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Introduction A constitutive model for honeycomb materials is provided in the form of a built-in user material model for Abaqus/Explicit. One application of this model is in the simulation of deformable barriers in automobile crash applications. Before a honeycomb-type material is fully compacted, it will exhibit orthotropic behavior. The material will be stiffest in the direction aligned with the honeycomb cells, and less stiff in the lateral directions. In the remainder of this document, the material direction aligned with the cell axes will be referred to as the “strong” direction. The formulation of this model is based on the assumption that the stress-strain response in each direction is uncoupled from that of the other directions, i.e., the deformation in one direction will only produce stress in that direction. Currently only elements with three dimensional stress states are supported. When specifying material orientations, the strong direction is assumed to be the local x material direction; the two lateral directions align with the local y and z material directions respectively. If no material orientation is specified, the honeycomb material is assumed to be initially aligned with the global directions (i.e., the “strong” direction is aligned with the global X-axis). The effect of damage initiation and evolution is also included in this model. The mechanics of the model will be discussed together with its user interface. An example input file is included. No user subroutine code is needed if the honeycomb model is the only user material included in the analysis. Uniaxial tensile and compressive behavior The uniaxial tensile and compressive behavior in the strong ( x ) direction is depicted in Figure 1. The behavior in the other two directions is similar in nature, but with lower stiffness, yielding strain and yield stress magnitudes; therefore only the response in the x direction will be considered. The discussion below is also applicable to the y and z directions (replace the subscript xx in the material constants with yy and zz respectively). Under tensile loading the behavior is linear elastic, with a Young’s modulus of E xx , up to the initial tensile yield stress

0

0

T σ xx .

Beyond initial tensile yielding, the material response is represented as one-dimensional rate-independent perfect plasticity. Under compressive loading, the behavior is also linear elastic, with a Young’s modulus of E xx , up to the compressive yield strain

y ε xx .

**Beyond initial compressive yielding, the material behavior is represented as one-dimensional rate-independent
**

1

**plasticity with isotropic hardening and a tangent stiffness of E xx . Upon reaching the compaction strain
**

2

ε c (this value is

assumed to be the same in all directions), the behavior is elastic with a tangent stiffness of E xx . An example loading, unloading, and reloading path is shown in Figure 1 as a-b-c-d-d’-c’-e-f.

Copyright Dassault Systèmes | www.3ds.com

Abaqus/Explicit Honeycomb Material Model

1

The shear behavior is linear elastic with the initial shear modulus shear yield strains 0 Gxy in the region between the compressive and tensile y y (−ε xy . Shear behavior The shear behavior in the x − y plane is depicted in Figure 2. All the discussions below are applicable to behavior in the y − z and x − z planes.com Abaqus/Explicit Honeycomb Material Model 2 . G1 . Uniaxial tensile and compressive behavior of the honeycomb material model.σ xx T σ xx 0 E xx εc 0 E xx d. c’ E xx b f Figure 1. simply replace the subscript xy in the material constants with yz and xz respectively. Beyond yielding. d’ y ε xx a c σ xx ε xx e 2 E xx 1 c.3ds. therefore only the shear response in x − y plane will be discussed. with tangent shear modulus of shown in Figure 2 as a-b-c-d-d’-c’-e. ε xy ) . unloading and reloading path is xy Copyright Dassault Systèmes | www. An example loading. the material behavior is represented as one-dimensional rate-independent plasticity with isotropic hardening. The behavior in the y − z and x − z planes is similar in nature but with different stiffness and yielding strain magnitudes.

j = x. d normal and d shear . Damage initiation Damage initiates in shear when the equivalent plastic shear strain reaches the specified initiation value plastic shear strain eq ε shear is defined as (1) σ is the stress that exists in the material ε ieq . subsequently.3ds. Copyright Dassault Systèmes | www. z . Specifically. no summation on i σ ij = (1 − d shear )σ ij i. The equivalent eq p p p p ε shear = −α < −ε vol > + (ε xy ) 2 + (ε yz ) 2 + (ε xz ) 2 (2) where p p p p < −ε vol >= max 0. govern the damaged response in the normal and shear directions. The first term on the right hand side of Equation (2) introduces the effect of the volumetric plastic strain on the shear damage. Shear behavior of the honeycomb material model.σ xy E 1 = 2G 1 xy xy d (d’) y xy −ε 0 0 E xy = 2G xy a y ε xy E E 1 = 2G 1 xy xy e 0 xy = 2G 0 xy 0 0 E xy = 2G xy ε xy b c (c’) Figure 2. y. the onset of shear damage is delayed in the presence of compressive plastic strains. i ≠ j where σ is the effective stress tensor computed in the current increment. σ ii = (1 − d normal )σ ii i = x. y. it can be seen that the equivalent plastic shear strain is reduced by the scaled plastic volumetric strain. Material damage The damage initiation and evolution for the normal and shear behavior are assumed to be isotropic.com Abaqus/Explicit Honeycomb Material Model 3 . Two damage variables. z . Note that when no damage is present.−(ε xx + ε yy + ε zz ) { }.

as depicted in Figure 3. The evolution law of the shear damage variable is determined by the shear damage initiation strain damage equivalent plastic strain ε ieq . only shifted from the shear damage curve by An additional parameter eq ε tens − ε ieq . That is. as depicted in Figure 3.com Abaqus/Explicit Honeycomb Material Model 4 .Damage initiates in the normal directions when the equivalent plastic normal strain value eq ε tens . Curves A and B in Figure 3 display the behavior of d shear and d normal . intermediate shear eq ε 2 . d ε vol can be used to deactivate the evolution of shear damage once a threshold value of volumetric plastic strain is reached. maximum shear damage equivalent plastic strain ε 3eq . respectively. d shear (d normal ) d3 B A d2 eq ε tens ε ieq eq ε2 ε 3eq eq eq ε shear (ε normal ) Figure 3. respectively. intermediate damage variable d 2 . The equivalent plastic normal strain is defined as eq ε normal reaches the specified initiation eq p p p ε normal = < ε xx > 2 + < ε yy > 2 + < ε zz > 2 (3) where < ε iip >= max(0.3ds. when the value of the negative volumetric strain Copyright Dassault Systèmes | www. ε iip ) . and the maximum damage variable d 3 . Damage evolution laws. no summation on i . The evolution law of the tensile damage variable has the same shape as that of the shear damage variable. Damage evolution The shear and normal damage variables evolve during the solution as bilinear functions of the equivalent plastic shear and equivalent plastic normal strains.

Thirty five material constants must be specified. Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Description E 0 xx Initial Young’s modulus in x direction y ε xx Yield strain for compression in x direction E 1 Tangent stiffness in the compressive plastic region in the x direction xx 2 E xx Tangent stiffness in the elastic region beyond full compaction for compression in x direction 0 G xy Initial shear modulus in x − y plane y ε xy Shear yield strain in x − y plane Tangent modulus in shear plastic region in x − y plane G 1 xy T T σ xx Initial yield stress in tension in x direction.p p p p − ε vol = −(ε xx + ε yy + ε zz ) is smaller (more compressive) than the value of ε vol . and 17 solution dependent state variables are used. when σ T = 0 . ABQ_HONEYCOMB_1. the behavior will be elastic in tension 0 E yy Initial Young’s modulus in y direction y ε yy Yield strain for compression in y direction E 1 Tangent stiffness in the compressive plastic region in the y direction yy 2 E yy Tangent stiffness in elastic region beyond full compaction for compression in y direction G 0 yz Initial shear modulus in y − z plane Shear yield strain in y − z plane y ε yz G1 Tangent modulus in shear plastic region in y − z plane yz σT yy Initial yield stress for tension in y direction. as shown in Table 1.com Abaqus/Explicit Honeycomb Material Model 5 . the shear damage is not further evolved. as shown in Table 2.g. the behavior will be yy elastic in tension 0 E zz Initial Young’s modulus in z direction y ε zz Yield strain for compression in z direction E 1 Tangent stiffness in the compressive plastic region in the z direction zz 2 E zz Tangent stiffness in elastic region beyond full compaction for compression in z direction 0 G zx Initial shear modulus in z − x plane y ε zx Shear yield strain in z − x plane Copyright Dassault Systèmes | www.3ds. the material name must begin with ABQ_HONEYCOMB. when σ xx = 0 . d User Interface When using the honeycomb model. e.

.3ds. no deactivation will be used when d ε vol = 0 35 eq ε tens Damage initiation strain in tension Table 1. 3.. enter the user material constants in the order shown in Table 1. Solution dependent state variables. the behavior will be ε c Compaction strain in all directions d 2 Intermediate damage value d 3 Maximum damage value ε ieq Shear damage initiation strain eq ε2 ε 3eq Intermediate shear damage equivalent plastic strain Maximum shear damage equivalent plastic strain Not currently used Not currently used α Scale factor for the volumetric effect in shear damage d ε vol Deactivation volumetric strain for the shear damage. 4. 6. Select Material → Create. Select General → Depvar and specify 17 solution-dependent state variables. For a detailed example of the keyword usage of the honeycomb model. To include the material model from ABAQUS/CAE complete these steps in the Property Module: 1. In the Data portion of the Edit Material dialog box. Number 1-6 7-9 10-12 13-15 16 17 Description Plastic strains Equivalent plastic strain in tension Equivalent plastic strain in compression Equivalent plastic strain in shear Shear damage variable Tensile damage variable Table 2. when elastic in tension T σ zz T σ zz = 0 .23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 G 1 Tangent modulus in shear plastic region in z − x plane zx Initial yield stress for tension in z direction.zip Copyright Dassault Systèmes | www. Material constants. 2. 5. In the Edit Material dialog box select General → User Material Set the User material type as Mechanical.com Abaqus/Explicit Honeycomb Material Model 6 . please refer to the attached verification input file honey_comb_uni_x. In the Edit Material dialog box specify the name such that it begins with ABQ_HONEYCOMB.

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