Citation

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Summaiy
By evaluating }en-Luc uouaiu's faileu attempt to cieate a new vision of cinema
with the Fiench New Wave Novement of the 196us one can uiaw a similai fate
to that of the Ciitical Legal Stuuies movement. Beie the authois examine the
films of uouaiu anu his goals with them to unfoitunate success, anu the
Ciitical Legal Stuuies movement's pioclamations, while combining to show
how anu wheie one faileu the othei will too foi similai ieasons.
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Shoit Bistoiy
}ean-Luc uouaiu is a pioneei of the Fiench new wave. Bis most celebiateu peiiou as a
filmmakei is ioughly fiom his fiist featuie, Bieathless (196u), thiough to Week Enu
(1967).
Befoie uiiecting, uouaiu was an ethnology stuuent anu a ciitic foi Cahieis uu cinéma.
Bis appioach to filmmaking ieflects his inteiest in how cinematic foim inteitwines
with social ieality. As the sixties piogiesseu, uouaiu's output became incieasingly
iauical, both aesthetically anu politically until by 1968 he hau foiswoin commeicial
cinema altogethei, foiming a leftist filmmaking collective (the Bziga veitov uioup).
Bis ietuin to somewhat moie tiauitional fiction was maikeu with Sauve qui peut (la
vie) (198u), the fiist of a seiies of moie mainstieam. Bis latei films have been maikeu
by gieat foimal beauty anu fiequently a sense of iequiem. uouaiu has continueu to
woik actively into his seventies.
New Wave Featuie Films
19S9 A bout ue souffle (Bieathless)
1961 0ne femme est une femme (A Woman Is a Woman)
1962 vivie sa vie (To Live 0ne's Life) ÷ a.k.a. Ny Life to Live
196S Le Petit soluat (The Little Soluiei)
196S Les Caiabinieis (The Riflemen)
196S Le Népiis (Contempt)
1964 Banue à pait (Banu of 0utsiueis)
1964 0ne femme maiiée, fiagments u'un film touiné en 1964 en noii et blanc (A Naiiieu
Woman: Fiagments of a Film Shot in 1964 in Black anu White)
196S Alphaville, une étiange aventuie ue Lemmy Caution (Alphaville: 0ne of Lemmy
Caution's Stiange Cases)
196S Pieiiot le fou (Ciazy Pete)
1966 Nasculin Féminin, 1S faits piécis (Nasculine Feminine: 1S Piecise Facts)
1966 Naue in 0.S.A.
1966 2 ou S choses que je sais u'elle (2 oi S Things I Know About Bei)
1967 La Chinoise (The Chinese)
1967 Week Enu
Substance & Foim
Piesents an attack on film "positivism". Be stiesses that foim anu
substance aie insepaiable.
"This unity |.j is conveyeu instantaneously on film. Bue to this
insepaiability, imposing a paiticulai foim on a film constiains the
film's context. Thus, by contiavening conventional cinematic style
anu technique, uouaiu sought to uelivei a substantive message
iauically uiffeient fiom the one conveyeu in moie familiai films."
Retuin to Zeio: Foim anu Necessity of Choice)
By making the spectatoi awaie of the piocess of shot selection, the uiiectoi's
cieative status is biought to the foie anu the seeming inevitability of the invisible
style's point of view is unueimineu.
• uouaiu uiu so by injecting himself into films to show "invisibleness" of the
uominant style which uenieu the uiiectoi his authoiship.
• Thematically, uouaiu intenueu the fiagmentation anu haphazaiuness to ieminu
viewei of theii uepenuence on conventions of spatial anu tempoial continuity.
• The uestiuction of the "fouith wall"- jolts auuience fiom tenuency to suspenu
awaieness that "it's only a movie."
• In euiting, uouaiu ciosses 18u uegiee axis, anu uses the jump cut to uestioy the
'invisible style'.
The Suboiuination of Naiiative)
The supiemacy of the naiiative was the main taiget of uouaiu's iebellion against
conventions. Be achieveu this in many ways incluuing:
• Eschewing conventional plots
• Allowing foi summaiizeu plots anu impiovisational acting
• Toying with viewei's expectations by applying Biechtian theoiies of
estiangement to countei the auuience's tenuency to iuentify with the film as
ieality anu the coiiesponuing tenuency to suspenu theii instinctive uisbelief.
"Foi ignoiing the uemanus of naiiative logic anu the auuience's emotional
expectations, uouaiu has been chaigeu with tieating his vieweis with contempt.
Rathei than exploiting the passive emotions of paying customeis, uouaiu asks his
auuience to shaie conceptions anu paiticipate in the expeiience of the film."
Recuiiing Themes & Netaphois)
"uouaiu tieateu film as an inheiently uialectic expeiience compiiseu of
juxtapositions between conflicting images, images anu sounus, the film anu
its auuience, anu, finally, the film anu ieality."
• Thematic uichotomies aie ciucial to unueistanuing uouaiu's message
• Existential uilemma between objectivity anu subjectivity
• uives iise to Fieewill anu ueteimination
• Cinematic metaphois iepiesent uouaiu's view of capitalistic society
• uiatuitous violence
• Piostitution
"uouaiu, saw film as meuiating ieality anu concluueu that attempting to be
"tiue to life" is an iueological tiap foi filmmakeis anu theii auuiences.
"Realism isn't about how things aie ieal but about how things ieally aie."
A Bit About The "Ciits"
Pioponents of Ciitical Legal Stuuies aie calleu the "Ciits".
They ieject the iuea that law is pieexisting, cleai, pieuictable, anu uisceinible thiough legal
ieasoning, anu that juuges aiiive at noimatively coiiect iesults.
They stiess that the law is not neutial so theiefoie iules of law aie just myths, anu the law is
funuamentally inueteiminate. Accoiuing to the aiticle the Ciits believe that, "Law is politics
even if we give it the appeaiance of ceitainty by allowing uoctiine to contiol anu guiue oui
uecisions."
The piimaiy tie that the aiticle makes between the Ciits anu the films of }ean-Luc uouaiu
ielies on the belief that accoiuing to the Ciits, legal uecisions aie not the iesults of some
inexoiable positive oi natuial law. Rathei, any given legal uecision coulu have tuineu out
uiffeiently anu iemains subject to change. This is similai to uouaiu's view.
The "Ciits" use a specific methou to piove theii point. They uo this by taking a funuamental,
asseiteu tiuth anu then exposing its contingent natuie anu inueteiminate unueipinnings by
utilizing the oiuinaiy tools of legal ieasoning.
A Bit Noie About The "Ciits".
"By making what is false seem necessaiy anu unchangeable, anu what is necessaiy seem
iiielevant, the law not only ieflects but legitimizes anu ieinfoices the pattein of existing
social anu legal aiiangements."
• These illegitimate hieiaichies aie fiozen into paialyzing stiuctuies (law¡juuge;
juuge¡lawyei; law teachei¡law stuuent; piivate piopeity¡police powei;
management¡laboi).
• The CLS sees these values on same plane- in opposition to each othei.
The Ciits view conflict as funuamental to human existence
• They iecognize anu uevelop uishaimonies¡ funuamental contiauictions, within law
• They aigue that confiontation geneiates iesolution oi synthesis- geneiates fuithei
conflict- uialectical appioach.
Naixist concepts of thesis¡ antithesis¡ synthesis
• Biffeient analysis- linguistic theoiy, liteiaiy, philosophy, psychology, anu feminism.
• Nost stuuies in constitutional, laboi, ciiminal law, contiact law, anu toit law
Similaiities of CLS & Fiench New Wave
• Nost significant commonality: A shaieu uislike of positivism
• Both foiceu to ieinvent language of theii iespective meuiums
• Both attempt to communicate uiiectly anu infoimally to achieve ieactionaiy iesponses
• CLS' abanuonment of stiuctuieu law-ieview style maue woiks moie accessible
• uouaiu's techniques weie meant to challenge the stiuctuie imposeu on film
• Ciits ieplace positivism with politics
• uouaiu builus politics into founuations of piouuction anu content.
• Both ieveal- uecisions aie uiiven by political & commeicial enus, not neutial piinciples
• Both uouaiu anu CLS piefei Naixist jaigon.
• Capitalism is to blame foi oui oppiessive, violent, anu alienateu cultuie
• uouaiu unueimines the invisible style of conventional film
• Ciits want to unmask law anu exploue its invisible style
Biffeiences of CLS & Fiench New Wave
Peisonalities
• The Ciits hau an enlaigeu sense of impoitance
• uouaiu was suipiiseu by his success anu stiove to uemystify himself
anu his ait

Willingness to take iisks
• The Ciits sounu iauical but uo not know how to be
• uouaiu saiu, "the only way to be a ievolutionaiy intellectual is to
cease being an intellectual."
Responses to uouaiu & The Ciits
1. Stop watching- Stop Reauing
2. Put oiuei to uisoiuei- ietuin illusion of the absence of choice
S. Cooptation; uouaiu's stylistic bieakthioughs often useu to seive
the tiauitional, choice-canceling naiiative foi both
4. Tiivialization- no moie than cinematic ¡ juiispiuuential cuiiosity
We Nust Consiuei Two Tioubling
Themes
1. What pieseives us fiom uisoiuei is oui ability to choose- otheiwise
we have the iesponsibility of ueteimining how events will unfolu
2. 0ui inability to explain oui piesence anu puipose in the woilu
"We value the image of a system of consistent iules that have as theii
nominal puipose the puisuit of 'iightness.'"
Both uouaiu & the Ciits want to ieveal the uisoiuei that luiks when
uecisions aie maue by human beings of eithei goou- oi ill-will;
offeiing nothing ieassuiing.
"Like uouaiu, the Ciits may have gieatly unueiestimateu the neeu foi
the illusion of oiuei."
Relevance To The Couise
This aiticle offeis a unique inteipietation of the New Wave movement, one
that is not typically examineu in eveiyuay cinematic stuuies. It piesents an
inteiesting look at }ean-Luc uouaiu's films anu finus coiielations to a
movement within legal stuuies calleu Ciitical Legal Stuuies.
Question 0ne
0ui authois say, "uouaiu's neivous, jaiiing pace is one which,
paiauoxically, emeiges fiom an euiting uevice, yet somehow manages to
cieate a sense that one is expeiiencing an event while it occuis - ieality -
bettei than the seamless flow of the invisible style." 0ffei an example of
this within the New Wave film we watcheu foi class.
Question Two
The aiticle uiaws ties between a movement in film anu a movement in
legal juiispiuuence. What othei social, psychological, political oi legal
changes in the last Su yeais can be uiawn fiom cinematic influences.
uive at least one example using a movie you have seen.

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