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Holland's Erasmus Bridge resembles a harp with its cable-stayed construction. At first glance, the cable-stayed bridgemay look like just a variant of the suspension bridge, but don't let their similar towers and hanging roadways fool you. Cable-stayed bridges differ from their suspension predecessors in that they don't require anchorages, nor do they need two towers. Instead, the cables run from the roadway up to a single tower that alone bears the weight. The tower of a cable-stayed bridge is responsible for absorbing and dealing with compressional forces. The cables attach to the roadway in various ways. For example, in a radial pattern, cables extend from several points on the road to a single point at the tower, like numerous fishing lines attached to a single pole. In a parallel pattern, the cables attach to both the roadway and the tower at several separate points.
Engineers constructed the first cable-stayed bridges in Europe following the close of World War II, but the basic design dates back to the 16th century and Croatian inventor Faust Vrancic. A contemporary of astronomers Tycho Brache and Johannes Kepler, Vrancic produced the first known sketch of a cable-stayed bridge in his book "Machinae Novae." Today, cable-stayed bridges are a popular choice as they offer all the advantages of a suspension bridge but at a lesser cost for spans of 500 to 2,800 feet (152 to 853 meters). They require less steel cable, are faster to build and incorporate more precast concrete sections. Not all bridges requires great hunks of steel and concrete though. Sometimes a tree root or two will do the trick.
4-mile (42. bridge design and construction entails serious ingenuity.000-year-old Arkadiko bridge or as unchanged as India's 500-year-old Meghalaya living bridges. say. such as. in doing so. reshape the very environment in which we live. Jiaozhou Bay. lumber and even living vegetation. we'll get to know the bridges we so often take for granted (we literally walk and drive all over them). Artists. as humans continue to tackle ever more ambitious bridges and construction. as well as the designs that make them possible. Although the concept itself is as simple as felling a tree across a creek. In this article. humans have engineered structures to surmount obstacles. some as ancient as Greece's 3. all in an effort to reach the places.We are a species of bridge builders. The body of water is now home to a 26. We'll look at the fundamental principles of bridge engineering. stone. Countless others have fallen into the ravines and rivers they span. First up. Related Articles Everyday Science: Bridge Quiz Top 10 Structurally Amazing Bridges Why do bridges ice before the rest of the highway? As a result. Since time out of mind. the different types and how we attempt to thwart the physical forces and natural phenomena that perpetually threaten to destroy the world's bridges.5-kilometer) bridge that links the busy Chinese port city of Quingdao to the Chinese suburb of Huangdou. we inhabit a planet of bridges. architects and engineers pour vast resources into bridge construction and. let's get right down to the basics. We've tamed steel. . people and things we desire. which are coaxed into existence from growing tree roots (more on that later).
ranging from simplebeam bridges. which is the distance between two bridge supports. such as the pictured side-spar cable-stayed bridge. but the key structural components of bridge construction: beams.000 feet (240-300 meters). are likely to span up to 200 feet (60 meters).not the furry. winged mammals that so often live beneath bridges. . Canada's Esplanade Riel pedestrian bridge. Various combinations of these four technologies allow for numerousbridge designs. arches. the physical braces that connect the bridge to the surface below. towers or even the walls of a canyon. Suspension bridges are capable of extending from 2. arch bridges. truss bridges and suspension bridges to more complex variations. you'll need some help from BATS -. for instance. spans the Red River. The key differences between these four bridge types comes down to the lengths they can cross in a single span.000-7. the side-spar design is based on suspension principles first used some two centuries earlier. while modern arch bridges can safely cross 800-1. For all its 21st century complexity. If you're going to build a bridge.BATS: The Basics of Bridge Design Walter Bibikow/The Image Bank/Getty Images Manitoba. every bridge must stand strong under the two important forces we'll talk about next. Modern beam bridges. Regardless of the structure.000 feet (610-2. Bridge supports may take the form of columns. trussesand suspensions. competed in 2003.134 meters).
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Make sure each platform weighs the same. mountains and crevices. such as craft sticks and glue. Purchase a set of one ounce weights. Place the bridges between two tables and attach a string and small platform to the bottom of each bridge. There are many different bridge science projects options to make. Take pictures of all of the bridges and tape these to . Alter the designs in small ways. such as structural integrity. Keep adding weights until each bridge collapses. Make sure each child gets the same books to make this project fair. Begin adding one ounce weights to the bridges. Bridge Weight Capacity o Look up several different bridge designs online and use them as a guide to designing some bridges to build. Design and draw several different bridges. eHow Contributor updated May 04. 2011 Print this article Bridge science projects can get behind the science of this important transportation tools. Give them a day to design a bridge out of the books that stretches between two different chairs. including gaps over rivers. Pick appropriate material that you feel comfortable using. Each child is given access to about 10 different books of various sizes. Build the bridges and present them. Watch the bridges for 10 minutes to make sure they are sturdy enough to stand up for extended periods. discussing the different designs and which one you think will support more weight. 1. Book Bridge o Use this project in elementary classes to teach children about the basics of bridge building.Bridge Science Fair Project Topics By Eric Benac. design or the future of bridge design. Note which bridge supported more weight. design and display. Bridges have been used for centuries to cross large gaps. Each bridge science project should be used to showcase a different idea.
Computer Designed Bridges o This project is good for high school-level drafting and CAD classes. These tools should include wood.in Learn how to save 30% off your energy costs from the experts! Balsa Woodwww.html#ixzz1VwpNg8i9 . including the student name and the books used. glue.de/en MOOG . Present these at the science fair and discuss the science behind modeling.comhttp://www.moog-online.Hobbies. Each student can write a brief paper on using CAD to design bridges.a piece of construction paper. since the 1980's Steel long product datawww. Give the students about a month to finish the bridges.Your manufacturer for underbridge units. Use any physics simulations in the CAD program to test each bridge's integrity. Other people can then build a bridge in the same way. Famous Bridge Model o Recreating famous bridges is a project that works well with art oriented students. & Crafts. The students can strengthen their bridge to make sure it is strong enough to stay standing. Print out pictures of each bridge and give your students access to a wide variety of modeling tools. Ads by Google References Science Buddies: The Effect of Bridge Design on Weight Bearing Capacity Education.crugroup. Print out each bridge design and tape them to a piece of construction paper.co. They should each pick a different bridge to avoid duplication. Label each picture.solarbo. They should start by drawing the bridge down on paper and then transferring it to computer.com Balsa Wood for Models.com Monthly insight into the global steel long products industry Bridge Inspection Unitswww. Place the books and chairs near your project. Each student should pick a famous bridge they want to recreate.com: A Bridge to Nowhere Bridge Contest: Computer Designed Bridges University of Portsmouth: Bridges of the World Resources Read more: Bridge Science Fair Project Topics | eHow.com/info_8353936_bridge-sciencefair-project-topics. Advanced students may wish to make a 3D model of their bridge for video display.ehow. knives and anything else they need.schneider-electric. Each student should design a bridge using their drafting and CAD tools. including scaling down each part of the model and recreating scenery. modeling stone. Energy Conservationwww.
such as a triangle. The cantilever. A beam bridge is made of long timber. and the suspension. they meet in the middle of the span where they are connected together or support a third member. the result is a truss bridge. It became possible to design framed structures with greater ease and flexibility..710 ft (521 m) each. or masonry. at 1. or concrete beams anchored at each end. which has an 1. depending on the load. The modern era of bridge building began with the development of the Bessemer process for converting cast iron into steel. In a cable-stayed bridge. Tenn. They remained the longest in existence until 1917. can extend to 1. This differs from a suspension bridge. the roadway is supported by cables attached directly to the supporting tower or towers. which has a 2. If the beams are arranged in a lattice. A cantilever bridge is formed by self-supporting arms anchored at and projecting toward one another from the ends. is more common for spans of such lengths. at 582 ft (177 m). respectively. concrete. at 1. the cantilever. The Ponte de Normandie in Le Havre. the Bayonne Bridge between New York and New Jersey. respectively. coming into prominence during the 1950s.700 ft (518 m). Australia. Lawrence River at Quebec Bridge was built. even longer bridges are possible. the material that made possible its two record-setting spans of 1. the truss.920 ft (890 m) span. the longest concrete arch bridge in the United States is the Natchez Trace Parkway Bridge in Franklin. where the roadway is suspended from vertical cables that are in turn attached to two or more main cables. built-up beams are made for longer spans. it has an 1. the Sydney Harbor Bridge in Australia. Truss. Japan.280 ft (390 m) and 1. spans 2. the arch. a steel box-beam bridge with an 850-ft (260-m) span crosses the Rhine at Cologne. it is therefore commonly used for railroad bridges. however. and Combination Bridges The cable-stayed bridge is the most modern type..Modern Bridge Designs There are six basic modern bridge forms: the beam. Penn. rolled steel beams can support spans of 50 to 100 ft (15– 30 m).808 ft (856 m). the Second . Concrete arch bridges tend to be somewhat smaller. Larger. Oreg. The longest cantilever bridge in the United States is the Commodore John Barry Bridge in Chester. The cantilevered Forth Bridge (1890) in Scotland was the first major structure built entirely of steel. A large truss span like that over the Columbia River at Astoria.675 ft (510 m). and 1.644 ft (501 m) span. when the St.800-ft (549-m) span. Single-piece. so that each shares only a portion of the weight on any part of the structure. metal. The longest is the Tatara Bridge in Ehime. the largest being the Krk Bridge in Croatia and the Gladesville Bridge across the Parramatta River at Sidney.232 ft (376 m). France. Suspension. and the New River Bridge in West Virginia are the longest steel arch bridges. An arch bridge has a bowed shape causing the vertical force of the weight it carries to produce a horizontal outward force at its ends. and Cantilever Bridges The truss can span even greater distances and carry heavy loads. It may be constructed of steel. Arch.000 ft (305 m). Cable-Stayed. 1. If the truss is shaped into an arch. These main cables hang from two towers and have their ends anchored in bedrock or concrete.670 ft (509 m). the cable-stay..
090 m). consists of a rigid frame carrying the road and resting abutments. whose parallel roadways stretch nearly 24 mi (38 km). Minami Bisan-Seto Bridge.969 ft (1.4 mi (36 km) long.328 ft (1. 3. Japan.Yangtze Bridge in Nanjing. Sweden. Louisiana. Zhejiang prov. The longest main spans are the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge. Today the longest spans in the world are suspended.576 ft (1. Denmark.5 ft (487 m). Combination spans are often used to bridge even longer stretches of water.529 ft (1.074 m). Roebling. 4. It may be in one span or in two halves meeting at the center. and the 8-mi (12. Because of the need for large counterweights and the stress on hoisting machinery. It consists of a rigid structure mounted at the abutment on a horizontal shaft. First Bosporus Bridge. 5. and George Washington Bridge. The lifting bridge. Västernörrland.067 m). TheChesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel has two 1-mi (1.595. Hong Kong. over each of which rises a steel-frame tower. linking Prince Edward Island to the Canadian mainland.. Hyogo.472 ft (1.500 ft (1. which in existing bridges is as long as 585 ft (178 m). the bridge combines causeway with two cable-stayed spans. or lift bridge. 4.118 m).9-km)Confederation Bridge. Turkey. Humber River Bridge.158 m).624 m).990 m). which crosses the bay between Zhapu and Cixi. Turkey. The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. of which two are suspension spans and the third a cantilever. 4.060 ft (628 m). 3.6-mi (28. A. Store Bælt Bridge. 3.25 mi (13.300 ft (396 m). Second Bosporus Bridge..524 ft (1.. Mackinac Straits Bridge.2-km) length. 6.626 ft (1410 m). is hoisted vertically. İstanbul. bascule. noted for its three long spans. 3. and the Third Yangtze Bridge in Wuhan. The lower center span of the famous Tower Bridge in London is of the double-leaf bascule type.518 ft (1. developed the use of wire cables and stiffening trusses. The longest cable-stayed bridge in the United States is the Dame Point Bridge in Jacksonville. New York City.6-km) tunnels along its 17.298 m).260 ft (1. Izmit Bay Bridge.668 ft (1. Verrazano-Narrows Bridge. The swing . He also designed the Brooklyn Bridge across the East River (completed 1883).2 km).280 m). 4. China. bascule bridge spans are limited to about 250 ft (75 m). San Francisco. Marmara Sea. spans 2. Mich. a German-born engineer who emigrated to the United States. The center span. about which it swings in a vertical arc. 3. The design of suspension bridges advanced when J.377 m). İstanbul. having a main span of 1.210 m). Tsing Ma Bridge. The longest cross-sea bridge is the Hangzhou Bay Bridge. The bascule bridge follows the principle of the ancient drawbridge. which has a span of 1. China. which was the world's longest suspension bridge at the time of its construction. The suspension bridge is used for the longest spans.200 ft (1.668 m). and swing bridges. Golden Gate Bridge. Hull. New York City. The earliest suspension bridges built in America were those constructed by the American builder James Finley. His first completed suspension bridge spanned the Niagara River in 1854. consists of three bridges. Movable Bridges Movable bridges are generally constructed over waterways where it is impossible or prohibitive to build a fixed bridge high enough for water traffic to pass under it. China. Japan. has a total length of 8.028 ft (618 m). 3. England. The longest combination spans are the twin Lake Ponchartrain Causeways near New Orleans. Fla. 5. 22. Turkey.800 ft (1. spans 2. Hoga Kusten (or High Coast) Bridge. The most common types of movable bridge are the lifting.
built on the spot by the engineering corps from any available material. the military bridge plays a vital role. Military Bridges In wartime. . and the floating bridge made with portable pontoons. where the means of crossing a stream or river is lacking or a bridge has been destroyed by the enemy. Standard types of military bridges include the trestle.bridge is usually mounted on a pier in midstream and swung parallel to the stream to allow water passage.
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