A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the

Degree of Master of Engineering (Electrical)

Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun HusseShhn



This project is concerned with learning the technology and programming of servo controlled industrial robots. A Mitsubishi RV-2AJ articulated robot was used in this project. The project work is divided into two parts: In the first part of the project the author familiarized herself with the operation and programming of the robot's manipulator and controller hardware by carrying out some laboratory experiments. A set of laboratory sheets were produced from this exercise. In the second part, the author studied the mechanics of software control of the robot. A user-defined

trajectory planning routine based on the cubic spline fitting function has successfully
been developed in this project.

a typical articulated six degree of freedom manipulator contains six rotating actuators. the traclung of the reference signal will be poor.1 Overview Multi-axis machines are used in a variety of applications: pick-and-place operations. or degrees of freedom. given the dynamic limitations of the machine.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. welding. Such machines can be divided into two units: the physical mechanism composed of links and actuators. which is sent to the control system. A five-axis highspeed CNC machining centre would contain three linear actuators and two rotating actuators. and the control system. machining. The control system acts to make the machine track the reference signal by activating the appropriate actuators. The number of actuators present in the mechanical system depends on the number of independent machine axes. A motion task given to the machine must ultimately be represented as a reference signal. For example. regardless of the control system . etc. If the reference signal changes too quickly.

Motion planning involves generating the path and its time law. typically when the trajectory generation algorithms are computationally intensive. and the problem of path planning is not specifically addressed. the machine is required to move between the two points but is not given any fixed intermediate path. Computer algorithms are designed to calculate an appropriate reference signal based on the desired task path and time-related limits (such as speed and acceleration). and can be defied as a locus of points in operational or joint space on which a time-law has been specified [I]. Use of an on-line planner reduces manipulator setup time and downtime. a high level scheduler feeds a series of tasks to a manipulator in terms of waypoints. since the time required to plan the trajectories is shorter. The manipulator must execute the task by generating paths and trajectories to these points and then following these trajectories using a control law. it is often desirable to generate trajectories online so that changes can easily be made to the machine's trajectory. on the other hand. a manipulator may require the ability to recompute its trajectory on-line in order to avoid an unexpected obstacle that lies along a path on which it is currently moving 121. Herein it is assumed that the path definition is provided. approach points and stop points. The path along which the trajectory is defined can be point-to-point. The generation of an appropriate trajectory is the problem that is being investigated in this thesis. The control of the machine motion can be divided into two parts: motion planning and motion tracking. For example. providing the controller's reference signal. Motion tracking. . Motion planning is often done off-line. A path can also be completely specified through use of geometric functions. This reference signal is the trajectory.design. This type of path is commonly used in CNC machining applications or in manipulator applications when obstacles are present. This type of path is useful in manipulator pick-and-place operations. However. or when it is necessary to ensure that the end effector follows a specific path. increasing the system's overall robustness and adaptability. namely. In an automated robot workcell. is concerned with improving the tracking of the reference signal.

4. a more complicated controller must be used [3. it is possible to design a trajectory that takes the system's nonlinearities into account and thus provides a reference signal that can be more easily tracked by common industrial controllers [6.13]. In addtion. to track a reference signal. However. which do not take into account the system's nonlinearities. it is common to use simple PID control laws. Traclung a purely time-optimal trajectory with a simple controller will saturate the actuators resulting in poor tracking.10. vibrations in the machine and increased machine wear [8.7. it is unlikely that they will be widely implemented in industry due to their complicated form. improving the tracking accuracy of the machine is always desirable since it results in more repeatable products or operations. trajectories that are planned with jerk or torque rate limitations are termed smooth trajectories.11. Alternatively. Herein. Purely time optimal trajectories have been modified to take into account further limitations of the actuators. be implemented using a typical . thereby avoiding controller saturation and resulting in improved tracking accuracy [15. decreasing the machine's overall motion time will increase productivity [6.In industrial applications.71.14]. that is. There exists a need for a smooth trajectory generation algorithm that can easily be integrated into existing industrial systems.9. Specialized controllers have been developed in order to provide better tracking of time-optimal trajectories. When a multiaxis machine limits the task speed.2 Industrial Motivation Increased productivity is an important industrial consideration. 1.12. To compensate for tracking errors introduced by the system's nonlinearities.5]. for example jerk or torque rate limits.3].

circular interpolation and continuous path. and allow the specification of the speeds at all the way-points.industrial controller.3 Problem Definition There are four types of robot operation control included in this system which is joint interpolation.1 : Joint Interpolation . 1. linear interpolation. The robot interpolates with a joint axis unit. provide adequate dynamic limitations. Such an algorithm should be applicable on-line. a) Joint interpolation The robot moves with joint axis unit interpolation to the designated position. so the end path is irrelevant. Figure 1.

Figure: 1.. . .Robot movement .2 shows that the speeds is reduced and almost stop in fiont of the target position._. the speed for moving to the next target position starts to be accelerated. !4! Figure: 1. After moving to the target position.b) Linear interpolation For the linear interpolation type of control. the end-effector is programmed to move a sequence of discrete points in the workspace.l.3: Circular Interpolation . Fig. R o b a t rnn*msnt :Movsmnt positiw. In between points. no control required over either speed of the individual axes or the path of the end-effector.~-"_._--..2: Linear Interpolation c) Circular interpolation The robot moves along an arc designated with three points using three-dimensional circular interpolation.

but it passes through the neighborhood position. acceleratmn and decelerat~on may occur dunng interpolat~on ~onnrctlon The drawback of the existing operation control methods stated in previous section are does not preserving continuity in the fist and second derivatives at the interpolation point. but it does not stop completely. the speed is reduced in fi-ont of the target position.mo.v~me~t Trf+k5$'i2 Figure: 1. it does not pass through each target position. The speed for moving to the next target position starts to be accelerated at that point.d) Continuous path In the continuous operating mode. @&t~~us.4: Continuous Movement :(tirnsl Slart position of rnwemmt T h e abwc graph shown an exampla Qependng on ltle moving dtstsnce andjar speed. In practical application. Therefore. How to control the endeffector to move through the desiredpath smoothly and continuously? . Several trajectory planning methods can be used in order to provide a method of generating smooth and continuous path. a number of points along the desired path are given by means of a teach-box or a robot language command. The end-effector is then controlled to move through or pass by these points smoothly and continuously. The first derivative represents continuity in the velocity and the second derivative represents continuity in the acceleration. to plan a path for robot's end-effector to follow.

MOVEMASTER Command and MELFA-BASIV IV Command. this project proposed an approach to constrain smoothness and continuity based on cubic spline trajectory planning algorithm. For Part I. 1. The feasibility of the method is illustrated by experimental results with an articulated robot mtsubishi RV-2AJ) located at KUITTHO's Automation Lab. Cubic splines offer several advantages. Furthermore is to learn MELFA robot programming languages. low-degree polynomials reduce the effort of computations and the possibility of numerical instabilities. Instead of to familiarize with the robot operation and control. this work aims to produce a cubic spline trajectory that will generate smooth and continuous path. the objective is to write a user-defmed trajectory planning routine based on cubic spline fitting function using MATLAB. At the end of this project. a further objective is to produce a set of laboratory sheets as a reference material to the students or lecturers in future work.To solve the stated problem. For Part II. .4 Research Objectives This project is divided into two parts. the objective of this work is to famili&e with the Mitsubishi RV-2AJ robot operation and control. First. it is the lowest degree polynomial function that preserving continuity in the frst and second derivatives at the interpolation points. Second.

The inflexibility and generally high cost of these machines.1 Introduction With a pressing need for increased productivity and the delivery of end products of uniform quality. A definition used by the Robot Institute of America gives a more precise description of industrial robots: "A robot is a reprogrammable multi-functional . At the present time. Webster's dictionary defines robot as "an automatic device that performs functions ordinarily ascribed to human being. industry is turning more and more toward computerbased automation. meaning work." With this definition. most automated manufacturing tasks are camed out by special-purpose machines designed to perform predetermined functions in a manufacturing process.CHAPTER I1 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. The word robot originated from the Czech word robota. often called hard automation systems. washing machines may be considered robots. have led to a broad-based interest in the use of robots capable of performing a variety of manufacturing functions in a more flexible working environment and at lower production costs.

while the other end is free and equipped with a tool to manipulate objects or perform assembly task. parts assembly. for a six-jointed robot. and in handling hazardous materials. such as material handling.2. The combination of these motions orients the tool according to the configuration of the object for ease in pickup. a robot is reprogrammable general-purpose manipulator with external sensors that can perform various assembly tasks. parts. Many commercially available industrial robots are widely used in manufacturing and assembly tasks. The work volume is the sphere of influence r of a robot whose a m can deliver the wrist subassembly unit to any point within the sphere.manipulator designed to move materials. while the wrist subassembly is the orientation mechanism.1): . and roll. the arm subassembly is the positioning mechanism. which is normally due to computer algorithms associated with its control and sensing systems. With this definition." In short. tools. It is designed to reach a workpiece located within its work volume. loading and unloading numerically controlled machines. computer controlled manipulator consisting of several rigid links connected in series by revolute or prismatic joints. prosthetic arm research. through variable programmed motions for the performance of variety of tasks. One end of the chain is attached to a supporting base. sport/arc welding. a robot must possess intelligence. The combination of the movements positions the wrist unit at the workpiece. An industrial robot is a general-purpose. space and undersea exploration. The wrist subassembly unit usually consists of three rotary motions. The arm subassembly generally can move with three degrees of fieedom. yaw. Mechanically. These robots fall into one of the four basic motion-defining categories (Fig. The motion of the joints results in relative motion of the links. or specialized devices. These last three motions are often called pitch. Hence. a robot is composed of an arm (or mainframe) and wrist subassembly plus a tool. paint spraying.

repetitive tasks. robots are used mainly in relative simple.--# Speihl Goordinate Robot Articulaked A m Robot Figure 2. . these robots are equipped with little or no external sensors for obtaining the information vital to its working environment. are basically simple positional machines.-Reclangular Cmrd5nale Robot -. though controlled by mini and microcomputers.1: Motion Defrning Categories Most of today's industrial robots. As a result.----*--* Cylindricat Coosdinale Robd c- --. They execute a given task by playing back prerecorded or preprograrnmed sequences of motions that have been previously guided or taught by a user with a hand-held control-teach box.*- --. Moreover.

2 Historical Development The word robot was introduced into the English language in 1921 by the playwright Karel Capek in his satirical drama. Capek's play is largely responsible for some of the views popularly held about robots to this day. . the robots were manufactured for profit to replace human workers but. In the mid-1950s the mechanical coupling was replaced by electric and hydraulic power in manipulators such as General electric's Handyman and the Minotaur I built by General Mills.2. by the walking robot Electro and his dog Sparko. Initially. toward the end. designed to reproduce faithfully hand and arm motions made by a human operator. UR. In this work. annihilating the entire human race.(Rossum's Universal Robots). displayed in 1939 at the New York World's Fair. force feedback was added by mechanically coupling the motion of the master and slave units so that the operator could feel the forces as they developed between the slave manipulator and its environment. but work tirelessly. Early work leading to today's industrial robots can be traced to the period immediately following Worl War 11. These systems were of the "master-slave" type. The master manipulator was guided by the user through a sequence of motions. R. Dunng the late 1940s research programs were e started at the Oak Ridge and A r g 0 ~ National Laboratories to develop remotely controlled mechanical manipulators for handling radioactive materials. robots are machines that resemble people. and more recently by the robot CP30 featured in the 1977 film Star Wars. while the slave manipulator duplicated the master unit as closely as possible. including the perception of robots as humanlike machines endowed with intelligence and individual personalities. This image was reinforced by the 1926 German robot f11m Metropolis.Modern industrial robots certainly appear primitive when compared with the expectations created by the communications media during the past six decades. the robots turned against their creators. Later.

H. In 1963. and a I television camera was added to the manipulator to begin machine perception research. Early in that decade. Once the hand was in contact with the object. The manipulative system consisted of an ANL Model-8 manipulator with 6 degrees of fieedom controlled by a TX-0 computer through an interfacing device.A. repetitive operations. During the same period. Further development of this concept by Devol and Joseph F. such as the Roehampton arm and the Edinburgh arm. Devol developed a device he called a "programmed articulated transfer device.8 The work on master-slave manipulators was quickly followed by more sophisticated systems capable of autonomous.Ernst [I9621 reported the development of a computer-controlled mechanical hand with tactile sensors. it became evident in the 1960s that the flexibility of these machines could be enhanced significantly by the use of sensory feedback. Unlike hard automation machines." a manipulator whose operation could be programmed (and thus changed) and which could follow a sequence of motion steps determined by the instructions in the program. In the mid-1950s George C. Engelberger led to the first industrial robot. these robots could be reprogrammed and retooled at relative low cost to perform other jobs as manufacturing requirements changed. called the MH-1. This research program later evolved as part of project MAC. The key to this device was the use of a computer in conjunction with a manipulator to produce a machine that could be "taught" to cany out a variety of tasks automatically. information proportional to object size and weight was sent to a computer by these pressure sensitive elements. Starting in the same year. in 1959. This work is one of the first examples of a robot capable of adaptive behavior in a reasonably unstructured environment. . introduced by Unimation Inc. This device. various arm designs for manipulators were developed. While programmed robots offered a novel and powerful manufacturing tool. the American Machine and Foundry Company (AMF) introduced the VERSATRAN commercial robot. Tomovic and Boni [I9621 developed a prototype hand equipped with a pressure sensor which sensed the object and supplied an input feedback signal to a motor to initiate one of two grasp patterns. could "feel" blocks and use this information to control the hand so that it stacked the blocks without operator assistance.

using both visual and force feedback. and manipulated them in accordance with instructions.In the late 1960s. During this period. Cincinnati Milacron introduced its first computerit controlled industrial robot. Pieper [I9681 studied the kinematics problem of computer-controlled manipulator using bang-bang (near minimum time) control. In 1974. One of the more unusual developments in robots occurred in 1969. other countries (Japan in particular) began to see the potential of industrial robots. could lift over 100 lb as track moving objects on an assembly line. and in the following year the Stanford arm was developed. and microphones). which was equipped with a camera and computer controller. manipulators. the Boston arm was developed. During the 1970s a great deal of research work focused on the use of external sensors to facilitate manipulative operations. Called "The Tomorrow Tool. As early as 1968. demonstrated a computer-controlled Stanford arm connected to a PDP-10 computer for assembling automotive water pumps. Inoue [I 9741 at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory worked on the artificial intelligence aspects of force feedback. A landfall navigation search techniques was used to perform initial positioning in a precise assembly task. Mean while.S Army. At Stanford. McCarthy [I9681 and his colleagues at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory reported development of a computer with hands. This way very sophisticated work for an automated robot at that time.. They demonstrated a system that recognized spoken messages "saw" blocks scattered on a table. TV cameras. Some of the most serious work in robotics began as these arms were used as robot manipulators. Will and Grossman [I9751 at IBM developed a computercontrolled manipulator with touch and force sensors to perform mechanical assembly of a 20-part typewriter. At about the same time.e. the Japanese company Kawasaki Heavy Industries negotiated a license with Unimation for its robots. when an experimental wallung truck was developed by the General Electric Company for the U. and ears (i. Bolles and Paul [1973]. One experiment with the Stanford arm consisted of automatically stacking blocks according to various strategies. In the same year. eyes. ." or f.

and high-level programming languages. and the three major approaches to achieve it are discrete word recognition. 23 . Current state-of-the-art speech recognition is quite primitive and generally speaker-dependent. Moreover.At the Draper Laboratory Nevins et al. Since then. the usefulness of discrete word recognition to describe a task is limited. and it usually requires a training period to build up speech templates for recognition. it requires a large memory space to store speech data. Although it is now possible to recognize words in real time due to faster computer components and efficient processing algorithms. implemented a computer-based torque r control technique on his extended Stanford a m for space exploration projects. There are several ways to communicate with a robot. Bejczy [1974]. Robot Programming One major obstacle in using manipulators as general-purpose assembly machines is the lack of suitable and efficient communication between the user and the robotic system so that the user can direct the manipulator to accomplish a given task. teach and playback. various control methods have been proposed for servoing mechanical manipulators. [I9741 investigated sensing techniques based on compliance. It can recognize a set of discrete words from a limited vocabulary and usually requires the user to pause between words. . This work developed into the instrumentation of a passive compliance device called remote center compliance (RCC) which was attached to the mounting plate of the last joint of the manipulator for close parts-mating assembly. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

The main disadvantage is that it is difficult to utilize this method for integrating sensory feedback information into the control system. In the past decade. then the robot is run at an appropriate speed in a repetitive mode. the user can edit the recorded angular positions and make sure that the robot will run repeatedly according to the edited and smoothed trajectory. Leading the robot in slow motion using manual control through the entire assembly task and recording the joint angles of the robot at appropriate locations in order to replay the motion 2. Editing and playing back the taught motion 3. These position set-points are then interpolated by numerical methods. Leading the robot in slow motion usually can be achieved in several ways. The advantages of this method are that it requires only a relatively small memory space to record angular positions and it is simple to learn. The manipulator has traversed the set-points of the trajectory from the set of angular positions that was recorded. using a joystick. If the task is changed. Presently. the user moves the robot manually through the space. robots have been successfully used in such areas as arc welding and spray painting using guiding (Engelberger [1980]). the most commonly used system is a manual box with pushbuttons. is the most commonly used method in present-day industrial robots. High-level programming languages provide a more general approach to solving the human-robot communication problem. and presses a button to record any desired angular position of the manipulator. These tasks require no interaction between the robot and the .Teach and playback. Teach and playback is typically accomplished by the following steps: 1. In the edit-playback mode. or a master-slave manipulator system. also known as guiding. and the robot is "played back" along the smoothed trajectory. then the above three steps are repeated. If the taught motion is correct. With this method. a set of pushbuttons (one for each joint). The method involves teaching the robot by leading it through the motions the user wishes the robot to perform.

and this type of unstructured interaction can only be handled by conditionally programmed methods. or task-level programming. an assembly task is explicitly described as a sequence of robot motions. manipulated. and sensory information has to be monitored. task-level programming describes the assembly task as a sequence of positional goals of the objects rather than the motion of the robot needed to achieve these goals.environment and can be easily programmed by guiding. We can identify several considerations which must be handled by any robot programming method: The objects to be manipulated by a robot are three-dimensional objects which have a variety of physical properties. Robot programming is substantially different fiom traditional programming. The robot is guided and controlled by the program throughout the entire task with each statement of the program roughly corresponding to one action of the robot. In robot-oriented programming. and hence no explicit robot motion is specified. and properly utilized. However. On the other hand. Current approaches to programming can be classified into two major categories: robot-oriented programming and object-oriented. robots operate in a spatially complex environment. the use of robots to perform assembly tasks requires high-level programming techniques because robot assembly usually relies on sensory feedback. . the description and representation of three-dimensional objects in a computer are imprecise.

. two end points are joined by a combination of linear segment with constant speed and the transition with parabolic. fourth order polynomials or with the combination of constant acceleration and squared sinus functions for smooth portion above trajectory. Kant [I91 has proposed the formation of first geometrically defined trajectory and then to define trajectory and then to defme the velocity law for this trajectory. skew curves or any curve with any accuracy other than a piece-wise straight line. Wu [20] has used the same approach by defining the orientation of end effector in Frenet axes whereas Froissart [4] uses Quartenion representation to reduce the burden of computation.4 Cubic Spline Many researchers have proposed the use of polynomial functions in terms of time for real time Cartesian space trajectory generation. we cannot reproduce circles. Montillet [21] has shown the difficulties in calculating the tangents at the end points in this last method. 2. These methods have heavy computation due to the numerical methods involved. The major advantage of this method is that the manipulator can traverse the same path with different velocities.2. In this method. Shafaat Ahrned Bazaz has solved the same problem of generating first the geometrically defined path and then defining a velocity law for it in such a manner that the whole planning may be done on-line and interactively. The major two disadvantages in this method are: 1 . Shafaat Ahmed Bazaz [3] has proposed a new concept of trajectory planning method so that the trajectory generation may be possible on-line and interactively using 3-Cubic spline method. Due to the fixed path geometry. The simplest method in this approach has been proposed by Luh [17]. Paul [IS] and Brock [8]. Haddad [5] has also presented the same approach using B-Spline for geometrically constrained path. The trajectory does not pass through the via points and deviates fiom them by an unknown amount. In this paper.

and prototyping * Data analysis. MATLAB@is a high-performance language for technical computing. especially those with matrix and vector formulations. It integrates computation. MATLAB has evolved over a period of years with input from many users. In industry. MATLAB was originally written to provide easy access to matrix software developed by the LINPACK and EISPACK projects. The name MATLAB stands for matrix laboratory.2. including graphical user interface building MATLAB is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that does not require dimensioning. visualization. in a fraction of the time it would take to write a program in a scalar noninteractive language such as C or Fortran. engineering.5 MATLAB Programming In this research. and science. MATLAB is the tool of choice for high-productivity research. MATLAB features a family of add-on application-specific solutions called toolboxes. embedding the state of the art in software for matrix computation. and programming in an easy-to-use environment where problems and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation. Today. This allows us to solve many technical computing problems. MATLAB engines incorporate the LAPACK and BLAS libraries. and visualization Scientific and engineering graphics Application development. In university environments. it is the standard instructional tool for introductory and advanced courses in mathematics. Very important to most users of MATLAB. This is because. Typical uses include: Math and computation Algorithm development Data acquisition Modeling. toolboxes allow you to learn and apply specialized . development. we intend to write user-defied function based on cubic spline fitting using MATLAB. simulation. and analysis. exploration.

clients or servers communicating via Component Object Model (COM) or Dynamic Data and Exchange (DDE). and so on. If you want to communicate with GPIB. peripheral devices that communicate directly with MATLAB. neural networks. This interface is established through a serial port object. wavelets. Areas in which toolboxes are available include signal processing. simulation. or API. and scientific instruments that you connect to your computer's serial port. you need the Instrument Control Toolbox. data that needs to be shared with external routines. Much of this interf'ace capability was formerly referred to under the title of the MATLAB Application Program Interf'ace. The serial port object supports functions and properties that allow you to Configure serial port communications Use serial port control pins Write and read data Use events and callbacks Record information to disk If you want to communicate with PC-compatible data acquisition hardware such as multifunction I/O boards. . Toolboxes are comprehensive collections of MATLAB functions (Mfiles) that extend the MATLAB environment to solve particular classes of problems.or VISA-compatible instruments. printers. MATLAB serial port interface provides direct access to peripheral devices such as modems. and many others. control systems. MATLAB0 provides interfaces to external routines written in other programming languages. you need the Data Acquisition Toolbox. instrument communication.technology. Note that this toolbox also includes additional serial I/0 utility functions that facilitate object creation and configuration. fuzzy logic.

lab sheets will serve as a reference material to the students or lecturers so that there will be no problem in future work. The figure was intended to feature the entire research process. 3. Since the instruction manual given by the suppliers or manufacturer does not specialize to the Mitsubishi RV-2AJ robot. . the first stage was highlighting the preparation and familiarization level. 3. The familiarization stages were carried out by several practical experiments with a help by Mitsubishi robot instruction manual.1 and Fig. Instead of to familiarize with the robot operation control.2. the experiment is divided into four categories: 1) Familiarization with the robot controller(CR1-571) 2) Familiarization with the teach pendant(R28TB) 3) Familiarization with the personal computer support software (MELFA) 4) Familiarization with the robot programming language. Basically. there were two stages involved in this research which equivalent to the research scope.CHAPTER I11 METHODOLOGY Referring to Fig. Initially. a set of laboratory sheets were produced from this exercise.

Familiarization .1 : PART I . At this stage. visualization. MATLAB@ is a high-performance language for technical computing. a userdefined trajectory planning routine based on the cubic spline fitting function was developed. and programming in an easy-to-use environment where problems and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation. It integrates computation.MELFA BASIC-IV Figure 3.The second stage is regarding to MATLAB programming. (7 START Controller Familiarizationwith Teaching Pendant Familiarizationwith MELFA PC TOOL Personal Computer Support Software (OFF-LINE PROGRAMMING) Familiarizationwith robot programming language: 1.

2: PART 1 .MATLAB Programming .' 5 b START MATLAB Programming (Cubic Spline) v Simulation the program Alter the program accordingly 7 4 Position of robot end effector 1 Figure 3.

Each point is stored in memory for playback during the work cycle.CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING & DISCUSSION PART I This chapter explains the functions and operation methods of the controller CR1-571. 2 optional expansion serial cards (2 port per card). programming language. 4. . The CR1-571 controller can support 1 standard RS-232C.Teaching box is used to control the various joint motors. An articulated Mitsubishi RV-2AJ five axis robot contains five degree of freedom manipulator or five rotating actuator.1 Components of Robot System Figure 4.1 below show the component of robot system that was used in this research. totaling 5 ports. teach pendant (R28TB). The system of the robot has been designed to allow control of the robot from the manual control pendant called teaching box (R28TB). and the functions and specification of the Personal Computer Support Software (MELFA PC TOOL). and to power drive the robot arm and wrist through a series of point in space.

2.4. c . 2 Standard Device C0mposKIon Machine cable " Electric.) in the robot program.Standard RS-232C port normally connects to a PC for robot program transferring and debugging done with the PC support software.etc. . & -F- . t Robot RV-24J (5-) E*_ - CRl -S Contml t' 4A-HPB1 E . The controller cannot be controlled fiom external devices such as a PC (i. hand set 4A-H MLS1 S e" Teaching box R28TB Personal computer {supplied by customer) Figure 4.. PRINT. INPUT. automatic execution or status monitoring). Communication is performed using the communication instructions (OPEN. CLOSE.1: Components Of Robot System Optional cards can link with vision sensor and external devices for data communication as shown in Fig. This is referred to as data link.e.

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