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Abaqus/Explicit Honeycomb Material Model

Introduction A constitutive model for honeycomb materials is provided in the form of a built-in user material model for Abaqus/Explicit. One application of this model is in the simulation of deformable barriers in automobile crash applications. Before a honeycomb-type material is fully compacted, it will exhibit orthotropic behavior. The material will be stiffest in the direction aligned with the honeycomb cells, and less stiff in the lateral directions. In the remainder of this document, the material direction aligned with the cell axes will be referred to as the strong direction. The formulation of this model is based on the assumption that the stress-strain response in each direction is uncoupled from that of the other directions, i.e., the deformation in one direction will only produce stress in that direction. Currently only elements with three dimensional stress states are supported. When specifying material orientations, the strong direction is assumed to be the local x material direction; the two lateral directions align with the local y and z material directions respectively. If no material orientation is specified, the honeycomb material is assumed to be initially aligned with the global directions (i.e., the strong direction is aligned with the global X-axis). The effect of damage initiation and evolution is also included in this model. The mechanics of the model will be discussed together with its user interface. An example input file is included. No user subroutine code is needed if the honeycomb model is the only user material included in the analysis. Uniaxial tensile and compressive behavior The uniaxial tensile and compressive behavior in the strong ( x ) direction is depicted in Figure 1. The behavior in the other two directions is similar in nature, but with lower stiffness, yielding strain and yield stress magnitudes; therefore only the response in the x direction will be considered. The discussion below is also applicable to the y and z directions (replace the subscript xx in the material constants with yy and zz respectively). Under tensile loading the behavior is linear elastic, with a Youngs modulus of E xx , up to the initial tensile yield stress
0

T xx .

Beyond initial tensile yielding, the material response is represented as one-dimensional rate-independent perfect plasticity. Under compressive loading, the behavior is also linear elastic, with a Youngs modulus of E xx , up to the compressive yield strain
y xx .

Beyond initial compressive yielding, the material behavior is represented as one-dimensional rate-independent
1

plasticity with isotropic hardening and a tangent stiffness of E xx . Upon reaching the compaction strain
2

c (this value is

assumed to be the same in all directions), the behavior is elastic with a tangent stiffness of E xx . An example loading, unloading, and reloading path is shown in Figure 1 as a-b-c-d-d-c-e-f.

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Abaqus/Explicit Honeycomb Material Model

xx
T xx

0 E xx

c
0 E xx

d, d
y xx

a
c xx

xx

e
2 E xx

1 c, c E xx

Figure 1. Uniaxial tensile and compressive behavior of the honeycomb material model. Shear behavior The shear behavior in the x y plane is depicted in Figure 2. The behavior in the y z and x z planes is similar in nature but with different stiffness and yielding strain magnitudes; therefore only the shear response in x y plane will be discussed. All the discussions below are applicable to behavior in the y z and x z planes; simply replace the subscript xy in the material constants with yz and xz respectively. The shear behavior is linear elastic with the initial shear modulus shear yield strains
0 Gxy in the region between the compressive and tensile

y y ( xy , xy ) . Beyond yielding, the material behavior is represented as one-dimensional rate-independent

plasticity with isotropic hardening, with tangent shear modulus of shown in Figure 2 as a-b-c-d-d-c-e.

G1 . An example loading, unloading and reloading path is xy

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Abaqus/Explicit Honeycomb Material Model

xy
E 1 = 2G 1 xy xy
d (d)
y xy

0 0 E xy = 2G xy

y xy

E
E 1 = 2G 1 xy xy
e

0 xy

= 2G

0 xy 0 0 E xy = 2G xy

xy

c (c)

Figure 2. Shear behavior of the honeycomb material model. Material damage The damage initiation and evolution for the normal and shear behavior are assumed to be isotropic. Two damage variables, d normal and d shear , govern the damaged response in the normal and shear directions,

ii = (1 d normal ) ii i = x, y, z , no summation on i
ij = (1 d shear ) ij i, j = x, y, z , i j
where is the effective stress tensor computed in the current increment. Note that when no damage is present. Damage initiation Damage initiates in shear when the equivalent plastic shear strain reaches the specified initiation value plastic shear strain
eq shear is defined as

(1)

is the stress that exists in the material

ieq . The equivalent

eq p p p p shear = < vol > + ( xy ) 2 + ( yz ) 2 + ( xz ) 2

(2)

where

p p p p < vol >= max 0,( xx + yy + zz )

}.

The first term on the right hand side of Equation (2) introduces the effect of the volumetric plastic strain on the shear damage. Specifically, it can be seen that the equivalent plastic shear strain is reduced by the scaled plastic volumetric strain; subsequently, the onset of shear damage is delayed in the presence of compressive plastic strains.

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Abaqus/Explicit Honeycomb Material Model

Damage initiates in the normal directions when the equivalent plastic normal strain value
eq tens . The equivalent plastic normal strain is defined as

eq normal reaches the specified initiation

eq p p p normal = < xx > 2 + < yy > 2 + < zz > 2

(3)

where

< iip >= max(0, iip ) , no summation on i .


Damage evolution The shear and normal damage variables evolve during the solution as bilinear functions of the equivalent plastic shear and equivalent plastic normal strains, respectively. Curves A and B in Figure 3 display the behavior of d shear and d normal , respectively.

d shear (d normal ) d3

d2

eq tens

ieq

eq 2

3eq

eq eq shear ( normal )

Figure 3. Damage evolution laws.

The evolution law of the shear damage variable is determined by the shear damage initiation strain damage equivalent plastic strain

ieq , intermediate shear

eq 2 , maximum shear damage equivalent plastic strain 3eq , intermediate damage variable

d 2 , and the maximum damage variable d 3 , as depicted in Figure 3.


The evolution law of the tensile damage variable has the same shape as that of the shear damage variable, only shifted from the shear damage curve by An additional parameter
eq tens ieq , as depicted in Figure 3.

d vol can be used to deactivate the evolution of shear damage once a threshold value of volumetric

plastic strain is reached. That is, when the value of the negative volumetric strain
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p p p p vol = ( xx + yy + zz )

is smaller (more compressive) than the value of vol , the shear damage is not further evolved.
d

User Interface When using the honeycomb model, the material name must begin with ABQ_HONEYCOMB, e.g. ABQ_HONEYCOMB_1. Thirty five material constants must be specified, as shown in Table 1, and 17 solution dependent state variables are used, as shown in Table 2. Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Description

0 xx

Initial Youngs modulus in

x direction

y xx Yield strain for compression in x direction

E 1 Tangent stiffness in the compressive plastic region in the x direction xx


2 E xx Tangent stiffness in the elastic region beyond full compaction for compression in x

direction
0 G xy Initial shear modulus in x y plane
y xy

Shear yield strain in x y plane Tangent modulus in shear plastic region in x y plane

1 xy

T T xx Initial yield stress in tension in x direction; when xx = 0 , the behavior will be elastic

in tension
0 E yy Initial Youngs modulus in y direction
y yy

Yield strain for compression in y direction

E 1 Tangent stiffness in the compressive plastic region in the y direction yy


2 E yy Tangent stiffness in elastic region beyond full compaction for compression in y

direction

0 yz

Initial shear modulus in y z plane Shear yield strain in y z plane

y yz

G1 Tangent modulus in shear plastic region in y z plane yz

T yy

Initial yield stress for tension in y direction; when

T = 0 , the behavior will be yy

elastic in tension
0 E zz Initial Youngs modulus in z direction

y zz

Yield strain for compression in z direction

E 1 Tangent stiffness in the compressive plastic region in the z direction zz


2 E zz

Tangent stiffness in elastic region beyond full compaction for compression in z direction

0 G zx Initial shear modulus in z x plane

y zx Shear yield strain in z x plane

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Abaqus/Explicit Honeycomb Material Model

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

G 1 Tangent modulus in shear plastic region in z x plane zx


Initial yield stress for tension in z direction; when elastic in tension
T zz T zz = 0 , the behavior will be

c Compaction strain in all directions d 2 Intermediate damage value d 3 Maximum damage value

ieq Shear damage initiation strain


eq 2 3eq

Intermediate shear damage equivalent plastic strain Maximum shear damage equivalent plastic strain

Not currently used Not currently used Scale factor for the volumetric effect in shear damage
d vol Deactivation volumetric strain for the shear damage; no deactivation will be used when d vol = 0

35

eq tens Damage initiation strain in tension

Table 1. Material constants. Number 1-6 7-9 10-12 13-15 16 17 Description Plastic strains Equivalent plastic strain in tension Equivalent plastic strain in compression Equivalent plastic strain in shear Shear damage variable Tensile damage variable Table 2. Solution dependent state variables. To include the material model from ABAQUS/CAE complete these steps in the Property Module: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select Material Create... In the Edit Material dialog box specify the name such that it begins with ABQ_HONEYCOMB. In the Edit Material dialog box select General User Material Set the User material type as Mechanical. In the Data portion of the Edit Material dialog box, enter the user material constants in the order shown in Table 1. Select General Depvar and specify 17 solution-dependent state variables.

For a detailed example of the keyword usage of the honeycomb model, please refer to the attached verification input file honey_comb_uni_x.zip

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Abaqus/Explicit Honeycomb Material Model