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C0NSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

1. Define the principle of conservation of linear momentum. 2. A toy train, mass 0,5 kg is moving along a toy track to the right with a speed of 2 m.s-1. It collides with another stationary train that also has a mass of 0,5 kg. As a result of the collision, the first train remains stationary. a) Us the principle of conservation of momentum to find the velocity of the second train after the collision. b) Calculate the total kinetic energy before and after the collision. How do they compare with each other? 3. A combination of trolley A (fitted with a spring) of mass 1 kg, and trolley B of mass 2 kg, move to the right at 3 m.s-1 along a frictionless, horizontal surface. The spring is kept compressed between the two trolleys. While the combination of the two trolleys is moving at 3 m.s-1, the spring is released and when it has expanded completely, the 2 kg trolley is then moving to the right at 4,7 m.s-1 as shown below. 3 m.s-1 4,7 m.s-1
B 2 kg A 1 kg 2 kg

B A 1 kg

BEFORE
a)

AFTER

Calculate the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the 1 kg trolley immediately after the spring has expanded completely. If it takes 0,2 s for the spring to expand completely, calculate the average force exerted from trolley A on trolley B.

b)

4. A 4 kg mass, m1, is traveling to the right at 2 m.s-1 when it collides with another 4 kg mass, m2, that is at rest. After the collision, m1 moves at an angle of 30 to the horizontal, and m2 moves south. Determine the velocity with which each ball move away from one another after the collision.
m

vi
m
1

m
2

30

Before collision
m
2

After collision 5. A snooker ball with a mass of 0,5 kg travels with a velocity of 2 m.s-1 and strikes the side of the table at an angle of 30 as shown in the diagram. After the collision the ball moves at the same speed and angle as shown in the diagram. If the collision lasts 0,2 s, what force is exerted by the ball on the side of the table?

30 30

SOLUTIONS

1. The principle of the conservation of linear momentum states that in a closed or isolated system, the total linear momentum before a collision or an explosion is equal to the total linear momentum after the collision or explosion. 2. a) Take to the right as positive. p before collision = p after collision mA v + mB. v = mA.v + mB. v 0,5.2 + 0,5.0 = 0,5.0 + 0,5.v 1 + 0 = 0 + 0,5.v v = 1 0,5 = 2 m.s-1 b) Before: Ek = m1u1 + m2u2 = . 0,5 x 2 + . 0,5 x 0 = 1 J After: Ek = m1v1 + m2v2 = . 0,5 x 0 + . 0,5 x 2 = 1 J The total kinetic energy before the collision is equal ti that after the collision. 3. a) Take to the right as positive. p before collision = p after collision mA + mB. v = mA.v + mB. v 1 + 2 . 3 = 1.v + 2. 4,7 9 = 1.v + 9,4 v = 9 9,4 1 = - 0,4 1 = - 0,4 m.s-1 = 0,4 m.s-1 to the left b) Fnet = p t = mB(vf vi) t = 2 (4,7 3) 0,2 = 8,5 N to the right

4. Before collision:

pres before = m.v =4.2 = 8 kg.m.s-1 at 90 to horizontal pres before = pres after

mi m2 30 8 kg.m.s-1

After collision: pres m1

= m.v = 8 . cos 30 = 6,93 kg.m.s-1 at 30 to horizontal

pres m1 = m.v 6,93 = 4. v v = 6,93 4 = 1,73 m.s-1 at 30 to horizontal pres m2 = m.v = 8 . sin 30 = 4 kg.m.s-1 at 30 to horizontal

pres m2 = m.v 4 = 4. v v = 4 4 = 1 m.s-1 south

5.

2 m.s-1

30 30 2 m.s-1

In the x direction: pbefore x = m.v = 0,5. 2. sin 30 = 0,5 kg.m.s-1 Therefore px = 0 kg.m.s-1 In the y direction: (Take away from the table as positive) pbefore y = m.v = 0,5. -2. cos 30 = - 1,23 kg.m.s-1 Therefore p = pafter - pbefore = 0,866 (-1,23) = 0,866 + 1,23 = 2,096 kg.m.s-1 F. t = p F. 0,2 = 2,096 F = 2,096 0,2 = 10,48 N away from the table pafter y = m.v = 0,5. 2. cos 30 = 0,866 kg.m.s-1 pafter x = m.v = 0,5. 2. sin 30 = 0,5 kg.m.s-1