You are on page 1of 5


i. Material Substitution - As new or improved materials continue to be developed, there are important trends in their selection and application. Aerospace structures, sporting goods, and numerous high-techs products have especially been at the forefront of new material usage. Because of the vested interests of the producers of different types of natural and engineered materials, there are constantly shifting trends in the usage of these materials, driven principally by economics. For example, by demonstrating steels technical and economic advantages, steel products are countering the increased use of plastics in automobiles and aluminum in beverage cans. Likewise, aluminum producers are countering the use of various materials in automobiles. Obviously, making materials-selection choices that facilitate recycling is a fundamentals aspect of these considerations. ii. Material Properties - When selecting materials for products, the first consideration generally involves mechanical properties, typically strength, toughness, ductility, hardness, elasticity, fatigue, and creep. These properties can significantly be modified by various heat treatment methods. The strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios of materials are also important considerations, particularly for aerospace and automotive applications. Aluminum, titanium, and reinforced plastics, for example, have higher strength-to-weight ratios than steels and cast iron. The mechanical properties specified for a product and its components should, of course, be appropriate for the conditions under which the product is expected to function. - Physical properties, such as density, specific heat, thermal expansion and conductivity, melting point, and electrical and magnetic properties, also need to be considered. Chemical properties can also play a signification role in hostile as well as normal environments. Oxidation, corrosion, general degradation of properties, and flammability of materials are among the important factors to be considered, as is toxicity. Both physical and chemical properties are important in advanced machining processes. Also, the manufacturing properties of materials determine whether they can be processed with relative ease. Finally, the methods used to process materials to the desired shapes should not adversely affect products final properties, service life, and cost.

iii. Cost and Availability The economic aspects of material selection are as important as the technological considerations of properties and characteristic of materials. Cost and availability of raw and processes materials are a major concern in manufacturing. If row or processed materials are not commercially available in the desired shapes, dimension, tolerances; and quantities, substitutes or additional processing may be required; these steps can contribute significantly to product cost. For example, if we need a round bar of a certain diameter and it is not commercially available, then we have to purchase a larger rod and reduce its diameter, by such processes as machining, drawing through a die, or grinding. Reliability of supply as well as demand effect material costs. Most countries import numerous raw materials that are essential for production. Various costs are involved in processing materials by different methods. Some methods require expensive machinery, others require extensive labor, and still others require personnel with special skills, high levels of formal education, or specialized training. iv. Service Life and Recycling - Time-and-service-dependent phenomena such as wear, fatigue, creep, and dimensional stability are important considerations as they can significantly affect a products performance and, if not controlled, can lead to failure of the product. the corrosion caused by compatibility of the different materials used in a product is also important; an example is galvanic action between mating parts made of dissimilar metals. Recycling or proper disposal of the individual components in a product at the end of its useful life is important as we become increasingly aware of conserving materials and energy so we can live in a clean and healthy environment.

i. Metals and Alloys Inorganic materials composed of one or more metallic elements. - They usually have a crystalline structure and are good thermal and electrical conductors. - Many metals have high strength at high and low temperatures. - They maintain their good strength at high and low temperatures. - They also have sufficient ductility, which is important for many engineering applications. - They can be strengthened by alloying and heat treatment. - They are least resistant to corrosion.

ii. Ceramics and Glasses Inorganic materials consisting of both metallic and non-metallic elements bonded together chemically. - They can be crystalline (ceramics), non-crystalline (glasses) or mixture of both (glassceramics). - Generally they have high melting points and high chemical stabilities. - They have high hardness, high moduli and high temperature strength. - But since they are very brittle they cannot be used as good as metals. - Ceramics are usually poor electrical conductors. - Ceramics have a high strength on compression. iii. Polymers Organic materials which consist of long molecular chains or networks containing carbon. - Most polymers are non-crystalline, but some consist of mixtures of both crystalline and non-crystalline regions. - They generally have low densities and low rigidity. - Their mechanical properties may vary considerably. - Most polymers are poor electrical conductors due to the nature of the atomic bonding. - Most of them are corrosion resistant, but cannot be used at high temperatures. - They generally have a good strength to weight ratio. iv. Composites Materials where two or more of the above materials are brought together on macroscopic level. - Usually they consist of a matrix and reinforcement. - They are designed to combine the best properties of each of its components.

i. Casting Process - Casting is usually the first step in manufacturing. in casting, a material in liquid form is poured into a mold where it is allowed to solidify by cooling (metals) or by reaction (plastics). The mold can be filled by gravitational forces or under pressure. the mold cavity is carefully prepared so that it has the desired shape and properties. the cavity is usually made oversize to compensate the metal contraction as it cools down to room temperature. this is achieved by making the pattern oversize. After solidification, the part is removed from the mold. By using casting method, big and complex parts can be produced. ii. Bulk Forming Process - Metal forming is a process that changes the shape of metal parts by applying force. The type of deformation that causes permanent change in shape is called plastic deformation. Plastic deformation changes the dimensions of an object without causing failure. Forming processes can be classified grouped in two main groups: bulk deformation and sheet metalworking. - With the help of the forming processes the mechanical properties of the material can be controlled and improved. For example, blowholes and porosity in cast ingot can be eliminated by forging or hot Rolling, so that toughness and ductility increases. There are very many possibilities to improve the properties with the help of thermo-mechanical processes. - Bulk deformation can be done hot, warm or cold. If forming is done at temperatures more than half of the melting temperature (hot forming) recrystallisation will occur. These temperature ranges can be defined with the help of the homologous temperature: Th = Tworking / Tmelting [in Kelvin] Th < 0.2 0.2 < Th < 0.5 0.5 < Th Cold working Warm working Hot working

Hot working does not always mean working at high temperatures. For a metal with a melting point of 320 degrees (lead) centigrade, room temperature is in the hot working region.

iii. Sheeting Metal Forming Processes - Forming of flat sheets by stretching and shrinking. Sheet metal forming is an important manufacturing process for metals because half of total metal production is ended in sheet form. Sheet metal forming methods are:  Shearing and Blanking (Separation of the materials by two cutting edges)  Bending (Transforming a straight length into a curved length)  Stretching (Forming by tensile stresses over a tool)  Spinning (Forming against a rotating form block with a tool)  Deep Drawing (Shaping flat sheets into cup-shaped articles)