimum diameter, multiphase effects start to play a role. With a
wider tubing size it becomes easier for the gas to slip past the liquid and the lifting is less
efficient. The downhole pressure required to maintain the flow rate therefore rises.
In Figure 6.8 it is seen that the downhole pressure may also decrease as the flow rate
increases, all other parameters being held constant. This is due to changes in flow regime as
the flow rate increases, for fixed GLR. We shall see in Chapter 8 that this surprising result
has consequences for well flow stability.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 56
optimum tubing size
d
p
wf
Figure 6.7: Intake pressure curve for varying tubing diameter.
−q
o,sc
p
wf
−q
o,sc
p
wf
Figure 6.8: Intake pressure curve for varying production rate.
6.6 Multiphase flow through chokes
The production rate of a well is usually controlled by adjusting the choke at the surface
wellhead or the flow station manifold. The choke is also called a bean. Essentially the choke
is an adjustable valve, with a calibrated restricted area through which the fluids flow.
There are different types of chokes − fixed (also called positive), needle and seat, plug and
cage or adjustable. But they all work on the same principle of dissipating large amounts of
potential energy over a short distance. This is done by causing the fluids to pass through a
short rapid contraction. This restriction has the effect of forcing the fluids into a narrow jet,
creating eddies on both the inlet and exit side of the choke and increasing the turbulence of
the flow, thus dissipating energy and reducing the flow rate. There is a large pressure drop
over the choke. We define the following variables:
q
l,sc
is the liquid flowrate through the choke, m
3
s
1
(bpd),
p
1
is the pressure upstream of the choke, Pa (psi), and
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 57
p
2
is the pressure downstream of the choke, Pa (psi).
Experimentally it is found that for a given value of the upstream pressure p
1
there is a critical
pressure ratio (p
1
/p
2
)
crit
. If p
1
/p
2
< (p
1
/p
2
)
crit
, then q
l,sc
 increases as the pressure drop p
1
–p
2
increases, reaching the maximum rate q
l,crit
at (p
1
/p
2
)
crit
. This is as expected; the larger the
pressure drop, the faster the flow. However, if p
1
/p
2
> (p
1
/p
2
)
crit
, then q
l,sc
remains constant at
q
l,crit
. This phenomenon is called critical flow. Critical flow is reached when the velocity in
the contraction of the choke reaches sonic velocity. Pressure disturbances downstream can no
longer propagate through the choke to the upstream side. Hence the flow behaviour becomes
independent of the downstream pressure p
2
.
There are advantages in operating the choke above the critical pressure ratio. The pressure p
1
at the wellhead is then independent of fluctuations in p
2
, the pressure on the downstream side
of the choke. The pressure p
2
may vary for many reasons: there may be more wells entering
the same manifold, and one of these may be shut in; there may be fluctuations in the
processing system; the operating staff may vary valves in the downstream system. These
effects will not change the production rate of the well if the choke is operating above critical
conditions.
Several expressions exist to predict the occurrence of critical flow through a choke; see e.g.
Chapter 5 of Brill and Mukherjee (1999). As a rule of thumb, critical flow occurs when
7 . 1
2 1
> p p . (6.20)
Below critical conditions, the flow rate of a gasliquid mixture through a choke depends on
the specific type of choke, the properties of the multiphase mixture etc., and there is no
simple pressure drop/flow rate relationship. Above critical conditions, there are a number of
empirical correlations, proposed see e.g. Gilbert (1954), Ros (1960). Other correlations are
connected to the names of Baxendell and Achong; see Brill and Mukherjee (1999). They all
have the form:
( )
( )
1 ,
B
gl
l sc C
ch
E R
p Aq D
F d
∗
= − +
∗
, (6.21)
where,
R
gl
is the gasliquid ratio, m
3
/m
3
(scf stb
1
),
d
ch
is the choke diameter, m (1/64th inch),
A, B, C, and D are experimentallydetermined constants given in Table 6.1,
and where we have assumed that q
l,sc
has a negative value in line with our convention that
flowrates in production wells are negative. Note that in field units the diameter is specified in
1/64th of an inch. For a given choke size, the flow ratepressure relationship is a straight line.
This is called the choke performance curve; see Figure 6.9. For fixed pressure, the flow rate
is approximately equal to the square of the choke diameter, i.e. the crosssectional area, as
might be expected. For pressures below about 1.7 times the manifold or flowline pressure p
2
,
these curves are of course invalid, since this is the noncritical region. The four critical choke
models have been programmed in MATLAB file choke_critical_p_tf, assuming that the
upstream choke pressure p
1
is equal to the flowing THP p
tf
.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 58
Table 6.1: Coefficients for different choke models.
SI units
Correlation
A B C D E F
Gilbert 3.75 * 10
10
0.546 1.89 1.01 * 10
5
5.61 2.52 * 10
3
Ros 6.52 * 10
10
0.500 2.00 1.01 * 10
5
5.61 2.52 * 10
3
Baxendell 3.58 * 10
10
0.546 1.93 1.01 * 10
5
5.61 2.52 * 10
3
Achong 1.43 * 10
10
0.650 1.88 1.01 * 10
5
5.61 2.52 * 10
3
field units
Correlation
A B C D E F
Gilbert 10.0 0.546 1.89 14.7 1.00 1.00
Ros 17.4 0.500 2.00 14.7 1.00 1.00
Baxendell 9.56 0.546 1.93 14.7 1.00 1.00
Achong 3.82 0.650 1.88 14.7 1.00 1.00
In the noncritical regime the pressure drop over the choke is usually assumed to behave as a
quadratic function of the local flow rate or velocity:
( )
( )
2
2
1 2 2 2 2
2 2
g l
m
n ch g g l l ch ch
q q
v
p p
C A C ρ λ ρ λ ρ
+
− = =
+
, (6.22)
where C
ch
is a dimensionless drag coefficient that accounts for the energy losses in the choke
and that needs to be determined experimentally. A pragmatic choice for the drag coefficient
is such that the curves for critical and noncritical flow are continuous at the transition point.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 59
1.7 p
2
p
2
(downstream pressure)
p
1
decreasing choke
diameter
− q
l,sc
noncritical region
1.7 p
2
p
2
(downstream pressure)
p
1
decreasing choke
diameter
− q
l,sc
noncritical region
Figure 6.9: Choke performance curves.
6.7 Exercises
6.1 Consider a gasliquid mixture with q
l
= 0.3 ∗ q
g
, and v
g
= 1.2 ∗ v
l
. What are the liquid
fraction and the liquid holdup?
6.2 A well is completed with a 0.122 m ID tubing and produces a gasoilwater mixture with
the following properties: q
o,sc
= 18.4∗10
3
m
3
/s, R
go
= R
p
= 238 m
3
/m
3
, f
w,sc
= 0.23. We
know that we are dealing with a black oil and that at depth of 400 m the formation
volume factors and the solution GOR are given by B
g
= 0.05, B
o
= 1.15, B
w
= 1.00, and
R
s
= 10.1, all expressed in m
3
/m
3
. Furthermore we know that the liquid holdup is about
5% higher than the liquid volume fraction. What are the superficial and local gas and
liquid velocities?
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 61
7 Inflow performance
7.1 What will be covered in this chapter?
• Linear inflow performance of singlephase oil wells, as described by the Productivity
Index (PI).
• The causes of formation damage (impairment) and the definition of ‘skin’.
• Nonlinear inflow performance relationships (IPRs) for gas wells and multiphase (gas
oilwater) wells.
7.2 The importance of inflow performance
In this section we will discuss the relationship between flow rate and pressure in the near
wellbore area. The difference between the reservoir pressure and the BHP of a well is the
driving force for inflow into the wellbore. Resistance to well inflow depends on reservoir
rock properties, fluid properties, details of the completion of the well, and sometimes the late
effects of drilling and workover activities. In combination, these factors determine the inflow
performance of the well. Because all fluids entering the wellbore have to pass through the
narrow area around the wellbore, the highest flow rates in the reservoir occur just there and
any increased resistance to flow has a large effect on the well performance.
Because inflow performance plays such an important role, it should be regularly measured
through production testing, i.e. by flowing the well through a test separator and determining
the gas, oil, and water flow rates as function of wellbore pressure. The pressure should
preferably be measured at the bottomhole with either a permanent downhole gauge (PDG) or
a dedicated wire line tool. This regular testing will give an indication when a well is
producing less than expected due to impairment, i.e. blockage of the pores in the near
wellbore area. Remedial measures, such as hydraulic fracturing of the formation through
pumping of highpressure liquids, or stimulation with acids, can then be taken. The results of
the well tests can be incorporated in one of the models for inflow performance given below.
It is important to realize that these are only models, and the actual downhole well data must
be respected. For details of inflow performance measurement, see e.g. Golan and Whitson
(1991) and Economides et al. (1994).
As an example of general nature of a well’s inflow performance, consider a vertical oil well,
with either an openhole producing zone or a perforated zone. The production performance of
this zone is usually described by an Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) between the oil
flow rate q
o,sc
and the BHP p
wf
. In practice, it is found that the IPR is an almostlinear
relationship between p
wf
and q
o,sc
, as long as p
wf
is above the bubble point pressure p
b
. In that
case the IPR can be expressed as a Productivity Index (PI) J defined as the ratio between q
o,sc
and the drawdown ∆p, which is the difference between the static or closedin BHP p
ws
and
the dynamic or flowing BHP p
wf
, both measured at the middle of the zone or at the middle of
the perforations. If we assume that the static BHP equals the reservoir pressure p
R
, we can
write
J
q
p p
o sc
R wf
=
−
−
,
, (7.1)
where we adopt the convention that a positive flow rate q
o,sc
implies injection into the
reservoir, and a negative flow rate production into the well. The units of the PI are m
3
s
1
Pa
1
(‘strict’ SI units), m
3
d
1
kPa
1
(‘allowable’ SI units) or bpd psi
1
(field units). The reservoir
pressure is the pressure at the boundary of the drainage area of the well. Alternatively, the PI
can be defined in terms of the average reservoir pressure p
R,av
in the drainage area of the
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 62
well, which results in a higher value of the PI for the same flow rate. For injection wells it is
customary to use the Injectivity Index (II) as an indication of the injection performance. The
definition of the II is completely analogous to that of the PI. Figure 7.1 depicts the linear IPR
for a singlephase oil well. At a flow rate q
o,sc
= 0 the BHP p
wf
equals the static BHP p
R
. In
the theoretical case of a zero pressure at the bottomhole, the flow rate would reach a value
known as the absolute open flowing potential (AOFP) of the well.
For gas wells, or oil wells producing from a reservoir below bubble point pressure, the IPR is
a nonlinear function of the flow rate and cannot be represented with a straightline PI
anymore. In the following sections we will consider in some detail the nature of the IPR for
singlephase production, and briefly discuss the effects of multiphase flow.
7.3 Governing equations
7.3.1 Mass balance, momentum balance and equation of state
In this section we will derive the equations for singlephase fluid flow in the nearwellbore
area, using the same approach as we used to describe pipe flow in Chapter 5. Consider the
classic textbook case of a single vertical well, either openhole or perforated over the entire
reservoir height, producing from a circular reservoir; see Figure 7.2. Using cylindrical co
ordinates we can write the mass balance per unit time through a control volume as:
A v A
A
r
dr
r
dr v
v
r
dr A
t
dr ρ ρ
ρ
φ
ρ
mass in mass out mass accumulated
− +
∂
∂
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
∂
∂
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
∂
∂
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
∂
∂
, (7.2)
where A = h r dψ is the crosssectional area of the control volume in radial direction, m
2
,
h is the reservoir height, m,
r is the radial coordinate, m,
ψ is the tangential coordinate, rad,
ρ is the fluid density, kg m
3
,
v = q/A is the superficial radial fluid velocity, m s
1
,
q is the radial flow rate, m
3
s
1
,
φ is the porosity, , and
t is time, s.
IPR
p
R
drawdown ∆p
p
wf
− q
o,sc
− q
AOFP,sc
IPR
p
R
drawdown ∆p
p
wf
− q
o,sc
− q
AOFP,sc
Figure 7.1: Straightline inflow performance relationship.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 63
h
r
w
r
e
r
Figure 7.2: Well in a circular reservoir.
Note that a positive velocity implies flow in the positive coordinate direction, and therefore
corresponds to injection from the well into the reservoir. Maintaining the analogy with pipe
flow, the momentum balance can formally be written as:
A v A
A
r
dr
r
dr v
v
r
dr
Ap h p
p
r
dr
dr
d
A
A
r
dr p
p
r
dr
F r ds F v
g f
ρ ρ
ρ
ψ
ρ ρ µ
2
2
2
2 2
momentum in momentum out
pressure forces
gravity force
− +
∂
∂
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
∂
∂
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
∂
∂
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
+ +
∂
∂
F
H
G
I
K
J
− +
∂
∂
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
∂
∂
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
+
sin
, , , b g b g
b g
dr A
v
t
dr
friction force momentum accumulated
= ,
φ
ρ ∂
∂
(7.3)
where the components of the pressure term have been illustrated in Figure 7.3, and where
p is the pressure, Pa,
F
g
(ρ,s) is the gravity force per unit length, N m
1
,
F
f
(ρ,µ,v) is the friction force per unit length, N m
1
, and
µ is the dynamic viscosity, Pa s.
However, in flow through porous media the velocities v are usually so small that the
momentum terms at the lefthand side, which depend on v
2
, play no role. Furthermore, it can
be shown that also the momentum term at the right hand side is negligible, and therefore only
the pressure, gravity and friction terms need to be taken into account; see Bear (1972). In our
case, we can furthermore disregard the gravity term because we consider horizontal flow
only. The nature of the friction force F
f
(ρ,µ,v) will be discussed in more detail in Section
7.3.2 below. Just as in the case of pipe flow we can complete the set of governing equations
with the aid of the equation of state for the fluid, i.e. equation (4.6) for singlephase gas or
equation (4.11) for singlephase oil. If we expand equations (7.2) and (7.3), substitute A = h r
dψ, disregard the momentum and the gravity terms, drop all terms higher than first order in
the differentials, and simplify the results, we can write the three equations as
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 64
∂
∂
= −
∂
∂
∂
∂
=
=
= −
R
S




T




ρ
φ
ρ
π
ρ
ρ ρ
vr
r
r
t
p
r
F
hr
Mp
ZRT
c p p
f
abs
o ref o ref
b g
d i
,
for gas , or
for oil ,
2
,
exp
,
(7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7)
where the compressibility c
o
is a known function of pressure p and temperature T, and the gas
deviation factor Z is a known function of p. The temperature T (and therefore also T
abs
) can
generally be taken as constant because the large heat capacity of the reservoir is usually
sufficient to guarantee isothermal conditions. Only in highrate gas wells, some cooling due
to expansion of the gas may occur in the nearwellbore area, an effect known as the Joule
Thomson cooling; see e.g. Moran and Shapiro (1998).
7.3.2 Friction force – Darcy’s law and Forcheimer’s coefficient
The frictional loss for singlephase liquid flow in porous media is described by the
experimental relationship known as Darcy’s law, which can be written in polar coordinates
as:
F
hr k
v
f
2π
µ
= − . (7.8)
For isothermal liquid flow and a homogeneous reservoir, µ and k can be considered
constants. For gas flow, we can use the same relationship except for very high velocities such
as occur in the nearwellbore area of highrate gas wells. In that case we have to replace
Darcy’s law with
F
hr k
v v
f
2
2
π
µ
βρ = − − , (7.9)
where β is Forcheimer’s coefficient with dimension L
1
. It represents the inertia effects
experienced by the gas when it is accelerated and decelerated during its flow through the pore
dψ/2
dψ
dr h dr
r
p
p 
.

\

∂
∂
+
2
1
ψ d phr pA =
( ) ψ d h dr r dr
r
p
p
dr
r
A
A dr
r
p
p
+ 
.

\

∂
∂
+
= 
.

\

∂
∂
+ 
.

\

∂
∂
+
Figure 7.3: Control volume and pressure forces in cylindrical coordinates.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 65
throats. It is also referred to as inertia coefficient or turbulence coefficient. The latter name is
not entirely correct because the inertia effect can be noticed at much lower velocities than the
velocity that corresponds to the onset of turbulence in the pores; see Bear (1972). The values
of k and β should be determined experimentally, either directly through measurements on
cores, or indirectly from well tests. The relationship between β and k is typically of the form
β =
−
Ak
g
B
. (7.10)
Dake (1978) gives an example with values of the constants determined as A = 2.4 * 10
6
and
B = 1.1, with k expressed in m
2
and β in m
1
.
7.4 Inflow performance relationships
7.4.1 Singlephase oil flow – steady state
At steady state conditions, the righthand side of the mass conservation equation (7.4)
vanishes. Furthermore, we can assume that the compressibility of singlephase oil is small
enough to take the density as constant in the drainage area of the well, which reduces (7.4)
equation further to
∂
∂
=
vr
r
b g
0 . (7.11)
This is a firstorder differential equation, albeit a trivial one, that therefore requires one
boundary condition which can be obtained from the known velocity at the wellbore radius:
v
q
A
q
hr
B q
hr
r r
o o
w
o o sc
w
w
=
= = =
2 2 π π
,
, (7.12)
where we have used the oilformation volume factor B
o
to relate the downhole flow rate q
o
to
the surface flow rate at standard conditions q
o,sc
. Integrating equation (7.11) and solving for
the integration constant with the aid of boundary condition (7.12) results in:
vr
B q
h
o o sc
=
,
2π
, (7.13)
Next, equations (7.5), (7.8) and (7.13) can be combined to give the classic differential
equation for steadystate radial flow:
dp
dr
B q
khr
o o sc
= −
µ
π
,
2
. (7.14)
Equation (7.14) is also of first order and the boundary condition can now be specified as
p p
r r
R
e
=
= , (7.15)
which represents a constant pressure p
R
at the external boundary of the circular drainage area.
This situation can, with some imagination, be interpreted as a reservoir with constant pressure
support in the form of a strong aquifer. If we assume that the k, µ and B
o
are constants,
equation (7.14) can be integrated to give
p
B q
kh
r C
o o sc
= − +
µ
π
,
ln
2
. (7.16)
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 66
The value of the unknown integration constant C can be found with the aid of boundary
condition (7.15), and substitution in equation (7.16) then gives us the expression for p as a
function of r under steadystate flow conditions:
p p
B q
kh
r
r
R
o o sc e
= +
F
H
G
I
K
J
µ
π
,
ln
2
. (7.17)
In particular, we can now define the IPR between the flowing bottomhole pressure p
wf
and the
flow rate q
o,sc
as:
p p
B q
kh
r
r
R wf
o o sc
e
w
− = −
F
H
G
I
K
J
µ
π
,
ln
2
. (7.18)
Note that because of our definition of the positive flow direction, a positive drawdown
corresponds to a negative flow rate, i.e. to flow towards the well as occurs in a production
well.
Alternatively, we may want to express the IPR in terms of the volumeaveraged reservoir
pressure p
R,av
defined as
p
h prdr
h rdr
prdr
r r
R av
r
r
r
r
r
r
e w
w
e
w
e
w
e
,
= =
−
z
z
z
2
2
2
2 2
π φ
π φ
. (7.19)
Substitution of equation (7.17) in equation (7.19) gives
( )
, ,
, 2 2 2 2
2
ln ln
2
e e
w w
r r
o o sc o o sc
e e
R av R R
e w r r e w
B q B q
r r
p p rdr p r dr
r r kh r r kh r r
µ µ
π π
(
   
= + = +
  (
− − \ . \ .
¸ ¸
∫ ∫
,(7.20)
where the integral can be solved through integration by parts as follows:
( )
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1
ln ln ln ln
2 2 4 2
e
e e e
w w w
w
r
r r r
e w
e w w
e e e r r r
r
r r r r
r dr r dr r r dr r r r
r r r r r
     
 
= − = − + = − −
   
\ .
\ . \ . \ .
∫ ∫ ∫
.(7.21)
Substitution of this result in equation (7.20), solving for p
R
, substitution in equation (7.18)
and rearranging the result gives us the required expression for p
wf
in terms of p
R,av
for steady
state flow:
, ,
, 2 2
1 1 1
ln ln
2 1 2 2 2
µ µ
π π
( (    
− = − − ≈ − −
( (  
−
\ . \ . ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
o o sc o o sc
e e
R av wf
w e w w
B q B q
r r
p p
kh r r r kh r
. (7.22)
where the approximation holds for r
w
<< r
e
which is the usual situation.
7.4.2 Singlephase oil flow – semisteady state
Often we encounter a situation where pressure support in a reservoir is not sufficient to
maintain a constant pressure, and where the pressure gradually drops over time. Such a
gradual pressure depletion scenario can be schematically represented by circular reservoir
with a boundary condition
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 67
dp
dr
r r
e
=
= 0 , (7.23)
which implies that there is no pressure gradient and therefore no driving force for flow at the
external boundary. This type of noflow condition typically occurs when a large number of
vertical wells producing at equal rates is used to drain a reservoir in a regular pattern. The
drainage areas can then reasonably well be approximated by circular cylindrical volumes. A
refined approximation can be obtained with the aid of shape factors to account for the fact
that the drainage areas are not exactly circular, see Dietz (1965). As a consequence of the
absence of flow through the outer boundary and of a constant production q
o
from the wells,
the pressure in the reservoir will steadily decrease, a situation known as semi steadystate. To
analyse this situation, we can start from the mass balance equation (7.5) which can be
rewritten with the aid of the equation of state (7.7) as follows:
∂
∂
= −
∂
∂
∂
∂
= −
∂
∂
ρ
φ
ρ
φ ρ
vr
r
r
p
p
t
c r
p
t
o
b g
. (7.24)
where c
o
is the isothermal compressibility for oil; see also Section 4.4.3. Under steadystate
conditions the pressure derivative ∂p/∂t should remain constant, say equal to an unknown
constant C
1
. As before, we can assume that ρ is constant for singlephase oil, and the mass
balance equation therefore reduces to
d vr
dr
C c r
o
b g
= −
1
φ . (7.25)
This is again a firstorder differential equation that can be integrated to give
vr C c r C
o
= − +
1
2
1
2
2
φ . (7.26)
With the aid of boundary condition (7.12) that was also used for the steadystate solution, we
can solve for the integration constant C
2
. In addition, we know that v = 0 at r = r
e
, which
allows us to solve for C
1
. After substitution in equation (7.26) and reorganization of the result
we find
vr
B q
h
r r
r r
B q
h
r
r
o o sc w
e w
o o sc
e
= −
−
−
F
H
G
I
K
J
≈ −
F
H
G
I
K
J
, ,
2
1
2
1
2 2
2 2
2
2
π π
. (7.27)
Similarly to what we did in the steadystate situation, we can now combine equations (7.5),
(7.8) and (7.27) to arrive at the differential equation for semi steadystate radial flow:
dp
dr
B q
kh r
r
r
o o sc
e
= − −
F
H
G
I
K
J
µ
π
,
2
1
2
. (7.28)
Integration of the equation results in
p
B q
kh
r
r
r
C
o o sc
e
= − −
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
µ
π
,
ln
2
1
2
2
2 3
. (7.29)
Using boundary condition (7.15) to solve for the integration constant C
3
and substitution of
the result in equation (7.29) gives us an expression for p as a function of r under semi steady
state flow conditions:
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 68
p p
B q
kh
r
r
r
r
R
o o sc e
e
= +
F
H
G
I
K
J
− −
F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
O
Q
P
µ
π
,
ln
2
1
2
1
2
2
. (7.30)
In particular, the IPR for semi steadystate flow can now be written as:
p p
B q
kh
r
r
R wf
o o sc e
w
− ≈ −
F
H
G
I
K
J
−
L
N
M
O
Q
P
µ
π
,
ln
2
1
2
. (7.31)
The difficulty with expressions (7.30) and (7.31) is that the pressure p
R
at the external
boundary, which is gradually decreasing just like the pressure in any point of the reservoir,
can usually not be determined. However, the average pressure p
R,av
can often be determined
from the pressure response in a well after shutin, a procedure known as pressure transient
analysis or well testing; see e.g. Dake (1978). To express equation (7.31) in terms of the
average reservoir pressure, we can proceed along the same lines as we did for steadystate
flow above, which results in
p p
B q
kh
r
r
R av wf
o o sc e
w
,
,
ln − ≈ −
F
H
G
I
K
J
−
L
N
M
O
Q
P
µ
π 2
3
4
. (7.32)
7.4.3 Singlephase gas flow
In the case of singlephase gas flow we can no longer justify the assumption of constant
density in the nearwellbore area that as we did for singlephase oil. Therefore, the mass
conservation equation (7.4) should now be written, for steadystate conditions, as
∂
∂
=
v r
r
ρ b g
0 . (7.33)
The corresponding boundary condition at the wellbore radius becomes:
v
q
hr
q
hr
r r
g
w
r r
g sc g sc
w
w
w
ρ
ρ
π
ρ
π
=
=
= =
2 2
, ,
, (7.34)
where we have used the fact that the mass flow rate at surface and downhole are identical
under steadystate conditions. We can now solve equation (7.33) and determine the
integration constant with the aid of boundary condition (7.34) in the usual fashion. Next we
can combine equations (7.5) and (7.9), and together with the equation of state for gas (7.7),
we then arrive at the following set of equations to describe singlephase gas flow in the near
wellbore area:
dp
ds k
v v
v
q
h r
Mp
ZRT
g sc g sc
abs
= − −
=
=
R
S



T



µ
βρ
ρ
π ρ
ρ
2
2
1
,
, ,
,
.
(7.35, 7.36, 7.37)
This set of equations strongly resembles equations (5.27) to (5.29) as defined in Chapter 5 to
describe the flow of gas in pipes. The equations are nonlinear because ρ, µ and Z are
functions of the unknown pressure p. The differential equation (7.35) requires one boundary
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 69
condition, for which we can use equation (7.15). Just as was done for pipe flow, the equations
can be solved with the aid of a standard numerical integration routine in MATLAB.
Alternatively, the equations can be linearized through the use of a realgas pseudopressure
defined as:
m p dp
Z
p
p
Z
dp
p p p
p
p p p
p
ref ref ref ref
b g = ∗ = ∗
= =
z z
µ
ρ
ρ
µ
µ
µ
, (7.38)
where p
ref
is an arbitrary reference pressure expressed in Pa; see Hagoort (1988). For a given
gas composition, and corresponding relationships for µ and Z as function of p, we can
determine a onetoone relationship between p and m(p), through numerically integrating
equation (7.38). If we disregard the inertia coefficient β, we can now simply use all the
results that were obtained for singlephase oil flow, by replacing p with m(p), and by
changing the oil properties µ
o
, k
o
, B
o
and q
o,sc
to gas properties µ
g
, k
g
, B
g
and q
g,sc
. The value
of the arbitrary reference pressure p
ref
, is not relevant because we are only interested in
pressure differences, and not in absolute pressures. We will not further consider the use of
pseudopressures in this course, and refer to Hagoort (1988) for details.
If the difference between the average reservoir pressure p
R,av
and the flowing BHP p
wf
is not
too large we can use constant average values µ
av
and Z
av
in the definition of the pseudo
pressure. In this case, integration shows that the pseudopressure can be approximated by
m p
p p
p
ref
ref
b g =
−
2 2
. (7.39)
Expression (7.39) can now be used to convert any of the IPRs for singlephase oil flow for
use in singlephase gas flow analysis. For example, substitution in the semisteady state IPR
(7.32) and making the necessary changes from oil to gas properties results in:
, , 2 2
,
3
ln
2 4
av g av g sc
e
R av wf
g w
B q
r
p p
k h r
µ
π
(  
− ≈ − −
( 
\ . ¸ ¸
. (7.40)
The form of this quadratic inflow performance relationship is shown in Figure 7.4. We will
not consider the effects of the inertia coefficient β, and refer to Dake (1978) or Hagoort
(1988) for further information.
7.4.4 Multiphase flow
The straight line IPR for singlephase oil flow needs modification if the pressure drops below
bubblepoint pressure and the oil becomes saturated. There are two modifications in use,
proposed by Vogel (1968) and Fetkovich (1973):
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 70
p
wf
− q
g,sc
IPR
p
R,av
drawdown ∆p
p
wf
− q
g,sc
IPR
p
R,av
drawdown ∆p
Figure 7.4: Nonlinear inflow performance relationship for a gas well.
Vogel: , with
q
q
p
p
p
p
o sc
o sc
wf
R
wf
R
,
, ,
.
max
= −
F
H
G
I
K
J
− −
F
H
G
I
K
J
= 1 1 0 2
2
α α α b g , (7.41)
Fetkovitch:
q
q
p
p
o sc
o sc
wf
R
n
,
, ,max
= −
F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
M
O
Q
P
P
1
2
, (7.42)
where q
o,sc,max
is the AOFP, i.e. the value of q
o,sc
when p
wf
is zero. Note that this zero pressure
will not actually be achievable in practice. Vogel’s IPR curve resulted from carrying out a
large number of numerical simulations and looking for a best fit. By choosing the value of n,
Fetkovich’s IPR curve can fit field data reasonably well.
7.5 Formation damage and skin
The IPRs derived above assume that the radial permeability is everywhere constant. In
practice, this is not the case. In addition to geological variations (which we ignore, assuming
they average out in some sense), the well may be impaired. During the drilling of the well
there is penetration of alien fluids into the reservoir rock, which may reduce the permeability
of the rock around the well and therefore reduce the rate of oil inflow. This reduction in
permeability is called formation damage or impairment.
We currently have a good understanding of the fundamental causes of formation damage,
thanks to experimental and theoretical research over the past years. For an extensive
overview, see Civan (2000). From the moment the drill bit first penetrates the reservoir
section until the well is put on production, the reservoir rock is exposed to a series of
operations that can cause damage:
• Mechanical
The drilling itself can create mechanical damage, with pore collapse and particle re
arrangement.
• Solids
Solids come into contact with the rock formation, such as drilled rock, solid material
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 71
added to the drilling mud or metal debris. If small enough, the solids can be swept into
the formation and block the pores. If larger, the solid particles cannot enter into the rock
pores, but are deposited on the surface of the rock. Some of these solids will be swept
away again when the well is put on production, but not all, as shown in Figure 7.5,
showing a thin layer of residual mud solids.
• Fluids
Fluids used in well construction can also cause formation damage. Such fluids are
composed of water, oils, salts, acids, surfactants and many other chemicals. These may
interact with the reservoir rock and fluids, causing detachment of fine particles,
flocculation, wettability change, precipitation, emulsion formation or fluid saturation
changes. In particular, the pores may be lined with clay which may swell disastrously,
completely blocking the pore.
• Phase changes
Changes in pressure and temperature in the oil and water may result in phase changes,
with precipitation of waxes, asphaltenes, or scale which deposit themselves in the pores.
• Microbial
Lastly, microbes introduced into the well, or possibly indigenous in the reservoir in a
dormant state, may multiply forming deposits in the pores.
• The effect of all these damage mechanisms is to reduce the permeability of the reservoir
rock over a relatively small region around the wellbore. This small damaged region is
called the ‘skin’ of the well. This skin gives rise to an additional pressure drop, as shown
in Figure 7.6, so that the well produces less than expected.
The additional pressure drop can be taken into account in the IPR as follows. For example,
the semi steadystate solution (7.32) can now be modified to give
p p p
B q
kh
r
r
R av wf skin
o o sc
e
w
,
,
ln − − = −
F
H
G
I
K
J
−
L
N
M
O
Q
P
∆
µ
π 2
3
4
. (7.43)
115 µm
residual mud solids
formation wellbore
115 µm 115 µm
residual mud solids
formation wellbore
Figure 7.5: Residual mud solids.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 72
pressure
pressure loss
due to skin
radial distance from wellbore centre line r
p
wf, undamaged
p
R
p
wf, damaged
impaired
zone
pressure
pressure loss
due to skin
radial distance from wellbore centre line r
p
wf, undamaged
p
R
p
wf, damaged
impaired
zone
Figure 7.6: The extra pressure drop caused by skin, at a given flow rate.
Introducing the dimensionless skin factor S defined by
∆p
B q S
kh
skin
o o sc
=
µ
π
,
2
, (7.44)
we can rewrite the steady state solution as
p p
B q
kh
r
r
S
R av wf
o o sc e
w
,
,
ln − = −
F
H
G
I
K
J
− +
L
N
M
O
Q
P
µ
π 2
3
4
. (7.45)
Accordingly, the formula for the PI becomes
J
q
p p
kh
B
r
r
S
o sc
wf
o
e
w
=
−
−
= −
F
H
G
I
K
J
− +
L
N
M
O
Q
P
,
ln
2
3
4
π
µ
. (7.46)
Note the minus sign because we have assumed a positive flow direction from the well into the
reservoir. The value of the skin S can be determined from transient well tests; see e.g. Dake
(1978) or Economides et al. (1994). If the skin is high, then remedial measures may be
required e.g. stimulating the well with acid to remove the damage.
If a well is tested, it may appear that the skin S is nonzero. But this may not be due to
formation damage. It may be due to the completion. If the well is gravelpacked, the
permeability of the gravel will be different from that of the reservoir rock. Thus the gravel
pack may give less pressure drop, resulting in negative skin. On the other hand, the gravel
pack itself can be heavily impaired during installation or subsequent production. So, positive
skin could result from the gravel pack. Perforations can give rise to negative skin, if they
provide a very effective path for the oil to flow into the well. Often, they contain debris from
the shooting of the perforations, and have a crushed zone of rock around them, both effects
contributing to positive skin. Fractures, whether natural or produced by hydraulic fracturing
will result in easier inflow, and thus negative skin.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 73
7.6 Multilayer inflow performance
If a well is completed on more than one layer, with different reservoir properties and different
reservoir pressures, then the combined inflow performance can be readily calculated,
provided the individual IPRs are both linear.
As shown in Figure 7.7, for a given value of p
wf
, the total production rate q
o,sc
can be
calculated by calculating the individual contributions q
o,sc,1
and q
o,sc,2
, and adding them:
q J p p q J p p
q q q J p J p J J p
o sc R wf o sc R wf
o sc o sc o sc R R wf
, , , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2
= − − = − −
= + = − − + +
d i d i
b g
, ,
.
(7.47)
Thus the production rate still varies linearly with p
wf
. Note however that this formula applies
only for values of p
wf
lower than the lower of the two zone pressure. Above this pressure, part
of the production from one zone will be injected into the other zone. This phenomenon,
which is often referred to as cross flow, is illustrated in Figure 7.8. If the well is closedin at
surface, a steadystate situation will develop in which equal amounts are produced from and
injected into the respective reservoir units. Crossflow can seriously impair the reservoir into
which the injection takes place.
p
wf
− q
o,sc
IPR 2 IPR 1
combined IPR
p
R,2
p
R,1
p
wf
− q
o,sc
IPR 2 IPR 1
combined IPR
p
R,2
p
R,1
Figure 7.7: Twolayer inflow performance.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 74
p
wf
− q
o,sc
IPR 2 IPR 1
p
R,2
p
R,1
q
wf,2
=  q
wf,1
p
wf
− q
o,sc
IPR 2 IPR 1
p
R,2
p
R,1
q
wf,2
=  q
wf,1
Figure 7.8: Crossflow between two reservoir units in a closedin well.
7.7 Related topics that have not been considered in this chapter
• For all wells, a number of near wellbore factors have not been considered at all, such as
the effect of on inflow performance of well deviation, permeability anisotropy, fractures,
perforation pattern, washed out well sections, gravel packs and slotted liners, fractures.
• In horizontal wells the above considerations must be applied ‘locally’. At any point in the
well, the inflow will be proportional to the local drawdown. But as we move along the
well, the drawdown will change, being influenced by the flow in the well itself. In a long
horizontal well (say more than 500 m) these effects can be substantial; see Dikken (1990).
For a discussion and further references on horizontal well inflow performance, see Joshi
(1991) and Economides et al. (1998).
For further reading on the topic of inflow performance, we refer to the textbooks of Brown
(1984), Beggs (1991), Golan and Whitson (1991), Economides et al. (1994), and Economides
et al. (1998).
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 75
8 Oil well productivity
8.1 What will be covered in this chapter?
• Methods of analysing the production from an oil well; the intake pressure curve for
analysing situations in which inflow performance from the reservoir is important; the
tubing response curve for analysing situations in which well or surface conditions are
changed.
• The role of well productivity analysis in field development planning and field
management.
• Shortterm and long term optimisation of well performance.
8.2 Optimising well productivity
To optimise the productivity from an oil well, we need tools to predict its flow behaviour. For
example, in designing a completion for a new well, we need to assess the effect of the tubing
size on well productivity, and predict the productivity change as the reservoir pressure
declines. Similarly, in a producing well, we need to decide when it makes economic sense to
carry out operations to increase the productivity, for example whether the skin is significantly
affecting production and the well needs stimulating, or when we should change out the
tubing.
8.3 Oil well completions
A typical completion for a traditional vertical or deviated oil well was shown schematically in
Figure 2.1. The total pressure drop between the reservoir and the wellhead is made up of the
drawdown associated with the inflow from the reservoir and the vertical flow pressure drop.
Typically, the vertical pressure drop makes up 75% of the total pressure drop. In Figure 2.2, a
horizontal well completion is shown schematically. In this case the total pressure drop is
made up of the inflow pressure drop, the pressure drop along the horizontal well and the
vertical flow pressure drop.
These figures are only schematic. We note the following points:
• The dimensions are not correct in the schematic diagrams. The vertical depth of the wells
is usually between 1500 and 5000 m, the completed interval for a vertical well is usually
between 10 and 200 m, and the length of a horizontal well can vary from 20  1000 m.
• ‘Vertical wells’ are never vertical. They are deviated, and often highly deviated.
However, the section over the reservoir is usually vertical or near vertical.
• Vertical wells are usually cased and perforated.
• Horizontal wells are usually completed as open holes, with a slotted liner or wire
wrapped screen lining the borehole. This is reverting to technology which was abandoned
earlier for vertical wells, because it gave little control, and the screens were prone to
impairment. But for horizontal wells, it is difficult to complete as cased hole, although it
is sometimes done.
In this course we consider mainly vertical wells, concentrating on inflow and vertical flow.
8.4 Production rate of a vertical well operating at given tubing head pressure
A vertical well is being operated at a fixed THP p
tf
. What is the production rate? The flow
system between the reservoir and the tubing head can be broken down into
• the inflow into the well, and
• the flow up the tubing to the tubing head.
As we have seen in Chapter 7, the inflow into the well is affected by
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 76
• the reservoir pressure,
• the reservoir properties,
• the skin, including ‘skin’ due to the completion, and
• the properties of the reservoir fluids.
However, as we have seen, all these effects can be brought into a single relationship, the
inflow performance of the well. Assuming that we have a linear inflow performance, with
productivity index J, then
J
q
p p
sc o
R wf
,
+ = , (8.1)
where a positive value of q
o,sc
implies injection and a negative value production. Similarly,
the flow up the tubing is affected by
• the tubing size and other completion parameters,
• the flow regime in which the well operates, and
• the fluid properties.
These effects cannot be brought into a single relationship which predicts the pressure drop
over tubing. However, as we saw in Chapter 8, if the THP is specified, and all other factors
such as tubing diameter are held constant, then we can construct an intake pressure curve,
which shows the dependence of the BHP on flow rate q
o,sc
.
p F q
wf ip o sc
=
,
c h
, (8.2)
where F
ip
is the intake pressure curve function. The actual form of F
ip
depends on the other
parameters such as THP, tubing diameter, GLR and watercut.
− q
o,sc
p
wf
IPR
p
R
drawdown ∆p
− q
o,sc
p
wf
IPR
p
R
drawdown ∆p
Figure 8.9: Inflow performance curve for constant PI.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 77
− q
o,sc
p
wf
− q
o,sc
p
wf
Figure 8.10: Tubing intake pressure curve for varying production rate.
The inflow performance curve (Figure 7.1 of Chapter 7) is shown as Figure 8.9. The intake
pressure curve (Figure 6.8 of Chapter 6) is shown as Figure 8.10. Combining these two
curves gives us Figure 8.11. This is an example of the combination of an operating point
performance curve (the tubing intake pressure curve) and a pressure drop performance curve
(the IPR) as was discussed in Section 2.4 where we covered ‘nodal analysis’. The curves
have two intersection points, and as derived in Section 2.4, the intersection at the right
corresponds to a stable operating point and gives us the actual flow rate q
o,sc
and the actual
BHP p
wf
. The intersection at the left represents an unstable, and therefore physically
unrealistic operating point.
Recall that the tubing intake pressure curve has been derived for a fixed THP. If we lower the
THP, also the BHP will drop, and the intake pressure curve will shift down. In addition the
curve may somewhat change in shape, because the boundaries between the various flow
regimes in the tubing may also move. However, the overall effect will be a shift of the stable
operating point to the right, corresponding to an increased flow rate. Conversely, if we
− q
o,sc
p
wf
IPR
drawdown ∆p
− q
o,sc
p
wf
IPR
drawdown ∆p
Figure 8.11: Combined plot of inflow performance and intake pressure curves, determining
actual production rate.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 78
increase the THP, the production rate will drop. If we increase the THP too much, the well
will not flow at all anymore; see Figure 8.12. A similar effect occurs if THP remains constant
but the reservoir pressure drops, a situation that frequently happens when an oil field is being
depleted. If it is not possible to reduce the THP any further, it may sometimes be possible to
bring the well back to production by installing a new tubing with a lower pressure drop.
Interestingly, this may be either a larger or a smaller diameter tubing, depending on factors
like watercut and GOR. Alternatively, it may be necessary to install a form of artificial lift,
such as gas lift, an electric submersible pump (ESP) or a beam pump.
8.5 Production rate of a vertical well operating through a surface choke
In Section 8.4 we assumed that the THP and the reservoir pressure were constant, and
calculated the resulting flow rate from the pressure drops over the tubing and the reservoir.
However, usually the THP itself will also vary with flow rate. To analyse this effect we need
also to consider the flow path downstream of the wellhead, up to a point were we can assume
that the pressure remains more or less constant. That point will normally be the first separator
which is usually operated with automatic pressure control. The manifold pressure, which is
almost the same as the separator pressure, is therefore normally a good system boundary for a
complete wellbore pressure drop analysis. Recall that at the other end of the system, i.e. in the
reservoir, we have also assumed constant pressure, or at least a pressure that varies only very
slowly over time. In conclusion, our problem is to determine the flow rate by considering the
pressure drop over the following elements:
• the reservoir (including the near wellbore area and the completion),
• the tubing up to the tubing head,
• the choke, and
• the flowline,
given a constant pressures in the reservoir and the manifold, and constant fluid composition
(GOR, watercut).
Here we will restrict ourselves to the analysis of a threecomponent system consisting of a
choke, a tubing and the near wellbore. For this type of analysis it is common practice to
choose the analysis node at the top of the tubing and to establish an operating point
− q
o,sc
p
wf
IPR
new intake pressure curve
old intake pressure curve
− q
o,sc
p
wf
IPR
new intake pressure curve
old intake pressure curve
Figure 8.12: Effect of a too large increase in THP: there is no intersection any more between
the intake pressure curve and the IPR. As a result the well will no longer flow.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 79
performance curve for the choke and a combined pressure drop performance curve for the
tubing and the near wellbore.
For a given flow rate, the inflow performance curve determines the flowing BHP p
wf
. Using
this pressure, and for given tubing diameter, GOR and watercut, the THP p
tf
can be
determined from a wellbore pressure drop analysis, either using a computer or using gradient
curves. This gives a relationship between the flow rate q
o,sc
and the THP p
tf
which is called
the tubing performance curve. The procedure for use with gradient curves is illustrated in
Figure 8.13. The tubing performance curve gives a total picture of the deliverability of the
well. Note that the name is slightly misleading. The tubing performance curve is not just
dependent on the ability of the tubing to transport the fluids; it also contains the performance
of the reservoir and the completion, through the inflow performance relationship. As the
reservoir pressure declines, the tubing performance curve will change. So a better name
would be the well performance curve, but that is not usually used.
The flow through the choke is governed by the linear choke performance curve shown in
Figure 6.9 of Chapter 7, assuming the flow is above critical. Hence, we can now plot the
choke performance curve and the tubing performance curve together to determine the
operating point at the tubing head. This has been done for a series of choke performance
curves, corresponding to different choke sizes, in Figure 8.14. It has been assumed that the
pressure directly downstream of the choke remains constant and equal to the manifold
pressure p
m
. In theory it is again is possible to obtain two points of intersection, although this
is not often the case if we analyse realistic well and choke configurations. It can be proved,
following the analysis method from Section 2.4, that the operating point at the lower flow
rate will always be unstable.
− q
o,sc
p
wf
, p
tf
IPR
tubing performance curve
intake pressure
curves for
different p
tf
− q
o,sc
p
wf
, p
tf
IPR
tubing performance curve
intake pressure
curves for
different p
tf
Figure 8.13: Construction of a tubing performance curve: For different THPs p
tf
we establish
the stable operating points at the bottom of the tubing from the intersections of the intake
pressure curves and the IPR. Each operating point corresponds to a certain flowing BHP p
wf
and a flow rate q
o,sc
. Next we compute the pressure drop over the tubing for each of the flow
rates, as indicated by the vertical dashed lines. Subtracting the tubing pressure drops from
the BHPs gives us the THPs as a function of flow rate, in other words, the tubing
performance curve.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 80
1.7 p
fl
p
fl
p
tf
decreasing choke
diameter
− q
o,sc
noncritical region
1.7 p
fl
p
fl
p
tf
decreasing choke
diameter
− q
o,sc
noncritical region
1.7 p
fl
p
fl
p
tf
decreasing choke
diameter
− q
o,sc
noncritical region
Figure 8.14: Combined plot of tubing and choke performance curves, determining actual
production rate.
8.6 Summary of analysis methods
As described above, there are two commonly used methods for analysing the production from
oil wells. In each method the behaviour of system to be analysed is reduced to two
relationships between pressure and flow rate: a pressure drop performance curve (which
determines an unknown pressure downstream from a known pressure) and an operating point
performance curve (which determines an unknown pressure upstream of a known pressure).
In the first method, the analysis is performed downhole. Using the condition at the tubing
head and the pressure drop in the tubing, the tubing intake pressure curve is calculated at the
bottom of the well. The intersection of this curve with the inflow performance relation (IPR)
determines the production rate. This was illustrated in Figure 8.11. In the second method, the
analysis is performed at the tubing head. Using the inflow performance curve and the
pressure drop in the tubing, the tubing performance curve is calculated at the tubing head.
The intersection of this curve with the choke performance curve determines the production
rate. This was illustrated in Figure 8.14.
As discussed in Chapter 2, the choice of the analysis nodes at either the top or the bottom of
the tubing is rather arbitrary and was determined by use of gradient curves for tubing flow
before the widespread use of computers. In a cascade system of components the analysis
could be performed anywhere at or in between the two system boundaries. Indeed using a
computerized analysis method it is would be logical to analyse the pressure drop over the
entire system with an algorithm marching from one boundary to the other. The program
would than need to change the flow rate in iterative fashion until the pressure drop over the
system exactly matches the known difference in pressure between the two boundaries. The
advantage of displaying the traditional combinations of a pressure drop performance curve
and an operating point performance curve is that they provide quick insight in the flow
behaviour of two separate system parts in one graph: one downstream and one upstream of
the analysis node. For this reason, most computer programs for wellbore flow analysis still
have an option to display the traditional intake pressure and performance curves.
8.7 Field development planning and field management
Well performance analysis plays a crucial role in field development planning for new fields
and the management of producing fields.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 81
For a new field, critical questions that must be answered are:
• What form of completion must be installed in the well, and in particular what size tubing?
• For the chosen tubing size, what is the initial production rate of the well, and how will
this vary with time?
• How long will the well be able to produce. When is the optimum time to change the
tubing size or switch to artificial lift (pumping or gas lifting)?
For a producing field, the following must be considered :
• Is the well producing as expected?
• Is the well impaired, and in need of stimulation to remove the skin?
• Can the well production be improved by changing out the tubing or installing artificial
lift? Is the cost justified?
• Can the well performance be improved by increasing the perforated interval?
• Can the well performance be improved by lowering the THP or changing out the choke?
• How long will the well produce? Do plans need to be made for artificial lift?
These issues cannot be decided by a production engineer in isolation; it must make economic
sense to increase the production of a single well within the total field plan, taking into
account the capacity of the surface facilities. However, the production engineer can greatly
improve the economic return from a field by continuous monitoring of all wells and remedial
action when the production declines.
The above questions divide into two types: questions about the behaviour of the well in the
short term; and questions about the longterm behaviour of the well. We consider these
separately.
8.8 Shortterm optimisation of well performance
8.8.1 Improved inflow performance
If the well has become impaired then it can be stimulated to improve the inflow performance.
Similarly, inflow performance may be improved by additional perforating. To determine the
increased production from such operations, we analyse what happens downhole. As shown in
Figure 8.15, we draw in the current inflow performance and the improved inflow
performance after the operational treatment. The increase in production can be calculated.
Generally, for such operations, the increased production more than covers the operational
cost.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 82
− q
o,sc
p
wf
new IPR
old IPR
increase
− q
o,sc
p
wf
new IPR
old IPR
increase
Figure 8.15: Increased production due to improved inflow performance.
8.8.2 Changing the tubing or choke size
Increasing, or decreasing, the tubing diameter can improve production. Changing the choke
size can do the same. Analysis of these operations is best done at the tubing head. Changing
out a tubing string is expensive, and generally needs to be justified on a long term basis (see
below). Changing out a choke is a cheap operation. As shown in Figure 8.16, there is a
maximum choke size above which the choke will no longer operate in the critical regime. As
explained in Section 6.6, operation in the critical regime is often preferred because it de
couples the upstream flow behaviour from the downstream behaviour, and thus shields the
well from pressure fluctuations in the production facilities. Associated with the maximum
choke size is a maximum flow rate. Sometimes it is required to bean back a well, i.e. to
reduce the flow rate by installing a smaller choke. A frequently occurring reason for flow
reduction is to prevent or delay water or gas coning, or to reduce the amount of gas or water
produced once the cone has reached the well. As can be seen in Figure 8.16, there is also a
practical minimum choke size, and therefore a minimum flow rate, below which the well will
not produce anymore.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 83
p
fl
1.7 p
fl
p
tf
− q
o,sc
practical minimum choke size
theoretical minimum choke size
maximum choke size
q
min
q
max
p
fl
1.7 p
fl
p
tf
− q
o,sc
practical minimum choke size
theoretical minimum choke size
maximum choke size
q
min
q
max
Figure 8.16: Minimum and maximum choke size.
8.9 Longterm optimisation of well performance
8.9.1 Effect of declining reservoir pressure
Analysis of the effect of declining reservoir pressure is best done downhole, using the intake
performance curve. Assuming the PI remains constant (no impairment) while the reservoir
pressure declines, then as shown in Figure 8.17, the inflow performance curve will move
vertically down the pressure axis with time, but keeping the same slope. The corresponding
reduction in production can be calculated. If the reservoir pressure drops too far, another
(usually smaller) tubing size will need to be installed. By plotting the intake pressure curve
for this tubing on the same figure, it will be possible to see for how long this will extend the
life of the well, and whether the cost is justified in terms of the extra oil recovered.
− q
o,sc
p
wf
IPR
reduction
in reservoir
pressure
reduction in
flow rate
− q
o,sc
p
wf
IPR
reduction
in reservoir
pressure
− q
o,sc
p
wf
IPR
reduction
in reservoir
pressure
reduction in
flow rate
Figure 8.17: Effect of declining reservoir performance on production.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 84
8.9.2 Installation of gas lift
Gas lifting is one of the commonest methods of artificial lift. By injecting extra gas downhole
into the tubing, the fluid column becomes lighter, and the total production is increased. We
have seen in Chapter 5, that there is an optimum GOR which will minimize the pressure drop
over the tubing at a given liquid flow rate; see Figure 6.6. Too much gas increases the
pressure drop because of frictional effects. We therefore expect that for a producing well
there will be an optimum GOR at which we can inject gas to maximize the oil production
rate. This is illustrated in Figure 8.18, which shows the tubing performance curves for
varying GOR.
For low GOR, the THP is below the critical choke pressure which may result in erratic well
performance. Plotting the production rate as a function of GOR shows that as the GOR is
increased, the production increases to a maximum of about 535 bpd, at a GOR of 800. Above
this GOR, the oil production starts to decline again. Moreover, we see that adding lift gas to
the system is initially very efficient, but the efficiency declines as more gas is added. An
increase of 200 scf/stb from 200 to 400 scf/stb gives an increase in production of 325 bpd, but
further increases to 600 and 800 give only an additional 140 or 70 bpd. The additional oil
must be worth more than the cost of injecting the gas. Thus, the economic optimum GOR
may be much lower than 800 scf/stb, the GOR at which the well produces at the maximum
rate.
8.10 Productivity of horizontal wells
The analysis of horizontal well productivity requires, in principle, the same techniques as are
used for wells with a vertical completion over the reservoir interval. However, the flow in the
horizontal section gives additional complications:
• The pressure falls from the ‘toe’ of the well to the ‘heel’. Thus the ‘drawdown’, the
difference between the pressure in the well and the reservoir pressure, varies along the
length of the well. The rate of inflow into the well varies along the well.
1.7 p
fl
GOR 200  5000 scf/stb
5000
3000
2000
1000
800
600
400
200
145 215 325 405 465 490 535
− q
o,sc
(bbl/day)
p
tf
1.7 p
fl
GOR 200  5000 scf/stb
5000
3000
2000
1000
800
600
400
200
145 215 325 405 465 490 535
− q
o,sc
(bbl/day)
p
tf
Figure 8.18: Effect of GOR on the production from a well.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 85
• In both vertical and horizontal wells with long completion intervals, the formation
properties will vary, resulting in different inflow performance at different points of the
well. In uncased holes, and especially uncased horizontal wells, production logging
techniques still need to be developed to detect these differences.
• Horizontal wells flowing a mixture of liquid and gas can exhibit difficult multiphase
flow behaviour. Since the well is not perfectly horizontal, liquid can accumulate in lower
sections of the well, and cause slugging, or shuttingoff of production.
Initial production from horizontal wells is usually high, because the open hole completion
reduces impairment and the long production interval helps the inflow. The longterm
management of horizontal wells may become a problem, when they start to decline in
production or produce water or gas. For more information on horizontal well performance we
refer to the textbooks of Joshi (1991), Economides et al. (1994), and Economides et al.
(1998). For specific information on the effects of horizontal well pressure drop, see Dikken
(1990).
8.11 Related topics that have not been considered in this chapter
• Production from more than one reservoir interval, with different reservoir pressure and
inflow performance.
• Gas well performance.
For information on these topics and for further reading on well performance in general, we
refer to the textbooks of Nind (1964), Golan and Whitson (1991), Economides et al. (1994),
and Economides et al. (1998). The first two books are out of print, but are worth to be looked
for in a library.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 87
Appendix A – SI units and field units
A.1 Conversion factors
To obtain SI units, multiply a quantity given in field units with the conversion factor
specified in Table A.1.
Table A.1: Conversion factors to convert field units to SI units.
Physical quantity Dimension SI units
1)
Field units Conversion factor from
field units to SI units
2)
Area [L
2
] m
2
ft
2
9.290 304 * 10
2
(exact)
m
2
in.
2
6.451 6 * 10
4
(exact)
Compressibility [L m
1
t
2
] Pa
1
psi
1
1.450 377 * 10
4
Density [L
3
m] kg m
3
°API 141.5*10
3
/
(131.5 + °API) (exact)
kg m
3
lbm ft
3
1.601 846 * 10
1
kg m
3
lbm gal
1
1.198 264 * 10
2
Energy [L m
2
t
2
] J cal 4.184 (exact)
Flow rate [L
3
t
1
] m
3
s
1
bpd 1.840 131 * 10
6
m
3
d
1
bpd 1.589 873 * 10
1
m
3
s
1
ft
3
d
1
3.277 413 * 10
7
m
3
d
1
ft
3
d
1
2.831 685 * 10
2
Force [L m t
2
] N lbf 4.448 222
Gasoil ratio (GOR) [] m
3
m
3
ft
3
bbl
1
1.781 076 * 10
1
Length [L] m ft 3.048 * 10
1
(exact)
[L] m in. 2.54 * 10
2
(exact)
Mass [m] kg lbm 4.535 924 * 10
1
Permeability [L
2
] m
2
mD 9.869 233 * 10
16
Power
3)
[L m
2
t
3
] W hp 7.456 999
Pressure
4)
[L
1
m t
2
] Pa psi 6.894 757 * 10
3
Pressure gradient [L
2
m t
2
] Pa m
1
psi ft
1
2.262 059 * 10
4
Productivity Index (PI) [L
4
m
1
t] m
3
s
1
Pa
1
bpd psi
1
2.668 884 * 10
10
m
3
d
1
Pa
1
bpd psi
1
2.305 916 * 10
5
Specific PI [L
3
m
1
t] m
2
s
1
Pa
1
bpd psi
1
ft
1
8.756 182 * 10
10
m
2
d
1
Pa
1
bpd psi
1
ft
1
7.565 341 * 10
5
Surface tension [m t
2
] N m
1
dyne cm
1
1 * 10
3
(exact)
Temperature
5)
[T] K °R
5
/
9
(exact)
°C °F (°F – 32) / 1.8 (exact)
Torque [L m
2
t
2
] N m lbf ft 1.355 818
Velocity [L t
1
] m s
1
ft s
1
3.048 * 10
1
(exact)
Viscosity (dynamic) [L
1
m t
1
] Pa s cp 1.0 * 10
3
(exact)
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 88
Viscosity (kinematic) [L
2
t
1
] m
2
s
1
cSt 1.0 * 10
6
(exact)
Volume [L
3
] m
3
ft
3
2.831 685 * 10
2
m
3
bbl 1.589 873 * 10
1
1)
The expression ‘SI units’ is used loosely to indicate both ‘strict’ SI units and ‘allowable’
units. The ‘strict’ units can be subdivided in the seven ‘base’ SI units (m, kg, s, A, K, mol
and cd) and ‘derived’ SI such as °C, N, or J. The ‘allowable’ SI units are those defined in
SPE (1982) and include d (day) and a (year).
2)
Conversion factors have been taken from SPE (1982).
3)
One hp = 550 ft lbf s
1
.
4)
Pressure in field units can be expressed in psig (gauge pressure) or psia (absolute pressure)
where 0 psig = 14.7 psia. Pressure in SI units is often expressed in bar which is an
‘allowable’ SI unit, where 1 bar = 100 kPa.
5)
Zero K (Kelvin) is absolute zero in Celsius units. Therefore, the temperature expressed in K
equals the temperature expressed in °C + 273.15.
Zero °R (Rankine) is absolute zero in Fahrenheit units. Therefore, the temperature
expressed in °R equals the temperature expressed in °F + 459.67.
A.2 SI prefixes
Table A.2: SI prefixes
Symbol Name Magnitude
n nano 10
9
µ micro 10
6
m mili 10
3
c centi 10
2
d deci 10
1
da deca 10
1
h hecto 10
2
k kilo 10
3
M mega 10
6
G giga 10
9
A.3 Standard conditions
• SI units: 100 kPa and 15 °C. Note: sometimes a standard pressure of 101.325 kPa is used;
see SPE (1982). The difference is negligible for normal production engineering purposes.
• Field units: 14.7 psia and 60 °F.
• Density of air at standard conditions: ρ
air,sc
=1.23 kg m
3
(76.3 * 10
3
lbm ft
3
).
• Density of water at standard conditions: ρ
water,sc
= 999 kg m
3
(62.4 lbm ft
3
or
8.34 lbm gal
1
).
A.4 Force, mass and acceleration of gravity
The relationship between force and mass is given by Newton’s law as “force equals mass
times acceleration”. This can be expressed in SI units as
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 89
F m
d x
dt
=
2
2
, (A.1)
where
F is force, expressed in N,
m is mass, expressed in kg,
x is distance, expressed in m, and
t is time, expressed in s.
This implies that N = kg m s
2
. As a result, a mass of 1 kg experiences an attractive force due
to the earth’s gravitational field, which has a magnitude g = 9. 80665 m s
2
, of
F
grav
= ∗ = 1 9 9 kg 9.80665 m s 80665 kg m s = 80665 N
2 2
. . . (A.2)
Field units, however, have been defined purposely such that a mass of 1 lbm experiences an
attractive force due to the earth’s gravitational field, which has a magnitude g = 32.174 ft s
2
,
of exactly 1 lbf:
2
1
1 lbm 32.174 ft s =1 lbf
32.174
grav
c
F
g
= ∗ ∗
. (A.3)
This simple result in field units for a mass experiencing the acceleration of gravity, leads
however to a more complicated expression for a mass experiencing an arbitrary acceleration.
In that case we should write
F
g
m
d x
dt
c
=
1
2
2
, (A.4)
where
F is force, lbf,
m is mass, lbm,
x is distance, ft,
t is time, s, and
g
c
is a dimensionless constant with magnitude 32.174.
This implies that lbf = g
c
1
lbm ft s
2
. Note that the standard acceleration of gravity is
specified as 9.80665 m s
2
(32.174 ft s
2
). In reality, the acceleration of gravity will show
slight variations with geographical location and altitude.
A.5 Amount of substance and molar mass
In SI units we express the amount of substance in kmol, defined as “the amount of substance
of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are in 12 kg of C
12
”. The
molar mass, which is the official name in the SI system for what used to be known as the
molecular weight, is therefore specified in kg kmol
1
. As a result, an amount of n kmol of
substance with a molar mass M expressed in kg kmol
1
has a mass of n M kg.
In field units, the amount of substance is expressed in lbmmole, which is “the amount of
substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are in 12 lbm of
C
12
”. The molar mass (molecular weight) is expressed accordingly in lbm (lbmmole)
1
. As a
result, an amount of n lbmmole of substance with a molar mass M expressed in lbm (lbm
mole)
1
has a mass of n M lbm.
For gasses, the molar mass M is related to the specific gravity γ
g
and the density under
standard conditions ρ
g,sc
according to
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 90
SI units: M M M
g air
g sc
air
air
g sc
g sc
= = = = γ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
, ,
,
.
. .
kg kmol
1
123
28 97 2355 , (A.5)
field units: M M M
g air
g sc
air
air
g sc
g sc
= = = =
−
γ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
, ,
,
. .
*10
lbm lbm mole
3
76.3
28 97 379 7
1
b g . (A.6)
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 91
Appendix B – Fluid properties and correlations
B.1 Fluid properties
Properties in Table B.1 (in SI units) have been computed from the values in Table B.2 with
the aid of the conversion factors presented in Appendix A which, in turn, were taken from
SPE (1982). Properties in Table B.2 (in field units) have been taken from GPSA (1998).
Table B.1: Reservoir fluid properties in SI units.
At standard conditions
1)
Compound
Molar
mass M
(kg kmol
1
)
Critical
pres. p
c
(10
6
Pa)
Critical
temp. T
c,abs
(K)
Gas
dens. ρ
g,sc
(kg m
3
)
Liquid
dens. ρ
l,sc
(kg m
3
)
N
2
(nitrogen) 28.01 3.40 126.2 1.18 809
2)
CO
2
(carbon dioxide) 44.01 7.37 304.1 1.86 817
3)
H
2
S (hydrogen sulphide) 34.08 8.96 373.4 1.44 801
3)
H
2
O (water) 18.02 22.1 647.1 0.77 999
C
1
H
4
(methane) 16.04 4.60 190.6 0.68 300
4)
C
2
H
6
(ethane) 30.07 4.88 305.4 1.27 356
3)
C
3
H
8
(propane) 44.10 4.24 369.8 1.86 507
3)
C
4
H
10
(isobutane) 58.12 3.64 407.8 2.45 562
3)
C
4
H
10
(nbutane) 58.12 3.78 425.1 2.45 584
3)
C
5
H
12
(isopentane) 72.15 3.38 460.4 3.05 624
C
5
H
12
(npentane) 72.15 3.37 469.7 3.05 631
C
6
H
14
(nhexane) 86.18 3.03 506.4 3.64 663
C
7
H
16
(nheptane) 100.20 2.74 539.2 4.23 687
C
8
H
18
(noctane) 114.23 2.49 568.4 4.82 706
C
9
H
20
(nnonane) 128.26 2.28 594.7 5.42 721
C
10
H
22
(ndecane) 142.29 2.10 617.7 6.00 734
1)
Standard conditions: 100 kPa and 15 °C = 288 K.
2)
Density at the ‘normal boiling point’, i.e. at boiling temperature (78 K) and 100 kPa. The
temperature at standard conditions (288 K) is above the critical temperature (126 K).
3)
Density at saturation pressure (bubble point pressure) and 288 K.
4)
Estimated value. The temperature at standard conditions (288 K) is above the critical
temperature (191 K).
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 92
Table B.2: Reservoir fluid properties in field units.
At standard conditions
1)
Compound
Molar
mass M
(lbm *
lbmmole
1
)
Critical
pres. P
c
(psia)
Critical
temp. T
c
(°F)
Gas
specific
gravity
2)
γ
g
()
Liquid
specific
gravity
3)
γ
l
()
N
2
(nitrogen) 28.01 492.8 232.49 0.9672 0.80940
4)
CO
2
(carbon dioxide) 44.01 1069.5 87.73 1.5196 0.81801
5)
H
2
S (hydrogen sulphide) 34.08 1300. 212.40 1.1767 0.80143
5)
H
2
O (water) 18.02 3200.1 705.11 0.6220 1.00000
C
1
H
4
(methane) 16.04 667.0 116.66 0.5539 (0.3)
6)
C
2
H
6
(ethane) 30.07 707.8 90.07 1.0382 0.35619
5)
C
3
H
8
(propane) 44.10 615.0 205.92 1.5226 0.50698
5)
C
4
H
10
(isobutane) 58.12 527.9 274.41 2.0068 0.56286
5)
C
4
H
10
(nbutane) 58.12 548.8 305.51 2.0068 0.58402
5)
C
5
H
12
(isopentane) 72.15 490.4 368.96 2.4912 0.62441
C
5
H
12
(npentane) 72.15 488.1 385.7 2.4912 0.63108
C
6
H
14
(nhexane) 86.18 439.5 451.8 2.9755 0.66404
C
7
H
16
(nheptane) 100.20 397.4 510.9 3.4598 0.68805
C
8
H
18
(noctane) 114.23 361.1 563.5 3.9441 0.70678
C
9
H
20
(nnonane) 128.26 330.7 610.8 4.4284 0.72193
C
10
H
22
(ndecane) 142.29 304.6 652.2 4.9127 0.73417
1)
Standard conditions: 14.7 psia and 60 °F = 520 °R.
2)
With respect to air which has a density at standard conditions of 0.0763 lbm ft
3
.
3)
With respect to water which has a density at standard conditions of 8.34 lbm ft
3
.
4)
Density at the ‘normal boiling point’, i.e. at boiling temperature (320 °F) and 14.7 psia.
The temperature at standard conditions (60 °F) is above the critical temperature (232 °F).
5)
Density at saturation pressure (bubble point pressure) and 60 °F.
6)
Estimated value. The temperature at standard conditions (60 °F) is above the critical
temperature (117 °F).
Table B.3: Typical reservoir fluid gradients.
Fluid
Density (kg m
3
) Gradient (kPa m
1
) Gradient (psi ft
1
)
Gas 100 – 300 1.0  2.9 0.04  0.13
Oil 800 – 900 7.8  8.8 0.35  0.39
Water 1000 – 1100 9.8  10.8 0.43  0.48
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 93
B.2 Oil correlations
B.2.1 Black oil correlations
Black oil correlations are based on laboratory tests, most of which were performed on crudes
with GOR less then 350 m
3
/m
3
(about 2000 scf/stb). In practice, black oil correlations are
often used above this limit, but with caution. Note that the numerical values in several of
these correlations are not dimensionless. The most widely known black oil correlations are
the ‘Standing correlations’, originally issued in Standing (1947), and Standing (1952). The
expressions below have been taken from Appendix II of the 1977 SPE reissue of Standing
(1952). They have been derived based on data from 22 Californian crudes under conditions
listed in Table B.4. Note: All correlations in this Appendix have been implemented in
MATLAB routines which are available from Blackboard; see the file ‘Fluid properties.zip’.
Table B.4: Conditions used to derive Standing correlations
Property SI units Field units
Bubble point pressure p
b
0.9 – 48.3 * 10
6
Pa
130 – 7000 psia
Temperature T 37 – 125 °C 100 – 258 °F
Producing gasoil ratio R
p
3.5 – 254 m
3
/m
3
20 – 1425 scf/bbl
Oil density ρ
o,sc
or grav. γ
API
725 – 956 kg/m
3
16.5 – 63.8 °API
Gas density ρ
g,sc
or gravity γ
g
0.73 – 1.17 kg/m
3
0.59 – 0.95 (air = 1.00)
B.2.2 Bubble point pressure p
b
Standing’s correlation to compute the bubble point pressure p
b
from the producing gasoil
ratio R
p
of a well is:
,
0.83
0.00164
3
1768
,
716
10
125 10 1.4
10
o sc
T
p
b
g sc
R
p
ρ
ρ
(
 
(
= ∗ −


(
\ .
¸ ¸
. (B.1)
If the actual GOR R
go
is used to compute p
b
with this correlation, the results are only valid if
the gas produced at surface is associated gas. This is the case if the reservoir pressure is
above or at the bubble point pressure p
b
. It may also be the case if the reservoir pressure is
below the bubble point pressure, as long as no gas coning has occurred and the well does not
produce gascap gas.
B.2.3 Solution gasoil ratio R
s
We can now estimate R
s
, the solution gasoil ratio at a pressure p other than the bubble point
pressure of the mixture. If p > p
b
, the oil is undersaturated, all gas is in solution and R
s
= R
p
.
If p ≤ p
b
, the oil is saturated with gas, there is free gas and the pressure p must be the bubble
point pressure of the mixture of oil and stilldissolved gas. Hence R
s
is given by the inverse of
the above Standing correlation, but with pressure p instead of p
b
:
b
p p ≤ :
( )
,
1.2048
1768 0.00164 , 6
8 10 1.4 10
716
o sc
T g sc
s
R p
ρ
ρ
− −
(
= ∗ +
¸ ¸
. (B.2)
B.2.4 Oil formation volume factor B
o
As the pressure changes, the volume it occupies changes due to two effects: compressibility
effects and, much more importantly, changes in the amount of dissolved gas. If p ≤ p
b
, the oil
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 94
is saturated, and the mixture of oil and stilldissolved gas is at its bubble point. We can use
Standing’s correlation for the oil formation volume factor at the bubblepoint pressure:
b
p p ≤ :
( )
1.2
5
, ,
0.9759 12 10 160 2.25 40
o s g sc o sc
B R T ρ ρ
−
(
= + ∗ + +
(
¸ ¸
. (B.3)
If p > p
b
, the oil is undersaturated and all the gas is dissolved. As pressure changes, all
changes are due to changes in density of the mixture; no extra gas is dissolved or comes free.
Hence
b
p p > :
o
ob ob
o
B
B
ρ
ρ
= , (B.4)
where B
ob
and ρ
ob
are the oil formation volume factor and the density of the oil at the bubble
point pressure p
b
, and ρ
o
is the density at pressure p. As was shown in Section 4.4.3, this can
also be written as:
b
p p > : B B c p p
o ob o b
= − − exp b g , (B.5)
where c
o
is the isothermal compressibility of the undersaturated oil. A correlation for c
o
is
given in Section B.2.6 below .
B.2.5 Densities
Using the principle of conservation of mass we can derive that
b
p p ≤ :
, , o sc s g sc
o
o
R
B
ρ ρ
ρ
+
= . (B.6)
The oil density at bubble point conditions, ρ
ob
, can be obtained from equation (B.6) through
substitution of B
o
= B
ob
. At other pressures, above p
b
, the density is given by
b
p p > : ρ ρ
o ob o b
c p p = − exp b g , (B.7)
see equation (4.12) in Section 4.4.3. Substitution of relationship (B.7) in equation (B.4)
recovers relationship (B.5) for B
o
quoted above.
B.2.6 Compressibility
Compressibility is best measured in the laboratory if accurate values are required for the
density or B
o
. Correlations do exist for the compressibility. One of these is given by Vazquez
and Beggs (1980), and has the form
b
p p > :
3
,100 ,
5
2541 27.8 31.0 959 1784*10
10
s g o sc
o
R T
c
p
ρ ρ − + + − +
= , (B.8)
where ρ
g,100
is the gas density measured at a pressure of 689 kPa (100 psig = 114.7 psia). This
pressure was chosen to reflect a typical separator pressure because usually the gas density is
determined from a sample taken from a separator; see Vazquez and Beggs (1980). The
relationship between ρ
g,100
and ρ
g,sep
measured at any other separator pressure p
sep
and
temperature T
sep
is given by
( )
3
5
,100 , 3
,
141.5*10
1 5.912*10 131.5 1.8 32 log
790.8*10
sep
g g sep sep
o sc
p
T ρ ρ
ρ
−
(  
 
= + − +
( 


\ . (
\ . ¸ ¸
. (B.9)
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 95
B.2.7 Viscosity
A commonly used empirical correlation for dead oil is that of Beggs and Robinson (1975). It
can be expressed as
( )
3
10 10 1
a
od
µ
−
= − ,
( )
1.163
10
1.8 32
b
a
T
=
+
,
3
,
2.863 10
5.693
o sc
b
ρ
∗
= − . (B. 119)
A correlation for saturated oil viscosity is also given by Beggs and Robinson (1975) as
( )
0.515
4.4065 17.8
c
o s od
R µ µ
−
(
= +
¸ ¸
, ( )
0.338
3.04 26.7
s
c R
−
= + . (B.11)
These expressions illustrate that the saturated oil viscosity decreases with increasing
temperature and increasing pressure. After reaching the bubble point pressure, however, the
viscosity somewhat increases with increasing pressure. Vazquez and Beggs (1980)
determined the following empirical correlation for undersaturated oil:
d
o ob
b
p
p
µ µ
 
=

\ .
,
( )
5 1.187 8
7.2 10 exp 11.513 1.30 10 d p p
− −
= ∗ − − ∗ . (B.12)
Table B.5 gives an overview of the conditions under which these correlations were derived;
see Beggs and Robinson (1975) and Brill and Mukherjee (1999).
Table B.5: Conditions used to derive viscosity correlations.
Property Equation (B.11),
SI units
Equation(B.11),
field units
Equation (B.12),
SI units
Equation (B.12),
field units
Temperature T 21 – 146 °C 70 – 295 °F
Pressure p
b
0.1 – 36.3 * MPa
15 – 5265 psia
1.0 – 65.6 MPa
141 – 9515 psia
Solution GOR R
s
3.6 – 369 m
3
/m
3
20 – 2070 scf/stb 16 – 392 m
3
/m
3
90 – 2199 scf/stb
Density ρ
o,sc
, γ
API
959 – 747 kg/m
3
16 – 58 °API 966 – 739 kg/m
3
15 – 60 °API
Density ρ
g,sc
, γ
g
0.63 – 1.66 kg/m
3
0.51 – 1.35
Viscosity µ
o
0.12 – 148 mPa s 0.12 – 148 cp
B.2.8 Example 1 – Oil formation volume factor (p < p
b
)
Consider a well that produces oil and gas at the following rates: q
o,sc
= 1000 m
3
d
1
, and q
g,sc
=
200000 m
3
d
1
. The production history shows no indication of gascap gas production. The
density of the oil and gas at standard conditions are given by ρ
o,sc
= 800 kg m
3
and ρ
g,sc
=
0.98, and the reservoir is at pressure and temperature given by p
R
= 20.00 MPa and T
R
= 150
°C.
Question
What is the oil formation volume factor B
o
at reservoir pressure and temperature?
Answer
The producing GOR is given by the actual GOR as
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 96
R R
q
q
p go
g sc
o sc
= = = =
,
,
200000
1000
200 m
3
/m
3
.
With the aid of equation (B.1) we find that the bubble point pressure equals
0.83
0.00164*150
3
1768 800
716*200 10
125 10 1.4 26.1
0.98 10
b
p
(
 
= ∗ − =
(

\ .
(
¸ ¸
MPa,
where T has been taken equal to the reservoir temperature. Because the reservoir pressure is
below the bubble point pressure, we need to compute the solution gasoil ratio R
s
at reservoir
pressure with the aid of equation (B.2):
( )
1.2048
6 6 1768 800 0.00164*150
0.98
8 10 *20.0*10 1.4 10
716
s
R
− −
(
= ∗ +
¸ ¸
= 145 m
3
/m
3
.
The oil formation volume factor now follows from equations (B.3) as:
( )
1.2
5
0.9759 12 10 160*145 0.98 800 2.25*150 40 1.57
o
B
−
(
= + ∗ + + =
¸ ¸
m
3
/m
3
.
Answer with MATLAB
» R_p = 200000/1000
R_p = 200
» p_b = pres_bub_Standing(R_p,0.98,800,150)
p_b = 2.6105e+007
» R_s = gas_oil_rat_Standing(20e6,0.98,800,150)
R_s = 145.4194
» B_o = oil_form_vol_fact_Standing(R_s,0.98,800,150)
B_o = 1.5656
Alternatively, the black oil properties can be computed directly as:
» [B_g,B_o,R_s] = black_oil_Standing(20e6,200,0.98,800,150)
B_g = 0.0068
B_o = 1.5656
R_s = 145.4194
B.2.9 Example 2  Oil formation volume factor (p > p
b
)
Consider the same situation as in Example 1 in Section B.2.8 above, except for the reservoir
pressure which is now given by: p
R
= 40.00 MPa.
Question
What is the oil formation volume factor B
o
at this higher reservoir pressure?
Answer
Because the reservoir pressure is now above the bubble point pressure, the solution gasoil
ratio is equal to the producing gasoil ratio:
R R
s p
= = 200 m
3
/m
3
.
The corresponding oil formation volume factor B
ob
is obtained from equation (B.3) as:
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 97
( )
1.2
5
0.9759 12 10 160*15 0.98 800 2.25*150 40
ob
B
−
(
= + ∗ + +
¸ ¸
= 1.75 m
3
/m
3
.
We can now compute the oil formation volume factor from equation (B.5). This requires that
we first determine the compressibility c
o
from equation (B.8), which, in turn, requires
computation of ρ
g100
from ρ
g,sep
with the aid of equation (B.9). Because ρ
g,sep
is in our
example equal to ρ
g,sc
, we can enter standard conditions in equation (B.9). This leads to
( )
3 3
5
,100 3
141.5*10 100*10
0.98 1 5.912*10 131.5 1.8*15 32 log 0.84
800 790.8*10
g
ρ
−
(    
= + − + =
(  
\ . \ . ¸ ¸
,
3
9
5 6
2541 27.8*200 31.0*150 959*0.84 1784*10 800
2.27*10
10 *40*10
o
c
−
− + + − +
= = Pa
1
,
B
o
= − − =
−
175 2 27 10 40 26 10 170
9 6
. exp . * * . b g m
3
/m
3
.
Answer with MATLAB (continued from previous example)
» B_ob = oil_form_vol_fact_Standing(R_p,0.98,800,150)
B_ob = 1.7515
» rho_g_100 = rho_g_Vazquez_and_Beggs(689e3,0.98,800,15)
rho_g_100 = 0.8407
» c_o = compres_Vazquez_and_Beggs(40e6,R_p,rho_g_100,800,150)
c_o = 2.2732e009
» B_o = oil_form_vol_fact_undersat(B_ob,c_o,40e6,p_b)
B_o = 1.6970
Alternatively, the black oil properties can be computed directly as:
» [B_g,B_o,R_s] = black_oil_Standing(40e6,200,0.98,800,150)
B_g = 0
B_o = 1.6970
R_s = 200
B.2.10 Example 3  Oil viscosity
Consider the same situation as in Example 2 in Section B.2.9 above.
Question
What is the oil viscosity µ
o
at reservoir pressure and temperature?
Answer
With the aid of equations (B. 119) the deadoil viscosity follows as:
3
2.863 10
5.693 2.114
800
b
∗
= − = ,
( )
2.114
1.163
10
0.170
1.8 150 32
a = =
∗ +
,
( )
3 0.170 3
10 10 1 0.48 10 Pa s
od
µ
− −
= − = ∗ .
The oil viscosity at bubble point can then be computed with the aid of equations (B.11) as:
( )
0.338
3.04 200 26.7 0.486 c
−
= + = ,
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 98
( ) ( )
0.486
0.515
3 3
4.4065 200 17.8 0.48 10 6.7 10 Pa s
ob
µ
−
− −
(
= + ∗ = ∗
¸ ¸
,
and the viscosity at reservoir pressure with equation (B.12) as:
( ) ( )
1.187
5 6 8 6
7.2 10 40 10 exp 11.513 1.30 10 40 10 0.45 d
− −
= ∗ ∗ − − ∗ ∗ ∗ = ,
0.45
6
3 3
6
40 10
6.7 10 8.1 10 Pa s
26.1 10
o
µ
− −
  ∗
= ∗ = ∗

∗
\ .
.
Answer with MATLAB
» mu_od = oil_visc_dead_B_and_R(800,150)
mu_od = 4.7851e004
» mu_ob = oil_visc_sat_B_and_R(mu_od,200)
mu_ob = 0.0067
» mu_o = oil_visc_undersat_V_and_B(mu_ob,40e6,26.1e6)
mu_o = 0.0081
Alternatively, the oil viscosity can be computed directly as:
» mu_o = oil_viscosity(40e6,200,0.98,800,150)
mu_o = 0.0081
B.3 Gas correlations
B.3.1 Pseudo properties
The concepts of critical pressure and temperature are exactly defined for single components.
However, for mixtures the concepts are approximations, as indicated by the use of the terms
pseudocritical pressure and temperature. We can use the Sutton (1985) correlations to
estimate the pseudocritical properties as function of the gas density:
3 3 3 2
, ,
2
, ,
5218*10 734*10 16.4*10 ,
94.0 157.9 27.2 .
pc g sc g sc
pc g sc g sc
p
T
ρ ρ
ρ ρ
¦ = − −
¦
´
= + −
¦
¹
(B.13)
Note that the pseudocritical temperature is expressed in K. If a compositional description of
the mixture is available, the pseudocritical properties can be determined more accurately
with the aid of mixing rules. For further information, consult the references mentioned in
Section 4.2.
The dimensionless pseudoreduced pressure p
pr
and pseudoreduced temperature T
pr
are
defined as:
p
p
p
pr
pc
= ,
abs
pr
pc
T
T
T
= . (B.14)
B.3.2 Density
For single phase gas flow the gas density follows directly from the nonideal gas law as
ρ
ρ
ρ
g
g sc
g
g sc
sc abs sc
sc abs
B
pT Z
p T Z
= =
,
,
,
. (B.15)
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 99
In the black oil model, where it is assumed that the gas composition does not change with
pressure and temperature, the same expression can be used for the gas density in the two
phase region.
B.3.3 Viscosity
A well known correlation for gas viscosity was presented in graphical form by Carr,
Kobayashi and Burrows (1954). A numerical approximation of this correlation was given by
Dempsey (1965) and can be represented in two steps as
( ) ( )
,
, ,
sc
g pr pr g p
f p T M T µ µ = ∗ , (B.16)
where
( )
( ) ( )
2 3 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
2 2 3 3 2 3
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1
exp ,
pr pr pr pr pr pr pr
pr
pr pr pr pr pr pr pr pr
a a p a p a p T a a p a p a p
f
T
T a a p a p a p T a a p a p a p
(
+ + + + + + +
(
=
(
+ + + + + + + +
¸ ¸
(B.17)
with dimensionless coefficients as given in Table B.6. The variable
,
sc
g p
µ is the viscosity at
atmospheric pressure for which the correlation can be expressed as
2 2 2 2 2 2
, 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
sc
g p
b bT b T b M b TM b T M b M b TM b T M µ = + + + + + + + + , (B.18)
with dimensional coefficients that are also given in Table B.6. The relationship between the
molar mass M, the gas density ρ
g,sc
and the gas specific gravity γ
g
was given in equations
(A.5) and (A.6). Correlations (B.16) to (B.18) are valid for the following ranges of parameter
values:
( ) ( )
1.0 20 , 1.2 3.0 , 16 110 , 4 C 40 F 204 C 400 F
pr pr
p T M T ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤
. (B.19)
The Dempsey (1965) approximations have been programmed in MATLAB routines with which
Figures B.1 and B.2 were produced. The graphs are slightly different from the original graphs
in Karr, Kobayashi and Burrows (1954), but are accurate enough for most production
engineering calculations. In case of the presence of nonhydrocarbon components in the gas,
correction factors are needed for the computation of the viscosity at atmospheric pressure.
We refer to the original publication of Karr, Kobayashi and Burrows (1954) for further
information.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 100
Table B.6: Coefficients for the Dempsey (1965) approximation of the Carr, Kobayashi
and Burrows (1954) gas viscosity correlation.
Coefficient Value Coefficient Value
a
0
2.46211820 * 10
00
a
13
1.86408848 * 10
01
a
1
2.97054714 * 10
00
a
14
2.03367881 * 10
02
a
2
2.86264054 * 10
01
a
15
6.09579263 * 10
04
a
3
8.05420522 * 10
03
a
4
2.80860949 * 10
00
b
0
1.11231913 * 10
05
a
5
3.49803305 * 10
00
b
1
3.01907887 * 10
08
a
6
3.60373020 * 10
01
b
2
6.84808007 * 10
12
a
7
1.04432413 * 10
02
b
3
1.09485050 * 10
07
a
8
7.93385684 * 10
01
b
4
1.15256951 * 10
10
a
9
1.39643306* 10
00
b
5
2.91397349 * 10
13
a
10
1.49144925 * 10
01
b
6
4.57735189 * 10
10
a
11
4.41015512 * 10
03
b
7
3.83226102 * 10
13
a
12
8.39387178 * 10
02
b
8
1.28865249 * 10
15
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
x 10
5
G
a
s
v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
µ
g
,
p
s
c
,
P
a
s
Molar mass M, kg kmol
1
Temperature T, °C
200
180
160
140
100
120
40
60
80
20
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
x 10
5
G
a
s
v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
µ
g
,
p
s
c
,
P
a
s
Molar mass M, kg kmol
1
Temperature T, °C
200
180
160
140
100
120
40
60
80
20
Figure B.1: Gas viscosity at atmospheric pressure. The graph is based on the Dempsey
(1965) approximation of the Carr, Kobayashi and Burrows (1954) correlation.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 101
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
G
a
s
v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
r
a
t
i
o
µ
g
/
µ
g
,
p
s
c
,
–
20
Pseudoreduced temperature T
pr
, –
15
10
8
6
4
3
1
2
Pseudoreduced pressure p
pr
, –
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
G
a
s
v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
r
a
t
i
o
µ
g
/
µ
g
,
p
s
c
,
–
20
Pseudoreduced temperature T
pr
, –
15
10
8
6
4
3
1
2
Pseudoreduced pressure p
pr
, –
Figure B.2: Gas viscosity ratio. The graph is based on the Dempsey (1965) approximation of
the Carr, Kobayashi and Burrows (1954) correlation.
B.3.4 Z factor
B.3.5.1 StandingKatz correlation
The widely accepted correlation for the gas compressibility factor (Z factor) for a nonideal
gas or gas mixture was presented by Standing and Katz (1942) in graphical form. Various
numerical approximations have been developed over time, and an overview is presented in
Takacs (1976). Below we reproduce the approximation by Dranchuk and AbuKasem (1975)
which is given in the form of an implicit function in terms of Z:
f Z Z b Z b Z b Z b Z b Z b Z b g c h c h
= − − + − + − − =
− − − − − −
1
1
2
2
3
5
4
2
6
4
5
2
10 0 exp . , (B.20)
where
b c a
a
T
a
T
a
T
a
T
b c a
a
T
a
T
b c a
a
T
a
T
b c
a
T
b c a b b b
pr pr pr pr pr pr
pr pr pr
1 1
2 3
3
4
4
5
5 2
2
6
7 8
2
3
5
9
7 8
2 4
2 10
3 5
2
11 6 4 5
= + + + +
F
H
G
I
K
J
= + +
F
H
G
I
K
J
= +
F
H
G
I
K
J
= = =
, ,
, , , .
(B.21)
Here, a
1
to a
11
are coefficients as specified in Table B.7, and c is a function of the
dimensionless pseudoreduced pressure and temperature:
c
p
T
pr
pr
= 0 27 . . (B.22)
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 102
Table B.7: Coefficients for
Dranchuk and AbuKassem
(1975) approximation.
Coefficient Value
a
1
0.3265
a
2
1.0700
a
3
0.5339
a
4
0.01569
a
5
0.05165
a
6
0.5475
a
7
0.7361
a
8
0.1844
a
9
0.1056
a
10
0.6134
a
11
0.7210
B.3.5.2 Numerical implementation
Because equation (B.20) is implicit in Z it needs to be solved iteratively, e.g. with a Newton
Raphson algorithm which we can write as (see Appendix C):
Z Z
f Z
f Z
k k
k
k
b g b g
b g
b g
+
= −
′
1
. (B.23)
Here k is the iteration counter, and f′(Z) is the derivative of f(Z) with respect to Z given by
′ = + + − + − + − −
− − − − − − − −
f Z b Z b Z b Z b Z b b Z b Z b b Z b Z b g c h c h
1 2 5 2 2 4 2
1
2
2
3
3
6
4
3
4 5
5
6
5
5 6
7
5
2
exp .
(B.24)
A convenient starting value for Z is provided by the explicit approximation of Papay quoted
in Takacs (1976) as:
Z
p
T
p
T
pr
pr
pr
pr
= − + 1
352
10
0 274
10
0 9813
2
0 8157
. .
. .
. (B.25)
Equation (B.23) can then be used to obtain improved approximations to the desired accuracy.
The Dranchuk and AbuKasem approximation to the Standing and Katz correlation has been
programmed in a MATLAB file ‘Z_factor_DAK.m’. The range of validity for the
approximation is
0 2 30 105 30 . . . , ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ p T
pr pr
and (B.26)
which is sufficient for most applications. Figures B.3.a and B.3.b have been generated with
the MATLAB routine, and they closely mimic the original graphical Zfactor chart as presented
in Standing and Katz (1942).
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 103
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00
Pseudoreduced pressure p
pr
, –
Pseudoreduced temperature T
pr
, –
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y
f
a
c
t
o
r
Z
,
–
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00
Pseudoreduced pressure p
pr
, –
Pseudoreduced temperature T
pr
, –
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y
f
a
c
t
o
r
Z
,
–
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00
Pseudoreduced pressure p
pr
, –
Pseudoreduced temperature T
pr
, –
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y
f
a
c
t
o
r
Z
,
–
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.80
2.40
2.00
1.80
1.60
1.45
1.35
1.25
1.20
3.00
2.60
2.20
1.90
1.70
1.50
1.40
1.30
1.15
1.10
1.05
Pseudoreduced pressure p
pr
, –
Pseudoreduced temperature T
pr
, –
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y
f
a
c
t
o
r
Z
,
–
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.80
2.40
2.00
1.80
1.60
1.45
1.35
2.80
2.40
2.00
1.80
1.60
1.45
1.35
1.25
1.20
3.00
2.60
2.20
1.90
1.70
1.50
1.40
1.30
1.15
1.10
1.05
Pseudoreduced pressure p
pr
, –
Pseudoreduced temperature T
pr
, –
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y
f
a
c
t
o
r
Z
,
–
Figure B.3 a) and b). Compressibility factor Z as function of pseudoreduced pressure p
pr
and pseudo reduced temperature T
pr
. The graph is based on the Dranchuk and Abu Kassem
(1975) approximation of the Standing and Katz (1942) correlation.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 104
B.3.5 Example 4  Gas properties
Consider the same situation as in Example 1 in Section B.2.8 above.
Question
What are the gas formation volume factor B
g
and the gas viscosity µ
g
at reservoir pressure and
temperature?
Answer
With the aid of the Sutton correlations (B.13) we find the pseudocritical properties of the
fluid as
3 3 3 2 6
2
,
5218*10 734*10 *0.98 16.4*10 *0.98 =4.48*10 Pa,
94.0 157.9*0.98 27.2*0.98 =223 K .
pc
pc abs
p
T
= − −
= + −
The pseudoreduced pressure and temperature at the reservoir follow as
p
p
p
T
T
T
R pr
R
pc
R pr
R
pc
, ,
*
. *
.
.
. = = = = =
+
=
20 10
4 48 10
4 46
150 27315
223
190
6
6
and .
With the aid of the StandingKatz chart in Figure B.3 we find for the compressibility factor,
Z = 0.93, and with the aid of equation (4.7) for the gas formation volume factor:
B
g
=
+
+
=
−
100 10 150 27315 0 93
20 10 15 27315 100
68 10
3
6
3
* *( . ) * .
* *( . ) * .
. * m
3
/m
3
.
The molar mass of the gas follows from equation (A.5) as
1
23.55 0.98 23.08 kg kmol M = ∗ = .
With the aid of Figures (B.1) and (B.2) we now find for the gas viscosity at atmospheric
pressure:
5
,
1.3 10
sc
g p
µ
−
= ∗ Pa s, and for the viscosity ratio: f = 1.4. The viscosity at reservoir
pressure then follows with equation (B.16) as:
5 5
1.4 1.3 10 1.8 10 Pa s
g
µ
− −
= ∗ ∗ = ∗ .
Answers with MATLAB
Gas formation volume factor:
» p_pc = pres_pseu_crit_Sutton(0.98)
p_pc = 4.4829e+006
» T_pc = temp_pseu_crit_Sutton(0.98)
T_pc = 222.6191
» p_R_pr = 20e6 / p_pc
p_R_pr = 4.4614
» T_R_pr = (150 + 273.15) / T_pc
T_R_pr = 1.9008
» Z = Z_factor_DAK(p_R_pr,T_R_pr)
Z = 0.9284
» B_g = gas_form_vol_fact(20e6,150+273.15,Z)
B_g = 0.0068
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 105
Gas viscosity:
» M = from_kg_per_m3_to_molar_mass(0.98)
M = 23.0790
» mu_g_p_sc = gas_visc_atm_Dempsey(M,150)
mu_g_p_sc = 1.3516e005
» f = gas_visc_ratio_Dempsey(p_R_pr,T_R_pr)
f = 1.3732
» mu_g = f * mu_g_p_sc
mu_g = 1.8561e005
Alternatively, the gas viscosity can be computed directly as:
» mu_g = gas_viscosity(20e6,0.98,150)
mu_g = 1.8561e005
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 107
Appendix C – Numerical methods
C.1 Root finding
C.1.1 NewtonRaphson iteration
Consider a function f(x) = 0 that has at least one root (zero value) in the interval D = (∞, ∞);
see Figures C.1a to C.1d. We assume that the function is implicit, i.e. we assume that it is not
possible to obtain an explicit expression for the value of x that makes f(x) equal to zero.
Therefore we need an iterative procedure to approximate the root. We require that f(x) has a
continuous first and second derivative, which implies that the first derivative is smooth and
uniquely defined for each value of x ∈ D. We start the iteration with a first guess x
0
. To
improve the estimate we compute the slope of f(x), i.e. the derivative f′(x), in x = x
0
, which
can also be expressed as:
f(x)
x
x
0
x
1
f(x)
x x
0
x
1
α
a)
f(x)
x x
0 b)
c)
Figure C.1: a) Principle of Newton Raphson iteration; b) Convergence failure caused by a
zero value of the derivative in x
0
; c) Convergence failure caused by an endless loop.
′ = =
−
f x
f x
x x
0
0
1 0
b g
b g
tanα , (C.1)
where α and x
1
have been defined in Figure C1a. This expression can be rewritten as
x x
f x
f x
1 0
0
0
= −
′
b g
b g
, (C.2)
which gives us a new estimate x
1
for the root. This procedure is called NewtonRaphson
iteration, and can be generalized by writing
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 108
x x
f x
f x
k k
k
k
+
= −
′
1
b g
b g
, (C.3)
where k is an iteration counter. Expression (C.3) can then be applied until the difference
(x
k+1
– x
k
) has been reduced to below a specified value.
C.1.2 Convergence control
Convergence of the NewtonRaphson process is usually very fast if the initial estimate is
close enough to the root. However, the process may get in trouble in several situations. It
obviously fails for values of f′(x) equal to zero; see Figures C.1b. A more subtle breakdown
occurs when the root is located closely to a change in sign of the first derivative, in which
case the process may end up in an endless loop; see Figure C.1c. Another type of problem
may occur if f(x) has multiple roots in D, in which case the process may convergence to a
root that was not intended to be found. Various controls on the iteration process may be
introduced to counteract these problems, e.g. a maximum allowed change in x in each
iteration step, or restarting the process with a reduced change in x when the iteration fails to
converge in a predefined number of steps. Prior inspection of the nature of the function f(x)
before using the Newton Raphson process may help to reduce the chance on convergence
problems.
C.2 Differential equations
C.2.1 Initial value problems
All steadystate pressure drop equations for pipeline or wellbore flow, such as e.g. equations
(5.19) or (5.27), can be expressed as
( ) ,
dp
g s p
ds
= , (C.4)
where g is a known nonlinear function of s and p. Equation (C.4) is a firstorder differential
equation that needs one boundary condition specifying a certain value ˆ p for the pressure at a
certain point ˆ s along the pipeline or the well:
( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ : s s p s p = = . (C.5)
To obtain the pressure p at any point along the pipeline we can integrate equation (C.4)
starting from boundary condition (C.5)
( )
ˆ
ˆ ,
s
s
p p g s p ds = +
∫
. (C.6)
This kind of equations is often used to describe problems that depend on time (instead of on
distance s as in our case), in which case the boundary condition is usually specified at the
start of the time interval. Therefore the boundary condition is often referred to as an initial
condition, and the problems as an initial value problem.
C.2.2 Numerical integration
Generally, the integral in equation (C.6) can not be solved analytically, and needs to be
evaluated through numerical integration. The most simple approach is to discretise equation
(C.4) by replacing the difference dp/ds by a differential ∆p/∆s and to rewrite the result as:
( ) , p g s p s ∆ ≈ ∆ . (C.7)
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 109
This gives us an algorithm to compute an approximate new value p
k+1
at s
k+1
from a known
value p
k
at s
k
:
( )
1
,
k k k k k
p p p p g s p s
+
= + ∆ ≈ + ∆ . (C.8)
where ∆s = s
k+1
– s
k
and g(s
k
,p
k
) is a shorthand notation to indicate the evaluation of function
g(s,p) at s = s
k
. More formally, the same result is obtained by using a Taylor expansion for p
at s
k
:
( )
2
2
1 2
1
2
k k
k
k
dp d p
p p s s
ds ds
+
(
(
= + ∆ + ∆ +
(
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
… , (C.9)
and maintaining only the firstorder term. This also illustrates that the truncation error in
equation (C.8), which is known as an explicit firstorder Euler scheme, is of the order of
(∆s)
2
.
Although conceptually very simple, the firstorder Euler scheme is not very efficient for use
in wellbore flow calculations, and alternative algorithms, with a much smaller error for the
same stepsize, should be applied. A popular class of integration algorithms are the Runge
Kutta routines which use multiple evaluations of the function g(s,p) on the interval ∆s,
instead of only a single evaluation at the beginning of the interval as in the firstorder Euler
scheme. Especially in combination with an automated strategy to adapt the stepsize in order
to achieve a predefined accuracy they are very powerfull. Many other schemes have been
developed that may have a superior computational performance or accuracy depending on the
nature of the function g(s,p). For more information, consult one of the many available
textbooks on numerical analysis, e.g. Hoffmann (1992). For our purpose the 4
th
order Runge
Kutta scheme with variable stepsize that is readily available in MATLAB provides a fitfor
purpose solution.
A simple check on the accuracy of the numerical integration of wellbore or pipeline pressure
drop computations can be made by repeating the integration in the opposite direction. For
example, after computing the flowing THP through ‘bottomup’ integration starting from a
known flowing BHP, the flowing BHP is recalculated through ‘topdown’ integration starting
from the flowing THP. The difference between the two BHP values forms a good indication
of the accuracy of the numerical integration. Typically a difference of less than a percent of
the total pressure drop would be acceptable, although often a much better performance can be
achieved. Note, however, that although a small difference is a necessary condition, it is not a
sufficient one.
C.2.3 MATLAB implementation
The 4
th
order Runge Kutta routine with variable stepsize in MATLAB is named ode45. To
compute a pressure p = p
out
, at s = s
out
starting from a known value p = ˆ
in
p at s = ˆ
in
s the
following commands can be used:
» interval = [s_in,s_out];
» boundcon = p_in;
» options = [];
» [s,p] = ode45('g_dpds',interval,boundcon,options,p1,p2);
» n = length(p);
» p_out = p(n)
The variable options is a dummy variable that is required in the argument list of ode45 but
that we do not use. The variable 'g_dpds' (between quotes) that forms the first element of the
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 110
argument list is the name of the userdefined MATLAB function (mfile) that defines the
function g(s,p). It is called many times by ode45 during the RungeKutta integration. The
function most likely requires various parameters, which can be passed via the argument list
after options; here we used p1 and p2 as examples. The function would typically look
something like:
function dpds = g_dpds(s,p,flag,p1,p2)
%
% Userdefined function to compute the derivative dp/ds.
%
% dpds = pressure gradient, Pa/m
% flag = dummy variable, 
% p = pressure, Pa
% p1 = parameter, 
% p2 = parameter, 
% s = alonghole coordinate, m
%
dpds = ...;
The three dots on the last line should be replaced by the appropriate function definition in
terms of s, p, p1 and p2. The first two elements of the argument list in the function header
contain the independent and dependent variables s and p. The dummy variable flag is not
used but has to be present as the third element of the argument list. Thereafter follow the
parameters. Note that the arguments in the calling sequence of ode45 are not identical to
those in the header of g_dpds.
The output of ode45 consists of a two column vectors with values of the indpendent and the
dependent variables (here s and p) for regularly spaced values of s. The last element of
vector p is the required output pressure p_out.
It is possible to integrate a system of first order differential equations, rather than a single
equation, in the same fashion. This only requires that the dependent variable and the function
definition are defined as vectors instead of scalars. We make use of this feature to compute
the individual contributions of gravity, friction and accelleration losses to the total pressure
drop in a well bore. For example, the function 'gas_dpds' has the following header:
function dpds = gas_dpds(s,p,flag,...)
where the dots indicate parameters. Now, dpds is a fourelement vector defined as:
dpds = [dpds_tot;dpds_grav;dpds_fric;dpds_acc],
while the variable p in the argument list is also a vector, defined as
p = [p_tot;p_grav;p_fric;p_acc].
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 111
Appendix D  Answers to exercises
D.1 Answers for Chapter 1  Introduction
1.1 Oil rate: 12000 * 1.840 * 10
6
= 0.022 m
3
s
1
.
Gas rate: 1500 * 12000 * 2.831 * 10
2
/ (24 * 3600) = 5.9 m
3
s
1
.
Oil density: 141.5 * 10
3
/ (131.5 + 38) = 835 kg m
3
.
Gas density: 0.82 * 1.23 = 1.0 kg m
3
.
» from_bpd_to_m3_per_s(12000)
ans = 0.0221
» from_ft3_per_d_to_m3_per_s(1500*12000)
ans = 5.8993
» from_deg_API_to_kg_per_m3(38)
ans = 834.8083
» from_gas_grav_to_kg_per_m3(0.82)
ans = 1.0086
1.2 Molar mass of C
1
= 16.043 and of CO
2
= 44.010.
Total mass: 1* 16.043 + 0.3 * 44.010 = 29.25 lbm.
Mass: 4.536 * 10
1
* 29.25 = 13.27 kg.
Temperature: 83 * 5/9 = 46.1 K.
Pressure: (30 + 14.7) * 6.895 * 10
3
= 308 kPa.
» from_lbm_to_kg(29.25)
ans = 13.2676
» from_deg_R_to_K(83)
ans = 46.1111
» from_psi_to_Pa(30 + 14.7)
ans = 3.0820e+005
1.3 Pressure = density * gravity * depth + atmospheric pressure
= (1.03 * 999) * 9.807 * 2000 + 0.10 = 20.18 * 10
6
Pa.
Pressure in psi: 20.18 * 10
6
/ (6.895 * 10
3
) = 2927 psia.
» from_kg_per_m3_to_Pa_per_m(from_liq_grav_to_kg_per_m3(1.03)) *
2000 + 0.1
ans = 2.0181e+007
» from_Pa_to_psi(2.0181e7)
ans = 2.9270e+003
1.4 Step 1: Leave the formula in its original form, i.e. expressed in field variables, but enter
the variables in SI units divided by their corresponding fieldtoSI conversion factors as
given in Table A.1.
( )
( )
2
3
2
3 1 1
2 3 2
(Pa) (kg m ) (m s)
288*32.174*
6.895*10 1.602*10 3.048*10
lbf/in lbm/ft
ft/s
p v
C
ρ
−
∆  
=

\ .
.
Step 2: Solve for ∆p and combine all numerical factors:
∆p v C = ρ
2 2
2
c h
.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 112
D.2 Answers for Chapter 2 – Production system modelling
2.1 Refer to equation (2.1) and Table 2.1. The power flow through the motor equals 300 *
16 = 4800 W. Because the motor is only 90% effective, the power flow through the shaft
equals 0.9 ∗ 4800 = 4320 W. The shaft of the motor rotates with 240 rpm = 240 ∗ 2π / 60
= 25.1 rad/s. The torque is therefore 4320 / 25.1 = 172 Nm. The reduction gear has an
efficiency of 98 %, so the remaining power flow to the pump is 0.98 ∗ 4320 = 4234 W.
The pump creates a pressure differential of 160 ∗ 10
3
Pa at a flow rate of 22 ∗ 10
3
m
3
/s.
The power flow at the liquid end of the pump is therefore 160 ∗ 10
3
* 22 ∗ 10
3
= 3520
W. The efficiency of the pump now follows as 3520 / 4234 ∗ 100 % = 83 %.
D.3 Answers for Chapter 3 – Optimisation objectives and constraints
3.1 Using equation (3.4) we find for the discounted value after 5 years:
( ) ( )
6
6
5
10 10
7.13 10 $
1 /100 1 7 /100
disc n
disc
S
S
R
∗
= = = ∗
+ +
.
For n =10 we find S
disc
= 5.08∗10
6
$, and for n = 20 we find S
disc
= 2.58∗10
6
$.
» discount(10e6,5,7)
ans = 7.1299e+006
» discount(10e6,10,7)
ans = 5.0835e+006
» discount(10e6,20,7)
ans = 2.5842e+006
3.2 See MATLAB output below. Note that with a 15% discount rate the NPV becomes
negative.
» cash flow = [5.3,1.2,1.8,3.9,2.5,1.4]
cash flow = 5.3000 1.2000 1.8000 3.9000 2.5000 1.4000
» compute_NPV(cashflow,0)
cashflow_disc = 5.3000 1.2000 1.8000 3.9000 2.5000 1.4000
ans = 3.1000
» compute_NPV(cashflow,15)
cashflow_disc = 4.6087 0.9074 1.1835 2.2298 1.2429 0.6053
ans = 0.2545
3.3 The discounted reduction in CAPEX for the ML wells is depicted in Table D.1 where the
discount was calculated according to:
1
1.15
n
disc
C C
 
∆ = ∆ ∗

\ .
,
where
∆C
disc
is the discounted differential CAPEX
∆C is the differential CAPEX,
n is time in project years.
For two wells the production is one year delayed which implies
• a small loss of production at the end of the project which can be quantified as
2 ∗ –0.10 = –0.20 million $, and, much more importantly,
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 113
• an additional oneyear discount on the total production of the two wells (minus the
contribution from the last year) which can be quantified as
2 ∗ (56.58 /1.15) – 2* 56.58 = 98.40 – 113.16 = –14.76 million $.
The total differential cumulative discounted cash flow (differential NPV) is therefore:
differential cashin – differential cashout = (– 0.20 – 14.76) – (–8.30) = –6.66 million $.
The project team therefore has a point that the decreased expenditure for the ML wells is
more than offset by the reduced income caused by delayed production. However, a better
solution would be to drill the first two wells conventionally, and then replace well 4 to
10 by ML wells. This would give the benefit of reduced expenditure for 8 out of the 10
wells, without suffering a delay in first oil.
Note that this analysis did not take into account that ML wells are technically more
complex. The increased risk of overspending and delays should be taken into account in
the decision.
Table D.1: Differential expenditure
Year Expenditure
conventional
wells
(10
6
$)
Expenditure
ML wells
(10
6
$)
Differential
expenditure
(10
6
$)
Discounted
differential
expenditure
(10
6
$)
1 10 0 10 8.70
2 20 24 4 3.02
3 20 16 4 2.63
Total 50 40 10 8.30
3.4 The optimal moment to change out the larger tubing is in year 6. The corresponding
cashflow calculation is given in Table D.2 below. Although in this case the discounted
NPV is somewhat lower than the undiscounted NPV, it is very attractive to start
producing through the larger tubing. Only at an oil price as low as 3 $/bbl, the
differential NPV becomes negative.
Table D.2: Differential NPV calculation.
Time
(year)
Differential
production
rate (bpd)
Differential
annual
revenue ($)
Differential
annual
expenses ($)
Differential
annual cash
flow ($)
Discounted
differential
annual cash
flow ($)
1 140 766,500 50,000 563,200 502,857
2 140 766,500 0 613,200 488,839
3 140 766,500 0 613,200 436,464
4 105 574,875 0 459,900 292,275
5 0 0 0 0 0
6 0 800,000 800,000 405,305
525 2,874,375 850,000 1,449,500 1,315,130
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 114
D.4 Answers for Chapter 4 – Properties of reservoir fluids
4.1 The reservoir is below the bubble point pressure and therefore we can use Standing
correlation (B.2) to calculate the solution GOR:
( )
1.2048
6 6 1768 910 0.00164 76
1.11
8 10 17 10 1.4 10 90.5
716
s
R
− − ∗
(
= ∗ ∗ ∗ + =
¸ ¸
m
3
/m
3
.
» R_s = gas_oil_rat_Standing(17e6,1.11,910,76)
R_s = 90.5408
4.2 The gas specific gravity at surface, i.e. at standard conditions, is
,
1.11
0.90
1.23
g sc
g
air
ρ
γ
ρ
= = = kg/m
3
.
The gas density just above the gas cap, i.e. at reservoir conditions, can be found with the
aid of equation (B.15). For that, we first need to calculate the gas deviation factor Z as
follows. With the aid of the Sutton correlations (B.13) we find the pseudocritical
properties of the fluid as
3 3 3 2 6
2
,
5218 10 734 10 1.11 16.4 10 1.11 =4.38 10 Pa,
94.0 157.9 1.11 27.2 1.11 =236 K .
pc
pc abs
p
T
= ∗ − ∗ ∗ − ∗ ∗ ∗
= + ∗ − ∗
The pseudoreduced pressure and temperature at the reservoir follow as
6
, , 6
17*10 76 273.15
3.88 and 1.48
4.38*10 236
R R
R pr R pr
pc pc
p T
p T
p T
+
= = = = = = .
With the aid of the StandingKatz chart in Figure B.3 we find for the compressibility
factor, Z = 0.76, and with the aid of equation (B.15):
6
, 3
17 10 (15 273.15) 1.00
1.11 205
100 10 (76 273.15) 0.76
g R
ρ
∗ ∗ + ∗
= ∗ =
∗ ∗ + ∗
kg/m
3
.
» p_pc = pres_pseu_crit_Sutton(1.11)
p_pc = 4.3831e+006
» T_pc = temp_pseu_crit_Sutton(1.11)
T_pc = 235.7559
» p_R_pr = 17e6 / p_pc
p_R_pr = 3.8786
» T_R_pr = (76 + 273.15) / T_pc
T_R_pr = 1.4810
» Z = Z_factor_DAK(p_R_pr,T_R_pr)
Z = 0.7637
» B_g = gas_form_vol_fact(17e6,76+273.15,Z)
B_g = 0.0054
» rho_g_R = 1.11 / B_g
rho_g_R = 203.9255
4.3 Consult examples 3 and 4 in Sections B.2.10 and B.3.5 of Appendix B for the principles
of the hand calculation. The reservoir pressure is above the bubble point pressure and
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 115
therefore the oil is undersaturated. We find for the viscosities
3
21 10
o
µ
−
= ∗ , and
6
25 10 Pa s
g
µ
−
= ∗ .
With MATLAB we find for the oil viscosity:
» mu_od = oil_visc_dead_B_and_R(910,76)
mu_od = 0.0070
» R_p = gas_oil_rat_Standing(19.5e6,1.11,910,76)
R_p = 106.6472
» mu_ob = oil_visc_sat_B_and_R(mu_od,R_p)
mu_ob = 0.0206
» mu_o = oil_visc_undersat_V_and_B(mu_ob,22e6,19.5e6)
mu_o = 0.0213
Alternatively, the oil viscosity can be computed more directly as:
» mu_o = oil_viscosity(22e6,R_p,1.11,910,76)
mu_o = 0.0213
The MATLAB results for the gas viscosity are:
» M = from_kg_per_m3_to_molar_mass(1.11)
M = 26.1405
» mu_g_p_sc = gas_visc_atm_Dempsey(M,76)
mu_g_p_sc = 1.1148e005
» p_pc = pres_pseu_crit_Sutton(1.11)
p_pc = 4.3831e+006
» T_pc = temp_pseu_crit_Sutton(1.11)
T_pc = 235.7559
» p_R_pr = 22e6 / p_pc
p_R_pr = 5.0193
» T_R_pr = (76 + 273.15) / T_pc
T_R_pr = 1.4810
» f = gas_visc_ratio_Dempsey(p_R_pr,T_R_pr)
f = 2.1619
» mu_g = f * mu_g_p_sc
mu_g = 2.4101e005
Alternatively, also the gas viscosity can be computed directly as:
» mu_g = gas_viscosity(22e6,1.11,76)
mu_g = 2.4101e005
4.4 We can use the Vazquez and Beggs correlation (B.8) to calculate c
o
. However, we first
need expression (B.9) to convert the gas density ρ
g,sc
to the density at the reference
separator pressure ρ
g,100
, which was used to derive correlation (B.8). The values for p
sep
and T
sep
are in our case simply the standard conditions p
sep
= 100 kPa and T
sep
= 15 °C:
( )
3 3
5
,100 3
141.5*10 100*10
1.11 1 5.912*10 131.5 1.8*15 32 log 1.03
910 790.8*10
g
ρ
−
(    
= + − + =
(  
\ . \ . ¸ ¸
,
3
9
5 6
2541 27.8*90.5 31.0*76 959*1.03 1784*10 910
1.71*10
10 *22*10
o
c
−
− + + − +
= = Pa
1
.
» R_p = gas_oil_rat_Standing(19.5e6,1.11,910,76)
R_p = 106.6472
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 116
» rho_g_100 = rho_g_Vazquez_and_Beggs(100e3,1.11,910,15)
rho_g_100 = 1.0266
» c_o = compres_Vazquez_and_Beggs(22e6,R_p,rho_g_100,910,76)
c_o = 1.7072e009
4.5 Consult examples 1 and 2 in Sections B.2.8 and B.2.9 of Appendix B for the principles
of the hand calculation. For p = 15 MPa and T = 85 °C, the oil is saturated and we find
B
o
= 1.47. For p = 30 MPa and T = 105 °C, the oil is undersaturated, and we find B
o
=
2.42. Using MATLAB, the results are:
» p_b = pres_bub_Standing(250,1.02,805,85)
p_b = 2.4529e+007
» R_s = gas_oil_rat_Standing(15e6,1.02,805,85)
R_s = 138.9552
» B_o = oil_form_vol_fact_Standing(R_s,1.02,805,85)
B_o = 1.4666
» p_b = pres_bub_Standing(250,1.02,805,105)
p_b = 2.6467e+007
» B_ob = oil_form_vol_fact_Standing(250,1.02,805,105)
B_ob = 1.8790
» rho_g_100 = rho_g_Vazquez_and_Beggs(100e3,1.02,805,15)
rho_g_100 = 0.8785
» c_o = compres_Vazquez_and_Beggs(30e6,250,rho_g_100,805,105)
c_o = 3.0125e009
» B_o = oil_form_vol_fact_undersat(B_ob,c_o,30e6,p_b)
B_o = 1.8591
Also in this case the MATLAB computations can performed more directly as:
» [B_g,B_o,R_s] = black_oil_Standing(15e6,250,1.02,805,85)
B_g = 0.0067
B_o = 1.4666
R_s = 138.9552
» [B_g,B_o,R_s] = black_oil_Standing(30e6,250,1.02,805,85)
B_g = 0
B_o = 1.8591
R_s = 250
D.5 Answers for Chapter 5 – Singlephase flow in wells and pipelines
5.1 The fluid velocity in the pipeline is given by
( )
2
1 1 2 2
4 4
5000 24*3600
1.37 m/s
0.232
q q
v
A d π π
−
= = = = −
The oil viscosity can be found from the Dempsey correlation (B. 119) as:
3
2.863 10
5.693 2.325
850
b
∗
= − = ,
( )
2.325
1.163
10
0.866
1.8*45 32
a = =
+
,
( )
3 0.866 3
10 10 1 6.3*10 Pa s µ
− −
= − = .
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 117
The Reynolds number and the dimensionless roughness follow from equations (5.10)
and (5.11) as
4
3
850*0.232*1.37
4.3*10
6.3*10
Re
d v
N
ρ
µ
−
= = = and
6
5
3*10
1.3*10
0.232
e
d
ε
−
−
= = = ,
which allow us to read the friction factor from the Moody diagram in Figure 5.3 as
( ) ( )
5 4
, 1.3*10 , 4.3*10 0.021
Re
f N f ε
−
= = .
The pipeline inclination, seen from the origin at the manifold, should be negative to
correspond to uphill production flow. Expressed in radians the pipeline inclination
therefore becomes
1.5
0.0262 rad
180
π
θ
− ∗
= = − .
The pressure at the outlet can now be computed with the aid of equation (5.24) as:
( )
( ) ( )
5 2
5
ˆ ˆ sin
2
850
10 10 850 9.81 sin 0.0262 0.021 1.37 * 0 3000
2 0.232
1.29 10 Pa .
out in
p p g f v v s s
d
ρ
ρ θ
 
= − + ∗ −

\ .
(
= ∗ − ∗ ∗ − + ∗ ∗− −
(
∗
¸ ¸
= ∗
5.2 In line with the sign convention for production flow that was choosen in the lecture
notes, the MATLAB mfile flowline_p_mf has been defined such that the origin of the
coordinate along the flowline is at the manifold. Therefore, flow towards the manifold,
as occurs in production wells, has a negative sign. Furthermore, a negative value of the
flowline inclination indicates a decreasing flow line elevation, seen from the manifold.
The mfile can be used for singlephase liquid flow, singlephase gas flow or multiphase
flow, depending on the value of the parameter fluid. In case of singlephase oil flow,
the input values for gas and water flowrates and densities may be assigned an arbitrary
value. See scriptfile exercise_5_2.m for the MATLAB implementation. The output is:
p_mf = 1.2149e+005
5.3 The average absolute temperature along the well is T
av,abs
= 273.15 + (120+30)/2 =
348.15 K. The coefficients k
1
and k
2
are given by equations (5.32) and (5.33) as
( )
5
1
,
23.55 0.95 9.81 sin 2 sin
7.90 10
0.96*8314*348.15
av
av av abs
Mg
k
Z RT
π θ ∗ ∗ ∗ −
= − = − = ∗ m
1
, and
( )
( )
2
, , , ,
2 2 5
2
11 2
5
2 3
8
8 0.96 8314 348.15 0.0166 0.95 8.62 8.62
1.19 10 Pa /m.
62.3 10 23.55 0.95
av av abs av g sc g sc g sc
Z RT f q q
k
d M
ρ
π
π
−
= −
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ − ∗
= − = ∗
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 118
With the aid of equation (5.37) we now find that
( )
( ) ( )
2 2 2
1
1 1
11 11
2
6 5
5 5
6
ˆ ˆ exp 2
1.19 10 1.19 10
1.5 10 exp 2 7.90 10 3000 0
7.90 10 7.90 10
30.3 10 Pa ,
wf tf
k k
p p k s s
k k
−
− −
 
= + − − (

¸ ¸
\ .
( ∗ ∗
( = ∗ + ∗ ∗ ∗ − −
(
¸ ¸
∗ ∗
¸ ¸
= ∗
which is reasonably close to the numerical result of 29.0∗10
6
Pa. See scriptfile
exercise_5_3.m for the MATLAB implementation.
5.4 See scriptfile exercise_5_4.m for the MATLAB implementation. The pressure drop
over the wellbore is 27.5∗10
6
Pa. The absolute error is −375 Pa, which gives a relative
error of only −1.36∗10
5
D.6 Answers for Chapter 6 – Multiphase flow in wells, pipelines and chokes
6.1 See Figure 6.3.
0.3
0.36
1.2
g
l
l g
l g
q
q
A A
v v
∗
= = = ∗ ;
( )
0.3
0.23
1 0.3
g
l
l
g l g
q
q
q q q
λ
∗
= = =
+ +
;
( )
0.36
0.26
1 0.36
g
l
l
g l g
A
A
H
A A A
∗
= = =
+ +
.
6.2 The local phase rates can be obtained from equations (4.21) as
3 3 3
0.05 0.05 10.1 0 238 2.6
0 1.15 0 1 18.4 10 21.2 10 m
0 0 1 0.23 5.5
1 0.23
g
o
w
q
q
q
− −
(
(
− ∗ ( ( (
(
( ( (
= ∗ ∗ = ∗
(
( ( (
(
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
− ¸ ¸
.
The pipe’s surface area is given by A = ¼ π d
2
= 0.0117 m
2
. Thus we find:
( )
( )
3
3
21.2 5.5 10
0.91
2.6 21.2 5.5 10
l
l
g l
q
q q
λ
−
−
+ ∗
= = =
+ + + ∗
; 1.05 1.05 0.91 0.96
l l
H λ = ∗ = ∗ = ;
3
2.6 10
0.22 m/s
0.0117
g
sg
q
v
A
−
∗
= = = ;
( )
3
21.2 5.5 10
2.28 m/s
0.0117
o w
sl
q q
v
A
−
+ ∗ +
= = = ;
( ) ( )
0.22
5.50 m/s
1 1 0.96
sg
g
l
v
v
H
= = =
− −
;
2.28
2.38 m/s
0.96
sl
g
l
v
v
H
= = = .
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 119
Appendix E – MATLAB mfiles
E.1 Conversion factors
from_bbl_to_m3.m
from_bpd_psi_ft_to_m2_per_d_Pa.m
from_bpd_psi_ft_to_m2_per_s_Pa.m
from_bpd_psi_to_m3_per_d_Pa.m
from_bpd_psi_to_m3_per_s_Pa.m
from_bpd_to_m3_per_d.m
from_bpd_to_m3_per_s.m
from_cal_to_J.m
from_cp_to_Pa_s.m
from_cSt_to_m2_per_s.m
from_deg_API_to_kg_per_m3.m
from_deg_API_to_liq_grav.m
from_deg_C_to_deg_F.m
from_deg_F_to_deg_C.m
from_deg_R_to_K.m
from_deg_to_rad.m
from_dyne_per_cm_to_N_per_m.m
from_ft2_to_m2.m
from_ft3_per_bbl_to_m3_per_m3.m
from_ft3_per_d_to_m3_per_d.m
from_ft3_per_d_to_m3_per_s.m
from_ft3_per_s_to_m3_per_s.m
from_ft3_per_s_to_m3_per_s.m
from_ft3_to_m3.m
from_ft_per_s_to_m_per_s.m
from_ft_to_m.m
from_gas_grav_to_kg_per_m3.m
from_gas_grav_to_molar_mass.m
from_hp_to_W.m
from_in2_to_m2.m
from_in_to_m.m
from_J_to_cal.m
from_K_to_deg_R.m
from_kg_per_m3_to_deg_API.m
from_kg_per_m3_to_gas_grav.m
from_kg_per_m3_to_lbm_per_ft3.m
from_kg_per_m3_to_liq_grav.m
from_kg_per_m3_to_molar_mass.m
from_kg_per_m3_to_Pa_per_m.m
from_kg_per_m3_to_ppg.m
from_kg_per_m3_to_psi_per_ft.m
from_kg_to_lbm.m
from_lbf_ft_to_N_m.m
from_lbf_to_N.m
from_lbm_per_ft3_to_kg_per_m3.m
from_lbm_per_ft3_to_Pa_per_m.m
from_lbm_per_ft3_to_psi_per_ft.m
from_lbm_to_kg.m
from_liq_grav_to_deg_API.m
from_liq_grav_to_kg_per_m3.m
from_m2_per_d_Pa_to_bpd_psi_ft.m
from_m2_per_s_Pa_to_bpd_psi_ft.m
from_m2_per_s_to_cSt.m
from_m2_to_ft2.m
from_m2_to_in2.m
from_m2_to_mD.m
from_m3_per_d_Pa_to_bpd_psi.m
from_m3_per_d_to_bpd.m
from_m3_per_d_to_ft3_per_d.m
from_m3_per_m3_to_ft3_per_bbl.m
from_m3_per_s_Pa_to_bpd_psi.m
from_m3_per_s_to_bpd.m
from_m3_per_s_to_ft3_per_d.m
from_m3_per_s_to_ft3_per_s.m
from_m3_to_bbl.m
from_m3_to_ft3.m
from_m_per_s_to_ft_per_s.m
from_m_to_ft.m
from_m_to_in.m
from_mD_to_m2.m
from_molar_mass_to_gas_grav.m
from_molar_mass_to_kg_per_m3.m
from_N_m_to_lbf_ft.m
from_N_per_m_to_dyne_per_cm.m
from_N_to_lbf.m
from_Pa_per_m_to_kg_per_m3.m
from_Pa_per_m_to_lbm_per_ft3.m
from_Pa_per_m_to_psi_per_ft.m
from_Pa_s_to_cp.m
from_Pa_to_psi.m
from_per_Pa_to_per_psi.m
from_per_psi_to_per_Pa.m
from_ppg_to_kg_per_m3.m
from_psi_per_ft_to_kg_per_m3.m
from_psi_per_ft_to_lbm_per_ft3.m
from_psi_per_ft_to_Pa_per_m.m
from_psi_to_Pa.m
from_rad_to_deg.m
from_W_to_hp.m
E.2 Economics
compute_NPV.m discount.m
E.3 Exercises
exercise_5.2.m
exercise_5.3.m
exercise_5.4.m
E.4 Fluid flow
Beggs_Brill_dpds.m
choke_critical_p_tf.m
example_flowline.m
example_intake_curve.m
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 120
example_traverse.m
example_wellbore.m
flowline_p_fl.m
flowline_p_mf.m
gas_dpds.m
gas_near_well_p_wf.m
liquid_dpds.m
liquid_near_well_p_wf.m
Moody_friction_factor.m
Muk_Brill_dpds.m
Reynolds_number.m
well_p_tf.m
well_p_wf.m
Zig_and_Syl_fric_fact.m
E.4 Fluid properties
black_oil_Standing.m
compres_Vazquez_and_Beggs.m
gas_form_vol_fact.m
gas_oil_rat_Standing.m
gas_visc_atm_Dempsey.m
gas_visc_ratio_Dempsey.m
gas_viscosity.m
interfacial_tensions.m
local_q_and_rho.m
oil_form_vol_fact_Standing.m
oil_form_vol_fact_undersat.m
oil_visc_dead_B_and_R.m
oil_visc_sat_B_and_R.m
oil_visc_undersat_V_and_B.m
oil_viscosity.m
pres_bub_Standing.m
pres_pseu_crit_Sutton.m
rho_g_Vazquez_and_Beggs.m
temp_pseu_crit_Sutton.m
water_viscosity.m
Z_factor_DAK
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 121
References
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Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 125
Glossary
AHD AlongHole Depth
AIME American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers
AOFP Absolute Open Flowing Potential
API American Petroleum Institute
bbl barrel
BHP Bottomhole Pressure
BHT Bottomhole Temperature
bpd barrel per day
BSW Base Sediment and Water
CAPEX Capital Expenditure
CGR CondensateGas Ratio
EMV Expected Monetary Value
EOS Equation Of State
ESP Electric Submersible Pump
E&P Exploration and Production
FDP Field Development Plan(ning)
FBHP Flowing BottomHole Pressure
FBHT Flowing BottomHole Temperature
FTHP Flowing Tubing Head Pressure
FTHT Flowing Tubing Head Temperature
FVF Formation Volume Factor
GLR GasLiquid Ratio
GOC GasOil Contact
GOR GasOil Ratio
GWC GasWater Contact
II Injectivity Index
IPR Inflow Performance Relationship
MD Measured Depth
ML MultiLateral
NPV Net Present Value
OCR OilCondensate Ratio
OGR OilGas Ratio
OPEX Operating Expenditure
OWC OilWater Contact
PDG Permanent Downhole Gauge
PI Productivity Index
ppg pounds per gallon
PVT Pressure, Volume, Temperature
rpm revolutions per minute
scf standard cubic foot
SCSSV SurfaceControlled Subsurface Safety Valve
SPE Society of Petroleum Engineers
stb standard barrel
THP Tubing Head Pressure
THT Tubing Head Temperature
TVD True Vertical Depth
UTC Unit Technical Costs
VLE VapourLiquid Equilibrium
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004 126
WOR WaterOil Ratio
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5b, March 2004 127
Index
absolute open flowing potential, 62
acceleration loss, 43
acceleration of gravity, 89
accuracy, 109
Achong choke correlation, 58
actual gasoil ratio, 32
along hole depth, 40
amount of substance, 89
analogies, 11
analysis node, 14
annular flow, 49
API gravity, 30
artificial lift, 9, 78, 84
assets, 3
associated gas, 32
average reservoir pressure, 61
backpressure, 55
barefoot completion, 8
base sediment and water, 32
Baxendell choke correlation, 58
beam pump, 9
bean, 8, 56
bean back, 82
Beggs and Robinson correlation, 95
binary mixture, 36
black oil, 34, 93
black oil correlations, 38, 93
black oil model, 38
blowout, 45
bottomhole pressure, 14, 46, 61
bottomhole samples, 29
bottomup, 109
boundary condition, 108
branches, 10
breakeven point, 19
bubble flow, 49
bubble point pressure, 30, 93
bubblepoint line, 32
cap rock, 8
capital expenditure, 19
Carr, Kobayashi and Burrows correlation, 99
cascade, 10
cash flow, 19
cash surplus, 19
cashin, 19
cashout, 19
casing, 7
cement, 7
choke, 8, 56
choke performance curve, 57, 79
christmas tree, 8
churn flow, 49
closedin bottomhole pressure, 14, 61
closedin tubing head pressure, 14
clustered wellheads, 24
Colebrook equation, 42
commingled production, 25
completion, 8, 75
composition, 12, 29
compressibility, 94
compressibility correlation, 94
compressibility factor, 101
compressor, 7
condensate, 33
condensategas ratio, 30, 32
constant value money, 19
constraints, 19
content, 52
control, 7
convergence, 108
correlations, 38, 93
cricondenbar, 32
cricondentherm, 32
critical flow, 57
critical point, 33
critical pressure, 98
critical pressure ratio, 57
critical temperature, 98
cross flow, 73
crude oil, 8
cumulative cash flow, 19
cumulative cash surplus, 19
Darcy’s law, 64
dead oil, 30
dead oil viscosity, 95
deliverability, 79
density, 11, 98
depreciation, 19
deviated wells, 24
dewpoint line, 32
dimensions, 5
discharges, 24
discount factor, 21
discount rate, 20
discounting, 20
disposal, 24
drainage area, 61
drawdown, 61, 75
dry gas, 31, 34
dry gas reservoirs, 33
dry oil, 32
dual completion, 8
effort and a flow variables, 10
electric submersible pumps, 9
electricity, 11
electronic process control, 9
element equations, 46
elements, 10
elevation, 40
energy, 7
energy rate, 10
entropy flow, 11
environmental aspects, 24
environmental impact, 24
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5b, March 2004 128
environmental objectives, 24
environmental targets, 24
equation of state, 29, 34, 39, 63
equilibrium factors, 34
expansion factor, 32
expected monetary value, 23
feedback, 2
field units, 4, 87
fixed OPEX, 19
flash calculations, 34
flash test, 30
flow and effort variables, 10
flow map, 50
flow rates, 32
flow regime, 49
flow through porous media, 63
flowing bottomhole pressure, 14, 61
flowing tubing head pressure, 14
flowline pressure, 14, 46
fluid properties, 91
force, 88
Forcheimer’s coefficient, 64
formation, 7
formation damage, 70
formation volume factor, 37, 94
fraction, 51
free gas, 32
frictional loss, 43
gas cap, 30
gas cap reservoirs, 33
gas compressibility factor, 35
gas condensate, 34
gas constant, 35
gas density, 30, 89
gas deviation factor, 35
gas expansion factor, 32
gas formation volume factor, 31, 35, 104
gas fraction, 51
gas holdup, 51
gas law, 35
gas lift, 84
gas solubility, 30
gas specific gravity, 30
gas treatment facilities, 9
gas velocity, 51
gas viscosity, 99, 104
gascondensate, 33
gascondensate reservoirs, 33
gascondensates, 30
gasliquid ratio, 32
gasoil contact, 30
gasoil ratio, 30, 32, 93
Gilbert correlation, 58
government take, 19
gradient, 92
gradient curve, 53
gravel pack, 72
gravitational field, 89
head loss, 43
heat capacity, 64
heat flow, 11
heavy fractions, 36
holdup, 51
host government take, 19
hydraulic fracturing, 61, 72
hydraulics, 11
ideal gas, 35
impairment, 61, 70
inclination, 40
income before tax, 19
inertia, 16
inertia coefficient, 65
inflation, 19
inflow, 61
inflow performance, 61
inflow performance relationship, 66
Inflow Performance Relationship, 61
initial condition, 108
initial value problem, 108
injectivity index, 62
input fraction, 52
inputoutput relationship, 12
insitu fraction, 52
insitu velocitiy, 51
instability, 15, 16
intake pressure curve, 46, 54, 76
interest rate, 20
interfacial tension, 12
Interfacial tensions, 31
isothermal conditions, 64
iteration control, 108
joint node, 14
JouleThomson cooling, 64
K values, 34
laminar flow, 42
legislation, 24
length scale, 51
liquid flow rate, 51
liquid fraction, 51
liquid holdup, 51
liquid velocity, 51
liquidliquid equilibrium calculations, 34
local conditions, 51
local velocity, 51
loops, 10
manifold pressure, 14, 46
marching algorithm, 13
mass, 88
mass balance, 39, 62
mass fraction, 52
maximum exposure, 19
measured depth, 40
measured distance, 40
measurement, 7
mist flow, 49
mixing rules, 98
mixture flow rate, 51
mixture velocity, 52
model, 1
modified black oil model, 37
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5b, March 2004 129
molar mass, 30, 35, 89
molecular weight, 35, 89
momentum balance, 39, 63
money of the day, 19
Moody friction factor, 41
multiphase flow, 12, 49
multiphase flow meters, 9
nearwellbore area, 7, 61
net present value, 21
network, 10
Newton’s law, 88
NewtonRaphson iteration, 107
nodal analysis, 13, 15
nodding donkey, 9
nodes, 10
noflow condition, 67
noslip holdup, 52
noslip volume fraction, 52
numerical integration, 108
objective, 19
off take point, 7
offshore environment, 9
oil density, 30
oil formation volume factor, 31, 94, 95
oil fraction, 51
oil shrinkage factor, 32
oil specific gravity, 30
oil viscosity, 97
oil, gas and water viscosities, 31
oilgas ratio, 32
onedimensional system, 12
onepass analysis, 13
openhole completion, 8
operating expenditure, 19
operating point, 15
operating point calculation, 14, 46, 54
operating point performance curve, 14, 15, 80
packer, 8
payout time, 19
perforated pipe, 8
perforations, 7, 72
permanent downhole gauge, 61
permanent downhole gauges, 9
permeability, 71
petroleum life cycle model, 1
phase behaviour, 29
phase content, 52
phase diagram, 32
phase fraction, 52
phases, 29
pipeline, 7
pipeline survey, 40
policies, 24
power flow, 10
pressure drop, 42
pressure drop calculation, 14, 46, 54
pressure drop performance curve, 15, 80
pressure transient analysis, 68
process parameters, 32
producing gasoil ratio, 30
producing oilgas ratio, 30
production test, 9
production testing, 61
productivity, 75
Productivity Index, 61
pseudo component, 36
pseudocomponents, 12
pseudocritical properties, 98
pseudoreduced pressure, 98
pseudoreduced temperature, 98
pump, 7
PVT analysis, 29
quality, 52
realgas pseudo pressure, 69
recycling, 24
reference state, 29
reservoir, 7
reservoir management, 2
reservoir pressure, 61
retrograde condensation, 33
reuse, 24
revenues, 19
Reynolds number, 41
root, 107
Ros choke correlation, 58
rotation, 11
roughness, 41
royalties, 19
RungeKutta integration, 109
safety valve, 7
sales point, 7
sand control, 7
saturated oil, 30, 93
saturated oil reservoirs, 33
saturated oil viscosity, 95
saturation, 52
saturation pressure, 30
screens, 7
seal, 8
semi steady state, 67
separation, 7
separator, 7
separator gas, 29
separator test, 30
shape factors, 67
shrinkage, 34
shrinkage factor, 32
SI units, 4, 87
sign convention, 41
singlephase flow, 11, 39, 62
skin, 71
slip, 51
slip velocity, 52
slotted pipe, 8
slug flow, 49
social impact, 24
solid phase, 29
solution condensategas ratio, 30
solution gasoil ratio, 30, 93
solution oilgas ratio, 30
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5b, March 2004 130
sonic velocity, 45
spatial coordinate, 12
specific gravity, 89
stability, 15
standard barrel, 30
standard bbl, 32
standard conditions, 12, 29, 88
standard cubic feet, 30, 32
Standing and Katz correlation, 101
Standing correlations, 93
state, 29
state variables, 29
static bottomhole pressure, 14, 61
static tubing head pressure, 14
steady state, 12, 65
steadystate flow, 42
stimulation, 61
stock tank gas, 29
stock tank oil, 29
storage tank, 7
straight line depreciation, 19
stratified flow, 49
subsurface, 7
superficial velocity, 51
surface, 7
surface facilities, 7
surveillance, 3
Sutton correlations, 98
system capacity, 24
system dynamics, 10
system equations, 13
tax, 19
taxable income, 19
technical costs, 19
terminal, 7
test separator, 9
thermodynamic properties, 29
topdown, 109
topology, 10
translation, 11
traverse, 46
true vertical depth, 40
tubing, 7
tubing head pressure, 8, 14, 46
tubing intake curve, 46, 54
tubing performance curve, 79
turbulence coefficient, 65
turbulent flow, 42
twocomponent model, 36
undersaturated oil, 93
undersaturated oil reservoirs, 33
undersaturated oil viscosity, 95
unit technical cost, 19
universal gas constant, 35
variable OPEX, 19
Vazquez and Beggs correlation, 94
viscosity, 11, 39, 95, 99
void fraction, 52
volatile oil, 34
volatile oil model, 37
waste management, 24
water density, 30
water formation volume factor, 31
water fraction, 51
water specific gravity, 30
watercut, 32
wateroil ratio, 32
well head, 7
well performance analysis, 80
well testing, 68
wellhead, 75
wet gas, 34
wireline tools, 8
Xmas tree, 8
Z factor, 35, 101
Title: Version: Date: Type of report: Course code: Authors:
Postal address:
Modelling and Optimisation of Oil and Gas Production Systems 5c March 2004 Lecture notes ta4490 (Production Optimisation) J.D. Jansen and P.K.Currie. Part of these notes (in particular parts of chapters 6 and 7, and chapter 8) have been based on the lecture notes from P.K. Currie for the former course ‘Foundations of Production Technology’ (mp3440). J.D. Jansen adapted and expanded the material for ta4490 and wrote the new chapters 1 to 5 and parts of 6 and 7, the appendices, and most of the MATLAB files. D.R. Brouwer assisted with the development of some of the MATLAB practicals. Section Petroleum Engineering Department of Geotechnology Delft University of Technology P.O. Box 5028 2600 GA Delft The Netherlands j.d.jansen@citg.tudelft.nl
Email:
Copyright 2004 Section Petroleum Engineering All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without permission of the Section Petroleum Engineering.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004
Page ii
Contents
1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 1
What will be covered in this chapter?.................................................................................... 1 Production system modelling and optimisation .................................................................... 1 Overview of the course for 2004 ............................................................................................. 3 Unit systems and notation convention.................................................................................... 4 Exercises ................................................................................................................................... 5
2
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5
PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELLING................................................................ 7
What will be covered in this chapter?.................................................................................... 7 Production systems .................................................................................................................. 7 System models ........................................................................................................................ 10 Nodal analysis......................................................................................................................... 13 Exercises ................................................................................................................................. 17
3
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6
OPTIMISATION OBJECTIVES AND CONSTRAINTS ...................................... 19
What will be covered in this chapter?.................................................................................. 19 Economic objectives............................................................................................................... 19 Environmental objectives...................................................................................................... 24 Technical objectives ............................................................................................................... 24 Constraints ............................................................................................................................. 25 Exercises ................................................................................................................................. 25
4
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6
PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS........................................................... 29
What will be covered in this chapter?.................................................................................. 29 Fluid properties...................................................................................................................... 29 Pressuretemperature phase diagram.................................................................................. 32 Equations of state................................................................................................................... 34 Oil models ............................................................................................................................... 36 Exercises ................................................................................................................................. 38
5
SINGLEPHASE FLOW IN WELLS AND PIPELINES....................................... 39
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004
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................................................................................... 59 7 7..................... 62 Inflow performance relationships ......................................................5 6....................................... 80 Field development planning and field management ............................................6 8.................................... 78 Summary of analysis methods .....................................................................................................3 6..................1 6............... 65 Formation damage and skin ............................................... 74 8 8..4 6............2 7............................................................................................6 6.......................... 61 What will be covered in this chapter?...................................................................................................................7 8............ 70 Multilayer inflow performance .................................. 48 6 6.......................................................................................................... 49 What will be covered in this chapter?. 39 Pressure drop analysis....................9 OIL WELL PRODUCTIVITY .................................7 MULTIPHASE FLOW IN WELLS....................................................................................................................................................2 6.................... 50 Gradient curves.......2 5...................................................................................................................................1 8................................................................................... 80 Shortterm optimisation of well performance ......................................................................................... 56 Exercises ........................................3 8........4 What will be covered in this chapter?............... March 2004 Page iv ...............................6 7....................................................................1 5........................................................................... 49 Slip and holdup ........................................... 61 Governing equations...................................................................5 7........................ 75 Production rate of a vertical well operating through a surface choke ..............7 INFLOW PERFORMANCE ........................... 53 Intake pressure curves for describing tubing performance......................1 7...........4 8...................................................................................................................... 75 Oil well completions............... 75 What will be covered in this chapter?................8 8.......................................... 54 Multiphase flow through chokes ...........................5 8................ Version 5c..........................2 8......................................................................... 81 Longterm optimisation of well performance..5.4 7..........................................3 5.. 83 Lecture Notes ta4490................. 75 Production rate of a vertical well operating at given tubing head pressure..... 75 Optimising well productivity ................................... 73 Related topics that have not been considered in this chapter . PIPELINES AND CHOKES ..................... 42 Exercises .................................... 39 Governing equations...........................................................................................3 7.... 49 Flow regimes.................... 61 The importance of inflow performance ..............................................................................................................................
........................3 Gas correlations.................................................1 Root finding ............................. 119 E.... pipelines and chokes ............. Version 5c.........................................................Introduction............................... 119 E..................................................................2 Answers for Chapter 2 – Production system modelling .............................. 88 A............................................... 84 Related topics that have not been considered in this chapter .......................................................10 8...........................119 E............ANSWERS TO EXERCISES.................................. 116 D................................................................................................................................................ 85 APPENDIX A – SI UNITS AND FIELD UNITS...............................................2 SI prefixes ..........................................................................2 Oil correlations ...................................................................................................................... March 2004 Page v ...3 Answers for Chapter 3 – Optimisation objectives and constraints ........ 112 D................2 Differential equations .................... mass and acceleration of gravity .................. 118 APPENDIX E – MATLAB MFILES.......................................... 87 A................5 Answers for Chapter 5 – Singlephase flow in wells and pipelines......... 108 APPENDIX D .............................................................. 88 A............................................................................................................................. 119 E........................................................................................3 Standard conditions ................................................................................................. 98 APPENDIX C – NUMERICAL METHODS ..........................................4 Fluid flow .................................................................................................................................................2 Economics .....................................................................................1 Answers for Chapter 1 ..........................................................6 Answers for Chapter 6 – Multiphase flow in wells..... 91 B............................. 112 D.........8.1 Fluid properties ........... 91 B..........................................................................................5 Amount of substance and molar mass............. 87 A.......1 Conversion factors..107 C........................ 120 Lecture Notes ta4490...........4 Force........................... 107 C...................1 Conversion factors .............4 Answers for Chapter 4 – Properties of reservoir fluids... 119 E........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 111 D........................................... 88 A...........3 Exercises............................................................................................... 114 D..111 D.....4 Fluid properties .............................................................................................................................. 89 APPENDIX B – FLUID PROPERTIES AND CORRELATIONS ................................ 93 B................................11 Productivity of horizontal wells ......................
......................REFERENCES................. Version 5c......................125 INDEX.............121 GLOSSARY .............................................................................................................................................127 Lecture Notes ta4490........................................................................... March 2004 Page vi ..............................................
the petroleum life cycle is not just a sequential process without feedback and repetition of activities.1 displays a highlevel overview of activities during oil and gas exploration and production (E&P). displays some of the activities involved in designing a well during a field development project. Nowadays.g. and operation of wells and facilities. Traditionally these consisted of relatively simple mathematical models. Version 5c. based on production performance or new seismic data). 1.1 Development phase Unlike what is suggested in Figure 1. March 2004 1 . and production may take place during the life of a field. supported by the appropriate integrated organizational structure and systems (software) is essential to achieve the objective. or infill drilling of new ones). The traditional use of the term production optimisation sometimes also implies the design and analysis of artificial lift methods and stimulation treatments.2. chokes. clearly indicating the iterative nature of the process. The course Production optimisation (ta4490) is of relevance to the development and production phases of the petroleum life cycle. as indicated in the centre part of Figure 1. wells and the nearwell section of the reservoir. In particular during the design phase. a lot of activities are performed in an iterative fashion. redevelopment (e. • An overview of the course. several cycles of reappraisal (e. Early cooperation of between geophysicists. for example. accessible to hand analysis. Explore Appraise Develop Produce Abandon Figure 1. geologists.g. At a higher level.1 What will be covered in this chapter? • The role of production system modelling and optimisation in the petroleum life cycle. The key objective during field development is maximization of the economic benefits within the constraints of the project.2 Production system modelling and optimisation Figure 1. This process diagram. • Unit and notation conventions. the concept of production optimisation is used in a somewhat more narrow context. For example.2.1 Introduction 1. usually in combination with a large number of subsurface models to reflect geological uncertainties. detailed design of wells and facilities. Figure 1. the textbooks of Brown (1984) and Beggs (1991) focus on optimising the various components in the flow path from the reservoir to the separator. and elaborate on the detailed analysis of flow in flowlines. reservoir engineers. Lecture Notes ta4490.1: Petroleum life cycle model. through recompletion of existing wells.1. often referred to as the petroleum life cycle model can be indefinitely refined to display subactivities at deeper levels. production engineers and well engineers. Traditionally. sometimes with the aid of charts or tables. in particular to the subactivities involving field development planning (FDP). This optimisation process involves comparison of a large number of development concepts.2. Each of these activities involves aspects of production optimisation. the models are usually much more complicated and require the use of a computer. All of these optimisation activities require the use of some kind of model of the production system. 1.
Two major feedback cycles occur.2: An example of iterative processes during well design in a field development project. and oil. stimulation or even sidetracking or infill drilling. In addition to the variables that control daily production. see e. typical input variables are wellhead choke settings. the production process essentially consists of draining the reservoir.2 Production phase Figure 1. the reservoir management process coincides in many aspects with the field development process described above. March 2004 2 . modelling and control. water injection pressures. Lecture Notes ta4490. Rossi et al. In particular when redevelopment activities are initiated at a later stage in the producing life of a field. Measured output involves production histories. (2000): • Daily production control: On a scale of days to weeks. in addition to wellbore and surface flow modelling. 1. Models of flow through wells and surface facilities can play an important role in the process of optimising daily production.Geological model Reservoir properties Fluid properties Production constraints Drilling rig constraints Select targets Design well trajectory Establish drill string stresses Assess drillability Establish borehole stability N Results OK? Y Design tubing Select completion concept Establish tubing performance Establish inflow performance N Assess well productivity Results OK? Y Design completion over reservoir Perform reservoir simulation Establish production profile Assess economics Y Results OK? N End Figure 1. Control is usually focused on maximizing the asset revenues. Control will often be driven by short time optimisation objectives. for example production targets or utilization rates of surface facilities. Version 5c. System modelling will often involve extensive reservoir simulation. involving measurement. A typical shorttime optimisation problem is the distribution of a limited amount of lift gas over a number of producing wells such that oil production is maximized. Measured output from the process includes production variables such as pressures. which often translates into maximizing ultimate recovery and minimizing operating expenditure. Not shown are the links to other iterative activities during the development process such as geological modelling or design of surface facilities. recompletion.3 shows a representation of oil and gas production as a feedback control process. input includes production engineering activities such as water or gas shut off. well tests and reservoir images obtained from time lapse seismic or other sources. • Reservoir management: On a time scale of months to years.g. or lift gas rates. each on its own time scale. gas and water rates.2.
g.2. Version 5c. Lecture Notes ta4490. The course material is completely covered in these lecture notes apart from multiphase flow. Such a distinction is somewhat artificial and both activities are closely linked. • Knowledge of elementary differential equations as covered e.3: Oil and gas production represented as a feedback control process. involving measurement. In turn. • Chapter 2: Singlephaseflow concepts: 2. the understanding of the long term field development objectives is essential to produce a reservoir in an optimal fashion. in Differential equations (wi2034ta). the systematic collection and analysis of well and facilities performance data. but also for long term reservoir management.g.1 Relationships with other courses Prerequisites for this course are: • Drilling and production engineering (ta 3430). Such production data are not only essential to optimise the production system. modelling and control.1 – 2.3 Overview of the course for 2004 1. • Knowledge of physical transport phenomena as covered e. wells & facilities) Output CONTROL Control actions MEASURE Sensors System model Measured output MODEL Figure 1. 1. heat and mass transfer (ta 3220). This topic is treated in more detail in the SPE monograph Multiphase Flow in Wells by Brill and Mukherjee (1999) of which the following sections form an obligatory part of the course material: • Chapter 1: Introduction. 1. whereas reservoir management would then be the exclusive domain of the reservoir engineering discipline.3. Because of the need to perform the shortterm and longterm optimisation activities in an integrated fashion. rather than around the traditional disciplines.4. An important production engineering activity is surveillance. in Fluid flow. The course provides the knowledge of production engineering needed for • Field development project (ta4031).2 Course material The course treats aspects of production optimisation in the traditional sense as well as in the wider context. March 2004 3 . many oil companies have reorganized their production organizations around assets.Input System (reservoir. • Properties of hydrocarbons and oilfield fluids (ta3410).3. Sometimes shortterm production optimisation is considered to be an activity for production engineers only.
The examination will be written and ‘open book’.3. or to give you a feel for units often still used in oil field practice.1 – 3.zip’. we will present formulas.1. 1. use of black oil correlations). see the file ‘Exercises. but some of them are more easily performed with the aid of a spreadsheet. • use of gradient curves.2 pp. MATLAB exercises are an important ingredient of the five afternoons of computer practical which form an obligatory part of the course. Copies of the monograph are available via the SPE or at the ‘dictatenverkoop’. tubing. • hydrocarbon property calculations (e. Make sure you inspect the content of the routines to understand their functionality. The latter includes in particular • units conversion. Answers to the exercises can be found in Appendix D. Chapter 4: Multiphase flow pressure gradient predictions: 4. you may want to use the MATLAB routines available from Blackboard. course material may be taken to the exam.4 Unit systems and notation convention Mostly. with a simple calculator.3. The ‘strict’ units can be Lecture Notes ta4490. March 2004 4 . Additional notes and worked exercises are not allowed. 4. • understanding of the physical principles. A calculator will be needed.4. Most of the exercises can be performed by hand. • cash flow analysis. and • well performance. data and example calculations in SI units. A few copies can be borrowed from the TA library. Material covered during the computer exercises may form part of the examination. Occasionally we will add the corresponding field units to allow easy comparison with results from literature.g. and • skills in performing engineering calculations. and • use of inflow. 1. Some workedout MATLAB exercises can be downloaded from Blackboard. • Chapter 6 – Well design applications. Proficiency in MATLAB is not required for the examination. Some worked exams are provided via Blackboard.4 Examination Examination will cover • awareness of all topics covered in the course material.3 and 4. Alternatively. 4.• • Chapter 3: Multiphaseflow concepts: 3. well and choke performance relationships to perform nodal analysis. The expression ‘SI units’ is used loosely to indicate both ‘strict’ SI units and ‘allowable’ units. 1. • black oil properties • multiphase flow in wells. is strongly recommended as background reading. i.3 Exercises Exercises are provided at the end of some chapters. In addition. • wellbore flow analysis (single phase and multiphase Hagedorn & Brown and Mukherjee and Brill methods). Topics covered include • introduction to MATLAB. Some of the practical exercises will be signed off and need to be completed to obtain a valid examination result.6.e. However. 2931 (Hagedorn & Brown method) and pp. 4446 (Mukherjee & Brill method). Version 5c.
s. What are the mass. For example. The ‘allowable’ SI units are those defined in SPE (1982) and include d (day) and a (year). Dimensions will be enclosed in square brackets. to convert a value of 1000 psi into Pa type » from_psi_to_Pa(1000) which produces the answer ans = 6894757 . we will label absolute temperatures with a subscript: Tabs.subdivided in the seven ‘base’ SI units (m.3 Calculate the pressure in Pa and in psi in a well open to the atmosphere and filled with salt water (specific gravity 1.114 m (4 ½ inch) tubing.1 A well produces 12000 bpd of oil at a GOR of 1500 scf/stb. In addition. or J.2 A mixture of 1 lbmmole of C1 and 0. the temperature and the pressure of the gas mixture in SI units? 1. or “Js is expressed in m2 day1 Pa1 (bbl day1 psia1 ft1) and has dimensions [L3 m1 t]”. t is time. Consult Appendix A for conversion factors and additional information. see the file ‘Conversion factors. a number of MATLAB ‘mfiles’ for units conversion can be downloaded from Blackboard. N. v is the liquid velocity in ft/s.zip’. c h Lecture Notes ta4490. which also contains an extensive list of conversion factors. and C is a dimensionless choke coefficient. SI units will be quoted directly in the text. we indicate the dimensions as follows: L is length. Version 5c. ρ is the liquid density in lbm/ft3. n is amount.3 lbmmole of CO2 is kept at a temperature of 83 °R and a pressure of 30 psig. What are the oil and gas production rates and densities in SI units? 1. Variables are always written in italics. Convert the expression to SI units.03) at a depth of 2000 m. A brief list of conversion factors is given in Appendix A of these lecture notes. mol and cd) and ‘derived’ SI units such as °C. we could write: “The well was completed with a 0. A. where ∆p is the pressure drop expressed in psi. K.82. NonSI units will be enclosed in round brackets. To distinguish between temperatures expressed in °C (or °F) and absolute temperatures expressed in K (or °R). In addition. and T is temperature. whenever there is a chance for confusion. m is mass. see the file ‘Conversion factors. 1. 1. March 2004 5 .zip’. The nature of the dimensional constant gc is discussed in Appendix A . The oil gravity is 38 °API and the gas gravity is 0. q is electrical charge. E. 1.g. you may want to make use of the MATLAB ‘mfiles’ for unit conversion that can be downloaded from Blackboard. kg.5 Exercises Note: The following exercises involve unit conversions. Following the SPE standards. For variables we will predominantly use SPE symbols as recommended in SPE (1993). They have a selfexplanatory syntax.4 The pressure drop over a choke for an incompressible liquid is given by ∆p = ρv 2 288 gc C 2 . For further information on the use of SI units see SPE (1982).”.
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compressors and other equipment for treatment and measurement. in particular in Chapters 3. You may want to just read through these parts on the first reading. a specific application of systems analysis to production systems. 5 and 8. • Nodal analysis. and sometimes also from the surface to the subsurface. • Systems analysis. March 2004 7 . be a valve at the entrance of a gas transport pipeline or the offloading point of an oil terminal supplying tankers. • minimize the production or the negative effects of byproducts. Version 5c. • the tubing. However. 2.4. and in the casing itself. pumps.e. The basic elements of a production system are. which can e. and Lecture Notes ta4490. some basic concepts and the analogy between hydraulical. may seem somewhat abstract at this stage.1 What will be covered in this chapter? • A brief description of a typical oil and gas production system. the flow path through the wellbore may consist of • perforations in the formation (i. a pipe running from the bottom of the well to surface. the rock) and the cement around the casing. electrical and mechanical systems.3: • the nearwellbore area of the reservoir. in particular the difference between phase flow rates and component flow rates.2 Production systems The main functions of an oil and gas production system are to • provide a conduit for the flow of fluids from the reservoir to the off take point at surface. • store the produced fluids if they cannot immediately be exported • measure the amounts of fluids produced and control the production process • provide a part of the energy required to transport fluids through the system. they will be of relevance later on. • the flowlines from the well heads to the surface facilities. • the wells from the reservoir to the well head at surface. and only study them in more detail at a later stage.1 to 2. see Figures 2. a zone of several meters in radial direction around the wells at the depth of the reservoir. • a surfacecontrolled subsurface safety valve (SCSSV) to closein the well if surface control is accidentally lost. especially those in Section 2. • separate the produced reservoir fluids from each other.g. consisting of separators. and • storage tanks and pipelines up to the off take point or sales point. • sand control equipment consistsing of densely packed gravel (well sorted sand) or metal screens at the bottom of the well.2 Production system modelling 2. Note: Various concepts covered in this chapter. Each element of the system can be subdevided in subelements. • Stability of operating point. • A first look at multiphase flow. • the surface facilities. theoretical background to a typical aspect of multiphase wellbore flow. In particular. i.e.
Often two or more separators are mounted in series. The surface facilities are usually more complicated than depicted in Figure 2.1 and 2. a packer and an uncemented slotted pipe. The reason to perform the separation in steps is to maximize the amount of oil. Version 5c. which is cemented in place. and a chokeor bean. Well heads are often called christmas trees (Xmas trees). Some wells are not completed with a cemented production casing over their entire depth. During separation of light and heavy hydrocarbon components. the well head. As opposed to the casing. The horizontal well is completed with a tubing. while those wells that still produce at high tubing head pressures remain connected to the highpressure separator.2: Schematics of a vertical and a horizontal well.3. There is always a cemented casing present running from the top of the reservoir (the seal or the cap rock) to surface to avoid uncontrolled flow of reservoir fluids. The tubing is usually anchored to the casing just above the reservoir with the aid of an inflatable rubber packer. The vertical well is completed with a tubing. an effect that often occurs during the life of a well when water production increases and oil production drops. or if the flowing behaviour of the well can be improved by changing the tubing diameter. because crude oil (degassed and dewatered oil) is transported under atmospheric conditions. also called barefoot completion).well head casing well head tubing perforations reservoir slotted pipe reservoir Figures 2. The lower the pressure drop that the mixture experiences. • Lecture Notes ta4490. to allow a stepwise reduction of the pressure. March 2004 8 . A multiple separator configuration also allows to cope with a drop in tubing head pressure (the pressure in the tubing at the wellhead). the tubing can be changedout if it is worn or corroded. Some wells have a dual completion. or an uncemented perforated or slotted pipe in the reservoir. rather than a single pressure drop. the less intermediate components disappear. The pressure in the stock tank is always atmospheric. a collection of manually or remotelycontrolled valves to shutin the well and allow access to the well with wireline tools. The downhole equipment in a well is usually referred to as the completion. but have an openhole completion (just a hole in the rock without pipe. a packer and a perforated casing. a variablesize restriction to control the flow from the well. which means two tubings. In that case it is possible to connect the well to the lowpressure separator directly. a certain amount of intermediate components disappear with the lighter ones. each producing from a different reservoir at a different depths.
however. separator equipped with measurement equipment for oil. The five wellheads are connected to four production wells and one water injector. are relative simple and are still operated manually. typically in an offshore environment. e. a separate. Lecture Notes ta4490. This is an example of artificial lift. Furthermore.g. Oil is exported to a terminal. which takes several hours to obtain accurate data. both centrifugal and reciprocating. gas and water production. the process of supplying external energy to force the wellbore liquid from the reservoir to surface. The most well known methods. Indvidual wells can be rerouted to the test separator to measure their oil. For further information on artifical lift. Such a production test. more continuous measurements are being applied.(1994). a situation that often occurs at a later stage in the life of the reservoir. with the aid of multiphase flow meters directly connected to the flowlines. Gas production often requires specialised gas treatment facilities to dry the gas and remove corrosive components such as H2S or CO2. are applied to export oil and gas or to reinject produced water or gas into the subsurface. which is the injection of gas into the wellbore to reduce the hydrostatic head of the liquid and thus to increase production. Some form of continuous measurement of pressures and temperatures at various parts of the surface production system is quite common.A special role is played by the test separator. Artificial lift is required when the reservoir pressure is too low to make the well flow naturally. Such a level of instrumentation and automated process control is quite common in expensive. (1987) or Arnold and Stewart (1998). Automatic measurements are usually stored in an electronic process control system. gas into an export pipeline. see e.g. Chilingarian et al.3: Surface facilities. March 2004 9 .g. is typically performed once a month for each well. Increasingly. especially those on land. gas separator compressor header oil & water stock tank oil oil export pump flow lines water wellheads water injection pump Figure 2. various types of pumps and compressors. Economides et al. and forms traditionally the only way to assess a well’s production. see e. Version 5c. many production facilities. Gas compression is also often used to enable gas lift. although their application is steadily growing. are pumping with beam pumps (‘nodding donkeys’) or electric submersible pumps (ESPs). high production operations. Fur further information on surface facilities. gas and water flow rates. However. small. Downhole measurements with the aid of permanent downhole gauges (PDGs) are less common. that may also allow full control of the surface facilities from a local or even remote control room. apart from gas lift.
concepts which play a key role in the branch of engineering known as systems dynamics. During the course. like a production system. We can describe the components of a production system as a network of elements connected at nodes. it is essential that we realize that we are looking at only components of a larger system. force and velocity used in mechanical systems analysis. and the pipeline may have branches with flow coming in from other fields.2 displays a production system with several nested loops.g. the facilities will consist of many components. A next step in complexity involves loops: a chain of elements with a begin and end connected to the same node. Version 5c.1) Lecture Notes ta4490. E. dt (2.3. They are examples of pairs of effort and flow variables. Reservoir Near well bore Well Choke Flow line Manifold Facilities Pipeline Figure 2. we have wasted money. For example. For example it may contain branches. one of which is a multilateral. But in performing these separate detailed analyses. the surface facilities and the pipeline could be represented as a series of elements and nodes as shown in Figure 2. formed by multiple wells. three or more elements connected at a node.1 Topology Flow through a complicated system. and the flow through chokes and flowlines. also known as energy rate or energy per unit time: p * q = V * I = F * v = M *ω = dE .1. A common feature of most pairs of effort and flow variables is that their product represents power flow. we can further refine the system model. Optimising the performance of each separate component will not normally result in an optimised system. and torque and angular velocity used also in mechanics. Figure 2. and the associated network has a more complex topology. The figure represents the simplest form of a network: a cascade or chain of elements were each node is connected to not more than two elements.2. we will examine the flow behaviour in several of the component parts: the inflow into the wells.3 System models 2. connecting two reservoirs to a single production facility. a production system is not a cascade. i.e. The manifold may have more complexity. In reality. If we look in detail at some of the other components of the system. the flow within the wells. if we improve the well inflow behaviour so much that the tubing is unable to handle the production.1: Network representation of a production system. March 2004 10 .. and temperature and heat flow.3. Other familiar pairs of effort and flow variables are the electric potential and current used in electrical network analysis. must be broken down into its component parts for analysis. the flow from the reservoir through the well.2 Flow and effort variables The interaction between the various elements in a singlephase fluid flow network can usually be described in terms of two pairs of variables: pressure and flow rate. 2.
Near well bore Lateral branch Near well bore Main bore Well Choke Flow line Upper reservoir Near well bore Well Choke Flow line Manifold Near well bore Well Choke Flow line Facilities Pipeline Lower reservoir Near well bore Well Choke Flow line Manifold Figure 2. it should be noted that the product of temperature and heat flow is not power flow. Furthermore. March 2004 11 .2: Production system represented as a network with branches and loops. together with their SI units and physical dimensions.3 Element equations In the following we consider singlephase flow of a fluid with density and viscosity that are functions of pressure and temperature. where the various symbols have been defined in Table 2. For use with field units it will be necessary to introduce numerical factors. Hydraulics Effort Symbol SI units Dimension Flow Symbol SI units Dimension Product Pressure p Pa [L1 m t2] Flow rate q m s [L3 t1] p q = dE/dt 3 1 Electricity Potential V V [L2 m q1 t2] Current I A [q t1] V I = dE/dt Translation Force F N [L m t2] Velocity v ms [L t1] F v = dE/dt 1 Rotation Torque M Nm [L2 m t2] Angular vel. Within an element of a production system. we neglect the occurrence of heat flow. and assume that the temperature distribution within the system is known.1: Analogies between system variables in different domains.1 is only valid for consistent sets of units. see Karnopp and Rosenberg (2000). ω rad s1 [t1] Mω = dE/dt Heat flow Temperature Tabs K [T] Heat fl. for example to account for differences between quantities expressed in feet and inches. pressure and temperature will generally be functions of Table 2. rate Q J [L2 m t3] TabsQ ≠ dE/dt Lecture Notes ta4490. 2. Version 5c. For an indepth treatment of system dynamics. For the sake of simplicity. such as SI units. A more consistent representation of thermal systems is possible in terms of temperature and entropy flow. Equation 2.3.1. but the resulting system description is complex and outside the scope of this course.
3) reduce to pout = f 3 pin . flow rate q(p. As a result we cannot use a single rate q to characterize the flow. wellbore inclination α(s). while in addition the interfacial tension σ comes into play.time t and spatial coordinates x. Equation (2. We need four equations to solve for the four unknowns p. The same result could have been reached by expressing qin and qout in terms of a reference flow rate at a given pressure and temperature. the situation is usually more complex. If we consider for example a wellbore element. Even so. In the oil industry such a reference flow rate is usually defined at standard conditions.ρ. pout . i. q. asphaltenes. Each of the two phases will have its own density and viscosity. and viscosity µ(p.z. and z. In the following. Here we only state that it is generally possible to solve the equations over the length of an element and express the pressure and flow rate at one end of the element in terms of the pressure and flow rate at the other end with inputoutput relationships: Rp  Sq  T out out b g. In Chapter 5 we will discuss the nature of these equations in detail.s. representing ‘typical’ atmospheric conditions: 15 °C and 100 kPa. we generally restrict ourselves to the analysis of steady state flow. Most elements. Furthermore. qin 2 in in (2. In this course.ρ.4) illustrates that singlephase flow through an element can be completely determined with a single relation between pressure and flow rate. involving a gas phase. flow independent of t. we restrict ourselves to gasliquid twophase flow. one or two liquid phases (oil and water) and sometimes even solid phases (e. and where the subscript sc indicates standard conditions. and temperature T(s) are given functions of s.T). ice). q sc .T). y. In that case equations (2.z.5) For flow in oil and gas production systems.T) (2. because we encounter multiphase flow.g.4 where f3 is another nonlinear function.q g = f 1 pin . We could have expressed equations (2. wax. = f b p . b g (2.α. Often the Lecture Notes ta4490. each of the two phases may contain a large number of hydrocarbon components in a composition that varies with pressure and temperature. Version 5c. They are usually strongly nonlinear. In theory it is also possible to derive the flow rate from the pressure drop with the aid of the inverse relation: qsc = f 4 pin .s. March 2004 12 . density ρ(p. and cannot be obtained in closed form.T).e.3) in terms of mass flow rates win = qin ρin and wout = qout ρout instead of volume flow rates qin and qout. hydrates. ρ and µ. while vertical depth from surface z(s). The density and viscosity can be computed anywhere in the element since they are a function of p and T only. we will further restrict ourselves by considering an oilgas system composed of two pseudocomponents that are present in the gas and the oil phase in a variable composition depending on the local pressure and temperature. b g (2.2) where alonghole distance s is the independent variable. however can be represented as onedimensional systems with a single spatial coordinate s. In that case we would have found that wout = win because we consider a steady state situation and therefore no mass can accumulate in an element. but may need to be determined numerically as will be treated in more detail in Chapter 5.α. we can then describe the flow behaviour with the following variables: pressure p(q.3) where f1 and f2 are functions.
however. often we know the value of one variable at each end of the cascade. 2.q = f d p . We can then start from the known values for pressure and flow rate(s) at one end of the system. qo.3.in o . the analysis could be extended to include the temperature T and heat flow rate Q in the system. The same approach can be used for the analysis of multicomponent fluid flow networks.4).in = qg. Such an analysis is outside the scope of this course. and obviously the number of equations increases with the number of components taken into account.4 System equations The inputoutput representations (2.in o . qo .pseudo components are chosen as the gas and oil that result from surface separation at standard conditions. Version 5c. the difference between flowin and flowout vanishes in the equations expressed in (component) flow rates at standard conditions. As was the case in singlephase flow. (2. A good introduction to the mathematical background of network analysis is given in Strang (1986).out d = f d p .7) shows that also for twophase flow the pressure drop over an element can be reduced to a single expression in terms of the flow rates.4 Nodal analysis 2.e. Written in capitals. However. we cannot reconstruct the flow rates from the pressure drop using the inverse of equation (2.6). to establish the correct flow rate in an iterative fashion. March 2004 13 . Therefore.in .7) alone. (2. i. In that case we need to guess the flow rate at one of the ends and repeat the marching algorithm several times. Lecture Notes ta4490. q g . Also a system with branches.in = qo. For a system with loops. In this case. With correct flow rate we mean the flow rate that gives the correct pressure at the other end.sc . q g .out = qg. in the most general situation of fully thermal compositional network analysis. d i (2.q 6 7 in in = f 5 pin . and qg. Furthermore. q g .1 Principle The analysis of cascade systems with the aid of a marching algorithm is known in the oil industry as nodal analysis. however.in i i i or pout = f 8 pin .7). or in terms of the reference component flow rates qo. qo .out = qo. q g . We can then either express the inputoutput relationships in terms of local oil and gas phase flow rates qo and qg. For example we may know the reservoir pressure and the manifold pressure at the ends of a cascade representing a single well. the situation is more complicated. but without loops. (2. 2. and needs to be analysed with techniques similar to those used in analysis of electrical networks. NODAL analysis has even been registered as a trade mark by a major service company.sc: Rp  q S q  T out o . and work our way through to the other end by using the inputoutput relations fi for the elements one after each other. we can march either from begin to end or vice versa.out g . If we know the pressure and the flow rate at one of the ends. and we need a second equation that provides information about the ratio of the flow rates qo. For any given cascade network. can be analysed using this approach.3).sc.6) and (2.sc . either upward or downward.sc and qg. Mass flow and heat flow are strongly coupled through convective heat transport and viscous dissipation.sc and qg.7) are of course perfectly suited for the analysis of cascade systems with the aid of a marching algorithm.4. Equation (2.in . we end up with a large system of coupled nonlinear equations that may require considerable computing power. such a onepass analysis is sufficient to obtain the pressures and flow rates at all nodes.in .
for a given input pressure and flow rate. Repeating this procedure for different flow rates. we work back down the well.Instead of marching all the way from one end to the other. we could plot the two pressures (topdown and bottomup) at that particular node for a large number of flow rates and determine the correct flow rate graphically. March 2004 14 . Sometimes different names are used for pressure drop calculations depending on whether the algorithm marches in the direction of the flow or against it.2 Classical procedure In traditional nodal analysis. also referred to as analysis node. This is indeed the approach followed in traditional nodal analysis of production systems. If the BHP is specified and the THP is calculated. we could just as well perform two shorter marches.sc of a well. we use a mixture of pressure drop and operating point calculations to analyse the particular feature of a production system.sc and the pressure pwf at the analysis node. as shown in Figure 2. if we specify the output pressure. each one starting at an end and finishing in a joint node. where the adjective flowing is used to distinguish the pressures from the closedin or static values for THP and BHP which occur when the well is closedin at surface. Alternatively. we may want to look at the effect of inflow performance on the production rate qo. at the entrance of the flowline just downstream of the wellhead choke. • the flowline pressure. • the flowing tubing head pressure. instead of performing the iteration automatically. Such a pq relationship we call an operating point performance curve.sc. In practice. pmf. at the bottom of the tubing. we calculate the output pressure. Furthermore. For example. popular choices for the analysis node are those representing • the flowing bottomhole pressure. this is known as a pressure drop calculation. Pressure drop calculation Operating point calculation Known p and q Analysis node Known p and q Figure 2. for a given manifold pressure. Frequently used abbreviations for (flowing) tubing head pressure and (flowing) bottomhole pressure are (F)THP and (F)BHP. For example. and calculate the input pressure for a cascade at the given flow rate.4. which was developed in the 1950s and relied on tabulated pressure drop values and graphical analysis rather than computer methods.3. just upstream of the wellhead choke. ptf. We choose the bottom of the tubing as the analysis node. if the THP is specified and the BHP is calculated. gives a relationship between the flow rate qo. For a fixed (surface) flow rate qo.3: Procedure for nodal analysis. pwf. If. pfl. Version 5c. or • the manifold pressure. it is called a pressure drop calculation. this is an operating point calculation. 2. at the end of the flowline. this is called an operating point calculation. Lecture Notes ta4490. using operating point calculations for the various components (choke and tubing) and determine the pressure at the analysis node.
1.sc.4 can be represented schematically as: p = f (q ) and p = g (q ) .8) where f and g are nonlinear functions. Typically. Lecture Notes ta4490. The two curves do not intersect. There will be two possibilities. In an operating point (p0. (2.9) p We are interested in the effect of small disturbances ~ on the flow in the neighbourhood of an operating point: p Operating point performance curve p Operating point performance curve p=g(q) Pressure drop peformance curve Pressure drop peformance curve p=f(q) q Unstable operating point Stable operating point q Figure 2. one representing a stable and one an unstable (physically unrealistic) operating point. as shown in Figure 2. near wellbore region. Right: two intersections representing two operating points. but in this section we will drop the subscript ‘o. Nodal analysis is based on the steadystate relationship between pressure drop and flow rate. 2. For example. (2. we can perform pressure drop calculations for each component (reservoir. the pq graphs are usually curved and may intersect at more than one point. Left: no intersection between curves. The flow rate q refers to the oil flow rate at standard conditions qo. March 2004 15 .) to determine a pressure drop performance curve for pwf and qo.4: Nodal analysis using performance curves. of which only one is physically realistic.3 Stability of an operating point To understand why an operating point can be unstable.Similarly. The system cannot be operated under the assumed conditions (given reservoir and manifold pressure). the operating point and pressure drop performance curves in Figure 2. 2. The curves intersect at one or more points. These two curves can be plotted on the same pq graph.4. we encounter two intersections. perforations etc.sc.4. we need to consider the dynamics of the system. q0) we find that p 0 = f (q 0 ) and p 0 = g (q 0 ) . starting from the given reservoir pressure. Because the relationship between pressure drop and flow rate is nonlinear for most elements of the production system.sc’ to avoid confusion with the subscript ‘0’ (zero) used to indicate an operating point. Version 5c.
11) and maintain only the constant and linear terms.. the initial condition becomes: ~ ~ t = 0 : q = q0 . Solving equation (2.16) ~ Equation (2. In the operating points the pressures resulting from the upstream and the downstream part have to be equal. f ′q − f in dt dt which can be rewritten as ~ ( f in + g in ) dq − ( f ′ − g ′)q = 0 . In other words. q = q0 (2.10) and subtract the results.~ ~ p0 + ~ = f (q0 + q ) and p0 + ~ = g (q0 + q ) . we obtain linear relations for ~ and q : ~ = f ′q and ~ = g ′q .16) results in (2.12) f′= FG df IJ H dq K and g ′ = q = q0 FG dg IJ H dq K .. q = q0 dg 1 d 2g 2 g = g (q0 ) + ∗ (q − q0 ) + 2 ∗ (q − q0 ) + . ~ ~ p p where f′ and g′ are constants that follow from equations (2.16) is a linear first order differential equation for q . The two equations (2.10) Because we only consider small disturbances.15) (2.14) are relationships between the pressure and the flow rate in the analysis point and represent the effect of the flow dynamics in the well upstream and downstream of that point respectively.12) by adding inertia terms. dt ~ (2.17) Lecture Notes ta4490. ~ ~ p p in in dt dt (2. dq dq 2 q = q0 q = q0 (2. we can take the Taylor expansions for f and g around q0.9) and (2. March 2004 16 . Version 5c. These accelerations cause pressure fluctuations which we can represent in equations (2.11) as: (2. We now assume that f represents the pressure drop performance curve.11) into ~ p equations (2.. The two acceleration terms have different signs because an increase in pressure in the analysis node causes a deceleration of the flow in the upstream part of the system and an acceleration of the flow in the downstream part. and therefore we can write: ~ ~ dq dq ~ ~ = g ′q + g in .14) where fin≥ 0 and gin ≥ 0. If we substitute expansions (2.. p p (2. In that case we can write ~ ~ ~ = f ′q − f dq and ~ = g ′q + g dq . we can linearize f and g.13) Small fluctuations in flow rate imply that the flow accelerates and decelerates with small amounts. and g the operating point performance curve. To obtain a complete solution we need one initial condition. defined as df 1 d2 f f = f (q0 ) + ∗ (q − q0 ) + 2 2 dq dq q = q0 2 ∗ (q − q0 ) + . If we assume that a pressure disturbance with ~ magnitude q0 takes place at time t = 0.
Referring back to Figure 2. Note that a performance curve that decreases with increasing q has a negative slope.17). Stable wellbore flow can therefore only occur at the pressure and flow rate corresponding to the operating point to the right. Because we defined that fin ≥ 0 and gin ≥ 0. With the aid of equation (2. That results in C = q0 .19) represents an exponentially growing or decreasing magnitude of disturbance ~ q with time. f in + gin FG H IJ K (2. f in + gin FG H IJ K (2.f ′ − g′ ~ q = C exp t .1 An electric motor operates with 90 % efficiency at 300 V and draws a current of 16 A.4.13) we can interpret f′ and g′ as the slopes of the pressure drop performance curve and the operating point performance curve. via a reduction gear with an efficiency of 98 %. What is the torque generated by the motor? What is the efficiency of the pump? Lecture Notes ta4490. we find that the operating point to the left is unstable. and the one to the right stable. The pump creates a pressure differential of 160 kPa at a flow rate of 22 * 103 m3/s. Version 5c. and therefore f ′ − g′ ~ ~ q = q0 exp t . 2.19) Equation (2. depending on the sign of (f′ – g′ ) / (fin + gin). The shaft of the motor rotates with 240 revolutions per minute (rpm) and drives an oil pump. March 2004 17 .18) where C is an integration constant which can be determined with the aid of initial condition ~ (2.5 Exercises 2. it is the sign of (f′ – g′ ) that determines the stability of the flow in an operating point.
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po is the oil price. Version 5c.2 displays the cumulative cash flow corresponding to Figure 3. the breakeven point or payout time (expressed in years). The annual cashflow Fk in year k can therefore be expressed as Fk = Rk − Ek = po N k − Ok − Ck − rR po N k − TR I bt . and TR is the tax rate. in the form of oil. the objective is to maximize the economic value of the project in some sense. • Environmental objectives.2 Economic objectives 3.2) where D is the depreciation function and K the number of years over which the CAPEX can be depreciated. the OPEX and the depreciation. Lecture Notes ta4490. Particular attention is paid to the importance of discounting to capture the effect of time in economic optimisation. but we will not address this issue further. In most E&P projects. i. N is the annual production. O is the OPEX. expressed as a percentage of the cumulative project CAPEX.1) where R are the revenues. OPEX is often devided in a fixed part. 3. consisting of revenues from oil or gas sales. In the context of project economics. the resulting cumulative cash flow in ‘money of the day’. Ck −K ) . Taxes are paid in the form of a percentage of the taxable income which consists of the revenues minus the sum of the royalties. technology and socioeconomic conditions. operating expenditure (OPEX). and a variable part. E are the expenses. C k +1 .1 What will be covered in this chapter? • Economic objectives. royalties and taxes.2 are given in ‘constant value money’. they do not take into account inflation.2.k = p o N k (1 − rR ) − Ok − D(C k .1. If we would take into account inflation. The sum of OPEX and CAPEX is also known as technical costs. March 2004 19 . • Constraints imposed by nature. depreciation is a fiscal tool to spread the CAPEX spent in one year over several fiscal years. the CAPEX is simply devided in equal parts over a period of K years. C is the CAPEX.k .e.1 Cash flow analysis Optimisation of a process requires a clearly defined objective together with the relevant constraints. which is a frequently used indicator of the costefficiency of production operations. . and cashout consisting of capital expenditure (CAPEX). and where Ibt is the taxable income (or income before tax) defined as I bt .1 displays a typical annual cash flow of an oil or gas development project. i. It illustrates the initial maximum exposure (expressed in $) caused by upfront investments. The sum of CAPEX and OPEX per unit volume of oil produced is known as the unit technical cost (UTC). revenues technical costs government take (3. i.e. 3. Figure 3. rR is the royalty rate. Royalties are a percentage of the oil produced and are payed either in the form of money or ‘in kind’.1 and 3. expressed as a cost per unit of liquid or gas produced.e.3 Optimisation objectives and constraints 3. • Technical objectives. Figure 3. and rules for depreciation are set by the host government. (3. the yearly difference between cashin. and the cumulative cash surplus (expressed in $) at the end of the project life. the sum of royalties and taxes as host government take. would be higher.2. when the investments are recovered through the revenues. known as straight line depreciation. In it’s simplest form.2 Discounting The cash flows in Figures 3.
1: Annual cash flow of a typical oil or gas development project. n (3. In the analysis of project economics. investments.e. n S alt (1 + Rdisc 100) discount factor (3.3) where Salt is the value in year n from the alternative investment of S expressed in $.However. March 2004 20 .4) 100 75 50 25 0 1 25 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 50 Time from start of project [years] Figure 3. i. through reducing the value of money over time to reflect the return on investment that could have been made by investing the money elsewhere. this effect is taken into account through discounting the project cash flow. and we can therefore write S alt = S (1+ Rdisc / 100 ) . Rdisc is the discount rate in % per year. S is the sum of money invested in year 0 in $. The value of a sum S to be paid or received in year n should therefore be reduced to a discounted value Sdisc according to S disc = S ∗ S 1 =S∗ . Lecture Notes ta4490. The interest rate of this imaginary alternative investment is known as the discount rate. more profitable. we will take into account another effect: Money has a tendency of apparently loosing its value during the course of a project because it could have been used for other. and n is the number of years since the investment. Version 5c.
g. Because of the large influence of oil prices on revenues and therefore on E&P project economics. which effectively results in a reduced expenditure. see e. and sometimes expensive completion concepts may be justified based on their potential to speed up production. Lecture Notes ta4490. at a cost of 800.089 m tubing right from the start. Discounting is a method to quantify the effect that it is economically attractive to receive payments as early as possible: until they have been received they cannot be used by the receiver to make a return on investment and therefore gradually loose value.000 $.089 m (3½ inch) tubing at a cost of 160. Seba (1998).1. March 2004 21 . during which time it will produce just as if it were completed with a 0. This involves comparison of a large number of development concepts.900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 100 200 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 maximum exposure 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 NPV@10% NPV@15% breakeven point NPV@5% ultimate cash surplus (NPV@0%) Time from start of project [years] Figure 3. Conversely. Version 5c. the NPV is usually quoted together with the oil price and the discount rate used for its computation. resulting in a production rate according to columns 4 and 5 of Table 3. An important aspect is the phasing of the investments. the well could be completed with a 0. because until the money actually changes hands. the objective is maximization of the NPV within the constraints of the project. in particular during the FDP phase.000 $ for the workover.3 Example A well could be completed with a 0. During the design phase of a development project. where the multiplication factor at the righthand side is known as the discount factor.2: Cumulative cash flow corresponding to the values of Figure 3. it is economically attractive to delay expenses.089 m tubing. Similarly. because it has been discounted.1. the spending party can use it to make a return. 3. The expected daily production rates are given in allowable SI units and field units in columns 2 and 3 of Table 3.1.000 $. will extend the life of the well with another 6 years.2. usually in combination with a number of potential subsurface models to reflect geological uncertainties.102 m completion will stop producing after 8 years because of lift dieout caused by an increased watercut. Reservoir simulations indicate that the 0. The discounted cumulative cash surplus of a project is often referred to as the net present value (NPV) at a particular discount rate. Alternatively. because money spent at a later date has effectively a lower value. For a more detailed treatment of cash flow analysis and other aspects of petroleum economics. Recompletion with a 0.102 m (4 inch) tubing at a cost of 210. oil produced during the early days of the project has a more beneficial effect on the NPV than oil produced at a later date.
8 24.089 m (3½ inch) 0.1: Daily production rates for two tubing sizes.5 141. assume that the government take is only in the form of a 20% royalty.3 119.0 91. After year 9.114 m (4 inch) tubing tubing 3 3 m /d bpd m /d bpd 890 1 119.3 750 141.0 750 750 725 575 350 200 175 155 140 130 125 120 50 141. Time Production rate Production rate (year) 0.7 19. March 2004 22 .000 $ in year 9 for the workover and recompletion.Table 3. The differential annual cash flow. (3. The discounted differential annual cash flow ∆Fdisc is obtained by reducing the value of ∆F according to equation (3. Column 4 displays the differential annual expenses ∆E. As displayed at the Lecture Notes ta4490.2 displays the differential daily oil production ∆qo of the two completions. in other words.4) resulting in ∆Fdisc = ∆F (1 + Rdisc 100 ) n . there is no difference in revenues or expenses.1 15.6 22.3 20.3 115. the differential NPV.0 890 890 830 575 265 100 25 Question: What is the most economic completion under an assumption of an oil price of 15 $/bbl.7 31. and column 3 the associated yearly differential revenues ∆R computed as: ∆R = po ∗ ∆qo ∗ 365 . and no taxes are being paid. taking into account the 20% royalties. can be expressed as ∆F = (1 − 0.000 $ in year 1 because of the difference in initial completion costs. They are zero except for 50. and we do not have to consider this period in the rest of the analysis.5) where po is the oil price in $/bbl.9 19.4 55. Answer: Column 2 of Table 3.6) Summation of the discounted differential annual cash flow results in the discounted cumulative differential cash surplus. Version 5c.5 132.2 ) ∗ ∆R − ∆E and is given in column 5. and 800. (3. and using a discount rate of 12%? To simplify the analysis.1 8.4 42.3 91.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 119.9 4.8 27.
875 0 465. see exercise 3.839 436.2.3 above.7) In that case the EMV of the tubing changeout option would be given by Ve = 0. The reason for the difference is the strong production increase during early years which is much heavier weighted than the reduced production and the workover costs later in time.848 + 0.2: Differential NPV calculation.500 766.000.bottom of column 6 of Table 3. but a 20 % chance that it takes about two weeks. For example the time to remove the packer and the tubing from a well during a workover may vary strongly because of corrosion and ageing of the packer elements. Table 3. suggesting that the recompletion option is unattractive.000 17. Applying this situation to the example given in Section 3. Version 5c. 610 $ . For example.200 613.351 288.200 613. Sometimes it is possible to make an estimate of the probability of occurrence of uncertain events.000 800.129 265.800 Discounted differential annual cash flow ($) 502. which clearly indicates that under a 15 $/bbl oil price and a 12 % discount rate it is economical to initially complete the well with the larger size tubing and pay for the extra costs of the workover in year 9.200 459.2.500 574.619 198.8) Lecture Notes ta4490. and in that case one can compute the riskweighted NPV of the project which is also known as the expected monetary value (EMV).488 779. the discounted additional costs would be 1. 000.000 657.2 ∗ ( 779. 000 (1 + 12 100 ) 9 = 360.000 $/d such a delay of 10 days would mean an increase in the workover costs of 1.4. operational experience in a certain area may have revealed that there is an 80% chance of performing a tubing changeout in 4 days.275 0 188.000 850. the undiscounted cumulative differential cashflow is just negative.464 292.250 Differential annual expenses ($) 50.4 Treatment of uncertainties Geological or operational uncertainties may have an effect on the economics of a production optimisation project.8 ∗ 779.000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 800. (3.500 766. However.300 438.900 0 372. (3.848 − 360.2.857 488. 726 $. Note: A further improvement in NPV could be obtained by changing out the tubing earlier.375 547. March 2004 23 .000 $.040.500 821.250 0 1.000 Differential annual cash flow ($) 563. 610 ) = 707. At a rig rate of 100.000 dollar. Time (year) Differential production rate (bpd) 140 140 140 105 0 85 100 150 190 Differential annual revenue ($) 766.848 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3. the discounted differential cashflow equals nearly 780.
3. A production system is designed to transfer hydrocarbons at the point of delivery to the customer. may in some instances be acceptable. including waste generation and handling.3. however. Often. The major waste stream from a production process is water. Environmental objectives can be specified in terms of allowable limits such as the amount of residual oil in discharged water. improperly designed components in a well may result in unstable flow. pressure and composition. also gas is often considered an unwanted byproduct. this is not possible and environmental objectives have to be balanced against economic objectives.3 Environmental objectives Economic aspects of an oil and gas development project cannot be considered in isolation from the environmental aspects and the social impact on the population in the neighbourhood. Thus an important technical objective is to design the production system such that it can sustain the required system capacity or throughput.4 Technical objectives During the design process of a production system it is often not feasible to directly assess the economic and environmental consequences of technical solutions. or.g. the amount of hydrocarbons vented during processing. A related technical objective is to ensure a production stream that will remain stable over a considerable part of the of the producing life of the reservoir. Sometimes it is possible to translate environmental objectives directly into economic ones. after treatment to minimize the oilinwater content. Therefore. Version 5c. both during the field development process. in case of gas projects. For further information on environmental aspects of oil and gas production see e. and minimization of the land take by production facilities and pipelines. Lecture Notes ta4490. This involves matching of the various components in the flow path from the reservoir to the point of delivery to ensure maximum flow rate at a given pressure drop. Unfortunately. that can serve as intermediate goals during the development and production processes. surface disposal (flaring) of gas is almost never. and return waste products to the subsurface or treatment facilities. in particular when there is a possibility that produced water may pollute freshwater bearing aquifers. making allowance of course for normal downtime. in particular when there is no local market to sell it. March 2004 24 . Waste management should focus on minimization. Essential in an upfront reduction of the environmental impact of a development process is to consider the process of hydrocarbon production from cradle to grave. reuse. it is necessary to specify technical objectives. The most widely accepted solution for produced water and gas disposal is reinjection in the subsurface. as well as during the producing life of the field. Other commonly encountered environmental objectives are minimization of the discharges from drilling and workover operations. Minimization of water and gas production are therefore usually the most important environmental objectives. or minimum pressure drop at a given flow rate. As will be shown during the course. This may lead to field development with deviated wells and clustered wellheads in a small number of surface locations. in the worst case no flow at all. national or international legislation or from an oil company’s own policies and environmental targets. The delivery commitment for hydrocarbons is usually in terms of volume and. Disposal of produced water at sea. Reis (1996). These limits may originate from local. or the noise level of production facilities. during production operations it may be impossible to directly assess the consequences of operational activities. Similarly. This optimisation process should take into account that the reservoir pressure and the composition of produced fluids change drastically over the life of the reservoir. for example through imposing a financial penalty on discharges. and recycling of waste and only thereafter consider the best option for disposal. although this is also not without environmental risks. and abandonment of the facilities.
both in the development phase as well as in the production phase of the petroleum life cycle. the idea is that these shortterm losses are offset against the longer term benefits of standardized equipment. you may want to use the MATLAB routines available from Blackboard.9 5 2. Location: In particular the difference between onshore and offshore has dramatic consequences. Time: Lead time for the procurement of well tubulars or production equipment may exceed many months and is often more than a year.2 What is the NPV of the following cash flow at discount rates of 0 and 15%? Table 3. In deep offshore locations well construction and well servicing are extremely costly and therefore justify development concepts that would not be economically onshore.5 6 1.Technical objectives during production are usually shortterm production targets or facility utilization rates. i. the time spent on engineering and design optimisation needs to be balanced against the economic objective to produce oil as early as possible. and cost reduction. As already discussed in Section 1.3 2 1.1 What is the discounted value of a sum of 10*106 $ after 5. Legislation and regulations: Legislation. The most important longerterm technical objective is maximizing ultimate recovery.5 Constraints Many constraints have to be taken into account during production optimisation. Also. production from different reservoirs through a single tubing.3: Undiscounted cash flow Time (year) Cash flow (106 $) 1 5. Opportunities for well modification or repair (workover) may be restricted by limited availability of workover rigs. Similar effects have the presence of aggressive components such as H2S or CO2 in the reservoir fluids. March 2004 . Version 5c. or vice versa.zip’. 3.2. Sometimes environmental objectives can be considered as constraints for economic or technical optimisation. 3. Reservoir and fluid properties: High reservoir pressures and temperatures can severely influence the design of wells and processing facilities. Rig capacity and availability: The scope for complicated wells may be reduced by technical limits of the available drilling rigs. 3. in particular hoisting and pumping capacity required for extendedreach wells. short term production optimisation and longer term reservoir management are closely linked.4 25 Lecture Notes ta4490. Alternatively.. see the file ‘Economics. Many more constraints may be encountered during the various activities involved in production optimisation. Obviously.6 Exercises Cash flow calculations can be most easily performed with the aid of a spreadsheet. the extent to which development expenses can be treated as CAPEX or OPEX can lead to major differences in taxation for different development concepts.8 4 3. Furthermore. E. Standardization: Oil company regulations for standardization sometimes limit the scope for detailed optimisation of a design on a project by project basis. such as simplified maintenance and reduced stock levels of spare parts.g. Make sure you inspect the content of the routines to understand their functionality.e. tax regimes and operating agreements with the host government may influence the development concept. many governments do not allow commingled production.2 3 1. 10 and 20 years at a discount rate of 7%? 3.
9.5 Lecture Notes ta4490. Make use of the ML well drilling sequence presented in Table 3.10 4. Make a quick reevaluation of the two options. but that the long lead time for equipment makes the proposal unattractive. March 2004 26 .4 below.6 1.2.4: Drilling sequence for conventional and ML wells Year Conv. The FDP project team responds that they have looked into this option.8. The wells are expected to produce according to Table 3. at a cost of 8 million $ per well.5.4. and the cash flow analysis for a well drilled in year 1 presented in Table 3.5. Disregard royalties and taxes. starting the year after they have been drilled. because the first two wells would be delayed by a year. well ML well 1 1. Is there a better option? Table 3. The asset manager challenges the FDP and states that an aggressive use of multilateral (ML) wells could improve the project economics. at a cost of 5 million $ each. He states that 5 ML wells could give the same production as the 10 proposed wells. The oil company’s guidelines for project screening use an oil price of 15 $/bbl and a discount rate of 15%.3 3 7. phased as indicated in Table 3.3.4.3 In a field development plan (FDP) it is proposed to drill 10 wells.2 2 3. Version 5c.5.
128 0.38 26.18 0.19 1.83 2.01 53.110 0.146 0.32 2.64 1.63 41.19 1.92 1.67 5.74 2.64 1.95 52.20 0.69 10.40 7.64 1.70 17.46 56.64 1.64 5.64 1.80 56.89 m (3½ inch) tubing.00 56.57 55.825 1.365 0.63 49.256 0.28 7.74 2.12 0.54 0.30 55.46 46.40 7. cash flow (106 $) 4.36 33.511 0.752 0.27 0. Version 5c.64 1.58 54.4 Consider the example in Section 3.78 0.17 3.5: Production profile and cash flow analysis for a conventional well drilled in year 1.48 3.68 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 0 5000 4800 2500 1900 1400 1000 700 500 400 350 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 0. March 2004 27 .110 0 27.33 56.18 56.64 1. How far should the oil price drop before changing out the tubing becomes unattractive at a discount rate of 12%? Lecture Notes ta4490.64 1.23 0.110 0. (106 bbl) Cash in (106 $) Cash out (106 $) Cash flow (106 $) Cash flow @ 15% (106 $) 4.110 0.00 5.64 1.183 0.110 0.06 1.92 1.64 1.Table 3.110 0.83 2.64 1.26 54.35 16. disc.58 56.913 0.00 27.48 3.694 0.67 5. Year Oil rate (bpd) Yearly prod.31 0.64 1.2.28 13.25 0.41 0.69 10.35 20.64 1.110 0.64 3.04 54.38 26.64 1.102 m (4 inch) tubing for the 0.110 0.99 55.3. Determine the optimal time to change out the 0.10 Cum.110 0.64 1.000 1.64 1.83 5.13 0.15 0.28 13.
.
oil and water. • Black oil and volatile oil models. temperature.e.g. Fredenslund and Thomassen (1989).1 and B. In the E&P industry. Therefore it suffices to know only two of the three variables to completely specify the state of an oilgas mixture. For further engineeringoriented information see also Whitson and Brulé (2000). To what extent the various components of a reservoir fluid mixture are in the liquid or the gas phase is fully determined by the composition of the mixture.1 What will be covered in this chapter? • The most common fluid properties used in petroleum engineering. • The pressuretemperature phase diagram. like pressure. In this course we will not consider the effect of the presence of a solid phase as may occur when e. this requires knowledge of the phase behaviour of the mixture. the thermodynamic condition. determination of the fluid properties is an important activity. 4. Danesh (1998). often called bottomhole samples.g. the state variables: pressure. The composition is usually specified in terms of fractions of the various components per kmol or lbmmole of fluid sample.4 Properties of reservoir fluids 4. Moran and Shapiro (1998).e. asphaltenes or waxes are present. the type and relative quantity of each component in the fluid mixture. and a minimal set of fluid properties.4 below. An overview of the subject was given in course ta 3410 ‘Properties of hydrocarbons and oilfield fluids’. The term separator gas usually refers to gas at a slightly higher than atmospheric pressure. and the properties of the fluids at a wide range of pressures and temperatures. March 2004 29 . can be collected from the bottom of the wellbore with the aid of specialized wire line tools. During the exploration and appraisal phase of an oil or gas field. see Zitha and Currie (2000). of the fluid mixture in each point of the production system. samples can be collected from the production stream to surface if a well test is performed.7 psi) and a temperature Tsc = 15 °C (60 °F). Fluid samples. which can be considered as typical for atmospheric conditions in temperate climates. known as standard conditions: a pressure psc = 100 kPa (14. and the associated classification of reservoirs types and hydrocarbon fluids. • Black oil correlations. It is customary to specify fluid properties at a reference state. Specialized laboratories perform pressurevolumetemperature (PVT) analyses to determine the composition. gas at surface conditions sometimes as stock tank gas. The state variables are related to each other through an equation of state (EOS).2 in Appendix B. where we consider oil and water as different phases because they are immiscible. The fluid properties that are of most interest for production engineering calculations are: Lecture Notes ta4490. Ahmed (1989) or Pedersen. We usually distinguish three distinct phases: gas. i. volume and temperature. this is done through the definition of a reference pressure and temperature. can have a strong influence on the flow in a well and the production rate.2 Fluid properties The thermodynamic properties of reservoir fluids. and should not be confused with gas at standard conditions. McCain (1990). i. Apart from the thermodynamic properties of the components. Some important properties of the most frequently encountered reservoir fluid components have been reproduced in Tables B. Also. see Whitson and Brulé (2000). For a good description of the reporting of other properties. Version 5c. density or viscosity. while for a more theoretical treatment see Firoozabadi (1999). Oil at standard conditions is often referred to as stock tank oil. To analyse multiphase flow of hydrocarbons in production systems we need to know the state. an algebraic relationship that will be discussed in more detail in Section 4. For a general introduction to thermodynamics see e.
97 kg kmol1 (lbm lbmmole1). Gas 30 Lecture Notes ta4490. but it is dependent on the choice of units (m3/m3 or stb/scf). This is the volume of stock tank oil which will vaporize in a unit volume of stock tank gas. However it is common to also use the API gravity γAPI. this is the volume of stock tank oil (or condensate) which will vaporize in a unit volume of stock tank gas. The formation water will contain many dissolved salts. The producing OGR rp is therefore equal to the solution OGR rs at (or above) dew point pressure and at reservoir temperature. ‘stb’ indicates ‘standard barrel’ or ‘bbl at standard conditions’. both measured at standard conditions. March 2004 . when both are transferred to the dew point pressure at reservoir temperature. this is the density of the oil in kg/m3. The abbreviation ‘scf’ indicates ‘standard cubic feet’ or ‘ft3 at standard conditions’. both measured at standard conditions.5 * 103 / (131. all gas is dissolved in the oil. This is the pressure at which first gas is formed when oil is subjected to a decreasing pressure at a given temperature.5 / (131. The latter is the density of the gas relative to air. The oilgas ratio (OGR) plays an important role in the production of gascondensates. The same indication is also used for oil after it has released its gas during the separation process at surface. Solution gasoil ratio Rs. but it is dependent on the choice of units (m3/m3 or scf/stb).4 lbm ft3 or 8.sc = 999 kg m3 (62. Rp can be determined from a laboratory analysis of a bottomhole sample in a socalled separator test or flash test where oil at bubble point pressure and reservoir temperature is brought to standard conditions. Going deeper down in the reservoir.3 * 103 lbm ft3). Bubble point pressure pb. This is the volume of stock tank gas which will dissolve in a unit volume of stock tank oil when both are transferred to bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature. which is the density of the oil relative to that of pure water.• • • • • • • • Oil density at standard conditions ρo. Solution oilgas ratio rs.sc. In field units. This is equal to the ratio of the gas molar mass M to the molar mass of air. is a ratio of volumes. and hence dimensionless. and the oil is gassaturated. when both are transferred to the given pressure and temperature conditions. the pressure increases. The same comments on dimensions apply as were made for rs. Version 5c. In SI units. but dependent on the choice of units (m3/m3 or scf/stb). which is the density of the formation water relative to that of pure water. However. Water density at standard conditions ρw. and hence dimensionless. ρair. which is related to the specific gravity as γo = 141. If the pressure at the top of a reservoir is above the bubble point pressure. and is therefore also referred to as solution condensategas ratio or simply condensategas ratio (CGR). if the top part of the reservoir is below bubble point pressure. Just like Rs. which is also referred to as gas solubility. both measured at standard conditions. Oil with a very low producing GOR is often referred to as dead oil.sc or gas specific gravity γg. Rs.5 + γAPI).5 + γAPI). and therefore to the density as ρo = 141. Gas density at standard conditions ρg. ρw. The bubble point pressure is therefore also known as the saturation pressure. and hence dimensionless. This is the volume of stock tank gas which will dissolve in a unit volume of stock tank oil when both are transferred to the given pressure and temperature conditions.34 lbm gal1).23 kg m3 (76. Also rs is a ratio of volumes. a gas cap exists. Producing oilgas ratio rp.sc =1. Mair = 28. oil density is usually specified by the oil specific gravity γo. The producing gasoil ratio (GOR) Rp is therefore equal to the solution GOR Rs at (or above) bubble point pressure and at reservoir temperature.sc or water specific gravity γw. In analogy to the producing GOR. and when the bubble point pressure is reached we encounter the gasoil contact (GOC). Producing gasoil ratio Rp. Rp is a ratio of volumes. An equivalent measurement is therefore the NaCl equivalent water salinity.
Also Bw is dimensionless. Gas formation volume factor Bg. with SI units Pa s or field units cp. At standard conditions qo.• • • • • with a very low producing OGR is referred to as dry gas. in theory. Bg is also a dimensionless ratio of volumes. Bo is usually specified at reservoir conditions pR and TR. Interfacial tensions σog. This is the volume occupied by a unit volume of gas at standard conditions.1: Oil and gas volume flows at different pressures. Oil formation volume factor Bo. Bw usually has a value very close to one.sc Rs rs 1 1 qg. and. because of the low compressibility and low gas solubility capacity of water. however to a much lesser extent than in flow through porous media. but in field units different definitions can be used. σgw. this is the volume occupied by a unit volume of water at standard conditions.sc At downhole conditions qo Bo oil gas Bg qg Figure 4. The viscosities are strongly varying functions of temperature. Water formation volume factor Bw. where it will include dissolved gas. or bbl/scf). it is independent of the choice of units (m3/m3 or bbl/stb). transferred to another condition with a given pressure p and temperature T. Bo is a ratio of volumes. gas and water viscosities: Usually the dynamic viscosities are used. These quantities. Lecture Notes ta4490. transferred to another condition with a given pressure p and temperature T. and hence dimensionless. leading to a dependency on the choice of units (m3/m3. Version 5c. March 2004 31 . play a role in multiphase flow behaviour in production systems. Oil. ft3/scf. transferred to another condition with a given pressure p and temperature T. σow . but in production engineering. where it will include the oil that was present as condensate at standard conditions. Note that the same indication is also used for gas after it has been dried during processing at surface. Not surprisingly. but independent of the choice of units (m3/m3 or bbl/stb). They occasionally occur in models for multiphase flow through pipes. unlike the GOR and OGR. In reservoir engineering. Bo may also be specified at other conditions that occur in between the reservoir and the separator. This is the volume occupied by one stock tank unit volume of oil.
When an amount of Bo m3 of oil at downhole conditions is brought to surface it yields one m3 of stock tank oil. When production engineers refer to the producing GOR.sc + qw. The same comments on dimensions apply as were made for rs. gas is liberated to form a twophase Lecture Notes ta4490. both measured at standard conditions.sc / (qo. When producing oil from a reservoir above bubble point pressure.sc + qw. March 2004 32 .sc. and is therefore also referred to as CGR. A third frequently used process parameter concerns the combined production of water and oil: • Wateroil ratio Rwo. This is the volume of water produced at surface together with a unit volume of oil. Although the oil itself slightly expands under reducing pressure. Sometimes the concept of base sediment and water (BSW) is used to indicate the amount of solids and water as a fraction of the total amount of solids and liquids in the wellbore flow. if the bubblepoint line is crossed when coming from the liquid phase. the gas still expands so much under reducing pressure. the fluid property.e. and Rgo may be considerably above Rp. Or.sc). where 1/Bo < 1. the escaping gas makes the oil effectively shrink when it comes to surface. when one m3 of oil at downhole conditions is brought to surface it yields 1/Bo m3 of stock tank oil and Rs/Bo m3 of stock tank gas. An alternative measure is the watercut: the fraction (or percentage) of water in the total volume of produced liquids (oil and water) measured at standard conditions: fw. Oil with a zero or very low wateroil ratio (WOR) is often referred to as dry oil. 4.sc / qo. they usually mean Rgo. Version 5c. Therefore the ratio 1/Bo is known as the shrinkage factor. the OGR plays an important role in the production of gascondensates. when an amount of Bg m3 of gas at downhole conditions is brought to surface it yields one m3 of stock tank gas.sc. Even at large amounts of condensate dropout. and rs m3 of stock tank oil (condensate).sc. Rgo will be identical to Rp. rs and rp defined above are two frequently used process parameters: • Gasoil ratio Rgo.2 displays the phase diagram for a hydrocarbon mixture. Moving from left to right at a pressure above the cricondenbar we experience a gradual transition from liquid to gas.sc / (qo. i.1. As mentioned before.sc / qo. or. This is the ratio of the gas and oil flow rates measured at surface during actual production: Rgo = qg. Because the amount of solids is usually very low. that the ratio 1/Bg is always much larger than one. they mean Rp. the BSW value is in practice almost identical to the watercut. These quantities are also referred to as the actual GOR and GLR. • Oilgas ratio rog. To the right of the dewpoint line the system acts as a gas. In analogy to the GOR. free gas may be produced from the gas cap together with the associated gas that is released from the oil during its travel up the wellbore. and Rs m3 of stock tank gas. Similarly. To the left of the bubblepoint line.sc). and independent on the choice of units (m3/m3 or stb/stb). and therefore to Rs at bubble point pressure and reservoir temperature. if the reservoir is below bubble point pressure. Rp.3 Pressuretemperature phase diagram Figure 4. In gas engineering it is common practice to use the symbol E to indicate this gas expansion factor: E = 1/Bg.A simple interpretation of the oil and gas formation volume factors is depicted in Figure 4. confusingly. the process parameter. in terms of flow rates: Rwo = qw. However. the system acts as a single phase liquid and all the gas is dissolved. or. when reservoir engineers refer to the producing GOR. However.e. as the producing GOR and GLR. In general. this is the ratio of the oil and gas flow rates measured at surface: rog = qo. Related to the fluid properties Rs. Both measures are dimensionless.sc = qw. If water is present in the production stream we can extend the concept of the GOR to a gasliquid ratio (GLR) Rgl = qg. where E and Bg are both expressed in m3/m3 or ft3/ft3. i.sc / qg.
which is called retrograde condensation. p Gascondensate reservoir Oil reservoir Cricondenbar Dry gas reservoir e bl ub B 100% tl in po e in Critical point 60% 30% Precentage liquid 10% 0% w De in po tl in e Cricondentherm T Figure 4. they stay behind in the matrix while the gas is produced.. an increasing amount of gas comes out of solution. if the dew point line is crossed when coming from the gas phase. March 2004 33 . As a result. Although it appears from the phase diagram that at even lower pressures the condensate would return to the gas phase again. the reservoir pressure will drop while the reservoir temperature remains unchanged. the reservoir fluid composition changes and the entire phase diagram changes its form and moves to the right such that vaporization of the remaining condensate will never occur. During production of a gascondensate reservoir. and initial temperatures between the critical temperature and the cricondentherm. During production of a reservoir. may seem somewhat counterintuitive because we usually experience condensation when the pressure of a gasliquid mixture increases rather than decreases. the distinction between liquid and gas cannot be made. • Gascondensate reservoirs have initial pressures above the dew point line.2: Phase diagram for a hydrocarbon system.2 is the classification of reservoir types based on this diagram. because at that particular pressure and temperature the liquid and gas phases have identical densities. liquid condenses. condensation occurs when the pressure drops below the dew point line.system. Also shown in Figure 4. this is usually not the case. Because the condensed liquids are much less mobile than the gas. Lecture Notes ta4490. At the critical point. • Saturated oil reservoirs or gas cap reservoirs have initial pressures already below the bubble point line. Version 5c. gas is liberated and a gas cap is formed. Moving further towards the dew point line. This can be represented by a vertical line in pT space. • Dry gas reservoirs have temperatures to the right of the cricondentherm and do not experience this problem. This effect. • Undersaturated oil reservoirs have initial pressures above the bubble point line and temperatures to the left of the critical point. Conversely. When the line crosses the bubble point line.
see Whitson and Brulé (2000). As shown in Figure 4.Using a similar terminology but a slightly different classification.4 Equations of state 4. so there is a shrinkage in the volume of oil. it follows a path in pT space in which gas is liberated and expands as it goes up the tubing. The K values allow us to compute the composition of the liquid and the gas phases in a multiphase fluid mixture at any given pressure and temperature. volume and temperature. Lecture Notes ta4490.3. all properties of hydrocarbon mixtures as required in production engineering can be determined. • Dry gas: a gas or gas/condensate for which the producing condensategas ratio rp < 30 m3/million m3 (about 5 stb/million scf).2. 4. an equation of state (EOS) specifies an algebraic relationship between state variables. More specifically. we can use an EOS to determine the socalled equilibrium factors (K values) that are needed to describe the equilibrium between components in the liquid and the vapour phase. Version 5c. When producing from a gas reservoir. As a result. In particular. this may result in condensation of liquids and the formation of wet gas.1 Vapourliquid equilibrium As discussed in Section 4. Danesh (1998) or Firoozabadi (1999). we address the relationship between pressure. March 2004 34 . p Path in pT space in e Reservoir pressure and temperature b Bu e bl p n oi tl Bottomhole pressure and temperature Wellhead pressure and temperature tl e in Terminal pressure and temperature w De p n oi T Figure 4. require a level of numerical computation outside the scope of this course.4. • Gas condensate: gascondensate for which the producing condensategas ratio rp > 30 m3/million m3 (about 5 stb/million scf). unlike the pressure drop in the reservoir. Furthermore. provided an accurate compositional description is available from laboratory experiments on fluid samples. For more information on the EOSbased approach. we can distinguish four categories of hydrocarbon fluids: • Black oil: oil for which the producing gasoil ratio Rp < 350 m3/m3 (about 2000 scf/stb).3: Path in pT space as the oil/gas mixture flows from the reservoir to the terminal. the amount of liquid decreases. when oil flows up the production tubing. These so called flash calculations or liquidliquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations that use an EOS to determine the K values. the pressure drop in the tubing is accompanied by a drop in temperature. With the aid of such an EOS. • Volatile oil: oil for which the producing gasoil ratio Rp > 350 m3/m3 (about 2000 scf/stb). which is isothermal.
8) can be interpreted as a differential equation in V and p that allows for separation of variables: Lecture Notes ta4490. (lbmmole) R is the universal gas constant equal to 8314 J K1 kmol1. Tabs is absolute temperature K. kg. (lbm ft3) M is molar mass. sc = ρ g . Approximate relationships valid at higher pressures are given by pV = nZRTabs . ρg is gas density. 4. T (4.4. the specific gravity γg and the density ρg. per unit of volume V.5 in Appendix B.4. (°R). kg m3. or pV = mZRTabs p ZRTabs or = . kmol.5. at constant temperature T: co p = − bg 1 ∂V V ∂p FG IJ H K .3 Singlephase oil compressibility Oil compressibility is usually described with the aid of an experimentally determined compressibility coefficient that is itself a function of pressure. which is also known as the molecular weight. (lbm). m is mass. V is volume. ρg M M (4. but it is often still assumed that the expansion occurs isothermally. sc p T Z . When flowing through the wellbore to surface.5 of Appendix A for the numerical relationship between the molar mass M. 4. although with a compressibility coefficient that gradually changes with decreasing pressure and temperature. the fluid mixture gradually cools down.3) p is pressure.7) 4. 4. kg kmol1.4.8) An empirical correlation for co is given in Section B.73 psia ft3 °R1 lbmmole1). abs Z sc ρg (4. Version 5c. temperature and composition. Correlations developed by Standing and Katz (1942) are normally used to extend this relationship to hydrocarbon gas mixtures. (psia). 4.6) where Z is the gas deviation factor. See Section A.1. (10. sc = Vg Vg . The large heat capacity of an oil reservoir allows the assumption that oil expansion in the reservoir during production is an isothermal process. = sc abs pTsc . = ρg M M (4. (ft3) n is the amount of gas. An expression for the gas formation volume factor follows from the gas law for nonideal gasses as: Bg = qg qg . Pa. (lbm (lbmmole)1). see Appendix B. also known as the gas compressibility factor or simply the Z factor. The isothermal oil compressibility coefficient co is defined as the (negative) increase in volume per unit of pressure. The relationship between the properties of an ideal gas follow from the EOS known as the ideal gas law which can be expressed as pV = nRTabs or pV = where mRTabs p RTabs or . March 2004 35 . m3. Equation (4.2. ∂V/∂p.2.4.sc. The ideal gas law is only valid at pressures much below those normally encountered in the E&P industry.2 Singlephase gas compressibility Another use of an EOS is to describe the change in volume of oil or gas under changing pressure and temperature.
12) where the values of pb and ρob can be determined from laboratory experiments or from empirical correlations as discussed in Appendix B. and a full compositional analysis taking into account all components would be very time consuming. leading to ρo = ρob exp co ( p − pb ) for p > pb. the prediction of PVT properties. Therefore it is customary to lump these into a pseudo component.5 Oil models 4. Such a twocomponent model or binary mixture model is too crude to accurately describe the behaviour of gascondensate systems. Vo.1 Compositional models In a compositional model of a twophase hydrocarbon mixture. Because the density ρο is inversely proportional to the volume V we can also write equation (4.10) can be interpreted as an equation of state which describes the PVT behaviour of singlephase oil.13) 4. Furthermore. in particular those with a high molar mass. can be performed by combining a compositional analysis with a semiempirical EOS.9). usually referred to as heavies and lights. (4.5. Hydrocarbon mixtures may consist of many tens of components. and assume that the dependence of co on p is small enough to linearize the righthand side of equation (4. March 2004 36 .11) A natural choice for the reference pressure pref is the bubble point pressure at temperature T.10) as ρ o = ρ o . sc exp −co ( p − pb ) = Bob exp −co ( p − pb ) .9) We define a ‘boundary condition’ by specifying that V(pref) = Vref. it is usually sufficient to describe the behaviour of black oils or even volatile oils. However. (4. one for the lighter and one for the heavier hydrocarbons. and therefore of the formation volume factors Bg and Bo. equation (4. In its most simple form. (4. sc ρo ρob (4. it is often quite difficult to accurately establish the amount and the properties of all components. Version 5c. V bg d (4. the so called the heavy fractions. in this course we will follow a simpler approach as described in the following section.ref exp co ( p − pref ) . The solution can then be written as: V = Vref exp − co p − pref i . a compositional model consists of only two pseudo components. For pressures above the bubble point pressure the oil formation volume factor is therefore given by: Bo = ρ ρ Vo = o.10) Remembering that co is a function of p and T. This is typically done for heptane and all heavier fractions.∂V = − co p ∂p . 4. the composition of the liquid and the gas phase are functions of pressure and temperature and need to be determined with flash calculations using an EOS.4 Multiphase gas and oil compressibility For a multicomponent oilgas mixture.4. Lecture Notes ta4490. sc = o. in which case the pseudo component is referred to as C7+. However.
18.1 to derive similar matrix expressions for the volume flow rates. sc w . Several varieties of the volatile oil model have been developed. 4.17) can be interpreted as equations of state. sc OP PP Q or LM ρ MM ρ Nρ g . 4. and therefore we will only use an even further simplified model. and thermal expansion for water are so small that they can be neglected. as described in the following section.1 we can derive the mass balance equations for oil and gas that are brought from downhole conditions to standard conditions: Bo ρ o = ρ o . Lecture Notes ta4490. sc w . that accounts for compositional variations in both the liquid and the gas phase.19) has been obtained with the aid of Cramer’s rule for inversion of a matrix.14. with the aid of the oil and gas formation volume factors Bo and Bg and the solution gasoil and oilgas ratios Rs. March 2004 37 . Rs and rs as a function of pressure and temperature is usually done with the aid of PVT tests and compositional analysis.5. The inverse relationship (4. This is outside the scope of our course. Bg ρ g = ρ g . The change in state with changing pressure and temperature is then described in terms of the change in densities of the oil and gas phases. sc = B qw. They can be conveniently written in matrix form. sc . and if we also include the water density this results in LM 1 LM ρ OP MM B R MM ρ PP = MM B Nρ Q M 0 MN g g s o o w rs Bg 1 Bo 0 OP PPLM ρ 0P M ρ PPMNρ 1 PQ 0 g .sc (or γg) in SI units.sc + ρ g .15) ρo = ρ o .sc Bo and ρ g = rs ρ o . sc o 0 Rs Bg 1 Bo 0 0 q g 0 qo q w 1 or LM B LMq OP MM1−−BRrr q MMq PP = MM1 − R r N Q M 0 MN g g o o s w − Bg Rs 1 − Rs rs Bo 1 − Rs rs 0 s s s s OP PP LMq 0P M q P MNq 1P PQ 0 g . Rs and rs are functions of pressure and temperature.sc + Rs ρ g . and rs. sc o . With the aid of Figure 4. sc o . resulting in 1 B g qg . (4. sc OP PP .2 Volatile oil model The volatile oil model is a twocomponent model. The pseudo components in the volatile oil model are stock tank oil and stock tank gas which can each be characterized with a single parameter only: ρo. which implies that gas solubility.sc + rs ρ o . Bo. equations (4. sc w . PP MNρ PQ 1 PQ 0 g o w (4.17) Since Bg.20.sc .16) and (4. 4. sc rs qo.16. see Whitson and Brulé (2000) for an overview. sc LM B OP M1−−BRRr PP = MM1− R r Q MM 0 MN g g s s s s s − Bo rs 1 − Rs rs Bo 1 − Rs rs 0 OP PP LMρ OP 0P M ρ P .21) Q Determination of the values of Bg. 4. sometimes under the name modified black oil model. or γo (or γAPI) and γg in field units.19) where we have assumed that Bw = 1.sc + Rs ρ g . Bo.4.sc Bg . which give us the required expressions in terms of densities: (4. (4. sc o . We can use Figure 4. compressibility. Version 5c.sc and ρg.
correlations are of very limited value. What is the oil formation volume factor at the following pressure and temperature combinations: p = 15 MPa and T = 85 °C. however.5. The black oil model is also a twocomponent model. production engineering calculations based on correlations require much less computational effort than calculations based on compositional analysis using an EOS.4 Refer to question 4. What is the solution GOR? 4. which. The relevant equations of the model follow directly from those of the volatile oil model by substitution of rs = 0.11 kg/m3 and ρo = 910 kg/m3.2 above. The correlations have been programmed in MATLAB routines which are available from Blackboard. Many other correlations have been developed over the past half century. Therefore. see the file ‘Fluid properties. and p = 30 MPa and T = 105 °C? Lecture Notes ta4490.5 Consider a well that produces dry oil with a GOR Rgo of 250 m3/m3.3 Refer to question 4. based on experimental data.5 MPa.1 above. you should use the oil and gas correlations given in Appendix B. In that case it is necessary to fall back on correlations.sc = 805 kg m3. The production history shows no indication of free gas production.6 Exercises For exercises 4.sc = 1. Especially for black oils such correlations can be quite accurate. the exercises can also be performed by hand calculation. and performance of PVT analyses on fluid samples is essential to allow proper compositional calculations.3 above. An extensive overview is given in Appendix B of Brill and Mukherjee (1999). What is the compressibility coefficient co of the oil? 4. 4. The gas and oil densities at standard conditions are ρg = 1. assumes a constant composition of the gas phase and only accounts for compositional variations in the liquid phase.02 kg m3 and ρo. However.2 Refer to question 4. What is the specific gravity of the gas produced at surface? And what is the density of the gascap gas just above the GOC in the reservoir? 4. black oil correlations are widely used. March 2004 38 . Version 5c.1 to 4. to describe the behaviour of volatile oil or gascondensate systems. However. which are relationships for ‘typical’ oil and gas compositions. In addition.zip’. and a few have been reproduced in Appendix B of these lecture notes.3 Black oil model and black oil correlations A further simplified model of twophase hydrocarbon mixture behaviour is the socalled black oil model. 4.4. while further information can be found in the references mentioned in Section 4. The density of the gas and oil at standard conditions are given by ρg.1 above. The bubble point pressure of the oil is pb = 19. The standard reference for black oil correlations is Standing (1952). During the early development phase of an oil field no fluid samples may be available. What are the oil and gas viscosities if the reservoir pressure is 22 MPa and all other parameters remain the same? 4.5.1 An oil reservoir has a pressure of pR = 17 MPa and a temperature of 76 °C.
Pa. March 2004 39 . see e. m2. Initially we assume that the fluid velocity is always positive.e. and µ is the dynamic viscosity.2. We can write the mass balance per unit time for the section as: ∂ρ ∂v ∂ρ Aρ v − A ρ + ds v + ds = A ds ∂s ∂s ∂t mass in mass out mass accumulated .2. µ .s) is the gravity force per unit length.µ. Consider a section of an inclined pipeline with constant crosssectional area. v ds = gravity force friction force b g b g FG H ∂b ρv g A ds ∂t ∂p ds ∂s . Pa s.µ.5 Singlephase flow in wells and pipelines 5. ρ is the fluid density.v) is the friction force per unit length. The viscosity µ is a known function of pressure and temperature. N m1. momentum balance and equation of state In this section we will derive the equations for singlephase fluid flow in a pipeline. where the temperature is a known function of s.1 What will be covered in this chapter? • A derivation of the governing equations for singlephase gas and liquid flow. s. For Lecture Notes ta4490.1. and t is time. A third equation for the remaining unknown variables ρ. Fg(ρ.v) will be discussed in more detail in Sections 5.1 Mass balance. IJ K + (5. • Analytical approximations for the pressure drop in wells or pipelines.s) and the friction force Ff(ρ. flowline or wellbore under the assumption that the temperature profile along the conduit is known. N m1. Ff(ρ. The momentum balance can then be written as: Aρv 2 − F ∂ρ dsIJ FG v + ∂v dsIJ AG ρ + H ∂s K H ∂s K momentum out 2 + Ap − A p + momentum in Fg ρ . Bird. m s1.2 Governing equations 5.2. see Figure 5. or Bobok (1993) who also treat the case where the temperature is not known in advance. m.g. i.2 and 5. • Pressure drop analysis of singlephase oil and gas flow with MATLAB.2) pressure forces momentum accumulated where p is the pressure. that the fluid always flows in the positive coordinate direction. 5. For a detailed treatment of the nature of the equations. v is the fluid velocity averaged over the crosssection. Stewart and Lightfoot (2002).3 below. s ds + Ff ρ .1) where A is the crosssectional area of the pipe. Version 5c. v and p is given by the equation of state for the fluid. The nature of the gravity force Fg(ρ. • The Moody diagram for friction forces in pipe flow. kg m3. (5. s is the coordinate along the pipe.
5. is therefore a measure of the change in elevation z of the pipeline axis per unit length of measured distance s. 5. The term cos α is therefore a measure of the change in true vertical depth z.1) and (5. while for singlephase oil flow we can use equation (4. or  ZRT   ρ = ρ exp c d p − p i for oil . Version 5c.4. The term sin θ. which is measured downwards.  ∂s ∂t ∂s A A S  ρ = Mp for gas .ref o ref (5.2. the inclination θ is defined as the angle of the pipeline axis with the respect to the horizontal plane. T itself (and therefore also Tabs) is a known function of s. per unit length of s. while. s ) = − ρ g sin θ ( s ) ds .2 Gravity force The gravity force is defined as Fg ( ρ . (5. which is now known as along hole depth.6) derived in Section 4. The inclination is usually known as a function of s. z ds s θ Figure 5. m s2. In pipeline engineering. drop all terms higher than first order in the differentials. and simplify the results. either theoretically as one of the design parameters of the pipeline. If we expand equations (5. The inclination α of the well is defined as the angle between the wellbore axis an the vertical direction.example. if we consider the flow of singlephase gas. which can be positive or negative. or actually from measured data obtained during a pipeline survey.11). see Figure 5.2.4. and θ(s) is the pipeline inclination. In well engineering it is common practice to define the wellbore geometry with a slightly different set of parameters. we can write the three equations as R ∂bρvg = − ∂ρ . we can use equation (4.6) where the compressibility co and the gas deviation factor Z are known functions of p and T. 5. and naturally is also Lecture Notes ta4490. March 2004 40 . T 2 g f abs o .1: Segment of an inclined pipeline.  ∂s ∂t   ∂cρv h = − ∂bρvg − ∂p + F + F . as discussed above.7) where g is the acceleration of gravity. 5.2). or measured depth. rad.3.5.
ρ and v (or q) through its dependence on the Reynolds number NRe which is defined as N Re = b g = − ρ f bµ . s A where d is the inside diameter of the pipe.3 Friction force The frictional loss for singlephase flow in pipes with a circular cross section can be expressed as. as discussed before. the gravity force follows as Fg ρ . µ π µd (5.2. ρ. defined as α ds z Figure 5. v .10) where. (5.8) Note that the choice for a downward positive direction of s also implies that wellbore flow to surface has a negative velocity. Note the use of the absolute sign in the definition of the friction force: the dependency of the friction force on −vv (or −qq) implies that it is always pointing in a direction opposite to the velocity (or the flow rate). wellbores and the nearwellbore area in the reservoir. Brill and Mukherjee (1999): Ff ρ . m. see e. As a result of the different definition of the inclination. whereas alll flow rates related to injection are positive. and because s is positive going downwards.2: Segment of a deviated well. s = ρg cos α s ds . m3 s1. and q = v/A is the flow rate. ρ. we assume that µ is a known function of p and T(s). The friction factor f is a function of µ. March 2004 41 .9) ρd v 4 ρ q = . vg * q q 2d π d 2 5 . NRe is also a function of the dimensionless pipe roughness ε. We will therefore use the sign convention that flow rates related to oil.g. 5. We will use this convention for flow in pipelines. vg∗v v = − 8ρ f bµ . Version 5c.positive in downward direction. gas or water production have a negative sign. f is the dimensionless Moody (1944) friction factor. flowlines. s Lecture Notes ta4490. b g bg (5.
0002 0. The figure has been generated with the aid of the MATLAB file Moody_friction_factor. which we assume to be a constant. – 10 0. d (5.ε= e .m.05 0.3: Friction factor f as function of Reynolds number N Re for various values of dimensionless roughness ε. Version 5c.3 Pressure drop analysis 5.0001 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 0. (5. N Re (5. For Reynolds numbers lower than 2000 the flow is laminar. and f is given explicitly by f = 64 .3) and (5. – 0.005 0. If we furthermore restrict the analysis to steadystate flow. 5. Lecture Notes ta4490.001 0.00002 0.11) where e is the pipe roughness expressed in m.0005 0.3.00005 0.3 displays the change of friction factor f with increasing Reynolds number NRe for various values of the dimensionless roughness ε. March 2004 42 .000001 10 8 0.4) can be combined and rewritten in terms of pressure drop per unit length ∂p/∂s.00001 0. – Figure 5. characterized by Reynolds numbers between 2000 and 3000. For flow in the intermediate regime.002 0. we can use a linear interpolation between equations (5.12) and (5.12) while for Reynolds numbers larger than 3000 the flow is turbulent and f is given implicitly by the Colebrook (1939) equation: 1 18.74 − 2 log10 2ε + f N Re f .7 = 1.02 Friction factor f .01 0.13). in other words if we 1 Dimensionless eccentricity ε .1 Pressure drop components Equations (5.13) Figure 5.000005 Reynolds number NRe.
v and p are only functions of s and not of t.2 Singlephase oil flow At steady state conditions. The frictional loss is caused by the dissipation of energy by viscous forces in the fluid. The pressure between surface and bottomhole changes greatly. This term depends strongly on the fluid properties.14) can be rewritten with the aid of the relationship dv dv dρ dp v =− =− − ρ ds dρ dp ds dv dρ co ρ dρ dp dp dp . the compressibility of singlephase oil is usually very small (co << 1). March 2004 43 .18) However.assume that ρ. even if it is not flowing. resulting in: Lecture Notes ta4490. simply due to the weight of the column of fluid in the well.3) that the product ρv remains constant along the pipeline. It is usually the most important component in pipelines. it follows from equation (5. alternatively. Taking due account of the signs of the various terms it follows that ρv dv dp . which implies that the density ρ and velocity v can be considered as constants and that the acceleration term can be neglected. (5. 5. the flow regime (laminar or turbulent) and the fluid velocity. The acceleration loss is caused by the change in momentum when the fluid is accelerated in the well due to expansion. sc . If we take the constant oil density as the density at the standard conditions. The acceleration term ρv dv/ds in equation (5. or. (5. Generally this term is less important. sc = o o . = − co ρv 2 ds ds (5.16) Note that we omit the subscript ‘o’ in ρo to keep the equations more readable. In nearhorizontal pipelines this component is negligible.16) to compute dv/dρ. Therefore we can express v in terms of the constant mass flow w through the line.14) and (5. but it is usually the most important component in a well. Aρ A ρ A (5.17) where we made use of equations (5.6).15. according to our sign convention correspond to production) through the use of the absolute velocity v.15) or (5. we can write the governing set of equations for steadystate singlephase oil flow by simplifying equations (5. in terms of a reference density and reference oil flow rate for which we can choose values at standard conditions: v= ρ q 1 Bq w1 or v = o . = − co v ds ds (5. this pressure drop equation can be written as ρ dp dv = − ρ g sin θ − fvv − ρv ds 2d ds head loss frictional loss acceleration loss .16).6) to compute dρ/dp and (5.14) where we have taken into account the possibility of negative fluid velocities (which. sc o. 5. but it can become of significance for very high rate gas wells. Version 5c.3. The head loss is the static change in pressure caused by the change in pipeline elevation.
2 in Appendix C. The differential equation is of first order. modifying them where necessary to be applicable to gas: Lecture Notes ta4490. bg (5. ds p Z dp ds FG H IJ K (5.5) and (5. March 2004 44 .23) In the general case. 2d ˆ s s (5. we can use equations (5.5). and the pressure p is a linear function of the measured distance s: ρ ˆ ˆ p = p − ρ g sin θ av + f av ∗ v v ( s − s ) .19) to (5. we could approximate nonconstant inclinations and friction factors with their average values θav and fav.21) form a set of three differentialalgebraic equations for the three unknowns ρ.3.3 Singlephase gas flow In the case of steadystate singlephase gas flow. 2d (5. The solution to the equation can then be expressed as ρ ˆ p = p − ∫ ρ g sin θ + f ∗ v v ds .14).19.26) The governing set of equations for steadystate singlephase gas flow through a pipeline then follows by combining equations (5. 5. sc v= A ρ = ρ o . and therefore requires one boundary condition.24) 5. (5.22) where we have used a hat above the variables to indicate that their value is prescribed. where θ and f are functions of s. sc (5. it may not be possible to obtain the integral in closed form.25) and therefore that ρv dv 1 1 dZ dp = − ρv 2 + .21) Equations (5. see Section C.20. in which case it could be obtained numerically with the aid of one of the standard integration routines in MATLAB.16) to derive that dv dv dρ dp v =− =− − ρ ds dρ dp ds dv dρ FG ρ + ρ dZ IJ dp = − v FG 1 + 1 dZ IJ dp . 5. Alternatively. (5. specifying the pressure p at a certain value of s: s = s: ps =p. the viscosity remains nearly constant and therefore also the friction factor f.16) and (5. If we furthermore assume a constant temperature along the line. H p Z dp K ds H p Z dp K ds dρ dp (5.26). Now consider the case of a pipeline with constant inclination θ. Version 5c. v and p.ρ dp ds = − ρ g sin θ − 2d f v v qo .15) or (5. The integration then becomes trivial.
sc q g . Equation (5. 5. θ and Z may be taken as constant ‘average’ values fav. they can be neglected.abs. dρ (5. S ρ A   ρ = Mp .35) p 2 = C exp ( 2k1s ) − k2 .32. 5.30) which can be interpreted as the sonic velocity for gas under isothermal conditions. It follows from equation (5. Version 5c.  ZRT  T −1 2 g .e. Tav.37) Lecture Notes ta4490. Only in very highrate gas wells.29) abs In line with the discussion on singlephase oil flow.28.33) d p2 dp 2 2p = 2 k1 p + 2 k 2 and therefore as = 2 k1 p 2 + 2 k 2 . and Zav over the length of the pipeline.22) to solve for the integration constant C we arrive at k k ˆ ˆ p = p 2 + 2 exp 2k1 ( s − s ) − 2 .sc Mg sin θ av g k1 = − and k 2 = − .27. Generally. 2 5 π d M Zav RTav .27) to (5. and that f.36) If we use boundary condition (5. 5. the gas velocity in a well may approach the sonic velocity. the set of equations (5. March 2004 45 . θav. An approximate analytical solution can be obtained by assuming that the acceleration losses may be neglected. or in a situation of uncontrolled gas flow.29) requires a single initial condition and can then be solved numerically with the aid of MATLAB. ds ds which has as solution c h (5.31) (5. Tabs. i. k1 k1 (5.34.abs and where we used the relationship A = πd2/4. that v << vs. The ratio v/vs is therefore a measure for the importance of acceleration losses. 5. k1 (5.abs f av ρ 2 .27) that the pressure drop dp/ds approaches infinity when the first term at the righthand side approaches zero. This happens when the absolute value of the velocity approaches 1 1 dZ vs = ρ + p Z dp −1 = dp . In that case the set of equations reduces to a single differential equation in p: dp k = k1 p + 2 ds p where the coefficients k1 and k2 are given by 8Zav RTav .R dp L F 1 1 dZ I O L  ds = M1 − ρv GH p + Z dp JK P MN− ρg sinθ − 2ρd f ∗ v v OPQ . such as a wellbore blowout.  N Q  ρ q 1  v= .31) can be rewritten as (5. sc (5.sc q g . sc g .
m can be used for flowlines to compute the manifold pressure for a given flowline pressure and vice versa. q sc .m.e. For further analytical solutions of the singlephase gas flow equation. With the aid of these files it is possible to create plots of the wellbore pressure p as a function of measured depth s.4) as pout = f 3 pin . Tav.38) If we choose the boundary condition at the inflowend of the element. A file to compute pwf for a known ptf.4 corresponds to a relatively low rate. 5.m provides an element equation according to expression (5. and only in Figure 5. but different flow rates and therefore different THPs. It is also possible to repeat the computation of the BHP. This results in a so called tubing intake curve or intake pressure curve which depicts the BHP as a function of flow rate. see the script file example_intake_curve. The velocity v appearing in all these expressions can be related to qsc with the aid of equation (5.m.zip’.abs.5 corresponds to twice the rate. Because the mass flow rate remains the same. a pressure drop calculation.24) or (5.27) to (5.37).4 and 5. the gravity losses gradually decrease because the density of the gas decreases. The files can be downloaded from Blackboard.5 they can be noticed. as can be clearly observed in Figure 5. at a fixed THP. depending on the assumptions and the required accuracy.3. Lecture Notes ta4490. i.5. is well_p_wf. March 2004 46 . Examples of how to use these files are provided by the MATLAB script files example_flowline and example_wellbore. where gravity losses dominate the pressure drop over the well. we can now determine the element equations for single phase well or pipeline flow that were already specified in concise form in equation (2.29).5.e. we refer to Hagoort (1988). Similarly the files flowline_p_mf. results in an increase of the friction losses. Figures 5.5 depict traverses for a dry gas well with parameters given in Table 5. that can be used to compute the THP (output pressure) ptf of a singlephase liquid or gas well for a known BHP (input pressure) pwf. the reduction in density with elevation also causes an increase in volume flow rate and therefore in gas velocity.4 Element equations Referring back to Chapter 2. i. Figure 5. θav. or directly from the analytical expressions (5. in particular for wells. an operating point calculation. Version 5c.Usually it will be necessary to perform one or more iterations to obtain the average values fav. see the file ‘Fluid forces.38). p = pin .m and flowline_p_fl. in turn. b g (5. The increased velocity. Going from the bottom of the well to the surface. The MATLAB file well_p_tf. and an example of how to create them with the MATLAB files listed above is given in the script file example_traverse. for very low pressures close to the surface. i. keeping in mind that negative values of q and v indicate flow in a production situation. and Zav because they depend on the unknown pressure p(s).m. Acceleration losses are of no significance. which is also clearly visible in Figure 5.16) or its equivalent for gas.1.e. for a large number of flow rates. Figure 5. They were both computed for the same BHP. Such plots are often referred to as traverses. we can compute the pressure pout at the outflowend through numerical integration of the systems of equations (5. and it can be seen that friction losses play a much larger role.
Figure 5.5: Traverse for the same well as in Figure 5. Lecture Notes ta4490. Figure 5. March 2004 47 .4: Traverse for a lowrate singlephase gas well. Version 5c.4 but at a higher rate.
2 of Appendix C.sc 0 62. the ambient temperature is 45 °C.Table 5. Some guidance on the use of the required numerical integration routines is given in C.1 with the results from using the MATLAB mfile flowline_p_mf.5.3.0012 4206 2785 218 deg. Kobayashi and Burrows (1954) correlation 5.5 with the aid of the approximate analytical solution described in Section 5. Choose the origin at the outlet of the pipeline. 5.5. 5.3 The gas well of Figure 5.95 120 30 −13. What is the outlet pressure for a flow rate qo = −5000 m3/d? Hint: Use the Dempsey deadoil correlation (B.2 Compare the results of question 5. Version 5c. 5.31 −8. Parameter Inclination Diameter Roughness FBHP FTHP Fig. The oil has a density of 850 kg/m3.5 * 106.2 * 106 1.3 can be performed by hand calculation.1: Parameter values for Figures 5.m to get started. 5.453 0. 5.4 Rate Fig.3 * 103 30 * 106 29.3.77 248 ρg. Their average values are Zav = 0. The other two require the use of MATLAB. 119) to compute the viscosity and equation (5.zip’ 5.62 0. Lecture Notes ta4490.5 has friction and Z factors that change only slightly over the height of the well. in in psi psi psi ft3/d ft3/d  α d e pwf ptf ptf qg.15 * 106 −26.sc / γg Twf Ttf ztot °C °F µg 86 °C °F 3000 m 9843 ft Carr./gravity FBHT FTHT Well depth Viscosity SI units Field units rad m m Pa Pa Pa m3/s m3/s kg/m3 0 2. Use MATLAB file example_flowline. 5. You may want to inspect the file example_flowline. Verify the numerical results of Figure 5.4 Refer to the last paragraph of Section C. The workedout MATLAB exercises can be downloaded from Blackboard.5 degree angle over a length of 3 km.4 Exercises Exercises 5.0166.24) to compute the pressure drop. see the file ‘Exercises.sc qg.30 * 106 0.96 and fav = 0. 5. −4. the pipeline has an inside diameter of 232 mm and a roughness of 0.m as a template and write a script file to check the absolute and relative errors in the BHP for the example of Figure 5.4 FTHP Fig.1 and 5.2.4 and 5.5 Rate Fig.003 mm.2 in Appendix C.5 Dens. and the pipeline pressure at the inlet is 10 bar.0 * 106 19.1 Singlephase oil is pumped uphill through a pipeline under a 1. March 2004 48 .
1: Flow regimes in horizontal twophase flow. • Slug flow.2 Flow regimes A typical feature of multiphase (gasliquid) flow is the occurrence of radically different flow regimes depending on the gasliquid ratio and the gas and liquid velocities. since the majority of the material is covered in the SPE Monograph Multiphase flow in wells by Brill and Mukherjee (1999) of which several sections form obligatory material for this course. The flow regimes are the same as those in horizontal flow except for the absence of stratified flow and the occurrence of churn flow as an intermediate regime between slug Mist flow Annular flow Stratified flow Slug flow Bubble flow Single phase liquid flow Figure6. A fundamental treatment of twophase flow is given in the course tn3782 Applied multiphase flows. pipelines and chokes 6. although some authors use a classification with more categories: • Singlephase liquid flow.2. see Oliemans (1998). The flow regimes for gasliquid flow in horizontal pipelines are shown in Figure 6. This is shown in Figure 6. • Annular flow. 6. Other usefull reference texts are Wallis (1969). • Multiphase flow through chokes. a similar flow pattern classification can be made. • Pressure gradient curves for a well. see Section 1. Furthermore. March 2004 49 .6 Multiphase flow in wells. Multiphase flow will not be treated in detail in these lecture notes. several aspects have already been covered in ta3470 Flow and heat transport.2. Bobok (1993) and Hasan and Kabir (2002). • Tubing performance description with intake pressure curves.3. Version 5c. Lecture Notes ta4490. They are generally known as follows. • Stratified flow. For vertical flow in a well.1 What will be covered in this chapter? • Some introductory aspects of twophase gasliquid flow in wells and pipelines.1. • Bubble flow. • Mist flow (fully dispersed liquid mist).
while most gas wells operate in the annular flow regime. based on the laws of physics.Single phase liquid flow Bubble flow Slug flow Churn flow Annular flow Mist flow Figure 6. To describe flow in real pipelines or wells the inclination of the pipe has to be taken into account to give a full map of multiphase effects. It is generally assumed that water and oil travel at the same Lecture Notes ta4490. Within the oil industry. the pressure decreases as the oil flows from bottom to top of the well. see Oliemans (1998) and Hasan and Kabir (2002). as discussed in Chapter 3. It is a formidable task to try to solve the equations. and displays bulletshaped slugs that remain more or less centred in the wellbore.3 Slip and holdup One of the complicating factors in the description of multiphase flow is the difference in velocity between the phases. Several simpler. Care needs to be taken because correlations are often suitable for only certain types of well. and may contribute to the inaccuracy. the slug flow regime is now somewhat different.2 may arise. which govern these types of flow. but less accurate. a simpler approach is often adopted. Some of these correlations have been published. Many of these correlations are usually built into modern well simulators. Furthermore. most oil wells operate in the bubble flow and slug flow regimes. March 2004 50 . the correlations used for the oil properties will affect the results. over most of their length. others remain proprietary to oil companies or service companies. while others rely on a purely empirical approach. For an indepth treatment of omniangle flow maps based on physical principles.2: Flow regimes in twophase vertical flow. Some methods try to include some basic physics. Note that. For an overview we refer again to Brill and Mukherjee (1999) and for an indepth treatment to Oliemans (1998) and Hasan and Kabir (2002). Version 5c. In a vertical oil well. such as modelling the behaviour of gasliquid interfaces. Some are proposed as valid for all flow regimes. however. 6. Thus. Generally. all of the flow patterns shown in Figure 6. based on extensive experiments. These correlations differ in complexity. Empirical correlations have been developed. There are numerical simulators which attempt this for sensitive industrial processes that need very careful modelling. approaches based on empirical correlations are discussed in Brill and Mukherjee (1999). while others have separate correlations for each different regime. and annular flow.
In upward flow. 6. the gas usually travels faster than the liquid. Hg + Hl = 1.1) and (6. but to the contrary is speeded up.1. Note that volumes and areas should be interpreted as quantities averaged over a length that is suffuciently large to suppress the effect of small scale flow features. The gas fraction and the liquid fraction are defined in the same fashion. Just as was the case for fractions.21). Ag and Al are the parts of the pipe’s crosssectional area occupied by the gas and the liquid respectively. and liquid holdup occurs.7. all quantities should be interpreted as averaged over a distance much larger than the smallscale features. while a similar definition holds for the water fraction: fo = qo qo q qw = . as occurs in a production well or an uphill pipeline.6) makes use of variables known as the local or insitu phase velocities vg = the superficial phase velocities qg Ag . The gas and liquid holdups Hg and Hl are defined as Hg = Vg V = Ag A . An alternative way to express the equations for phase fractions (6.e. λl = ql ql = .6) where Vg and Vl are the fractions of a reference volume of pipe that are being occupied by gas and liquid and V = Vg + Vl is the total reference volume. although we will indicate them with a λ instead of an f: λg = qg qm = qg qg + ql .2) it follows that fo + fw = 1. it is useful to address phase flow rates. The expression “holdup” is also often used in the oil industry to indicate the volume fractions occupied by gas and liquid. we do not imply that “local” refers to a very small length scale.5. and A = Ag + Al is the total crosssectional area. the liquid may travel faster than the gas. Version 5c. vl = ql . we are not interested in fluctuations in flowrates or velocities as a result of smallscale flow features such as slugs or bubbles. To obtain the expressions in terms of flow rates at standard conditions.3) and (6. ql qo + qw ql qo + qw (6.speed.4). Instead. But before considering phase velocities. qm qg + ql (6. fw = w = . in the order of meters.4) where the quantity qm = qg + gl = qg + qo + qw is known as the mixture flow rate. in which case the gas is held up.5) and (6. V A (6.2) Here we use the word “local” to refer to local pressure and temperature conditions. known as the liquid velocity. Note that from equations (6. Because of slip the fractions of a unit volume of pipe that are occupied by gas and liquid are generally not equal to the gas and liquid fractions as given in equations (6. In downward flow.4) and phase holdups (6. in particular for stratified flow. most computational methods do take into account the difference between the liquid velocity and the gas velocity which is known as slip between the two phases.e.8) Lecture Notes ta4490. However. as occurs in a downhill pipeline.3) and (6. the appropriate formation volume factors and solution ratios need to be introduced according to equations (4. although in reality this is not always the case. although in upward flow the gas is not actually held up. The ratio of the local oil flow rate qo and the local total liquid flow rate ql = qo + qw is known as the oil fraction. 6. 6. i. Hl = Vl Al = . March 2004 51 . Note that also λg + λl = 1. Similarly. i. 6. However.3. Al (6.
vsg =
and the mixture velocity
qg A
, vsl =
ql , A
(6.9, 6.10)
vm = vsg + vsl =
qg + ql A
.
(6.11)
Substitution of these expressions in equations (6.3) and (6.4) results in
λg =
vsg vm
, λl =
vsl , vm
(6.12, 6.13)
while substitution in equations (6.5) and (6.6) gives
Hg =
vsg vg
, Hl =
vsl . vl
(6.14, 6.15)
Most computational methods for multiphase flow simulation make use of experimental correlations for the liquid holdup expressed as functions of fluid properties, flow rates, pipe diameter and inclination. Equations (6.9), (6.10), (6.14) and (6.15) can then be used to compute the gas and liquid velocities for given flow rates according to
vg =
(1 − H l ) A
qg
, vl =
ql . Hl A
(6.16, 6.17)
If there is no slip, the local phase velocities vg and vl are both identical to the mixture velocity vm and therefore the holdups as expressed in equations (6.14) and (6.15) become identical to the phase fractions as expressed in equations (6.12) and (6.13). Other names for phase fraction are therefore noslip holdup, or noslip volume fraction. Alternatively, the expressions phase content or input fraction are being used in some publications to identify what we call phase fraction. Another name for holdup is insitu volume fraction, while for gas also the term void fraction is found. In analogy to porousmedia flow the term saturation could also be applied. However, we will stick to the oil industry convention and speak of gas and liquid holdups. Other multiphase flow concepts used in litterature are the slip velocity defined as vs = vg – vl, and the gas and liquid mass fractions xg and xl defined as
xg = wg wg + wl = qg ρ g qg ρ g + ql ρl
, xl =
wl ql ρl = , wg + wl qg ρ g + ql ρl
(6.18, 6.19)
where wg and wl are the gas and liquid mass flow rates, and where xg is also known as the quality of the gasliquid mixture. To illustrate the effect of slip on the liquid fraction and the liquid holdup Figure 6.3 gives an example of stratified flow where the liquid flow rate equals onethird of the gas flow rate. In case of no slip between the phases the liquid holdup is equal to the liquid fraction and 25% of the pipe’s crosssectional area is occupied by liquid. However, if the gas flows twice as fast as the liquid, the liquid fraction remains the same but the liquid holdup increases such that 40% of the area is occupied by liquid.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004
52
1 1 q no slip: ql = q g ql 3 g 1 = Ag 3 Al = = 3 vl vg vl = v g
34 14
λl =
1 ql 1 = 3 = q g + ql 1 + 13 4
Hl =
1 Al 1 = 3 = Ag + Al 1 + 13 4
1 1 ql = q g q ql 3 g 2 35 3 Al = = 1 = Ag 1 vl 25 vg 3 vl = v g 2 2 1 2 ql 1 Al 2 λl = = 3 = Hl = = 3 = q g + ql 1 + 13 4 Ag + Al 1 + 2 3 5
slip:
Figure 6.3: Illustration of the effect of slip between the gas and liquid phases on the liquid fraction λl (no effect) and the liquid holdup Hl (increases for increasing slip velocity).
6.4 Gradient curves Before the advent of modern computers, the practice was to present empirical correlations for wellbore pressure drop in the form of gradient curves. Although these curves are nowadays hardly used, they give some insight into the effect of the various parameters. The gradient curve graphs are valid only for vertical wells. Their vertical axis represents the difference in vertical depth between two points in the wellbore, the horizontal axis the corresponding pressure difference. An example is given in Figure 6.4, which was generated with the aid of the DunsRos correlation for 3000 bpd flow with a GLR of 2000 scf/stb and zero watercut in a 4½″ tubing; see Duns and Ros (1963). Note that the vertical axis represents the difference in depth. The absolute depth is not relevant. The slope of the gradient curves reduces with depth. This is a result of the gas being compressed, the average density increasing, and the pressure gradient increasing, while the other frictional effects on the pressure drop remain roughly constant. For very low pressures, the pressure gradient starts to increase again. This is a result of increasing importance of the frictional effects at high production rates, low pressures and high gasoil ratios. How are gradient curves used? Consider Figure 6.5. Suppose the pressure at depth 4000 ft is known to be 3800 psia, and we wish to determine the pressure at 1500 ft. As shown in Figure 6.5, we select the point on the curve at pressure 3800 psia. We go horizontally across to the vertical axis and go up by the depth difference of 2500 ft. Going back to the gradient curve, we read off the pressure at 1500 ft as 300 psia. In this way we can read off the pressure drop over any portion of the tubing if we know the pressure at one of these two depths. An extensive collection of gradient curves is presented in Beggs (1991).
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004
53
Depth difference (100 ft) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Pressure difference (psia)
41/2“ tubing 3000 bbl/day 2000 scf/stb 0% watercut
Figure 6.4: Example of a gradient curve.
Depth difference (100 ft) 0 5 10 15 2500 ft 20 25 30 35 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Pressure difference (psia) 3800 psia
300 psia
Figure 6.5: How to use a gradient curve.
6.5 Intake pressure curves for describing tubing performance As discussed in Section 2.3.3 of Chapter 2, the multiphase flow equations for a wellbore element specify a relation between the oil and gas flow rates qo,sc and qg,sc and the wellbore pressure drop ∆p = pin  pout; see equation (2.7). If we know the gasoil ratio Rgo, we can also determine the flow rates from the pressure drop, although in an iterative fashion. However, usually it is one of the pressures which is unknown. If the flowing wellbore pressure pwf is specified, then the THP ptf can be calculated with a pressure drop calculation. Usually, however, the ptf is determined by the operating conditions, and pwf is calculated with an operating point calculation. By performing successive operating point calculations, while varying one of the process variables, we can generate what are called tubing intake curves or intake pressure curves since they give the intake pressure pwf at the bottom of the tubing
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004
54
the pressure decreases as the tubing diameter increases. Instead. The downhole pressure required to maintain the flow rate therefore rises. In Figure 6. In wells which are naturally flowing. and hence the hydrostatic pressure decreases. since the GOR is fixed. below this optimum. there is an optimum GOR which will minimize the pressure drop over the tubing.6. and the intake pressure is close to the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid column. and the intake pressure starts to increase again.7 and 6. 6. The minimum intake pressure corresponds to an optimum GOR. But above the optimum diameter. the friction pressure drop starts to dominate. because of the increased total mass flow of oil and gas. At zero GOR. Lecture Notes ta4490. Therefore for a well flowing a given volume of liquid. If gas is introduced. Figure 6. Version 5c.7 it is seen that there is an optimum tubing size (for a fixed production rate). With a wider tubing size it becomes easier for the gas to slip past the liquid and the lifting is less efficient.required to flow the well against a given surface backpressure. This curve illustrates some of the peculiarities of twophase flow. As expected. We shall see in Chapter 8 that this surprising result has consequences for well flow stability. for fixed GLR. all other parameters being held constant. Since the production rate is low. At a certain point.8) are used.8 it is seen that the downhole pressure may also decrease as the flow rate increases.6 shows the intake pressure curve which is generated if the oil production rate qo. This is due to changes in flow regime as the flow rate increases. the well is producing only liquid. without gas lift. This effect continues as the GOR increases. multiphase effects start to play a role. pwf friction hydrostatic optimum GOR Rp Figure 6. the liquid column gets lighter. the friction is low.8 below.6 is not of much interest.sc is held constant while the GOR Rgo is varied. In Figure 6.6: Intake pressure curve for varying gasoil ratios. Figure 6. At this point the gas is most effective in lifting the liquid. March 2004 55 .7) or as a function of production rate (Figure 6. and the intake pressure decreases. the intake pressure curve as a function of tubing diameter (Figure 6. but at the same time the frictional pressure drop slowly increases. since it is easier to flow the fluid through a wider tube. Typical examples are shown in Figures 6. This effect plays an important role in gaslift optimisation.
with a calibrated restricted area through which the fluids flow. There are different types of chokes − fixed (also called positive). This is done by causing the fluids to pass through a short rapid contraction. needle and seat. m3s1 (bpd). plug and cage or adjustable. 6. pwf −qo.sc is the liquid flowrate through the choke.6 Multiphase flow through chokes The production rate of a well is usually controlled by adjusting the choke at the surface wellhead or the flow station manifold.7: Intake pressure curve for varying tubing diameter. There is a large pressure drop over the choke. Pa (psi). creating eddies on both the inlet and exit side of the choke and increasing the turbulence of the flow. Version 5c. This restriction has the effect of forcing the fluids into a narrow jet. The choke is also called a bean. Essentially the choke is an adjustable valve.pwf optimum tubing size d Figure 6. thus dissipating energy and reducing the flow rate. p1 is the pressure upstream of the choke. We define the following variables: ql.sc Figure 6.8: Intake pressure curve for varying production rate. March 2004 56 . But they all work on the same principle of dissipating large amounts of potential energy over a short distance. and Lecture Notes ta4490.
there are a number of empirical correlations.sc has a negative value in line with our convention that flowrates in production wells are negative.sc remains constant at ql. and there is no simple pressure drop/flow rate relationship. Rgl is the gasliquid ratio. proposed see e. For pressures below about 1. Version 5c. the flow ratepressure relationship is a straight line. C. Gilbert (1954). For fixed pressure. This phenomenon is called critical flow. However. as might be expected. Above critical conditions. They all have the form: p1 = − Aql . and where we have assumed that ql. The four critical choke models have been programmed in MATLAB file choke_critical_p_tf. If p1/p2 < (p1/p2)crit. m (1/64th inch). Ros (1960). The pressure p2 may vary for many reasons: there may be more wells entering the same manifold. These effects will not change the production rate of the well if the choke is operating above critical conditions. The pressure p1 at the wellhead is then independent of fluctuations in p2. sc (E ∗ R ) gl B C ( F ∗ dch ) +D.9. the crosssectional area. and D are experimentallydetermined constants given in Table 6. if p1/p2 > (p1/p2)crit. critical flow occurs when p1 p 2 > 1. the faster the flow. Chapter 5 of Brill and Mukherjee (1999). Lecture Notes ta4490. see e. m3/m3 (scf stb1). Hence the flow behaviour becomes independent of the downstream pressure p2.1. Pressure disturbances downstream can no longer propagate through the choke to the upstream side. This is as expected. This is called the choke performance curve.. the operating staff may vary valves in the downstream system.g. Experimentally it is found that for a given value of the upstream pressure p1 there is a critical pressure ratio (p1/p2)crit. then ql. the larger the pressure drop. As a rule of thumb. A. reaching the maximum rate ql. see Figure 6. B. Note that in field units the diameter is specified in 1/64th of an inch.21) where.p2 is the pressure downstream of the choke.g. and one of these may be shut in. the pressure on the downstream side of the choke. then ql.7 times the manifold or flowline pressure p2. the flow rate of a gasliquid mixture through a choke depends on the specific type of choke.20) Below critical conditions. there may be fluctuations in the processing system. Pa (psi). Critical flow is reached when the velocity in the contraction of the choke reaches sonic velocity. since this is the noncritical region. Several expressions exist to predict the occurrence of critical flow through a choke. For a given choke size.7 . (6. the flow rate is approximately equal to the square of the choke diameter. Other correlations are connected to the names of Baxendell and Achong. dch is the choke diameter. these curves are of course invalid. (6. see Brill and Mukherjee (1999). the properties of the multiphase mixture etc.crit at (p1/p2)crit.crit. i. There are advantages in operating the choke above the critical pressure ratio. March 2004 57 .e. assuming that the upstream choke pressure p1 is equal to the flowing THP ptf.sc increases as the pressure drop p1–p2 increases.
7 14.7 14.7 1.93 1.650 B 1.4 9.00 1.Table 6.00 1. = 2 2 2 2 ρ nCch 2 ( λg ρ g + λl ρl ) Ach Cch 2 (6.22) where Cch is a dimensionless drag coefficient that accounts for the energy losses in the choke and that needs to be determined experimentally.43 * 1010 A 0.89 2.546 0.546 0.58 * 1010 1. Correlation SI units A B 10 C D E 5 F Gilbert Ros Baxendell Achong Correlation 3.00 In the noncritical regime the pressure drop over the choke is usually assumed to behave as a quadratic function of the local flow rate or velocity: 2 ( qg + ql ) vm p1 − p2 = . Lecture Notes ta4490.00 1.61 E 2. A pragmatic choice for the drag coefficient is such that the curves for critical and noncritical flow are continuous at the transition point.00 1. Version 5c.546 0.00 1.0 17.546 0.75 * 10 6. March 2004 58 .00 1.52 * 1010 3.52 * 103 2.00 1.500 0.88 C 1.00 1.61 5.7 14.1: Coefficients for different choke models.52 * 103 2.82 0.61 5.61 5.93 1.88 14.00 1.650 1.01 * 105 1.89 2.01 * 10 1.52 * 103 2.500 0.56 3.01 * 105 1.01 * 105 D 5.52 * 103 F field units Gilbert Ros Baxendell Achong 10.
23.4∗103 m3/s.7 Exercises 6. all expressed in m3/m3.sc Figure 6. Version 5c. We know that we are dealing with a black oil and that at depth of 400 m the formation volume factors and the solution GOR are given by Bg = 0. and Rs = 10.1 Consider a gasliquid mixture with ql = 0.122 m ID tubing and produces a gasoilwater mixture with the following properties: qo.1.15. Rgo = Rp = 238 m3/m3. and vg = 1.sc = 0.9: Choke performance curves. fw.00.p1 decreasing choke diameter 1. What are the superficial and local gas and liquid velocities? Lecture Notes ta4490.05.sc = 18.3 ∗ qg.2 A well is completed with a 0. 6. Bw = 1.2 ∗ vl.7 p2 noncritical region p2 (downstream pressure) − ql. Bo = 1. Furthermore we know that the liquid holdup is about 5% higher than the liquid volume fraction. March 2004 59 . What are the liquid fraction and the liquid holdup? 6.
.
see e. The results of the well tests can be incorporated in one of the models for inflow performance given below.1) where we adopt the convention that a positive flow rate qo. we can write J= − qo . which is the difference between the static or closedin BHP pws and the dynamic or flowing BHP pwf. The difference between the reservoir pressure and the BHP of a well is the driving force for inflow into the wellbore. both measured at the middle of the zone or at the middle of the perforations. it is found that the IPR is an almostlinear relationship between pwf and qo. In practice. and a negative flow rate production into the well. Resistance to well inflow depends on reservoir rock properties. 7. The reservoir pressure is the pressure at the boundary of the drainage area of the well. as described by the Productivity Index (PI). This regular testing will give an indication when a well is producing less than expected due to impairment. such as hydraulic fracturing of the formation through pumping of highpressure liquids. can then be taken. Remedial measures. oil. It is important to realize that these are only models. The production performance of this zone is usually described by an Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) between the oil flow rate qo. In that case the IPR can be expressed as a Productivity Index (PI) J defined as the ratio between qo. by flowing the well through a test separator and determining the gas.2 The importance of inflow performance In this section we will discuss the relationship between flow rate and pressure in the nearwellbore area. i. as long as pwf is above the bubble point pressure pb.g. consider a vertical oil well. (7. Because all fluids entering the wellbore have to pass through the narrow area around the wellbore. or stimulation with acids. blockage of the pores in the nearwellbore area. the highest flow rates in the reservoir occur just there and any increased resistance to flow has a large effect on the well performance. the PI can be defined in terms of the average reservoir pressure pR. these factors determine the inflow performance of the well. m3 d1 kPa1 (‘allowable’ SI units) or bpd psi1 (field units). and water flow rates as function of wellbore pressure. • Nonlinear inflow performance relationships (IPRs) for gas wells and multiphase (gasoilwater) wells.1 What will be covered in this chapter? • Linear inflow performance of singlephase oil wells. Golan and Whitson (1991) and Economides et al. details of the completion of the well. and sometimes the late effects of drilling and workover activities.sc and the drawdown ∆p. it should be regularly measured through production testing. The pressure should preferably be measured at the bottomhole with either a permanent downhole gauge (PDG) or a dedicated wire line tool. Version 5c. and the actual downhole well data must be respected. March 2004 61 . i.av in the drainage area of the Lecture Notes ta4490. The units of the PI are m3 s1 Pa1 (‘strict’ SI units). Because inflow performance plays such an important role.sc pR − pwf . • The causes of formation damage (impairment) and the definition of ‘skin’.e.sc. For details of inflow performance measurement. Alternatively. fluid properties. If we assume that the static BHP equals the reservoir pressure pR. with either an openhole producing zone or a perforated zone.sc and the BHP pwf.7 Inflow performance 7. In combination. (1994).sc implies injection into the reservoir. As an example of general nature of a well’s inflow performance.e.
φ is the porosity. s. m.sc Figure 7. ∂t (7.1 depicts the linear IPR for a singlephase oil well. q is the radial flow rate. or oil wells producing from a reservoir below bubble point pressure.3. Consider the classic textbook case of a single vertical well. m3s1. and t is time. kg m3. either openhole or perforated over the entire reservoir height. Version 5c. v = q/A is the superficial radial fluid velocity. The definition of the II is completely analogous to that of the PI. In the theoretical case of a zero pressure at the bottomhole. March 2004 62 .2) mass accumulated where A = h r dψ is the crosssectional area of the control volume in radial direction.sc − qo. r is the radial coordinate. . see Figure 7. and briefly discuss the effects of multiphase flow. momentum balance and equation of state In this section we will derive the equations for singlephase fluid flow in the nearwellbore area. Lecture Notes ta4490. For gas wells. In the following sections we will consider in some detail the nature of the IPR for singlephase production.sc = 0 the BHP pwf equals the static BHP pR.2. the flow rate would reach a value known as the absolute open flowing potential (AOFP) of the well. m. using the same approach as we used to describe pipe flow in Chapter 5.1 Mass balance. the IPR is a nonlinear function of the flow rate and cannot be represented with a straightline PI anymore. m2. which results in a higher value of the PI for the same flow rate. producing from a circular reservoir. ψ is the tangential coordinate. m s1. At a flow rate qo. Using cylindrical coordinates we can write the mass balance per unit time through a control volume as: Aρv − mass in FG A + ∂A drIJ FG ρ + ∂ρ drIJ FG v + ∂v drIJ H ∂r K H ∂r K H ∂r K mass out = Aφ ∂ρ dr . pwf pR drawdown ∆p IPR − qAOFP.well. h is the reservoir height. Figure 7. For injection wells it is customary to use the Injectivity Index (II) as an indication of the injection performance. ρ is the fluid density.3 Governing equations 7.1: Straightline inflow performance relationship. rad. 7.
and therefore corresponds to injection from the well into the reservoir.v) is the friction force per unit length. we can furthermore disregard the gravity term because we consider horizontal flow only. N m1. Pa. which depend on v2.3) pressure forces g f ∂t gravity force friction force momentum accumulated where the components of the pressure term have been illustrated in Figure 7. Furthermore. see Bear (1972). in flow through porous media the velocities v are usually so small that the momentum terms at the lefthand side. Ff(ρ.11) for singlephase oil. Maintaining the analogy with pipe flow. we can write the three equations as Lecture Notes ta4490. µ . If we expand equations (7. i. Pa s. it can be shown that also the momentum term at the right hand side is negligible.µ.2: Well in a circular reservoir. Version 5c. and where p is the pressure.e.3. disregard the momentum and the gravity terms.6) for singlephase gas or equation (4. N m1. equation (4.h r rw re Figure 7. The nature of the friction force Ff(ρ.2) and (7.µ. Fg(ρ. However.v) will be discussed in more detail in Section 7. v gdr = Aφ 2 Aρv 2 − momentum in momentum out + (7. F b ρ .3). and µ is the dynamic viscosity. In our case. substitute A = h r dψ. play no role. the momentum balance can formally be written as: FG A + ∂A drIJ FG ρ + ∂ρ drIJ FG v + ∂v drIJ + H ∂r K H ∂r K H ∂r K F ∂p dr IJ dr sin dψ − FG A + ∂A drIJ FG p + ∂p drIJ Ap + 2hG p + H ∂r 2 K 2 H ∂r K H ∂r K ∂b ρv g dr .s) is the gravity force per unit length. March 2004 63 . and therefore only the pressure. Just as in the case of pipe flow we can complete the set of governing equations with the aid of the equation of state for the fluid. gravity and friction terms need to be taken into account. r g ds + F b ρ . drop all terms higher than first order in the differentials. and simplify the results. Note that a positive velocity implies flow in the positive coordinate direction.2 below.3.
 ∂r  ∂p F ∂t   ∂r = 2πhr .9) where β is Forcheimer’s coefficient with dimension L1.4. In that case we have to replace Darcy’s law with Ff 2πhr =− µ k v − βρv 2 . T f abs o . we can use the same relationship except for very high velocities such as occur in the nearwellbore area of highrate gas wells.R ∂bρvr g = −φr ∂ρ . The temperature T (and therefore also Tabs) can generally be taken as constant because the large heat capacity of the reservoir is usually sufficient to guarantee isothermal conditions. 7.7) where the compressibility co is a known function of pressure p and temperature T. µ and k can be considered constants. or  ZRT   ρ = ρ exp c d p − p i for oil .3: Control volume and pressure forces in cylindrical coordinates. (7. Lecture Notes ta4490. Moran and Shapiro (1998). which can be written in polar coordinates as: Ff 2πhr =− µ k v.8) For isothermal liquid flow and a homogeneous reservoir.g. 7. It represents the inertia effects experienced by the gas when it is accelerated and decelerated during its flow through the pore 1 ∂p dr h dr p+ 2 ∂r dψ ∂p ∂A dr = p + dr A + ∂r ∂r ∂p p + dr (r + dr )h dψ ∂r pA = phr dψ dψ/2 Figure 7. Version 5c. For gas flow. Only in highrate gas wells. 7.5.3. 7. some cooling due to expansion of the gas may occur in the nearwellbore area. (7. see e.2 Friction force – Darcy’s law and Forcheimer’s coefficient The frictional loss for singlephase liquid flow in porous media is described by the experimental relationship known as Darcy’s law. March 2004 64 . S  ρ = Mp for gas . an effect known as the JouleThomson cooling. and the gas deviation factor Z is a known function of p.6.ref o ref (7.
µ and Bo are constants.sc.4) vanishes.12) where we have used the oilformation volume factor Bo to relate the downhole flow rate qo to the surface flow rate at standard conditions qo. This situation can.14) Equation (7. albeit a trivial one.throats.1. 7.4. with some imagination.14) is also of first order and the boundary condition can now be specified as (7.5).11) This is a firstorder differential equation. we can assume that the compressibility of singlephase oil is small enough to take the density as constant in the drainage area of the well. dr 2πkhr p r = r = pR . 2πh (7.sc . either directly through measurements on cores. It is also referred to as inertia coefficient or turbulence coefficient. equation (7. The latter name is not entirely correct because the inertia effect can be noticed at much lower velocities than the velocity that corresponds to the onset of turbulence in the pores.4) equation further to ∂ vr =0 .16) Lecture Notes ta4490. or indirectly from well tests.4 Inflow performance relationships 7. (7. that therefore requires one boundary condition which can be obtained from the known velocity at the wellbore radius: v r =r = w Bq qo qo = = o o . If we assume that the k.sc ln r + C .sc .11) and solving for the integration constant with the aid of boundary condition (7.sc .13) can be combined to give the classic differential equation for steadystate radial flow: µB q dp = − o o . see Bear (1972). e (7. with k expressed in m2 and β in m1.8) and (7.15) which represents a constant pressure pR at the external boundary of the circular drainage area. (7.10) Dake (1978) gives an example with values of the constants determined as A = 2. The values of k and β should be determined experimentally. Integrating equation (7. the righthand side of the mass conservation equation (7. A 2πhrw 2πhrw (7.1 Singlephase oil flow – steady state At steady state conditions. ∂r b g (7.14) can be integrated to give p=− µBo qo . which reduces (7. Version 5c. The relationship between β and k is typically of the form − β = Ak g B .12) results in: vr = Bo qo .4 * 106 and B = 1. equations (7.13) Next. Furthermore. be interpreted as a reservoir with constant pressure support in the form of a strong aquifer. March 2004 65 . 2πkh (7.
18) and rearranging the result gives us the required expression for pwf in terms of pR.av − pwf = − µ Bo qo.(7. solving for pR.2 Singlephase oil flow – semisteady state Often we encounter a situation where pressure support in a reservoir is not sufficient to maintain a constant pressure.sc r ln e 2πkh r FG IJ .sc r ln e 2πkh rw (7.17) In particular. Alternatively. H K FG IJ . a positive drawdown corresponds to a negative flow rate.av defined as 2πhφ prdr pR .The value of the unknown integration constant C can be found with the aid of boundary condition (7.sc re µ Bo qo . we may want to express the IPR in terms of the volumeaveraged reservoir pressure pR.4.21) ∫ r 2 4 2 re re rw rw 2 r re rw rw re r re r Substitution of this result in equation (7. sc re r pR + r ln e dr .20).av = 2πhφ rdr rw rw re z z re 2 prdr = 2 r − rw rw 2 e z re . substitution in equation (7. sc 2 2 2π kh 1 − rw re rw 2 re 1 ln − . March 2004 66 . Version 5c.e. sc 2π kh µB q r 1 1 ln e − ≈ − o o.19) Substitution of equation (7. and where the pressure gradually drops over time.16) then gives us the expression for p as a function of r under steadystate flow conditions: p = pR + µBo qo .19) gives pR . (7.17) in equation (7. av = 2 2 2 re − rw µ Bo qo . 7.22) rw 2 where the approximation holds for rw << re which is the usual situation. H K (7. and substitution in equation (7.(7. to flow towards the well as occurs in a production well.av for steadystate flow: pR .20) ln rdr = pR + ∫ 2 2 ∫ 2π kh π kh ( re − rw ) rw r r rw re where the integral can be solved through integration by parts as follows: e e r r 1 1 1 1 1 2 r r 2 r ln e dr = − ∫ r ln dr = − r 2 ln + ∫ r 2 dr = ( re2 − rw ) − rw ln w .15).18) Note that because of our definition of the positive flow direction. Such a gradual pressure depletion scenario can be schematically represented by circular reservoir with a boundary condition Lecture Notes ta4490.sc as: pR − pwf = − µBo qo . i. we can now define the IPR between the flowing bottomhole pressure pwf and the flow rate qo. (7.
dp =0 .23) which implies that there is no pressure gradient and therefore no driving force for flow at the external boundary. To analyse this situation. we can assume that ρ is constant for singlephase oil.12) that was also used for the steadystate solution. After substitution in equation (7.27) to arrive at the differential equation for semi steadystate radial flow: µB q dp 1 r = − o o . Under steadystate conditions the pressure derivative ∂p/∂t should remain constant. The drainage areas can then reasonably well be approximated by circular cylindrical volumes. which allows us to solve for C1. (7.29) Using boundary condition (7. As a consequence of the absence of flow through the outer boundary and of a constant production qo from the wells. K IJ K (7.sc 1 − 2 2 2πh 2πh re − rw re FG H IJ K FG H IJ . and the mass balance equation therefore reduces to d vr = −C1φco r . ∂r ∂ p ∂t ∂t b g (7. 2πkh 2 re2 FG H (7.25) With the aid of boundary condition (7. dr This is again a firstorder differential equation that can be integrated to give 1 vr = − C1φco r 2 + C2 .29) gives us an expression for p as a function of r under semi steadystate flow conditions: Lecture Notes ta4490.27) Similarly to what we did in the steadystate situation. the pressure in the reservoir will steadily decrease. we know that v = 0 at r = re. dr r = re (7.sc Bq r2 − r2 r2 1 − 2 w ≈ o o . we can now combine equations (7. we can start from the mass balance equation (7.15) to solve for the integration constant C3 and substitution of the result in equation (7. A refined approximation can be obtained with the aid of shape factors to account for the fact that the drainage areas are not exactly circular. Version 5c.8) and (7. we can solve for the integration constant C2.7) as follows: ∂ ρvr ∂ρ ∂p ∂p = −φr = −φco ρr .26) b g (7.5) which can be rewritten with the aid of the equation of state (7.5). In addition. As before. 2 (7.24) where co is the isothermal compressibility for oil. say equal to an unknown constant C1.4. March 2004 67 .3.28) µBo qo .sc − dr 2πkh r re2 Integration of the equation results in p=− FG H IJ . K (7. This type of noflow condition typically occurs when a large number of vertical wells producing at equal rates is used to drain a reservoir in a regular pattern. see also Section 4.26) and reorganization of the result we find vr = Bo qo . see Dietz (1965).sc 1 r2 ln r − + C3 . a situation known as semi steadystate.
Next we can combine equations (7.37) This set of equations strongly resembles equations (5. KQ (7. µ and Z are functions of the unknown pressure p.  ds k  ρ q  v= 1 . (7.34) where we have used the fact that the mass flow rate at surface and downhole are identical under steadystate conditions.sc r 3 ln e − .g. rw 2πkh 4 LM F I OP N GH JK Q (7. which results in pR .33) and determine the integration constant with the aid of boundary condition (7. as ∂ vρr =0 .p = pR + µBo qo . Version 5c. However. we then arrive at the following set of equations to describe singlephase gas flow in the near wellbore area: R dp = − µ v − βρv .31) The difficulty with expressions (7. The equations are nonlinear because ρ.34) in the usual fashion.3 Singlephase gas flow In the case of singlephase gas flow we can no longer justify the assumption of constant density in the nearwellbore area that as we did for singlephase oil. the IPR for semi steadystate flow can now be written as: pR − pwf ≈ − µBo qo .30) In particular. March 2004 68 .35) requires one boundary Lecture Notes ta4490. Dake (1978). We can now solve equation (7. sc g . To express equation (7. the mass conservation equation (7.4.29) as defined in Chapter 5 to describe the flow of gas in pipes. see e.sc r 1 r2 ln e − 1 − 2 2πkh r 2 re LM FG IJ F N H K GH IJ OP . which is gradually decreasing just like the pressure in any point of the reservoir.av − pwf ≈ − µBo qo .av can often be determined from the pressure response in a well after shutin. the average pressure pR. Therefore.9).7).32) 7.36.5) and (7. and together with the equation of state for gas (7.30) and (7. for steadystate conditions.sc ρ g .33) qg ρ 2πhrw r = rw = q g . can usually not be determined. 7. 2πkh rw 2 LM F I OP N GH JK Q (7.sc r 1 ln e − .31) in terms of the average reservoir pressure.31) is that the pressure pR at the external boundary. 7.4) should now be written.35.  ZRT T 2 g . a procedure known as pressure transient analysis or well testing. we can proceed along the same lines as we did for steadystate flow above. sc abs (7. S 2πh ρr   ρ = Mp . The differential equation (7.27) to (5. ∂r The corresponding boundary condition at the wellbore radius becomes: vρ r = r = w b g (7.sc 2πhrw .
If the difference between the average reservoir pressure pR. Just as was done for pipe flow. Bg and qg. If we disregard the inertia coefficient β.sc. kg.38). proposed by Vogel (1968) and Fetkovich (1973): Lecture Notes ta4490. the equations can be linearized through the use of a realgas pseudopressure defined as: m p = bg µ ρ ∗ p = pref pref z p ρ µZ dp = µ p ∗ p = pref pref z p p dp . For a given gas composition. see Hagoort (1988).4 Multiphase flow The straight line IPR for singlephase oil flow needs modification if the pressure drops below bubblepoint pressure and the oil becomes saturated. is not relevant because we are only interested in pressure differences. Version 5c. the equations can be solved with the aid of a standard numerical integration routine in MATLAB.40) The form of this quadratic inflow performance relationship is shown in Figure 7. 7. µZ (7. ko. we can determine a onetoone relationship between p and m(p). For example. The value of the arbitrary reference pressure pref. sc 2π k g h re 3 ln − .15). Bo and qo. and refer to Dake (1978) or Hagoort (1988) for further information. and corresponding relationships for µ and Z as function of p. We will not consider the effects of the inertia coefficient β. through numerically integrating equation (7. (7. and by changing the oil properties µo. and refer to Hagoort (1988) for details. integration shows that the pseudopressure can be approximated by m p = bg 2 p 2 − pref pref . substitution in the semisteady state IPR (7.4. There are two modifications in use. We will not further consider the use of pseudopressures in this course. March 2004 69 . for which we can use equation (7. and not in absolute pressures.sc to gas properties µg. av − pwf ≈ − µ av Bg . we can now simply use all the results that were obtained for singlephase oil flow.av and the flowing BHP pwf is not too large we can use constant average values µav and Zav in the definition of the pseudopressure.39) Expression (7. Alternatively.av qg .condition. by replacing p with m(p).4.39) can now be used to convert any of the IPRs for singlephase oil flow for use in singlephase gas flow analysis.38) where pref is an arbitrary reference pressure expressed in Pa.32) and making the necessary changes from oil to gas properties results in: 2 2 pR . In this case. rw 4 (7.
sc . We currently have a good understanding of the fundamental causes of formation damage. Version 5c.4: Nonlinear inflow performance relationship for a gas well.av drawdown ∆p IPR − qg.sc. In addition to geological variations (which we ignore. solid material Lecture Notes ta4490. with pore collapse and particle rearrangement. Fetkovich’s IPR curve can fit field data reasonably well. which may reduce the permeability of the rock around the well and therefore reduce the rate of oil inflow.e. thanks to experimental and theoretical research over the past years.sc 2 wf R wf R o .sc when pwf is zero. see Civan (2000).5 Formation damage and skin The IPRs derived above assume that the radial permeability is everywhere constant.max is the AOFP. March 2004 70 . = 1− αG q Hp K Hp K L F p I OP . This reduction in permeability is called formation damage or impairment. sc .sc Figure 7. assuming they average out in some sense). the reservoir rock is exposed to a series of operations that can cause damage: • Mechanical The drilling itself can create mechanical damage. q Fetkovitch: = M1 − G q MN H p JK PQ qo .max 2 n o . In practice. From the moment the drill bit first penetrates the reservoir section until the well is put on production. Vogel: F p IJ − b1 − α gFG p IJ .41) (7.42) where qo. 7. this is not the case. For an extensive overview.max (7.2 . such as drilled rock. • Solids Solids come into contact with the rock formation. During the drilling of the well there is penetration of alien fluids into the reservoir rock. sc wf R o . the value of qo. with α = 0. Note that this zero pressure will not actually be achievable in practice. i. Vogel’s IPR curve resulted from carrying out a large number of numerical simulations and looking for a best fit. the well may be impaired. By choosing the value of n.pwf pR.
added to the drilling mud or metal debris. If small enough, the solids can be swept into the formation and block the pores. If larger, the solid particles cannot enter into the rock pores, but are deposited on the surface of the rock. Some of these solids will be swept away again when the well is put on production, but not all, as shown in Figure 7.5, showing a thin layer of residual mud solids. • Fluids Fluids used in well construction can also cause formation damage. Such fluids are composed of water, oils, salts, acids, surfactants and many other chemicals. These may interact with the reservoir rock and fluids, causing detachment of fine particles, flocculation, wettability change, precipitation, emulsion formation or fluid saturation changes. In particular, the pores may be lined with clay which may swell disastrously, completely blocking the pore. • Phase changes Changes in pressure and temperature in the oil and water may result in phase changes, with precipitation of waxes, asphaltenes, or scale which deposit themselves in the pores. • Microbial Lastly, microbes introduced into the well, or possibly indigenous in the reservoir in a dormant state, may multiply forming deposits in the pores. • The effect of all these damage mechanisms is to reduce the permeability of the reservoir rock over a relatively small region around the wellbore. This small damaged region is called the ‘skin’ of the well. This skin gives rise to an additional pressure drop, as shown in Figure 7.6, so that the well produces less than expected. The additional pressure drop can be taken into account in the IPR as follows. For example, the semi steadystate solution (7.32) can now be modified to give pR ,av − pwf − ∆pskin = −
µBo qo ,sc r 3 ln e − . rw 2πkh 4
LM F I OP N GH JK Q
115 µm
(7.43)
wellbore
formation
residual mud solids
Figure 7.5: Residual mud solids.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004
71
pressure
pR
pressure loss due to skin
pwf, undamaged pwf, damaged
impaired zone radial distance from wellbore centre line r
Figure 7.6: The extra pressure drop caused by skin, at a given flow rate. Introducing the dimensionless skin factor S defined by ∆pskin = we can rewrite the steady state solution as pR ,av − pwf = −
µBo qo ,sc S , 2πkh
(7.44)
µBo qo ,sc r 3 ln e − + S . rw 2πkh 4
2πkh
e w
LM F I N GH JK
OP Q
(7.45)
Accordingly, the formula for the PI becomes
J=
− qo ,sc =− p − pwf
LMlnFG r IJ − 3 + S OP . µB N Hr K 4 Q
o
(7.46)
Note the minus sign because we have assumed a positive flow direction from the well into the reservoir. The value of the skin S can be determined from transient well tests; see e.g. Dake (1978) or Economides et al. (1994). If the skin is high, then remedial measures may be required e.g. stimulating the well with acid to remove the damage. If a well is tested, it may appear that the skin S is nonzero. But this may not be due to formation damage. It may be due to the completion. If the well is gravelpacked, the permeability of the gravel will be different from that of the reservoir rock. Thus the gravel pack may give less pressure drop, resulting in negative skin. On the other hand, the gravel pack itself can be heavily impaired during installation or subsequent production. So, positive skin could result from the gravel pack. Perforations can give rise to negative skin, if they provide a very effective path for the oil to flow into the well. Often, they contain debris from the shooting of the perforations, and have a crushed zone of rock around them, both effects contributing to positive skin. Fractures, whether natural or produced by hydraulic fracturing will result in easier inflow, and thus negative skin.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004
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7.6 Multilayer inflow performance If a well is completed on more than one layer, with different reservoir properties and different reservoir pressures, then the combined inflow performance can be readily calculated, provided the individual IPRs are both linear. As shown in Figure 7.7, for a given value of pwf, the total production rate qo,sc can be calculated by calculating the individual contributions qo,sc,1 and qo,sc,2, and adding them:
qo ,sc ,1 = − J1 pR ,1 − pwf , qo ,sc ,2 = − J 2 pR ,2 − pwf , qo ,sc = qo ,sc ,1 + qo ,sc ,2 = − J1 pR ,1 − J 2 pR ,2
1 2 wf
d
i
d
i + bJ + J gp
.
(7.47)
Thus the production rate still varies linearly with pwf. Note however that this formula applies only for values of pwf lower than the lower of the two zone pressure. Above this pressure, part of the production from one zone will be injected into the other zone. This phenomenon, which is often referred to as cross flow, is illustrated in Figure 7.8. If the well is closedin at surface, a steadystate situation will develop in which equal amounts are produced from and injected into the respective reservoir units. Crossflow can seriously impair the reservoir into which the injection takes place.
pwf pR,1 pR,2
combined IPR
IPR 2
IPR 1
− qo,sc
Figure 7.7: Twolayer inflow performance.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004
73
being influenced by the flow in the well itself. Version 5c. the inflow will be proportional to the local drawdown. Economides et al.2 = . At any point in the well. (1998). such as the effect of on inflow performance of well deviation.1 IPR 2 IPR 1 − qo. and Economides et al.qwf. March 2004 74 . But as we move along the well. see Joshi (1991) and Economides et al. gravel packs and slotted liners. a number of near wellbore factors have not been considered at all. Golan and Whitson (1991). (1998).8: Crossflow between two reservoir units in a closedin well. Beggs (1991). the drawdown will change.1 pR. washed out well sections. 7. permeability anisotropy.7 Related topics that have not been considered in this chapter • For all wells. fractures. (1994).pwf pR.2 qwf. • In horizontal wells the above considerations must be applied ‘locally’.sc Figure 7. In a long horizontal well (say more than 500 m) these effects can be substantial. Lecture Notes ta4490. we refer to the textbooks of Brown (1984). fractures. For a discussion and further references on horizontal well inflow performance. For further reading on the topic of inflow performance. perforation pattern. see Dikken (1990).
8. • Horizontal wells are usually completed as open holes. the inflow into the well is affected by Lecture Notes ta4490.3 Oil well completions A typical completion for a traditional vertical or deviated oil well was shown schematically in Figure 2.8 Oil well productivity 8. Typically. and the length of a horizontal well can vary from 20 . We note the following points: • The dimensions are not correct in the schematic diagrams.1 What will be covered in this chapter? • Methods of analysing the production from an oil well. a horizontal well completion is shown schematically. The vertical depth of the wells is usually between 1500 and 5000 m. we need tools to predict its flow behaviour. in designing a completion for a new well. Version 5c. and often highly deviated. and predict the productivity change as the reservoir pressure declines. They are deviated. Similarly. • The role of well productivity analysis in field development planning and field management. In Figure 2. What is the production rate? The flow system between the reservoir and the tubing head can be broken down into • the inflow into the well. • Vertical wells are usually cased and perforated. This is reverting to technology which was abandoned earlier for vertical wells.2. For example. In this course we consider mainly vertical wells. the vertical pressure drop makes up 75% of the total pressure drop. concentrating on inflow and vertical flow. 8. As we have seen in Chapter 7.1. the section over the reservoir is usually vertical or near vertical. the completed interval for a vertical well is usually between 10 and 200 m. or when we should change out the tubing. These figures are only schematic. However. • Shortterm and long term optimisation of well performance. because it gave little control. • ‘Vertical wells’ are never vertical. although it is sometimes done. March 2004 75 . it is difficult to complete as cased hole. we need to decide when it makes economic sense to carry out operations to increase the productivity.1000 m. in a producing well. and the screens were prone to impairment. 8. the intake pressure curve for analysing situations in which inflow performance from the reservoir is important. In this case the total pressure drop is made up of the inflow pressure drop.4 Production rate of a vertical well operating at given tubing head pressure A vertical well is being operated at a fixed THP ptf. the tubing response curve for analysing situations in which well or surface conditions are changed. The total pressure drop between the reservoir and the wellhead is made up of the drawdown associated with the inflow from the reservoir and the vertical flow pressure drop. with a slotted liner or wirewrapped screen lining the borehole. the pressure drop along the horizontal well and the vertical flow pressure drop. But for horizontal wells. for example whether the skin is significantly affecting production and the well needs stimulating. and • the flow up the tubing to the tubing head. we need to assess the effect of the tubing size on well productivity.2 Optimising well productivity To optimise the productivity from an oil well.
However. pwf = Fip qo . tubing diameter.1) where a positive value of qo. March 2004 76 . if the THP is specified. Version 5c. c h (8.sc implies injection and a negative value production.sc. the flow up the tubing is affected by • the tubing size and other completion parameters. which shows the dependence of the BHP on flow rate qo. as we have seen. with productivity index J.sc . GLR and watercut. the inflow performance of the well. pwf pR drawdown ∆p IPR − qo. These effects cannot be brought into a single relationship which predicts the pressure drop over tubing. • the reservoir properties. all these effects can be brought into a single relationship. Similarly. • the flow regime in which the well operates. The actual form of Fip depends on the other parameters such as THP. sc J . then pwf = p R + qo . and all other factors such as tubing diameter are held constant.9: Inflow performance curve for constant PI. and • the properties of the reservoir fluids. • the skin. (8. as we saw in Chapter 8. However.sc Figure 8. including ‘skin’ due to the completion. then we can construct an intake pressure curve. and • the fluid properties.• the reservoir pressure. Assuming that we have a linear inflow performance. Lecture Notes ta4490.2) where Fip is the intake pressure curve function.
and the intake pressure curve will shift down. corresponding to an increased flow rate. and as derived in Section 2. also the BHP will drop. March 2004 77 .10. the intersection at the right corresponds to a stable operating point and gives us the actual flow rate qo. The curves have two intersection points.10: Tubing intake pressure curve for varying production rate. because the boundaries between the various flow regimes in the tubing may also move.11. However.1 of Chapter 7) is shown as Figure 8. The inflow performance curve (Figure 7.sc Figure 8. Recall that the tubing intake pressure curve has been derived for a fixed THP.sc Figure 8. If we lower the THP.pwf − qo. The intake pressure curve (Figure 6.sc and the actual BHP pwf.4. This is an example of the combination of an operating point performance curve (the tubing intake pressure curve) and a pressure drop performance curve (the IPR) as was discussed in Section 2.8 of Chapter 6) is shown as Figure 8. the overall effect will be a shift of the stable operating point to the right.4 where we covered ‘nodal analysis’.9. if we pwf drawdown ∆p IPR − qo. and therefore physically unrealistic operating point. Combining these two curves gives us Figure 8. The intersection at the left represents an unstable. Lecture Notes ta4490. determining actual production rate.11: Combined plot of inflow performance and intake pressure curves. Version 5c. Conversely. In addition the curve may somewhat change in shape.
To analyse this effect we need also to consider the flow path downstream of the wellhead. For this type of analysis it is common practice to choose the analysis node at the top of the tubing and to establish an operating point pwf new intake pressure curve old intake pressure curve IPR − qo. the well will not flow at all anymore. Recall that at the other end of the system. it may be necessary to install a form of artificial lift.12: Effect of a too large increase in THP: there is no intersection any more between the intake pressure curve and the IPR. or at least a pressure that varies only very slowly over time. That point will normally be the first separator which is usually operated with automatic pressure control. Version 5c. this may be either a larger or a smaller diameter tubing. A similar effect occurs if THP remains constant but the reservoir pressure drops. the production rate will drop. As a result the well will no longer flow. a tubing and the near wellbore.12. which is almost the same as the separator pressure. • the choke. such as gas lift. i.sc Figure 8. usually the THP itself will also vary with flow rate. Interestingly. is therefore normally a good system boundary for a complete wellbore pressure drop analysis. If we increase the THP too much. and calculated the resulting flow rate from the pressure drops over the tubing and the reservoir. up to a point were we can assume that the pressure remains more or less constant. depending on factors like watercut and GOR. Lecture Notes ta4490.4 we assumed that the THP and the reservoir pressure were constant. it may sometimes be possible to bring the well back to production by installing a new tubing with a lower pressure drop. 8. given a constant pressures in the reservoir and the manifold. our problem is to determine the flow rate by considering the pressure drop over the following elements: • the reservoir (including the near wellbore area and the completion).increase the THP. a situation that frequently happens when an oil field is being depleted. March 2004 78 . we have also assumed constant pressure. If it is not possible to reduce the THP any further. in the reservoir. However. Here we will restrict ourselves to the analysis of a threecomponent system consisting of a choke. watercut). • the tubing up to the tubing head. an electric submersible pump (ESP) or a beam pump. and • the flowline. In conclusion. see Figure 8. and constant fluid composition (GOR.e. The manifold pressure.5 Production rate of a vertical well operating through a surface choke In Section 8. Alternatively.
as indicated by the vertical dashed lines.sc and the THP ptf which is called the tubing performance curve. Version 5c. the inflow performance curve determines the flowing BHP pwf. Each operating point corresponds to a certain flowing BHP pwf and a flow rate qo. The tubing performance curve gives a total picture of the deliverability of the well. the tubing performance curve. it also contains the performance of the reservoir and the completion. So a better name would be the well performance curve. that the operating point at the lower flow rate will always be unstable. corresponding to different choke sizes.13. GOR and watercut. Using this pressure.4. As the reservoir pressure declines. and for given tubing diameter. we can now plot the choke performance curve and the tubing performance curve together to determine the operating point at the tubing head.sc Figure 8.performance curve for the choke and a combined pressure drop performance curve for the tubing and the near wellbore. ptf intake pressure curves for different ptf IPR tubing performance curve − qo. the THP ptf can be determined from a wellbore pressure drop analysis. although this is not often the case if we analyse realistic well and choke configurations. In theory it is again is possible to obtain two points of intersection. The procedure for use with gradient curves is illustrated in Figure 8. in Figure 8. but that is not usually used. assuming the flow is above critical. The flow through the choke is governed by the linear choke performance curve shown in Figure 6. The tubing performance curve is not just dependent on the ability of the tubing to transport the fluids. following the analysis method from Section 2. Next we compute the pressure drop over the tubing for each of the flow rates.9 of Chapter 7.14.sc. Lecture Notes ta4490. March 2004 79 . either using a computer or using gradient curves. This has been done for a series of choke performance curves. This gives a relationship between the flow rate qo. Note that the name is slightly misleading. pwf. It can be proved. in other words.13: Construction of a tubing performance curve: For different THPs ptf we establish the stable operating points at the bottom of the tubing from the intersections of the intake pressure curves and the IPR. For a given flow rate. Hence. It has been assumed that the pressure directly downstream of the choke remains constant and equal to the manifold pressure pm. through the inflow performance relationship. the tubing performance curve will change. Subtracting the tubing pressure drops from the BHPs gives us the THPs as a function of flow rate.
Indeed using a computerized analysis method it is would be logical to analyse the pressure drop over the entire system with an algorithm marching from one boundary to the other. the tubing performance curve is calculated at the tubing head. March 2004 80 .ptf decreasing choke diameter 1. Using the inflow performance curve and the pressure drop in the tubing. For this reason. Version 5c. there are two commonly used methods for analysing the production from oil wells. The program would than need to change the flow rate in iterative fashion until the pressure drop over the system exactly matches the known difference in pressure between the two boundaries. In the first method.7 pfl noncritical region pfl − qo. This was illustrated in Figure 8. The intersection of this curve with the choke performance curve determines the production rate. 8. the analysis is performed at the tubing head.6 Summary of analysis methods As described above. This was illustrated in Figure 8. Using the condition at the tubing head and the pressure drop in the tubing. In each method the behaviour of system to be analysed is reduced to two relationships between pressure and flow rate: a pressure drop performance curve (which determines an unknown pressure downstream from a known pressure) and an operating point performance curve (which determines an unknown pressure upstream of a known pressure).14: Combined plot of tubing and choke performance curves.sc Figure 8. In the second method. the tubing intake pressure curve is calculated at the bottom of the well. The advantage of displaying the traditional combinations of a pressure drop performance curve and an operating point performance curve is that they provide quick insight in the flow behaviour of two separate system parts in one graph: one downstream and one upstream of the analysis node. determining actual production rate. As discussed in Chapter 2. the analysis is performed downhole.11.14. In a cascade system of components the analysis could be performed anywhere at or in between the two system boundaries. Lecture Notes ta4490.7 Field development planning and field management Well performance analysis plays a crucial role in field development planning for new fields and the management of producing fields. most computer programs for wellbore flow analysis still have an option to display the traditional intake pressure and performance curves. 8. The intersection of this curve with the inflow performance relation (IPR) determines the production rate. the choice of the analysis nodes at either the top or the bottom of the tubing is rather arbitrary and was determined by use of gradient curves for tubing flow before the widespread use of computers.
For a new field. However.15. for such operations. The above questions divide into two types: questions about the behaviour of the well in the short term. and how will this vary with time? • How long will the well be able to produce. the production engineer can greatly improve the economic return from a field by continuous monitoring of all wells and remedial action when the production declines. the increased production more than covers the operational cost. We consider these separately. critical questions that must be answered are: • What form of completion must be installed in the well. taking into account the capacity of the surface facilities. Generally. what is the initial production rate of the well.1 Improved inflow performance If the well has become impaired then it can be stimulated to improve the inflow performance. and questions about the longterm behaviour of the well. As shown in Figure 8. 8. Similarly.8. and in need of stimulation to remove the skin? • Can the well production be improved by changing out the tubing or installing artificial lift? Is the cost justified? • Can the well performance be improved by increasing the perforated interval? • Can the well performance be improved by lowering the THP or changing out the choke? • How long will the well produce? Do plans need to be made for artificial lift? These issues cannot be decided by a production engineer in isolation. To determine the increased production from such operations. the following must be considered : • Is the well producing as expected? • Is the well impaired. March 2004 81 . it must make economic sense to increase the production of a single well within the total field plan. Version 5c. inflow performance may be improved by additional perforating. The increase in production can be calculated. we analyse what happens downhole.8 Shortterm optimisation of well performance 8. Lecture Notes ta4490. When is the optimum time to change the tubing size or switch to artificial lift (pumping or gas lifting)? For a producing field. we draw in the current inflow performance and the improved inflow performance after the operational treatment. and in particular what size tubing? • For the chosen tubing size.
Changing the choke size can do the same.6. As can be seen in Figure 8. Changing out a choke is a cheap operation. and generally needs to be justified on a long term basis (see below). A frequently occurring reason for flow reduction is to prevent or delay water or gas coning. Version 5c.16. the tubing diameter can improve production. i.sc Figure 8. and thus shields the well from pressure fluctuations in the production facilities. March 2004 82 . below which the well will not produce anymore.pwf new IPR old IPR increase − qo. Sometimes it is required to bean back a well. Lecture Notes ta4490. Associated with the maximum choke size is a maximum flow rate. there is a maximum choke size above which the choke will no longer operate in the critical regime.2 Changing the tubing or choke size Increasing. and therefore a minimum flow rate. As explained in Section 6. Analysis of these operations is best done at the tubing head. As shown in Figure 8.16.15: Increased production due to improved inflow performance. operation in the critical regime is often preferred because it decouples the upstream flow behaviour from the downstream behaviour. or decreasing. to reduce the flow rate by installing a smaller choke. Changing out a tubing string is expensive. or to reduce the amount of gas or water produced once the cone has reached the well.8. 8.e. there is also a practical minimum choke size.
9 Longterm optimisation of well performance 8.ptf theoretical minimum choke size practical minimum choke size maximum choke size 1.17: Effect of declining reservoir performance on production. The corresponding reduction in production can be calculated. Version 5c. then as shown in Figure 8. 8.9. Lecture Notes ta4490. and whether the cost is justified in terms of the extra oil recovered.17. Assuming the PI remains constant (no impairment) while the reservoir pressure declines.1 Effect of declining reservoir pressure Analysis of the effect of declining reservoir pressure is best done downhole. the inflow performance curve will move vertically down the pressure axis with time. it will be possible to see for how long this will extend the life of the well.sc Figure 8.16: Minimum and maximum choke size.sc Figure 8. By plotting the intake pressure curve for this tubing on the same figure. pwf reduction in reservoir pressure IPR reduction in flow rate − qo. March 2004 83 . but keeping the same slope. using the intake performance curve. another (usually smaller) tubing size will need to be installed. If the reservoir pressure drops too far.7 pfl pfl qmin qmax − qo.
Above this GOR. Moreover.18: Effect of GOR on the production from a well. but the efficiency declines as more gas is added. GOR 200 . the THP is below the critical choke pressure which may result in erratic well performance. the fluid column becomes lighter.5000 scf/stb ptf 5000 3000 2000 1000 400 200 145 215 325 600 800 1.2 Installation of gas lift Gas lifting is one of the commonest methods of artificial lift. the GOR at which the well produces at the maximum rate. the difference between the pressure in the well and the reservoir pressure. varies along the length of the well. in principle.8.18. the same techniques as are used for wells with a vertical completion over the reservoir interval.7 pfl 405 465 490 535 − qo. An increase of 200 scf/stb from 200 to 400 scf/stb gives an increase in production of 325 bpd. We therefore expect that for a producing well there will be an optimum GOR at which we can inject gas to maximize the oil production rate. However. the production increases to a maximum of about 535 bpd. We have seen in Chapter 5. By injecting extra gas downhole into the tubing. that there is an optimum GOR which will minimize the pressure drop over the tubing at a given liquid flow rate.10 Productivity of horizontal wells The analysis of horizontal well productivity requires. see Figure 6. the economic optimum GOR may be much lower than 800 scf/stb. but further increases to 600 and 800 give only an additional 140 or 70 bpd.sc (bbl/day) Figure 8. Version 5c. The additional oil must be worth more than the cost of injecting the gas. Plotting the production rate as a function of GOR shows that as the GOR is increased.9.6. Thus. Thus the ‘drawdown’. we see that adding lift gas to the system is initially very efficient. the flow in the horizontal section gives additional complications: • The pressure falls from the ‘toe’ of the well to the ‘heel’. and the total production is increased. which shows the tubing performance curves for varying GOR. Lecture Notes ta4490. The rate of inflow into the well varies along the well. the oil production starts to decline again. This is illustrated in Figure 8. 8. For low GOR. Too much gas increases the pressure drop because of frictional effects. at a GOR of 800. March 2004 84 .
• In both vertical and horizontal wells with long completion intervals. Initial production from horizontal wells is usually high. resulting in different inflow performance at different points of the well. because the open hole completion reduces impairment and the long production interval helps the inflow. we refer to the textbooks of Nind (1964). Golan and Whitson (1991). Version 5c.11 Related topics that have not been considered in this chapter • Production from more than one reservoir interval. Since the well is not perfectly horizontal. For information on these topics and for further reading on well performance in general. the formation properties will vary. Economides et al. when they start to decline in production or produce water or gas. but are worth to be looked for in a library. (1998). with different reservoir pressure and inflow performance. and Economides et al. Lecture Notes ta4490. liquid can accumulate in lower sections of the well. For more information on horizontal well performance we refer to the textbooks of Joshi (1991). • Horizontal wells flowing a mixture of liquid and gas can exhibit difficult multiphase flow behaviour. (1994). production logging techniques still need to be developed to detect these differences. 8. March 2004 85 . • Gas well performance. and especially uncased horizontal wells. The first two books are out of print. For specific information on the effects of horizontal well pressure drop. Economides et al. and cause slugging. see Dikken (1990). In uncased holes. The longterm management of horizontal wells may become a problem. (1998). (1994). or shuttingoff of production. and Economides et al.
.
535 924 * 101 9.894 757 * 103 2.565 341 * 105 1 * 103 (exact) 5 /9 (exact) (°F – 32) / 1.355 818 3. multiply a quantity given in field units with the conversion factor specified in Table A.198 264 * 102 4.601 846 * 101 1.0 * 103 (exact) Energy Flow rate [L m2 t2] [L3 t1] Force Gasoil ratio (GOR) Length Mass Permeability Power 3) Pressure 4) Pressure gradient Productivity Index (PI) Specific PI Surface tension Temperature 5) Torque Velocity Viscosity (dynamic) [L m t2] [] [L] [L] [m] [L2] [L m2 t3] [L1 m t2] [L2 m t2] [L4 m1 t] [L3 m1 t] [m t2] [T] [L m t ] [L t1] [L1 m t1] 2 2 Lecture Notes ta4490. Table A.305 916 * 105 8.869 233 * 1016 7.5 + °API) (exact) 1.184 (exact) 1.5*103 / (131.Appendix A – SI units and field units A.456 999 6.831 685 * 102 4. Version 5c. Physical quantity Area Compressibility Density Dimension [L2] [L m1 t2] [L3 m] SI units1) m2 m2 Pa1 kg m3 kg m3 kg m3 J m3 s1 m3 d1 m3 s1 m3 d1 N m3 m3 m m kg m2 W Pa Pa m1 m3 s1 Pa1 m3 d1 Pa1 m2 s1 Pa1 m2 d1 Pa1 N m1 K °C Nm m s1 Pa s Field units ft2 in.048 * 101 (exact) 1.1: Conversion factors to convert field units to SI units.756 182 * 1010 7.450 377 * 104 141.589 873 * 101 3. lbm mD hp psi psi ft1 bpd psi1 bpd psi1 bpd psi1 ft1 bpd psi1 ft1 dyne cm1 °R °F lbf ft ft s1 cp Conversion factor from field units to SI units2) 9.781 076 * 101 3.8 (exact) 1.1 Conversion factors To obtain SI units.840 131 * 106 1.451 6 * 104 (exact) 1.1.54 * 102 (exact) 4.668 884 * 1010 2.048 * 101 (exact) 2.290 304 * 102 (exact) 6.262 059 * 104 2.277 413 * 107 2.448 222 1. March 2004 87 .2 psi1 °API lbm ft3 lbm gal1 cal bpd bpd ft3 d1 ft3 d1 lbf ft3 bbl1 ft in.
the temperature expressed in °R equals the temperature expressed in °F + 459. the temperature expressed in K equals the temperature expressed in °C + 273. or J. Zero °R (Rankine) is absolute zero in Fahrenheit units. Version 5c. A. where 1 bar = 100 kPa. s.831 685 * 102 1.Viscosity (kinematic) Volume [L2 t1] [L3] m2 s1 m3 m3 cSt ft3 bbl 1.23 kg m3 (76. 2) Conversion factors have been taken from SPE (1982). 4) Pressure in field units can be expressed in psig (gauge pressure) or psia (absolute pressure) where 0 psig = 14.0 * 106 (exact) 2.15. A. K. N.sc =1. A. Therefore.3 * 103 lbm ft3). Therefore. • Density of water at standard conditions: ρwater. Pressure in SI units is often expressed in bar which is an ‘allowable’ SI unit.4 lbm ft3 or 8.3 Standard conditions • SI units: 100 kPa and 15 °C.67.325 kPa is used.2 SI prefixes Table A. Note: sometimes a standard pressure of 101. 3) One hp = 550 ft lbf s1.34 lbm gal1). This can be expressed in SI units as Lecture Notes ta4490. • Density of air at standard conditions: ρair.4 Force. 5) Zero K (Kelvin) is absolute zero in Celsius units.7 psia. kg. see SPE (1982).589 873 * 101 1) The expression ‘SI units’ is used loosely to indicate both ‘strict’ SI units and ‘allowable’ units. • Field units: 14. The ‘allowable’ SI units are those defined in SPE (1982) and include d (day) and a (year).7 psia and 60 °F. mol and cd) and ‘derived’ SI such as °C. mass and acceleration of gravity The relationship between force and mass is given by Newton’s law as “force equals mass times acceleration”. The difference is negligible for normal production engineering purposes. March 2004 88 . The ‘strict’ units can be subdivided in the seven ‘base’ SI units (m.2: SI prefixes Symbol n µ m c d da h k M G Name nano micro mili centi deci deca hecto kilo mega giga Magnitude 109 106 103 102 101 101 102 103 106 109 A.sc = 999 kg m3 (62.
(A. The molar mass (molecular weight) is expressed accordingly in lbm (lbmmole)1. expressed in N.sc according to Lecture Notes ta4490. A. an amount of n lbmmole of substance with a molar mass M expressed in lbm (lbmmole)1 has a mass of n M lbm. 32. expressed in kg. expressed in s.174 ft s2. however. For gasses. In reality. have been defined purposely such that a mass of 1 lbm experiences an attractive force due to the earth’s gravitational field. As a result. a mass of 1 kg experiences an attractive force due to the earth’s gravitational field. dt 2 (A. which has a magnitude g = 32. This implies that N = kg m s2. m is mass. which is the official name in the SI system for what used to be known as the molecular weight. and t is time.174 ft s 2 =1 lbf . ft.80665 m s2 = 9. m is mass.F =m where d 2x . which is “the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are in 12 lbm of C12”. of exactly 1 lbf: Fgrav = 1 ∗ 1 lbm ∗ 32. is therefore specified in kg kmol1. leads however to a more complicated expression for a mass experiencing an arbitrary acceleration. As a result. Note that the standard acceleration of gravity is specified as 9.80665 N .1) F is force. which has a magnitude g = 9. As a result.80665 kg m s2 = 9. x is distance. March 2004 89 1 d2x m .174 ft s2). In that case we should write F= where F is force. x is distance.5 Amount of substance and molar mass In SI units we express the amount of substance in kmol.174 gc (A. defined as “the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are in 12 kg of C12”. s. the molar mass M is related to the specific gravity γg and the density under standard conditions ρg.174.3) This simple result in field units for a mass experiencing the acceleration of gravity.80665 m s2 (32. of Fgrav = 1 kg ∗ 9. 80665 m s2. This implies that lbf = gc1 lbm ft s2. gc dt 2 (A. The molar mass. In field units. the acceleration of gravity will show slight variations with geographical location and altitude. Version 5c. expressed in m.2) Field units. lbm. an amount of n kmol of substance with a molar mass M expressed in kg kmol1 has a mass of n M kg.4) . lbf. t is time. and gc is a dimensionless constant with magnitude 32. the amount of substance is expressed in lbmmole.
M air = ρ air 123 .sc lbm lbm .mole M air = ρ air 76.sc 28. (A.5) field units: M = γ g M air = ρ g .3 *103 b g −1 .sc ρ g .sc ρ g .6) Lecture Notes ta4490. (A.97 = 379. Version 5c.sc 28.SI units: M = γ g M air = ρ g . .7 ρ g . March 2004 90 .sc kg kmol 1 .97 = 2355 ρ g .
23 128.2 568.68 1. in turn.1 (in SI units) have been computed from the values in Table B.64 3.18 1.02 16.01 44.Appendix B – Fluid properties and correlations B. At standard conditions 1) Compound Molar mass M (kg kmol1) 28.15 72.4 539.18 100.37 3.7 506. Table B.40 7. Tc.8 425. Density at the ‘normal boiling point’.1: Reservoir fluid properties in SI units.04 30.23 4.sc (kg m3) 809 2) 817 3) 801 3) 999 300 4) 356 3) 507 3) 562 3) 584 3) 624 631 663 687 706 721 734 N2 (nitrogen) CO2 (carbon dioxide) H2S (hydrogen sulphide) H2O (water) C1H4 (methane) C2H6 (ethane) C3H8 (propane) C4H10 (isobutane) C4H10 (nbutane) C5H12 (isopentane) C5H12 (npentane) C6H14 (nhexane) C7H16 (nheptane) C8H18 (noctane) C9H20 (nnonane) C10H22 (ndecane) 1) 2) Standard conditions: 100 kPa and 15 °C = 288 K. 3) Density at saturation pressure (bubble point pressure) and 288 K.49 2.20 114.1 373.60 4. March 2004 91 .07 44.96 22.2 with the aid of the conversion factors presented in Appendix A which. ρl.29 Critical pres. 4) Estimated value.86 1.4 647.88 4.10 58.42 6.86 2.37 8.4 369. were taken from SPE (1982).15 86.1 460. The temperature at standard conditions (288 K) is above the critical temperature (191 K).05 3.1 Fluid properties Properties in Table B. ρg.4 594.28 2.05 3. at boiling temperature (78 K) and 100 kPa.45 3.sc (kg m3) 1.01 34.7 617. Version 5c.4 469. Lecture Notes ta4490. Properties in Table B. The temperature at standard conditions (288 K) is above the critical temperature (126 K).2 (in field units) have been taken from GPSA (1998).1 190.26 142.44 0.12 72.78 3.e.77 0.82 5.08 18.12 58.00 Liquid dens.abs (K) 126.7 Gas dens.1 4.27 1.24 3.45 2.03 2. i.64 4.8 407.10 Critical temp.6 305.38 3.2 304. pc (106 Pa) 3.74 2.
8 .81801 5) 0.0.4 361. At standard conditions 1) Compound Molar mass M (lbm * lbmmole1) 28.7 psia and 60 °F = 520 °R.92 274.39 0.80940 4) 0. Table B.2 Gas specific gravity 2) γg () 0.8 510.04 .13 0.56286 5) 0.0 .34 lbm ft3. The temperature at standard conditions (60 °F) is above the critical temperature (117 °F). The temperature at standard conditions (60 °F) is above the critical temperature (232 °F).4284 4.72193 0.02 16.6220 0.8 Gradient (psi ft1) 0.0382 1.12 72. 3200.35 .10.66404 0.41 305. 5) Density at saturation pressure (bubble point pressure) and 60 °F.7 psia.8 9. Tc (°F) 232.7 451.5 397.11 116.73 212.01 44.0068 2.20 114.5 610.Table B.48 Lecture Notes ta4490.1 330.4912 2.0 707.73417 N2 (nitrogen) CO2 (carbon dioxide) H2S (hydrogen sulphide) H2O (water) C1H4 (methane) C2H6 (ethane) C3H8 (propane) C4H10 (isobutane) C4H10 (nbutane) C5H12 (isopentane) C5H12 (npentane) C6H14 (nhexane) C7H16 (nheptane) C8H18 (noctane) C9H20 (nnonane) C10H22 (ndecane) 1) 2) Standard conditions: 14.9127 Liquid specific gravity 3) γl () 0.4912 2.04 30.3) 6) 0. Fluid Gas Oil Water Density (kg m3) 100 – 300 800 – 900 1000 – 1100 Gradient (kPa m1) 1.50698 5) 0.6 Critical temp.29 Critical pres.8 1069. i.43 .49 87.5226 2.0763 lbm ft3.18 100.08 18.68805 0.8 .7 304.9672 1.e.8 490.07 205.1 667. 6) Estimated value.0068 2.12 58.2.9 7.23 128.15 86.5539 1.00000 (0.1 439.8 615.8 652.26 142.51 368.10 58.40 705. With respect to air which has a density at standard conditions of 0. Version 5c.9441 4.07 44. at boiling temperature (320 °F) and 14.9 548.35619 5) 0.5196 1.3: Typical reservoir fluid gradients.4 488.1767 0.8.62441 0.58402 5) 0.0.01 34. March 2004 92 .63108 0.9 563. 4) Density at the ‘normal boiling point’.66 90.80143 5) 1.9755 3.4598 3. Pc (psia) 492.0.15 72.70678 0.96 385.2: Reservoir fluid properties in field units. 3) With respect to water which has a density at standard conditions of 8.5 1300.0 527.
but with caution. the volume it occupies changes due to two effects: compressibility effects and.sc −0. changes in the amount of dissolved gas.59 – 0.8 °API 0.1) If the actual GOR Rgo is used to compute pb with this correlation.3 Solution gasoil ratio Rs We can now estimate Rs.95 (air = 1. γAPI Gas density ρg.4: Conditions used to derive Standing correlations Property Bubble point pressure pb Temperature T Producing gasoil ratio Rp Oil density ρo.2048 ρ g .2.00) B.5 – 63.sc or gravity γg SI units 0. much more importantly. This is the case if the reservoir pressure is above or at the bubble point pressure pb. there is free gas and the pressure p must be the bubble point pressure of the mixture of oil and stilldissolved gas.5 – 254 m3/m3 725 – 956 kg/m3 0. Note that the numerical values in several of these correlations are not dimensionless. as long as no gas coning has occurred and the well does not produce gascap gas.2 Bubble point pressure pb Standing’s correlation to compute the bubble point pressure pb from the producing gasoil ratio Rp of a well is: 716 R 0. and Standing (1952). Hence Rs is given by the inverse of the above Standing correlation. Table B. It may also be the case if the reservoir pressure is below the bubble point pressure.2 Oil correlations B. Note: All correlations in this Appendix have been implemented in MATLAB routines which are available from Blackboard. Version 5c.1 Black oil correlations Black oil correlations are based on laboratory tests.3 * 10 Pa 37 – 125 °C 3. the oil p ≤ pb : Rs = 1. B. black oil correlations are often used above this limit. (B. The expressions below have been taken from Appendix II of the 1977 SPE reissue of Standing (1952).00164 T p pb = 125 ∗10 − 1. the oil is undersaturated.4 Oil formation volume factor Bo As the pressure changes. If p > pb.00164T .9 – 48. but with pressure p instead of pb: ( 8 ∗10−6 p + 1. sc 10 3 (B. the oil is saturated with gas. the results are only valid if the gas produced at surface is associated gas. originally issued in Standing (1947). March 2004 93 . If p ≤ pb.sc or grav.sc ρ g .4.2) 716 B.2.2.4 .73 – 1. If p ≤ pb. the solution gasoil ratio at a pressure p other than the bubble point pressure of the mixture. all gas is in solution and Rs = Rp.4 )101768 ρo .2. They have been derived based on data from 22 Californian crudes under conditions listed in Table B. The most widely known black oil correlations are the ‘Standing correlations’. see the file ‘Fluid properties.zip’.83 100. 1768 ρo .B. sc Lecture Notes ta4490.17 kg/m3 6 Field units 130 – 7000 psia 100 – 258 °F 20 – 1425 scf/bbl 16. most of which were performed on crudes with GOR less then 350 m3/m3 (about 2000 scf/stb). In practice.
can be obtained from equation (B.8) where ρg.4.2. (B.5) for Bo quoted above.sc psep − 131. and ρo is the density at pressure p.4. As pressure changes.5 Densities Using the principle of conservation of mass we can derive that . Correlations do exist for the compressibility. sc 105 p .7 psia). One of these is given by Vazquez and Beggs (1980). B.100 is the gas density measured at a pressure of 689 kPa (100 psig = 114.4) recovers relationship (B.sep measured at any other separator pressure psep and temperature Tsep is given by ρ g .3.6) Bo The oil density at bubble point conditions. (B. March 2004 94 . (B. and has the form p > pb : co = −2541 + 27.5 (1.100 + 1784*103 ρ o . sc + Rs ρ g . b g (B. above pb. sc ) + 2. Substitution of relationship (B. all changes are due to changes in density of the mixture.5) where co is the isothermal compressibility of the undersaturated oil. see Vazquez and Beggs (1980).2. Hence p > pb : Bo = Bob ρ ob 1.2 ρo .is saturated. sc b g .25 T + 40 . sc ρ o .6) through substitution of Bo = Bob. (B.8 Rs + 31. this can also be written as: p > pb : Bo = Bob exp − co p − pb . (B. Version 5c.7) see equation (4.6 below .6 Compressibility Compressibility is best measured in the laboratory if accurate values are required for the density or Bo. ρob.8Tsep + 32 ) log . The relationship between ρg.3. and the mixture of oil and stilldissolved gas is at its bubble point.12) in Section 4. no extra gas is dissolved or comes free.4) where Bob and ρob are the oil formation volume factor and the density of the oil at the bubble point pressure pb. A correlation for co is given in Section B.100 = ρ g .0 T − 959 ρ g . At other pressures.9759 + 12 ∗10−5 160 Rs ( ρ g .9) 3 790.5*103 ρo . As was shown in Section 4. the oil is undersaturated and all the gas is dissolved.sep 1 + 5. If p > pb.8*10 Lecture Notes ta4490.100 and ρg. We can use Standing’s correlation for the oil formation volume factor at the bubblepoint pressure: (B. the density is given by p > pb : ρ o = ρ ob exp co p − pb p ≤ pb : ρo = ρo .2.912*10−5 141. B.7) in equation (B.3) p ≤ pb : Bo = 0. This pressure was chosen to reflect a typical separator pressure because usually the gas density is determined from a sample taken from a separator.
119) A correlation for saturated oil viscosity is also given by Beggs and Robinson (1975) as µ o = 4.35 0.12 – 148 cp 3.5: Conditions used to derive viscosity correlations.sc = 0.6 MPa 16 – 392 m3/m3 966 – 739 kg/m 3 3 141 – 9515 psia 90 – 2199 scf/stb 15 – 60 °API 0.sc = 800 kg m3 and ρg.1 – 36.8 T + 32 ) −0.12).11).sc = 200000 m3 d1.12 – 148 mPa s B.338 . SI units field units 1.66 kg/m 0. (B. and the reservoir is at pressure and temperature given by pR = 20.7 )−0. March 2004 95 .sc = 1000 m3 d1. a = 10b (1. pb d (B. Version 5c.4065 ( Rs + 17.sc. γAPI Density ρg.693 − 2.B.7 Viscosity A commonly used empirical correlation for dead oil is that of Beggs and Robinson (1975). After reaching the bubble point pressure.513 − 1. (B.12). The production history shows no indication of gascap gas production.163 .187 exp ( −11.515 1. the viscosity somewhat increases with increasing pressure. The density of the oil and gas at standard conditions are given by ρo.863 ∗103 ρo. SI units 21 – 146 °C 0.0 – 65.6 – 369 m3/m3 20 – 2070 scf/stb 0. however.5 gives an overview of the conditions under which these correlations were derived.8 ) c µ od .51 – 1. It can be expressed as µ od = 10−3 (10a − 1) . Property Temperature T Pressure pb Solution GOR Rs Density ρo.sc. Table B. c = 3.30 ∗10−8 p ) . Question What is the oil formation volume factor Bo at reservoir pressure and temperature? Answer The producing GOR is given by the actual GOR as Lecture Notes ta4490.2.98.11) These expressions illustrate that the saturated oil viscosity decreases with increasing temperature and increasing pressure. b = 5. d = 7.12) Table B. γg Viscosity µo Equation (B.00 MPa and TR = 150 °C. sc . and qg.63 – 1.3 * MPa 959 – 747 kg/m 3 Equation(B. see Beggs and Robinson (1975) and Brill and Mukherjee (1999).11).2. Vazquez and Beggs (1980) determined the following empirical correlation for undersaturated oil: p µ o = µ ob . Equation (B.2 ∗10−5 p1.04 ( Rs + 26.8 Example 1 – Oil formation volume factor (p < pb) Consider a well that produces oil and gas at the following rates: qo. field units 70 – 295 °F 15 – 5265 psia 16 – 58 °API Equation (B.
8 above.98. Answer with MATLAB » R_p R_p = » p_b p_b = » R_s R_s = » B_o B_o = = 200000/1000 200 = pres_bub_Standing(R_p. except for the reservoir pressure which is now given by: pR = 40.98 where T has been taken equal to the reservoir temperature.Oil formation volume factor (p > pb) Consider the same situation as in Example 1 in Section B.800.150) 2.0.800.83 100.2.3) as: Bo = 0. The corresponding oil formation volume factor Bob is obtained from equation (B.4194 B. 716 The oil formation volume factor now follows from equations (B. Because the reservoir pressure is below the bubble point pressure.6105e+007 = gas_oil_rat_Standing(20e6.5656 R_s = 145.0.sc qo .150) B_g = 0.57 m3/m3.1) we find that the bubble point pressure equals 716* 200 0.0*106 + 1.800.2.4194 = oil_form_vol_fact_Standing(R_s.150) 1.98 ( 8 ∗10−6 * 20.0.200.00164 *150 pb = 125 ∗103 − 1. Version 5c.R_s] = black_oil_Standing(20e6.98.98.9759 + 12 ∗10−5 160*145 ( 0.25 *150 + 40 1. Question What is the oil formation volume factor Bo at this higher reservoir pressure? Answer Because the reservoir pressure is now above the bubble point pressure.800.2048 0.2): Rs = 1.0068 B_o = 1.5656 Alternatively.98 800 ) + 2.B_o.3) as: Lecture Notes ta4490.sc = 200000 = 200 m3/m3.R p = Rgo = q g . the black oil properties can be computed directly as: » [B_g.2 = 1.4 )101768 800−0. 1000 With the aid of equation (B.00164*150 = 145 m3/m3. 1768 800 10 0. March 2004 96 . the solution gasoil ratio is equal to the producing gasoil ratio: Rs = R p = 200 m3/m3.150) 145.0.98.1 MPa.4 = 26.00 MPa. we need to compute the solution gasoil ratio Rs at reservoir pressure with the aid of equation (B.9 Example 2 .
9). This leads to ρ g . b g Answer with MATLAB (continued from previous example) » B_ob = oil_form_vol_fact_Standing(R_p.170 .8*15 + 32 ) log = 0.11) as: −0.8 ∗150 + 32 ) µ od = 10−3 (100. 119) the deadoil viscosity follows as: b = 5. This requires that we first determine the compressibility co from equation (B.sc.B_o. . which. a = = 0.0*150 − 959*0.9759 + 12 ∗10−5 160*15 ( 0. in turn.25 *150 + 40 1.7 ) The oil viscosity at bubble point can then be computed with the aid of equations (B.84 . March 2004 97 . the black oil properties can be computed directly as: » [B_g.800.sep is in our example equal to ρg.800.Oil viscosity Consider the same situation as in Example 2 in Section B.114 = 2.p_b) B_o = 1.48 ∗10−3 Pa s .6970 R_s = 200 B.2 = 1.2.27 * 10−9 40 − 26 * 106 = 170 m3/m3.15) rho_g_100 = 0.8).rho_g_100. 3 800 790. Because ρg.486 .5*103 100*103 − 131.338 = 0.150) B_ob = 1.9).8*10 co = −2541 + 27.693 − 2.5).170 − 1) = 0. 5 6 10 * 40*10 Bo = 175 exp −2.8407 » c_o = compres_Vazquez_and_Beggs(40e6.150) B_g = 0 B_o = 1.R_s] = black_oil_Standing(40e6.10 Example 3 .98 1 + 5.Bob = 0.40e6.9 above.8* 200 + 31.98 800 ) + 2.150) c_o = 2. Version 5c.27 *10−9 Pa1.2.0.98.c_o.800.0.2732e009 » B_o = oil_form_vol_fact_undersat(B_ob.200.800.5 (1. 1.04 ( 200 + 26.912*10−5 141. we can enter standard conditions in equation (B. c = 3.863 ∗103 102. Lecture Notes ta4490.6970 Alternatively.7515 » rho_g_100 = rho_g_Vazquez_and_Beggs(689e3.98. . requires computation of ρg100 from ρg.84 + 1784*103 800 = 2.sep with the aid of equation (B.R_p.75 m3/m3. Question What is the oil viscosity µo at reservoir pressure and temperature? Answer With the aid of equations (B.163 800 (1.114 . We can now compute the oil formation volume factor from equation (B.100 = 0.0.98.
200) mu_ob = 0.48 ∗10−3 ) 0. Answer with MATLAB » mu_od = oil_visc_dead_B_and_R(800.3.2 ρ g .µ ob = 4.1∗10−3 Pa s . The dimensionless pseudoreduced pressure ppr and pseudoreduced temperature Tpr are defined as: p pr = p T .2 Density For single phase gas flow the gas density follows directly from the nonideal gas law as ρg = ρ g .26. as indicated by the use of the terms pseudocritical pressure and temperature.15) Lecture Notes ta4490.1 ∗10 −3 = 8.98. sc pTsc . Version 5c.4*103 ρ g .30 ∗10−8 ∗ 40 ∗106 ) = 0.3.486 = 6. p pc Tpc (B.1e6) mu_o = 0. March 2004 98 . for mixtures the concepts are approximations.2.40e6. and the viscosity at reservoir pressure with equation (B.1 Pseudo properties The concepts of critical pressure and temperature are exactly defined for single components. consult the references mentioned in Section 4. We can use the Sutton (1985) correlations to estimate the pseudocritical properties as function of the gas density: 2 p pc = 5218*103 − 734*103 ρ g . sc . sc . sc − 27.150) mu_o = 0.0 + 157. If a compositional description of the mixture is available.7 ∗10−3 Pa s .9 ρ g . For further information.12) as: d = 7.13) Note that the pseudocritical temperature is expressed in K.7 ∗10 6 26.0. the oil viscosity can be computed directly as: » mu_o = oil_viscosity(40e6.abs Z sc .45 .2 ∗10−5 ( 40 ∗106 ) 1. the pseudocritical properties can be determined more accurately with the aid of mixing rules.513 − 1. 0. However.187 exp ( −11.4065 ( 200 + 17.3 Gas correlations B.45 40 ∗106 µ o = 6. psc Tabs Z (B.515 ( 0.200.14) B.150) mu_od = 4. Tpr = abs .0081 B.0067 » mu_o = oil_visc_undersat_V_and_B(mu_ob. (B.800.8 ) −0. 2 Tpc = 94.sc Bg = ρ g . sc − 16.7851e004 » mu_ob = oil_visc_sat_B_and_R(mu_od.0081 Alternatively.
(B.16) a0 + a1 p pr + a2 p 2 + a3 p 3 + Tpr ( a4 + a5 p pr + a6 p 2 + a7 p 3 ) pr pr pr pr 1 .In the black oil model.17) exp f = 2 3 Tpr + Tpr ( a8 + a9 p pr + a10 p 2 + a11 p 3 ) + Tpr ( a12 + a13 p pr + a14 p 2 + a15 p 3 ) pr pr pr pr with dimensionless coefficients as given in Table B.5) and (A. Lecture Notes ta4490. March 2004 99 .2 were produced. (B.3. Tpr ) ∗ µ g .0 ≤ p pr ≤ 20 .19) The Dempsey (1965) approximations have been programmed in MATLAB routines with which Figures B. the same expression can be used for the gas density in the twophase region. 16 ≤ M ≤ 110 .0 .18) with dimensional coefficients that are also given in Table B.6).16) to (B.18) are valid for the following ranges of parameter values: 1.2 ≤ Tpr ≤ 3. Correlations (B. sc (B.1 and B. Kobayashi and Burrows (1954).T ) . but are accurate enough for most production engineering calculations.3 Viscosity A well known correlation for gas viscosity was presented in graphical form by Carr. The relationship between the molar mass M.sc and the gas specific gravity γg was given in equations (A. p = b0 + b1T + b2T 2 + b3 M + b4TM + b5T 2 M + b6 M 2 + b7TM 2 + b8T 2 M 2 . Kobayashi and Burrows (1954). We refer to the original publication of Karr. where it is assumed that the gas composition does not change with pressure and temperature. correction factors are needed for the computation of the viscosity at atmospheric pressure. the gas density ρg. psc is the viscosity at atmospheric pressure for which the correlation can be expressed as µ g . A numerical approximation of this correlation was given by Dempsey (1965) and can be represented in two steps as µ g = f ( p pr . B. The graphs are slightly different from the original graphs in Karr. 4 C ( 40 F ) ≤ T ≤ 204 C ( 400 F ) . Version 5c.6. The variable µ g . p where sc ( M . 1. In case of the presence of nonhydrocarbon components in the gas. Kobayashi and Burrows (1954) for further information.6. (B.
91397349 * 1013 4.60373020 * 1001 1.03367881 * 1002 6. Lecture Notes ta4490.psc.46211820 * 10 2.57735189 * 1010 3.4 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Molar mass M.01907887 * 1008 6.1: Gas viscosity at atmospheric pressure.09485050 * 1007 1.05420522 * 1003 2. The graph is based on the Dempsey (1965) approximation of the Carr.97054714 * 1000 2.80860949 * 1000 3.83226102 * 1013 1.8 0.6 x 10 5 Temperature T .39643306* 1000 1.6 0.15256951 * 1010 2.04432413 * 1002 7. °C 1.93385684 * 1001 1.6: Coefficients for the Dempsey (1965) approximation of the Carr. March 2004 100 .28865249 * 1015 1.39387178 * 1002 00 Coefficient a13 a14 a15 b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 Value 1.2 1 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0.11231913 * 1005 3.86408848 * 1001 2.4 Gas viscosity µg. Kobayashi and Burrows (1954) gas viscosity correlation.Table B. kg kmol1 Figure B.49144925 * 1001 4. Coefficient a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 a9 a10 a11 a12 Value 2.41015512 * 1003 8.09579263 * 1004 1.49803305 * 1000 3. Pa s 1.86264054 * 1001 8. Version 5c.84808007 * 1012 1. Kobayashi and Burrows (1954) correlation.
Below we reproduce the approximation by Dranchuk and AbuKasem (1975) which is given in the form of an implicit function in terms of Z: . b6 = b4b5 .2 2.8 2 2.6 Pseudoreduced temperature Tpr.4 Z factor B.3.2: Gas viscosity ratio. Version 5c. B. where bg c h c h (B.5 5 Gas viscosity ratio µg /µg. b =c JK 4 I JK F GH I JK 2 a10 . Kobayashi and Burrows (1954) correlation.2 1.6 5.20) b1 = c a1 + 5 Fa b =c a G HT 3 9 F GH a2 a3 a4 a5 a a + 3 + 4 + 5 . a1 to a11 are coefficients as specified in Table B.5 2 4 3 1 8 6 10 1 1. March 2004 101 . b5 = c 2 a11 . – 2. – Figure B.1 StandingKatz correlation The widely accepted correlation for the gas compressibility factor (Z factor) for a nonideal gas or gas mixture was presented by Standing and Katz (1942) in graphical form.21) Here.4 1. 3 Tpr (B. and c is a function of the dimensionless pseudoreduced pressure and temperature: c = 0.22) Lecture Notes ta4490.3.5.7.5 3 15 20 Pseudoreduced pressure ppr.5 4 3.27 p pr Tpr .5 2 1.psc . f Z = Z − b1Z −1 − b2 Z −2 + b3 Z −5 − b4 Z −2 + b6 Z −4 exp −b5 Z −2 − 10 = 0 . Various numerical approximations have been developed over time.4 2. The graph is based on the Dempsey (1965) approximation of the Carr. (B. – 4. and an overview is presented in Takacs (1976). 2 Tpr Tpr Tpr Tpr Tpr Tpr 7 + pr a8 2 Tpr I . b2 = c 2 a6 + 7 + 8 .6 1.
2 ≤ p pr ≤ 30 and 105 ≤ Tpr ≤ 3.1056 0. (B.0 . Lecture Notes ta4490.26) which is sufficient for most applications.5.24) A convenient starting value for Z is provided by the explicit approximation of Papay quoted in Takacs (1976) as: Z = 1− 352 p pr .6134 0.5475 0. March 2004 102 . Version 5c. The Dranchuk and AbuKasem approximation to the Standing and Katz correlation has been programmed in a MATLAB file ‘Z_factor_DAK. Figures B.a and B.3. e.01569 0.3.g.Table B. and they closely mimic the original graphical Zfactor chart as presented in Standing and Katz (1942).7: Coefficients for Dranchuk and AbuKassem (1975) approximation.1844 0. with a Newton Raphson algorithm which we can write as (see Appendix C): bZ g k +1 = Z bg k − bg f ′b Z g f Z k k . Coefficient a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 a9 a10 a11 Value 0.2 Numerical implementation Because equation (B.3. (B.25) bg c h c h Equation (B.b have been generated with the MATLAB routine. (B.23) Here k is the iteration counter.7210 B.0700 0. (B.23) can then be used to obtain improved approximations to the desired accuracy.8157 Tpr . .m’. The range of validity for the approximation is 0.274 p 2 pr 100.05165 0.20) is implicit in Z it needs to be solved iteratively. 100.3265 1.7361 0.9813 Tpr + 0.5339 0. and f′(Z) is the derivative of f(Z) with respect to Z given by f ′ Z = 1 + b1Z −2 + 2b2 Z −3 − 5b3 Z −6 + 2b4 Z −3 − 2b4b5 Z −5 + 4b6 Z −5 − 2b5b6 Z −7 exp −b5 Z −2 .
9 2.2 0 1.40 1.20 2. – 1.35 1.25 1.8 0.70 Compressibility factor Z .60 3. Version 5c.30 1.20 1.90 1.00 2.6 0.4 1.1.50 1.35 2. Lecture Notes ta4490.3 1. – 0.3 a) and b).1 1 0.4 0. March 2004 103 .9 7 1.1 1 0. Compressibility factor Z as function of pseudoreduced pressure ppr and pseudo reduced temperature Tpr.15 1.5 1.05 1.15 1.05 1.10 Pseudoreduced temperature Tpr .2 1.5 1.25 1.50 1.45 1.80 3.8 1.40 1. – Figure B. – 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Pseudoreduced pressure ppr .20 2.30 1.80 1.00 2.6 Pseudoreduced temperature Tpr .80 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Pseudoreduced pressure ppr .3 0.70 1.00 1.80 1.60 1.40 2.7 0. The graph is based on the Dranchuk and Abu Kassem (1975) approximation of the Standing and Katz (1942) correlation. – 1.60 1.60 2. – 1.00 Compressibility factor Z .7 1.20 0.40 2.45 1.10 1.90 2.
93 .150+273. and for the viscosity ratio: f = 1. Question What are the gas formation volume factor Bg and the gas viscosity µg at reservoir pressure and temperature? Answer With the aid of the Sutton correlations (B. pr = R = = 190 .3 ∗10−5 = 1. 6 223 p pc 4. March 2004 104 .982 =4.Z) B_g = 0.9*0. Z = 0. Answers with MATLAB Gas formation volume factor: » p_pc = pres_pseu_crit_Sutton(0.16) as: µ g = 1. .98) p_pc = 4.1) and (B. . The pseudoreduced pressure and temperature at the reservoir follow as pR .93. 6 20 * 10 *(15 + 27315) *100 .2.4*103 *0.98 − 27. pr = 20 * 106 150 + 27315 .0068 Lecture Notes ta4490.3.8 ∗10−5 Pa s .Gas properties Consider the same situation as in Example 1 in Section B. The viscosity at reservoir pressure then follows with equation (B. With the aid of Figures (B.48*106 Pa. Tpc .2*0.2) we now find for the gas viscosity at atmospheric pressure: µ g . and with the aid of equation (4.4614 » T_R_pr = (150 + 273.9008 » Z = Z_factor_DAK(p_R_pr. pR T = = 4.13) we find the pseudocritical properties of the fluid as p pc = 5218*103 − 734*103 *0.98 = 23.B.abs = 94.5) as M = 23.8 * 10−3 m3/m3.55 ∗ 0.4.7) for the gas formation volume factor: Bg = 100 * 103 *(150 + 27315) * 0.46 and TR .98 − 16. Version 5c.T_R_pr) Z = 0.3 we find for the compressibility factor.9284 » B_g = gas_form_vol_fact(20e6.6191 » p_R_pr = 20e6 / p_pc p_R_pr = 4.08 kg kmol1 .0 + 157.982 =223 K .8 above.3 ∗10−5 Pa s. The molar mass of the gas follows from equation (A. = 6.4 ∗1.15.98) T_pc = 222.4829e+006 » T_pc = temp_pseu_crit_Sutton(0.15) / T_pc T_R_pr = 1.5 Example 4 .48 * 10 Tpc With the aid of the StandingKatz chart in Figure B. psc = 1.
8561e005 Alternatively.98.0.3732 » mu_g = f * mu_g_p_sc mu_g = 1.T_R_pr) f = 1.98) M = 23. March 2004 105 . the gas viscosity can be computed directly as: » mu_g = gas_viscosity(20e6.Gas viscosity: » M = from_kg_per_m3_to_molar_mass(0. Version 5c.3516e005 » f = gas_visc_ratio_Dempsey(p_R_pr.150) mu_g_p_sc = 1.8561e005 Lecture Notes ta4490.150) mu_g = 1.0790 » mu_g_p_sc = gas_visc_atm_Dempsey(M.
.
Therefore we need an iterative procedure to approximate the root.1d.e. which can also be expressed as: f(x) f(x) α a) x0 x1 x b) x0 x f(x) x1 c) x0 x Figure C. ∞). f ′ x0 b g b g (C.Appendix C – Numerical methods C.1 Root finding C. f ′ x0 = tan α = b g f x0 . To improve the estimate we compute the slope of f(x).1: a) Principle of Newton Raphson iteration. We start the iteration with a first guess x0. the derivative f′(x). Version 5c. This procedure is called NewtonRaphson iteration. i.1. and can be generalized by writing Lecture Notes ta4490.2) which gives us a new estimate x1 for the root. which implies that the first derivative is smooth and uniquely defined for each value of x ∈ D. March 2004 107 .1 NewtonRaphson iteration Consider a function f(x) = 0 that has at least one root (zero value) in the interval D = (∞.e. b) Convergence failure caused by a zero value of the derivative in x0. We require that f(x) has a continuous first and second derivative. see Figures C. This expression can be rewritten as x1 = x0 − f x0 . we assume that it is not possible to obtain an explicit expression for the value of x that makes f(x) equal to zero.1) where α and x1 have been defined in Figure C1a.1a to C. c) Convergence failure caused by an endless loop. in x = x0. x1 − x0 b g (C. i. We assume that the function is implicit.
p ) ∆ s . can be expressed as dp = g ( s. p ) . b g (C. and needs to be evaluated through numerical integration.4) starting from boundary condition (C. see Figures C. the integral in equation (C. C.4) where g is a known nonlinear function of s and p. Version 5c. a maximum allowed change in x in each iteration step.2 Convergence control Convergence of the NewtonRaphson process is usually very fast if the initial estimate is close enough to the root. ˆ s s (C. Equation (C.7) Lecture Notes ta4490.27). equations (5.1c.1b.2 Differential equations C. Therefore the boundary condition is often referred to as an initial condition.1 Initial value problems All steadystate pressure drop equations for pipeline or wellbore flow.g.g.2.4) by replacing the difference dp/ds by a differential ∆p/∆s and to rewrite the result as: ∆p ≈ g ( s . Another type of problem may occur if f(x) has multiple roots in D. e. March 2004 108 . the process may get in trouble in several situations. (C. However. p ) ds . The most simple approach is to discretise equation (C. in which case the process may convergence to a root that was not intended to be found.xk +1 = xk − f xk f ′ xk b g.2 Numerical integration Generally.6) can not be solved analytically.19) or (5. It obviously fails for values of f′(x) equal to zero. ds (C. (C.5) ˆ p = p + ∫ g ( s.4) is a firstorder differential ˆ equation that needs one boundary condition specifying a certain value p for the pressure at a ˆ certain point s along the pipeline or the well: ˆ ˆ ˆ s = s : p (s) = p . C. Prior inspection of the nature of the function f(x) before using the Newton Raphson process may help to reduce the chance on convergence problems.1.6) This kind of equations is often used to describe problems that depend on time (instead of on distance s as in our case). such as e. in which case the process may end up in an endless loop. A more subtle breakdown occurs when the root is located closely to a change in sign of the first derivative. or restarting the process with a reduced change in x when the iteration fails to converge in a predefined number of steps. C.3) can then be applied until the difference (xk+1 – xk) has been reduced to below a specified value. Various controls on the iteration process may be introduced to counteract these problems. in which case the boundary condition is usually specified at the start of the time interval. see Figure C.3) where k is an iteration counter. Expression (C.5) To obtain the pressure p at any point along the pipeline we can integrate equation (C. and the problems as an initial value problem.2.
it is not a sufficient one. the firstorder Euler scheme is not very efficient for use in wellbore flow calculations.p) at s = sk.p1. and alternative algorithms. e.p2).p) on the interval ∆s. Although conceptually very simple. (C. Version 5c. the flowing BHP is recalculated through ‘topdown’ integration starting from the flowing THP.8). should be applied. More formally. instead of only a single evaluation at the beginning of the interval as in the firstorder Euler scheme. Typically a difference of less than a percent of the total pressure drop would be acceptable. is of the order of (∆s)2. March 2004 109 .2. This also illustrates that the truncation error in equation (C. To ˆ ˆ compute a pressure p = pout.interval. Note. » boundcon = p_in. Many other schemes have been developed that may have a superior computational performance or accuracy depending on the nature of the function g(s.9) and maintaining only the firstorder term. Especially in combination with an automated strategy to adapt the stepsize in order to achieve a predefined accuracy they are very powerfull.boundcon. A popular class of integration algorithms are the RungeKutta routines which use multiple evaluations of the function g(s. pk ) ∆s . The difference between the two BHP values forms a good indication of the accuracy of the numerical integration. C. The variable 'g_dpds' (between quotes) that forms the first element of the Lecture Notes ta4490. A simple check on the accuracy of the numerical integration of wellbore or pipeline pressure drop computations can be made by repeating the integration in the opposite direction. For our purpose the 4thorder Runge Kutta scheme with variable stepsize that is readily available in MATLAB provides a fitforpurpose solution.pk) is a shorthand notation to indicate the evaluation of function g(s. however. Hoffmann (1992). the same result is obtained by using a Taylor expansion for p at sk: 1 d2 p 2 dp pk +1 = pk + ∆s + 2 ( ∆s ) + … .p). after computing the flowing THP through ‘bottomup’ integration starting from a known flowing BHP.g.s_out]. » options = []. For more information. 2 ds k ds k (C. with a much smaller error for the same stepsize.options. » [s. consult one of the many available textbooks on numerical analysis.3 MATLAB implementation The 4thorder Runge Kutta routine with variable stepsize in MATLAB is named ode45. For example. although often a much better performance can be achieved. » n = length(p).p] = ode45('g_dpds'. that although a small difference is a necessary condition. at s = sout starting from a known value p = pin at s = sin the following commands can be used: » interval = [s_in.This gives us an algorithm to compute an approximate new value pk+1 at sk+1 from a known value pk at sk: pk +1 = pk + ∆p ≈ pk + g ( sk . » p_out = p(n) The variable options is a dummy variable that is required in the argument list of ode45 but that we do not use.8) where ∆s = sk+1 – sk and g(sk. which is known as an explicit firstorder Euler scheme.
p2) % % Userdefined function to compute the derivative dp/ds. p. The output of ode45 consists of a two column vectors with values of the indpendent and the dependent variables (here s and p) for regularly spaced values of s. rather than a single equation.p. It is called many times by ode45 during the RungeKutta integration.. % s = alonghole coordinate. the function 'gas_dpds' has the following header: function dpds = gas_dpds(s. Pa % p1 = parameter. The three dots on the last line should be replaced by the appropriate function definition in terms of s.p_acc]. p1 and p2. % % dpds = pressure gradient. m % dpds = . March 2004 110 . The last element of vector p is the required output pressure p_out. We make use of this feature to compute the individual contributions of gravity. dpds is a fourelement vector defined as: dpds = [dpds_tot. The first two elements of the argument list in the function header contain the independent and dependent variables s and p. here we used p1 and p2 as examples. while the variable p in the argument list is also a vector. Version 5c.p).argument list is the name of the userdefined MATLAB function (mfile) that defines the function g(s.dpds_grav. Now. The function would typically look something like: function dpds = g_dpds(s.p. Note that the arguments in the calling sequence of ode45 are not identical to those in the header of g_dpds. Pa/m % flag = dummy variable. friction and accelleration losses to the total pressure drop in a well bore. in the same fashion.p1.. Thereafter follow the parameters. % p = pressure.) where the dots indicate parameters.p_grav. % p2 = parameter. The function most likely requires various parameters... This only requires that the dependent variable and the function definition are defined as vectors instead of scalars. For example. It is possible to integrate a system of first order differential equations.flag.dpds_fric.. which can be passed via the argument list after options. Lecture Notes ta4490.p_fric.. defined as p = [p_tot.flag. The dummy variable flag is not used but has to be present as the third element of the argument list.dpds_acc].
Oil density: 141. Pressure in psi: 20. Total mass: 1* 16.25 = 13.602*101 lbf/in 2 lbm/ft 3 v(m s) −1 3.18 * 106 Pa.840 * 106 = 0.5 + 38) = 835 kg m3.9270e+003 1.0820e+005 1. c h Lecture Notes ta4490.895 * 103) = 2927 psia. » from_kg_per_m3_to_Pa_per_m(from_liq_grav_to_kg_per_m3(1.043 + 0. but enter the variables in SI units divided by their corresponding fieldtoSI conversion factors as given in Table A.1 Oil rate: 12000 * 1.0181e+007 » from_Pa_to_psi(2.23 = 1. Temperature: 83 * 5/9 = 46. » from_bpd_to_m3_per_s(12000) ans = 0.022 m3s1. Pressure: (30 + 14.895 * 103 = 308 kPa. ( ft/s ) 2 Step 2: Solve for ∆p and combine all numerical factors: ∆p = ρv 2 2C 2 . Mass: 4. March 2004 111 .174* C ) 2 . Gas rate: 1500 * 12000 * 2.2676 » from_deg_R_to_K(83) ans = 46. ∆p (Pa) ρ (kg m3 ) = 6.043 and of CO2 = 44.18 * 106 / (6.1 K.1111 » from_psi_to_Pa(30 + 14.82 * 1.03)) * 2000 + 0.0 kg m3.1.1 Answers for Chapter 1 .831 * 102 / (24 * 3600) = 5.010.0221 » from_ft3_per_d_to_m3_per_s(1500*12000) ans = 5.10 = 20. Version 5c. expressed in field variables.8083 » from_gas_grav_to_kg_per_m3(0.8993 » from_deg_API_to_kg_per_m3(38) ans = 834.Appendix D .048*10 2 ( 288*32. » from_lbm_to_kg(29.3 Pressure = density * gravity * depth + atmospheric pressure = (1.0181e7) ans = 2.25 lbm.0086 1.2 Molar mass of C1 = 16.010 = 29.9 m3s1.807 * 2000 + 0.82) ans = 1.27 kg.25) ans = 13.3 * 44.e. i.7) * 6.Answers to exercises D.1 ans = 2.03 * 999) * 9.5 * 103 / (131.4 Step 1: Leave the formula in its original form.895*103 1.536 * 101 * 29. Gas density: 0.Introduction 1.7) ans = 3.
0) cashflow_disc = 5.20 million $.2545 3. March 2004 112 .10 = –0.8.5842e+006 3. » discount(10e6.1 = 172 Nm. and for n = 20 we find Sdisc = 2.7) ans = 7. » cash flow = [5.9 ∗ 4800 = 4320 W. The power flow at the liquid end of the pump is therefore 160 ∗ 103 * 22 ∗ 103 = 3520 W.2 Answers for Chapter 2 – Production system modelling 2.1 rad/s.1299e+006 » discount(10e6.58∗106 $.3 The discounted reduction in CAPEX for the ML wells is depicted in Table D.5000 1.1 where the discount was calculated according to: 1 ∆Cdisc = ∆C ∗ .1. The reduction gear has an efficiency of 98 %. Because the motor is only 90% effective.2298 1. n Lecture Notes ta4490. The shaft of the motor rotates with 240 rpm = 240 ∗ 2π / 60 = 25.5000 1.1. n is time in project years. The torque is therefore 4320 / 25.3000 1.4000 ans = 3.2 See MATLAB output below.D.2000 1.98 ∗ 4320 = 4234 W. 1.2.10.8000 3.20. the power flow through the shaft equals 0.1835 2.5. much more importantly.13 ∗106$ . so the remaining power flow to the pump is 0. and.4] cash flow = 5.1) and Table 2.7) ans = 2.3. Version 5c.1 Using equation (3.3.1.2000 1.2429 0. The power flow through the motor equals 300 * 16 = 4800 W. Note that with a 15% discount rate the NPV becomes negative.3 Answers for Chapter 3 – Optimisation objectives and constraints 3.15 where ∆Cdisc is the discounted differential CAPEX ∆C is the differential CAPEX.9000 2. The pump creates a pressure differential of 160 ∗ 103 Pa at a flow rate of 22 ∗ 103 m3/s.9074 1.08∗106 $.2.9000 2.5.6087 0.7) ans = 5.8000 3.4000 » compute_NPV(cashflow. For n =10 we find Sdisc = 5. The efficiency of the pump now follows as 3520 / 4234 ∗ 100 % = 83 %. D.1.0835e+006 » discount(10e6.15) cashflow_disc = 4.1000 » compute_NPV(cashflow.6053 ans = 0. For two wells the production is one year delayed which implies • a small loss of production at the end of the project which can be quantified as 2 ∗ –0.4) we find for the discounted value after 5 years: S disc = S (1 + Rdisc /100 ) n = 10 ∗106 (1 + 7 /100 ) 5 = 7.3000 1.9.1 Refer to equation (2.
200 613. The increased risk of overspending and delays should be taken into account in the decision.30 1 2 3 Total 3. March 2004 113 .2: Differential NPV calculation.000 0 0 0 0 800.500 Discounted differential annual cash flow ($) 502.130 1 2 3 4 5 6 Lecture Notes ta4490.• an additional oneyear discount on the total production of the two wells (minus the contribution from the last year) which can be quantified as 2 ∗ (56.200 613.40 – 113.500 766.464 292.449. The total differential cumulative discounted cash flow (differential NPV) is therefore: differential cashin – differential cashout = (– 0.02 2.1: Differential expenditure Year Expenditure conventional wells (106 $) 10 20 20 50 Expenditure ML wells (106 $) 0 24 16 40 Differential expenditure (106 $) 10 4 4 10 Discounted differential expenditure (106 $) 8.4 The optimal moment to change out the larger tubing is in year 6. Time (year) Differential production rate (bpd) 140 140 140 105 0 525 Differential annual revenue ($) 766.000 Differential annual cash flow ($) 563.66 million $. This would give the benefit of reduced expenditure for 8 out of the 10 wells.315.839 436.000 850.70 3. the differential NPV becomes negative. The corresponding cashflow calculation is given in Table D.2 below. Note that this analysis did not take into account that ML wells are technically more complex.857 488. without suffering a delay in first oil. The project team therefore has a point that the decreased expenditure for the ML wells is more than offset by the reduced income caused by delayed production.15) – 2* 56.874.20 – 14.58 = 98. Table D. it is very attractive to start producing through the larger tubing.76) – (–8. Version 5c.63 8. and then replace well 4 to 10 by ML wells.900 0 800.58 /1.305 1. a better solution would be to drill the first two wells conventionally.76 million $. However. Although in this case the discounted NPV is somewhat lower than the undiscounted NPV.875 0 0 2.000 1. Only at an oil price as low as 3 $/bbl. Table D.375 Differential annual expenses ($) 50.275 0 405.200 459.16 = –14.500 574.500 766.30) = –6.
00164∗76 = 90.11) p_pc = 4. at reservoir conditions.2 ∗1.e. Tpc . pr = R = = 1.13) we find the pseudocritical properties of the fluid as p pc = 5218 ∗103 − 734 ∗103 ∗1.0 + 157. For that. ρ air 1.8786 » T_R_pr = (76 + 273.3 we find for the compressibility factor. pr = pR 17 *106 T 76 + 273. With the aid of the Sutton correlations (B. and with the aid of equation (B.76) R_s = 90.15) ∗ 0.3. can be found with the aid of equation (B. is γg = ρ g .7559 » p_R_pr = 17e6 / p_pc p_R_pr = 3.3831e+006 » T_pc = temp_pseu_crit_Sutton(1.5408 4.76.00 = 205 kg/m3 . 716 » R_s = gas_oil_rat_Standing(17e6. The reservoir pressure is above the bubble point pressure and Lecture Notes ta4490.76 » p_pc = pres_pseu_crit_Sutton(1. The pseudoreduced pressure and temperature at the reservoir follow as pR .11 ∗ 17 ∗106 ∗ (15 + 273.0054 » rho_g_R = 1.15 = = 3. i.2. at standard conditions. sc 1.88 and TR .11 − 27. 6 p pc 4. R = 1.2048 1.15): ρ g .e. 100 ∗103 ∗ (76 + 273.9 ∗1.2 The gas specific gravity at surface.15) ∗1.7637 » B_g = gas_form_vol_fact(17e6.4 Answers for Chapter 4 – Properties of reservoir fluids 4.3 Consult examples 3 and 4 in Sections B.10 and B.11 ( 8 ∗10−6 ∗17 ∗106 + 1.38 ∗106 Pa.11 / B_g rho_g_R = 203.90 kg/m3 .15).76+273.4 ∗103 ∗1.Z) B_g = 0. Version 5c. March 2004 114 .1. we first need to calculate the gas deviation factor Z as follows.11) T_pc = 235.abs = 94.15) / T_pc T_R_pr = 1.910.48 .112 =236 K .9255 4. i.38*10 Tpc 236 With the aid of the StandingKatz chart in Figure B. Z = 0.4810 » Z = Z_factor_DAK(p_R_pr.4 )101768 910−0.11 − 16.D.T_R_pr) Z = 0.112 =4.1 The reservoir is below the bubble point pressure and therefore we can use Standing correlation (B.11 = = 0.2) to calculate the solution GOR: Rs = 1.15.11.5 of Appendix B for the principles of the hand calculation.5 m3/m3.23 The gas density just above the gas cap.
19.1. With MATLAB we find for the oil viscosity: » mu_od = oil_visc_dead_B_and_R(910.5 + 31.T_R_pr) f = 2.4 We can use the Vazquez and Beggs correlation (B.0070 » R_p = gas_oil_rat_Standing(19. 105 * 22*106 » R_p = gas_oil_rat_Standing(19.8*15 + 32 ) log = 1.1619 » mu_g = f * mu_g_p_sc mu_g = 2.5 (1.71*10−9 Pa1.5*103 100*103 − 131.76) R_p = 106. March 2004 115 .4810 » f = gas_visc_ratio_Dempsey(p_R_pr.910. which was used to derive correlation (B. also the gas viscosity can be computed directly as: » mu_g = gas_viscosity(22e6.4101e005 4. We find for the viscosities µ o = 21 ∗10−3 .9) to convert the gas density ρg.5e6.11.sc to the density at the reference separator pressure ρg.22e6.76) mu_g_p_sc = 1.0193 » T_R_pr = (76 + 273. Version 5c.11) M = 26.76) mu_od = 0.15) / T_pc T_R_pr = 1.912*10−5 141.100 = 1. The values for psep and Tsep are in our case simply the standard conditions psep = 100 kPa and Tsep = 15 °C: ρ g .03 + 1784*103 910 = 1.1405 » mu_g_p_sc = gas_visc_atm_Dempsey(M.8).910.8*90.8*10 co = −2541 + 27.76) mu_o = 0.R_p.0213 The MATLAB results for the gas viscosity are: » M = from_kg_per_m3_to_molar_mass(1.11) T_pc = 235.5e6.6472 » mu_ob = oil_visc_sat_B_and_R(mu_od.6472 Lecture Notes ta4490.7559 » p_R_pr = 22e6 / p_pc p_R_pr = 5. 3 910 790.100.0*76 − 959*1.1. and µ g = 25 ∗10−6 Pa s .910.76) mu_g = 2.0213 Alternatively.11. the oil viscosity can be computed more directly as: » mu_o = oil_viscosity(22e6.5e6) mu_o = 0.8) to calculate co. However.11.4101e005 Alternatively.R_p) mu_ob = 0.76) R_p = 106.03 .therefore the oil is undersaturated. we first need expression (B.1148e005 » p_pc = pres_pseu_crit_Sutton(1.1.11) p_pc = 4.11.0206 » mu_o = oil_visc_undersat_V_and_B(mu_ob.3831e+006 » T_pc = temp_pseu_crit_Sutton(1.1.11 1 + 5.
805.8790 » rho_g_100 = rho_g_Vazquez_and_Beggs(100e3.85) B_o = 1.693 − 2.866 − 1) = 6.47.805. Using MATLAB.325 .2.30e6.863 ∗103 102.» rho_g_100 = rho_g_Vazquez_and_Beggs(100e3.85) p_b = 2.02.805.02.3*10−3 Pa s .105) p_b = 2. the oil is undersaturated.0125e009 » B_o = oil_form_vol_fact_undersat(B_ob.910.0266 » c_o = compres_Vazquez_and_Beggs(22e6. and we find Bo = 2.11.105) B_ob = 1.9 of Appendix B for the principles of the hand calculation.6467e+007 » B_ob = oil_form_vol_fact_Standing(250.02.85) R_s = 138.0067 B_o = 1.76) c_o = 1.9552 » B_o = oil_form_vol_fact_Standing(R_s.R_s] = black_oil_Standing(15e6.02.02.805.325 = 2.250.B_o.805.8 and B.1.250. For p = 15 MPa and T = 85 °C.42.250.15) rho_g_100 = 0.85) B_g = 0.805.1.8785 » c_o = compres_Vazquez_and_Beggs(30e6.866 .9552 » [B_g.02. For p = 30 MPa and T = 105 °C.8591 R_s = 250 D.163 850 (1.4666 » p_b = pres_bub_Standing(250. a = = 0. Version 5c.R_s] = black_oil_Standing(30e6.1.02. the results are: » p_b = pres_bub_Standing(250.1.7072e009 4.1. 1.232 A 4πd 4 The oil viscosity can be found from the Dempsey correlation (B.37 m/s 2 1 2 π 0.8591 Also in this case the MATLAB computations can performed more directly as: » [B_g.5 Consult examples 1 and 2 in Sections B.1.105) c_o = 3.1.910.02.805.1.8* 45 + 32 ) µ = 10−3 (100. March 2004 116 .4666 R_s = 138.rho_g_100.805.1.2.B_o. Lecture Notes ta4490.R_p.805.c_o.4529e+007 » R_s = gas_oil_rat_Standing(15e6.rho_g_100.85) B_g = 0 B_o = 1.p_b) B_o = 1.5 Answers for Chapter 5 – Singlephase flow in wells and pipelines 5.1 The fluid velocity in the pipeline is given by v= −5000 ( 24*3600 ) q q =1 2 = = −1. the oil is saturated and we find Bo = 1.15) rho_g_100 = 1. 119) as: b = 5.
The Reynolds number and the dimensionless roughness follow from equations (5.10) and (5.11) as
N Re =
ρ d v 850*0.232*1.37 e 3*10−6 = = 4.3*104 and ε = = = 1.3*10−5 , d 0.232 6.3*10−3 µ
f ( ε , N Re ) = f (1.3*10−5 , 4.3*104 ) = 0.021 .
which allow us to read the friction factor from the Moody diagram in Figure 5.3 as
The pipeline inclination, seen from the origin at the manifold, should be negative to correspond to uphill production flow. Expressed in radians the pipeline inclination therefore becomes
θ=
−1.5 ∗ π = −0.0262 rad . 180
The pressure at the outlet can now be computed with the aid of equation (5.24) as:
ρ ˆ ˆ pout = pin − ρ g sin θ + f ∗v v (s − s) 2d 850 = 10 ∗105 − 850 ∗ 9.81 ∗ sin ( −0.0262 ) + ∗ 0.021 ∗ −1.37 2 * ( 0 − 3000 ) 2 ∗ 0.232 5 = 1.29 ∗10 Pa .
5.2 In line with the sign convention for production flow that was choosen in the lecture notes, the MATLAB mfile flowline_p_mf has been defined such that the origin of the coordinate along the flowline is at the manifold. Therefore, flow towards the manifold, as occurs in production wells, has a negative sign. Furthermore, a negative value of the flowline inclination indicates a decreasing flow line elevation, seen from the manifold. The mfile can be used for singlephase liquid flow, singlephase gas flow or multiphase flow, depending on the value of the parameter fluid. In case of singlephase oil flow, the input values for gas and water flowrates and densities may be assigned an arbitrary value. See scriptfile exercise_5_2.m for the MATLAB implementation. The output is:
p_mf = 1.2149e+005
5.3 The average absolute temperature along the well is Tav,abs = 273.15 + (120+30)/2 = 348.15 K. The coefficients k1 and k2 are given by equations (5.32) and (5.33) as k1 = − 23.55 ∗ 0.95 ∗ 9.81∗ sin ( − π 2 ) Mg sin θ av =− = 7.90 ∗105 m1, and 0.96*8314*348.15 Z av RTav , abs
k2 = − =−
2 8Z av RTav ,abs f av ρ g , sc qg , sc qg , sc
8 ∗ 0.96 ∗ 8314 ∗ 348.15 ∗ 0.0166 ∗ 0.952 ∗ ( −8.62 ) ∗ 8.62
π 2d 5M
2
π ∗ ( 62.3 ∗10
−3 5
)
∗ 23.55 ∗ 0.95
= 1.19 ∗1011 Pa 2 /m.
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004
117
With the aid of equation (5.37) we now find that 2 k k ˆ ˆ pwf = ptf + 2 exp 2k1 ( s − s ) − 2 k1 k1
2 1.19 ∗1011 1.19 ∗1011 = (1.5 ∗106 ) + exp 2 ∗ 7.90 ∗10−5 ∗ ( 3000 − 0 ) − 7.90 ∗10−5 7.90 ∗10−5
= 30.3 ∗106 Pa , which is reasonably close to the numerical result of 29.0∗106 Pa. See scriptfile exercise_5_3.m for the MATLAB implementation. 5.4 See scriptfile exercise_5_4.m for the MATLAB implementation. The pressure drop over the wellbore is 27.5∗106 Pa. The absolute error is −375 Pa, which gives a relative error of only −1.36∗105
D.6 Answers for Chapter 6 – Multiphase flow in wells, pipelines and chokes
6.1 See Figure 6.3. Al = ql 0.3 ∗ qg = = 0.36 ∗ Ag ; vl vg 1.2
λl =
0.3 ∗ qg 0.36 ∗ Ag ql Al = = 0.26 . = = 0.23 ; H l = qg + ql (1 + 0.3) qg Ag + Al (1 + 0.36 ) Ag
6.2 The local phase rates can be obtained from equations (4.21) as qg 0.05 −0.05 ∗10.1 0 238 2.6 q = 0 1 ∗18.4 ∗10−3 = 21.2 ∗10−3 m3 . 1.15 0 o 0.23 qw 0 5.5 0 1 1 − 0.23 The pipe’s surface area is given by A = ¼ π d2 = 0.0117 m2. Thus we find:
( 21.2 + 5.5) ∗10−3 = 0.91 ; H = 1.05 ∗ λ = 1.05 ∗ 0.91 = 0.96 ; ql λl = = l l qg + ql ( 2.6 + 21.2 + 5.5 ) ∗10−3
vsg = qg A = q + qw ( 21.2 + 5.5 ) ∗10 2.6 ∗10−3 = 0.22 m/s ; vsl = o = 0.0117 A 0.0117
−3
= 2.28 m/s ;
vg =
(1 − H l )
vsg
=
v 0.22 2.28 = 2.38 m/s . = 5.50 m/s ; vg = sl = H l 0.96 (1 − 0.96 )
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004
118
Appendix E – MATLAB mfiles
E.1 Conversion factors
from_bbl_to_m3.m from_bpd_psi_ft_to_m2_per_d_Pa.m from_bpd_psi_ft_to_m2_per_s_Pa.m from_bpd_psi_to_m3_per_d_Pa.m from_bpd_psi_to_m3_per_s_Pa.m from_bpd_to_m3_per_d.m from_bpd_to_m3_per_s.m from_cal_to_J.m from_cp_to_Pa_s.m from_cSt_to_m2_per_s.m from_deg_API_to_kg_per_m3.m from_deg_API_to_liq_grav.m from_deg_C_to_deg_F.m from_deg_F_to_deg_C.m from_deg_R_to_K.m from_deg_to_rad.m from_dyne_per_cm_to_N_per_m.m from_ft2_to_m2.m from_ft3_per_bbl_to_m3_per_m3.m from_ft3_per_d_to_m3_per_d.m from_ft3_per_d_to_m3_per_s.m from_ft3_per_s_to_m3_per_s.m from_ft3_per_s_to_m3_per_s.m from_ft3_to_m3.m from_ft_per_s_to_m_per_s.m from_ft_to_m.m from_gas_grav_to_kg_per_m3.m from_gas_grav_to_molar_mass.m from_hp_to_W.m from_in2_to_m2.m from_in_to_m.m from_J_to_cal.m from_K_to_deg_R.m from_kg_per_m3_to_deg_API.m from_kg_per_m3_to_gas_grav.m from_kg_per_m3_to_lbm_per_ft3.m from_kg_per_m3_to_liq_grav.m from_kg_per_m3_to_molar_mass.m from_kg_per_m3_to_Pa_per_m.m from_kg_per_m3_to_ppg.m from_kg_per_m3_to_psi_per_ft.m from_kg_to_lbm.m from_lbf_ft_to_N_m.m from_lbf_to_N.m from_lbm_per_ft3_to_kg_per_m3.m from_lbm_per_ft3_to_Pa_per_m.m from_lbm_per_ft3_to_psi_per_ft.m from_lbm_to_kg.m from_liq_grav_to_deg_API.m from_liq_grav_to_kg_per_m3.m from_m2_per_d_Pa_to_bpd_psi_ft.m from_m2_per_s_Pa_to_bpd_psi_ft.m from_m2_per_s_to_cSt.m from_m2_to_ft2.m from_m2_to_in2.m from_m2_to_mD.m from_m3_per_d_Pa_to_bpd_psi.m from_m3_per_d_to_bpd.m from_m3_per_d_to_ft3_per_d.m from_m3_per_m3_to_ft3_per_bbl.m from_m3_per_s_Pa_to_bpd_psi.m from_m3_per_s_to_bpd.m from_m3_per_s_to_ft3_per_d.m from_m3_per_s_to_ft3_per_s.m from_m3_to_bbl.m from_m3_to_ft3.m from_m_per_s_to_ft_per_s.m from_m_to_ft.m from_m_to_in.m from_mD_to_m2.m from_molar_mass_to_gas_grav.m from_molar_mass_to_kg_per_m3.m from_N_m_to_lbf_ft.m from_N_per_m_to_dyne_per_cm.m from_N_to_lbf.m from_Pa_per_m_to_kg_per_m3.m from_Pa_per_m_to_lbm_per_ft3.m from_Pa_per_m_to_psi_per_ft.m from_Pa_s_to_cp.m from_Pa_to_psi.m from_per_Pa_to_per_psi.m from_per_psi_to_per_Pa.m from_ppg_to_kg_per_m3.m from_psi_per_ft_to_kg_per_m3.m from_psi_per_ft_to_lbm_per_ft3.m from_psi_per_ft_to_Pa_per_m.m from_psi_to_Pa.m from_rad_to_deg.m from_W_to_hp.m
E.2 Economics
compute_NPV.m discount.m exercise_5.4.m
E.3 Exercises
exercise_5.2.m exercise_5.3.m
E.4 Fluid flow
Beggs_Brill_dpds.m choke_critical_p_tf.m example_flowline.m example_intake_curve.m
Lecture Notes ta4490, Version 5c, March 2004
119
m gas_form_vol_fact.m Moody_friction_factor.m temp_pseu_crit_Sutton.m interfacial_tensions.m example_wellbore.m gas_visc_ratio_Dempsey.m rho_g_Vazquez_and_Beggs.m pres_pseu_crit_Sutton.m compres_Vazquez_and_Beggs.m flowline_p_fl.m oil_visc_undersat_V_and_B.m Muk_Brill_dpds.m Zig_and_Syl_fric_fact.m oil_visc_sat_B_and_R.m oil_form_vol_fact_undersat.4 Fluid properties black_oil_Standing.m pres_bub_Standing.m well_p_wf.example_traverse.m flowline_p_mf.m liquid_near_well_p_wf.m liquid_dpds.m local_q_and_rho. March 2004 120 .m gas_visc_atm_Dempsey.m Reynolds_number.m gas_near_well_p_wf.m Z_factor_DAK E.m water_viscosity.m oil_visc_dead_B_and_R.m gas_oil_rat_Standing.m gas_viscosity.m Lecture Notes ta4490. Version 5c.m oil_form_vol_fact_Standing.m gas_dpds.m oil_viscosity.m well_p_tf.
.C.B. J. (1965): Determination of average reservoir pressure from buildup surveys. Gulf. 6th World Petroleum Congress. and DunnNorman. Chilingarian.J. M. Petr. Elsevier. Petr. section II.O.. PennWell. Tulsa. 1999: Drilling. 2002: Transport phenomena. and Robinson.... Elsevier.. 201..Production optimisation of oil and gas wells by nodal systems analysis. P... Hill. J. Civil Eng. 1998: PVT and phase behaviour of petroleum reservoir fluids.D.. Reprinted by Dover. and Kumar.E.P.References Ahmed. H. 1972: Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media. R. Watters. Dikken. P.. Brill. Beggs. Danesh.N.. 2000: Ordinary differential equations and boundary value problems. Aug. Techn.T. 1994: Petroleum production systems..M. Richardson.C. March 2004 121 . and Lightfoot. 133156. 1939: Turbulent flow in pipes with particular reference to the transition region between the smooth and rough pipe laws. J. 1999: Multiphase flow in wells. F. and Stewart.. Boyce.N. Petr. Economides.. Tulsa.K. 1 and 2. Aug. Gulf. W.. B.. A... 7th ed.. Civan. M. 1954: Viscosity of hydrocarbon gases under pressure. J. R. Houston. Petr..H. Elsevier. and Mukherjee. Houston. 17. Stewart. JulySeptember. New York. 1989: Hydrocarbon phase behaviour. 1993: Fluid mechanics for petroleum engineers.. Proc. Houston. 14261433.. and EhligEconomides. K. Duns.. and DiPrima. R.J. Trans. paper 22PD6. 1991: Production optimisation using NODAL analysis. 2nd ed.B.V. Techn. J.L. 1998: Petroleum well construction. 141142.. Oil and Gas J. H. Elsevier. Techn.. H. Vols. 1984: The technology of artificial lift methods. W.. M. J. Colebrook. SPE. 264272. E.. Version 5c.R. A. Wiley. 11401141. C. Bobok. Gulf.. Lecture Notes ta4490. 1988.. 1 and 2. and Burrows. Techn. Lecture notes ta3430. K. S.. D. Kobayashi. Can. 3436. Dempsey. and Ros. L. 16.. N.E. Delft University of Technology. 11... 451465. J. 1965: Computer routine treats gas viscosity as a variable. Amsterdam. L. 1975: Calculation of Zfactors for natural gasses using equationsofstate. S.J. Oil and Gas Consultants International Publications. 1975: Estimating the viscosity of crude oil systems. Brown. completion and facilities. Amsterdam. New York. Wiley.. Arnold. Elsevier. Prentice Hall. 1998: Surface production operations. 1978: Fundamentals of reservoir engineering.D. G. J.F.. Dietz. 4 . 2nd ed. Nov. J.. Currie. Vol. C. T. 955959. Robertson. and AbuKasem. Carr.P. E. D. 1987: Surface operations in petroleum production. Vols.E. J. Beggs. Dranchuk. 2000: Reservoir Formation Damage. N. Economides. H.. SPE Monograph Series.D. Wiley. J. AIME.R. Bear. Bird. Dake. 1963: Vertical flow of gas and liquid mixtures in wells. 14. 1990: Pressure drop in horizontal wells and its effect on production performance.J. Inst..
Trans. 1990: The properties of petroleum fluids. M. Paris. 3. McGrawHill..D. A. D. Wiley. D. New York. & Prod. Karnopp. and Whitson. Trans. 1998: Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics. Reinhold. Am.H.L.. Fall Meeting SPE.. 1996: Environmental control in petroleum engineering.J. SPE. D. Margolis. Hoffman. New York.H. Proc.. M. Dallas. New York. Rachford. New York.. 66.. New York. Reis.B. Hassan. 1998. section A 374.D. SPE. Mech. M.N. Firoozabadi. R. T. AIME.D.W. and Rosenberg. W. W. PennWell. 3rd ed.D. Engineering data book 11th ed.. Gulf. 1992: Numerical methods for engineers and scientists. 1991: Well performance. Oil & Gas Consultants International. 1998: Economics of worldwide petroleum production. Joshi. (API) 143. Seba.. 9. Section 2. paper SPE 65150.. Drill.B. Soc. Strang. Tulsa. Moody. Tulsa. Nind. 140149. Version 5c. Nelson.. L. C. SPE. Lecture Notes ta4490. S. Section 1..C. Moran.Fetkovich.. 671684. J.J.S. and Katz. Richardson. 1960: An analysis of critical simultaneous gasliquid flow through a restriction and its application to flow metering.. 1952: Volumetric and phase behaviour of oil field hydrocarbon systems.. Pedersen. Reprinted by SPE. Las Vegas.. and Jacobsen. Aa. R. McGrawHill. 2nd ed. D. Golan. A. 1947: A pressurevolumetemperature correlation for mixtures of California oils and gases. M. Gurpinar. Wiley. API Drilling and Production Practice. Sci. SPE European Petroleum Conference. Standing. 2002: Fluid flow and heat transfer in wellbores. Ros. Prentice Hall. G. 3rd ed.FPS. S. 2000: Discussion on integrating monitoring data into the reservoir management process. Standing. K. M. M. Richardson.. and Thomassen.E.. and Kabir. SPE. O.C.J. N. Fredenslund. WellesleyCambridge.B. Tulsa. 1952: Procedure for use of electronic digital computers in calculating flash vaporization hydrocarbon equilibrium. McGrawHill.. P. 1944: Friction factors for pipe flow. 1982: The SI metric system of units and SPE metric standard. 2nd ed. Appl.R.L.. PennWell. 1964: Principles of oil well production.. Standing. C. 1993: SPE letter and computer symbols standard.. October.... Englewood Cliffs. 1986: Introduction to applied mathematics. 1989: Properties of oils and natural gases. Gas Processors Suppliers Association. 1991: Horizontal well technology. Oliemans. 1998: Applied multiphase flows. R.C. .J. 1999: Thermodynamics of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Richardson. March 2004 122 ... Rossi. SPE. Gilbert.. 1954: Flowing and gaslift well performance. H. Tulsa. J. J.V. and Shapiro.D. Eng. 275287.. Petr. 1977. 146. 48th Ann. Delft University of Technology. R. 1942: Density of natural gases.A. Res..E. H. 1973: The isochronal testing of oil wells. Proc. J. Lecture notes tn3782.. Prac.S.C.. McCain.. Houston. 2000: System dynamics. GPSA.F. Gulf. 19. paper SPE 4529. Techn. and Rice. Houston..
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Version 5c. Temperature revolutions per minute standard cubic foot SurfaceControlled Subsurface Safety Valve Society of Petroleum Engineers standard barrel Tubing Head Pressure Tubing Head Temperature True Vertical Depth Unit Technical Costs VapourLiquid Equilibrium 125 Lecture Notes ta4490. March 2004 .Glossary AHD AIME AOFP API bbl BHP BHT bpd BSW CAPEX CGR EMV EOS ESP E&P FDP FBHP FBHT FTHP FTHT FVF GLR GOC GOR GWC II IPR MD ML NPV OCR OGR OPEX OWC PDG PI ppg PVT rpm scf SCSSV SPE stb THP THT TVD UTC VLE AlongHole Depth American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers Absolute Open Flowing Potential American Petroleum Institute barrel Bottomhole Pressure Bottomhole Temperature barrel per day Base Sediment and Water Capital Expenditure CondensateGas Ratio Expected Monetary Value Equation Of State Electric Submersible Pump Exploration and Production Field Development Plan(ning) Flowing BottomHole Pressure Flowing BottomHole Temperature Flowing Tubing Head Pressure Flowing Tubing Head Temperature Formation Volume Factor GasLiquid Ratio GasOil Contact GasOil Ratio GasWater Contact Injectivity Index Inflow Performance Relationship Measured Depth MultiLateral Net Present Value OilCondensate Ratio OilGas Ratio Operating Expenditure OilWater Contact Permanent Downhole Gauge Productivity Index pounds per gallon Pressure. Volume.
March 2004 126 .WOR WaterOil Ratio Lecture Notes ta4490. Version 5c.
34. 78. 79 density. 21 discount rate. 11. 20 discounting. 31. 94 compressibility correlation. 40 amount of substance. 98 critical pressure ratio. 36 black oil. 32 along hole depth. 19 Darcy’s law. 12. 9. 40 energy. 32 cap rock. 98 depreciation. 32 cricondentherm. 24 dewpoint line. 93 bubblepoint line. 49 closedin bottomhole pressure. 8 churn flow. 11 electronic process control. 75 composition. 46 elements. 75 dry gas. 30. 109 Achong choke correlation. 34 dry gas reservoirs. 49 bubble point pressure. 14. 10 cash flow. 10 elevation. 73 crude oil. 19 cumulative cash surplus. 10 entropy flow. 8. 14 annular flow. 89 analogies. 5 discharges. 30 dead oil viscosity. 7 convergence. 46. 57 critical temperature. 61 closedin tubing head pressure. 32 critical flow. 8 base sediment and water. 108 correlations. 32 Baxendell choke correlation. 11 environmental aspects. 30 artificial lift. 8. 61. 32 average reservoir pressure. 19 content. 10 breakeven point. 61 backpressure. 84 assets. 7 cement. 57 critical point. 89 accuracy. Version 5b. 98 cross flow. 24 Colebrook equation. 93 cricondenbar. 57. 93 black oil model. 32 dual completion. 61 bottomhole samples. 49 API gravity. 24 environmental impact. 11 analysis node. 7 condensate. 24 Lecture Notes ta4490. 95 deliverability. 33 condensategas ratio. 45 bottomhole pressure. 9 bean. March 2004 127 . 38. 101 compressor. 19 cashout. 109 boundary condition. 30. 42 commingled production. 99 cascade. 10 electric submersible pumps. 52 control. 19 casing. 93 black oil correlations. 29 bottomup. 56 choke performance curve. 3 associated gas. 9 element equations. 19 Carr. 7 choke. Kobayashi and Burrows correlation. 82 Beggs and Robinson correlation. 29 compressibility. 25 completion. 61 drawdown. 32 constant value money. 94 compressibility factor. 19 cashin. 56 bean back. 8 capital expenditure. 20 disposal. 58 beam pump. 8. 108 branches. 33 critical pressure. 14 clustered wellheads. 32 dimensions. 62 acceleration loss. 55 barefoot completion. 38. 95 binary mixture. 43 acceleration of gravity. 8 effort and a flow variables. 38 blowout. 19 bubble flow. 8 cumulative cash flow. 58 actual gasoil ratio. 19 deviated wells. 33 dry oil. 9 electricity.Index absolute open flowing potential. 14. 79 christmas tree. 19 constraints. 24 drainage area. 19 cash surplus. 64 dead oil. 24 discount factor. 7 energy rate.
30 gas cap reservoirs. 32 expected monetary value. 15. 58 government take. 51 gas law. 4. 20 interfacial tension. 51 liquid flow rate. 34 local conditions. 35 gas condensate.environmental objectives. 32 gas formation volume factor. 32. 108 initial value problem. 36 holdup. 10 flow map. 63 flowing bottomhole pressure. 89 head loss. 19 flash calculations. 49 flow through porous media. 42 legislation. 34 expansion factor. 54. 61 inflow performance relationship. 24 length scale. 88 Forcheimer’s coefficient. 35 impairment. 51 liquidliquid equilibrium calculations. 14 flowline pressure. 2 field units. 30 gasliquid ratio. 51 host government take. 61 flowing tubing head pressure. 63 equilibrium factors. 34. 70 formation volume factor. 76 interest rate. 108 injectivity index. 88 mass balance. 12 insitu fraction. 16 inertia coefficient. 53 gravel pack. 52 model. 30 gasoil ratio. 61. 51 local velocity. 64 formation. 10 manifold pressure. 104 gascondensate. 24 equation of state. 49 mixing rules. 66 Inflow Performance Relationship. 91 force. 31. 1 modified black oil model. 39. 64 heat flow. 64 iteration control. 62 input fraction. 61 inflow performance. 16 intake pressure curve. 35. 51 loops. 32 gasoil contact. 24 environmental targets. 19 measured depth. 65 inflation. 92 gradient curve. 70 inclination. 31 isothermal conditions. 37 Lecture Notes ta4490. 19 inertia. 30. 72 gravitational field. 7 mist flow. 12 Interfacial tensions. 14. 50 flow rates. 34 laminar flow. 51 mixture velocity. 46. 51 instability. 51 liquid holdup. 9 gas velocity. 62 mass fraction. 33 gascondensate reservoirs. 40 income before tax. 34 gas constant. 19 hydraulic fracturing. 46 fluid properties. 61. 34 flash test. 89 gas deviation factor. 29. 108 joint node. 40 measured distance. 19 gradient. 51 gas viscosity. 84 gas solubility. 11 ideal gas. 11 heavy fractions. 40 measurement. 39. 13 mass. 30 flow and effort variables. 52 maximum exposure. 61 initial condition. 93 Gilbert correlation. 51 free gas. 64 K values. 35 gas expansion factor. 30 gas specific gravity. 104 gas fraction. 33 gascondensates. 19 inflow. 99. 35 gas density. 52 insitu velocitiy. 14 JouleThomson cooling. 30 gas treatment facilities. 30. 32 flow regime. 23 feedback. 32 frictional loss. 37. 87 fixed OPEX. March 2004 128 . 14. 33 gas compressibility factor. 94 fraction. 72 hydraulics. 14. 51 liquid fraction. 98 mixture flow rate. Version 5b. 52 inputoutput relationship. 35 gas lift. 7 formation damage. 43 gas cap. 51 liquid velocity. 51 gas holdup. 43 heat capacity. 46 marching algorithm.
10 pressure drop. 24 solid phase. 93 saturated oil reservoirs. 109 safety valve. 31 oilgas ratio. gas and water viscosities. 14. 32 phase fraction. 7 PVT analysis. 14. 52 noslip volume fraction. 29 quality. 41 root. 108 objective. 41 royalties. 98 pseudoreduced temperature. 30 screens. 11 roughness. 29 solution condensategas ratio. 30 production test. 39. 62 skin. 41 multiphase flow. 94. 10 Newton’s law. 46. 10 noflow condition. 72 permanent downhole gauge. 52 phase diagram. 24 revenues. 49 social impact. 75 Productivity Index. 9 oil density. 67 separation. 30 solution gasoil ratio. 93 solution oilgas ratio. Version 5b. 61 productivity. 12. 61 retrograde condensation. 7 sand control. 13. 7. 51 oil shrinkage factor. 9 nodes. 61 permanent downhole gauges. 12 onepass analysis. 107 nodal analysis. 19 operating point. 95 saturation. 58 rotation. 15 nodding donkey. 80 pressure transient analysis. 35. 51 slip velocity. 42 pressure drop calculation. 40 policies. March 2004 129 . 67 noslip holdup. 98 pseudoreduced pressure. 71 petroleum life cycle model. 46.state. 41 singlephase flow. 30. 15. 8 perforations. 12 pseudocritical properties. 29 reservoir. 29 pipeline. 31. 24 power flow. 54 operating point performance curve. 30 producing oilgas ratio. 52 phases. 30. 30 shape factors. 52 numerical integration. 30 oil viscosity. 30. 36 pseudocomponents. 19 RungeKutta integration. 32 onedimensional system. 8 operating expenditure. 39. 7 saturated oil. 7 separator. 98 pump. 8 slug flow. 24 reference state. 21 network. 29 separator test. 35. 87 sign convention. 7 reservoir management. 9 nearwellbore area. 34 shrinkage factor. 7 separator gas. 61 net present value. 14. 33 saturated oil viscosity. 95 oil fraction. 80 packer. 11. 67 shrinkage. 61 pseudo component. 19 perforated pipe. 32 producing gasoil ratio. 68 process parameters. 89 momentum balance. 15 operating point calculation. 29 phase content. 7 offshore environment. 19 off take point. 7 sales point. 97 oil. 52 slotted pipe. 4. 89 molecular weight. 19 Moody friction factor. 32 SI units. 107 Ros choke correlation. 54 pressure drop performance curve. 52 saturation pressure. 30 oil formation volume factor. 15. 7. 7 seal. 30 Lecture Notes ta4490. 8 semi steady. 7 pipeline survey. 2 reservoir pressure.molar mass. 32 oil specific gravity. 88 NewtonRaphson iteration. 69 recycling. 9 permeability. 63 money of the day. 1 phase behaviour. 9 production testing. 33 reuse. 49 multiphase flow meters. 19 Reynolds number. 71 slip. 13 openhole completion. 8 payout time. 52 realgas pseudo pressure.
12. 14. 7 straight line depreciation. 7 well performance analysis. 35. 95. 51 surface. 29 storage tank. 32 wateroil ratio. 49 subsurface. 40 tubing. 10 system equations. 75 wet gas. 88 standard cubic feet. 8 Xmas tree. 29 state variables. 35 variable OPEX. 61 static tubing head pressure. 46 tubing intake curve. 95 unit technical cost. 93 undersaturated oil reservoirs. 33 undersaturated oil viscosity. 68 wellhead. 14 steady state. 19 terminal. 29 static bottomhole pressure. 29. 30 standard bbl. 32 standard conditions. 46. 19 Vazquez and Beggs correlation. 7 tubing head pressure. 46 true vertical depth. 19 technical costs. 98 system capacity. 24 system dynamics. 39. 10 translation. 32 Standing and Katz correlation. 52 volatile oil. 99 void fraction. 36 undersaturated oil. 19 universal gas constant. 7 surface facilities. 94 viscosity. 7 test separator. 51 water specific gravity. 32 well head. 15 standard barrel. 34 volatile oil model. 109 topology. 30 watercut. 9 thermodynamic properties. 13 tax. 37 waste management. 30 water formation volume factor. 7 superficial velocity. 12. 29 stock tank oil. 11. 101 Lecture Notes ta4490. 34 wireline tools. 65 turbulent flow. March 2004 130 . 8 Z factor. 42 twocomponent model. Version 5b. 3 Sutton correlations. 61 stock tank gas. 11 traverse. 24 water density. 7 surveillance. 89 stability. 31 water fraction. 12 specific gravity. 80 well testing. 19 taxable income. 45 spatial coordinate. 14. 29 topdown. 93 state.sonic velocity. 30. 101 Standing correlations. 65 steadystate flow. 42 stimulation. 54 tubing performance curve. 79 turbulence coefficient. 19 stratified flow. 8.
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