EMF Exposures and Prenatal Effects

21 March 2012

Here are the references and links for 166 articles on EMF exposures and prenatal effects. This includes human and animal studies but excludes over 130 references on male fertility, which can be found in a separate bibliography (along with other selected EMF topics) at: http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3440803

1. Aldad TS, G Gan, XB Gao, HS Taylor. (2012). Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From
800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice. Scientific Reports. 2: 312 7 p http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/120315/srep00312/pdf/srep00312.pdf

2. Algers B, K. Hennichs (1983). Biological effects of electromagnetic fields. A review. Vet. Res.
Commun. 6: 265–279. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6359665

3. Anselmo, CWSF., PB Pereira, MTJA. Catanho and MC Medeiros, (2007). Effects of the
electromagnetic field, 60 Hz, 3 μT, on the hormonal and metabolic regulation of undernourished pregnant rats. Braz. J. Biol., 69: 397-404. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/bjb/v69n2/24.pdf

4. Bas O, Odaci E, Mollaoglu H, Ucok K, Kaplan S. (2009). Chronic prenatal exposure to the 900
megahertz electromagnetic field induces pyramidal cell loss in the hippocampus of newborn rats. Toxicol Ind Health . 25(6). 377 – 384. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19671630

5. Bastide M, B.J. Youbicier-Simoa, J.C. Lebecq, J. Giaimis. (2001). Toxicologic study of
electromagnetic radiation emitted by television and video display screens and cellular telephones on chickens and mice, Indoor Built Environ. 10: 291–298. http://www.iirec.co.il/Data/FilesUploads/Bastide_Youbicier.pdf

6. Batellier F, Couty I, Picard D, Brillard JP. (2008). Effects of exposing chicken eggs to a cell
phone in "call" position over the entire incubation period. Theriogenology. 69 (6):737-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18255134?dopt=Abstract

7. Bayat PD, Ghanbari A, Saeid B, Khazaei M, Ghorbani R, Ayubian M. (2011). Effect of
exposure to extremely low electro-magnetic field during prenatal period on mice spleen. Indian J Exp Biol. 49(8):634-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21870432? dopt=Abstract

8. Belanger, K., Leaderer, B., Hellenbrand, K., Holford, T.R., McSharry, J-E., Power, M-E, and
Bracken, M.B. (1998). Spontaneous abortion and exposure to electric blankets and heated water beds. Epidemiology, 9: 36-42

9. Bellieni CV, Pinto I, Bogi A, Zoppetti N, Andreuccetti D, Buonocore G (2012). Exposure to
electromagnetic fields from laptop use of "laptop" computers. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health 67(1):31-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=22315933

10. Beraldi R, Sciamanna I, Mangiacasale R, Lorenzini R, Spadafora C. (2003). Mouse early
embryos obtained by natural breeding or in vitro fertilization display a differential sensitivity to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Mutat Res. 538(1-2):163-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12834765

11. Bereznitskaya AN, Rysina TZ. (1973). Effects of Microwaves. In Biological Effects of
Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Z.V. Gordon, ed., Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Publications Research Service No. 6332l, pp.230-236. ). http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2010/10/Russian_Biological_Effects_of_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_ Fields.pdf

12. Bereznitskaya AN. (1968). [Certain indices of fertility in female mice irradiated with 10centimeter waves]. Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 12(9):33-7. [Article in Russian] No Abstract. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5731624


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______________________________________________________________________ 13. Bereznitskaya, A. N. and Rysina, T. Z. (1974). Embryotropic Effects of Microwaves. In:
Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Gordon, Z. V.,editor. Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Pub.Research Service, 1974, pp. 230-36.. http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2010/10/Russian_Biological_Effects_of_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_ Fields.pdf

14. Bereznitskaya, A. N., and Kazhokov, I.M (1974). Studies on the Reproduction and Testicular
Microstructure of Mice Exposed to Microwaves. In: Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Gordon, Z. V., editor. Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Pub. Research Service, 1974, pp. 221-29. http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2010/10/Russian_Biological_Effects_of_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_ Fields.pdf

15. Berman E, Carter HB and House D. 1984: “Growth and development of mice offspring after
irradiation in utero with 2,450-MHz microwaves”. Teratology. 30(3):393-402. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6515565

16. Berman E, Carter HB, House D. (1982). Reduced weight in mice offspring after in utero
exposure to 2450-MHz (CW) microwaves. Bioelectromagnetics3(2): 285-291. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7126279

17. Berman E, Carter HB. (1984). Decreased body weight in fetal rats after irradiation with 2450MHz (CW) microwaves. Health Phys 46: 537–542. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6698781

18. Berman E, Kinn JB, and Carter HB (1978). Observations of mouse fetuses after irradiation with
2.45 GHz microwaves, Health Physics, 35, pp. 791-801 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/738884 and http://journals.lww.com/healthphysics/Abstract/1978/12000/Observations_of_Mouse_Fetuses_After_Irradiation.6.aspx

19. Berman, E.L., Chacon, D., House, B., Koch, A., et al. (1990). Development of chicken embryos
in a pulsed magnetic field. Bioelectromagnetics 11:169–187 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2242052

20. Blaasaas K, T Tynes, A Irgens, R Lie (2002). Risk of birth defects by parental occupational
exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields: a population based study Occup Environ Med. 59(2): 92–97. doi: 10.1136/oem.59.2.92 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1740256/

21. Blackman CF, House DE, Benane SG, Joines WT, Spiegel RJ. (1988). Effect of ambient levels
of power-line-frequency electric fields on a developing vertebrate. Bioelectromagnetics ; 9(2):129–140 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3377861

22. Blackman CF. (2006). Can EMF exposure during development leave an imprint later in life?
Electromagn Biol Med. 25(4):217-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17178582

23. Blackman, C. (2009).Cell phone radiation: Evidence from ELF and RF studies supporting more
inclusive risk identification and assessment. Pathophysiology.16. 205-216. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19264460

24. Borhani N, Rajaei F, Salehi Z, Javadi A. (2011). Analysis of DNA fragmentation in mouse
embryos exposed to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field. Electromagn Biol Med. 30(4):246-52. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22047462

25. Brent RL,WE Gordon, WR Bennett, DA. Beckman (1993). Reproductive and teratologic effects
of electromagnetic fields. Reprod. Toxicol. 7: 535–580. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8118107


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______________________________________________________________________ 26. Brown-Woodman PD, Hadley JA, Waterhouse J, Webster WS. (1988). Teratogenic effects of
exposure to radiofrequency radiation (27.12 MHz) from a shortwave diathermy unit. Ind Health. 26(1):1-10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3283078

27. Brown-Woodman, PDC, Hadley, JA, Richardson L., Bright D. and Porter D. (1989). Evaluation
of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency field (27.12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device. Health Physics 56(4): 521-525. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=2925391

28. Budak GG, Muluk NB, Budak B, Oztürk GG, Apan A, Seyhan N. (2009). Effects of intrauterine
and extrauterine exposure to GSM-like radiofrequency on distortion product otoacoustic emissions in infant male rabbits. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 73: 391-99. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19108901

29. California EMF Risk Evaluation (2002): Final Report. Chapter 13: Miscarriage.

30. Cameron IL, Hardman WE, Winters WD, Zimmerman S, Zimmerman AM. (1993).
Environmental magnetic fields: influences on early embryogenesis. J Cell Biochem. 51(4):417-25 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8496244

31. Cao, YN; Y Zhang, Y Liu (2006). "Effects of exposure to extremely low frequency
electromagnetic fields on reproduction of female mice and development of offsprings". Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 24 (8): 468-70 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16978513

32. Celik O, Hascalik S. (2004). Effect of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on foetal
heart rate patterns. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 112(1): 55-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14687739

33. Chación L, M. A. Trillo, A. Ubeda, J. Leal (1990). A 30-HZ Pulsed Magnetic Field Can Stop
Early Embryonic Development. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 9(1): 61–66. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368379009027760

34. Chavdoula ED, Panagopoulos DJ, Margaritis LH. (2010). Comparison of biological effects
between continuous and intermittent exposure to GSM-900-MHz mobile phone radiation: Detection of apoptotic cell-death features. Mutat Res. 700(1-2):51-61. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20472095

35. Chiang ‌ H and G. D. Yao ‌ (1987). Effects of Pulsed Microwave Radiation Pre-and Post-natally
on the Developing Brain in Mice. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 6(2): 197-204 http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368378709027739

36. Chiang H, Wu RY, Shao BJ, Fu YD, Yao GD, Lu DJ. (1995). Pulsed magnetic field from video
display terminals enhances teratogenic effects of cytosine arabinoside in mice. Bioelectromagnetics. 16(1):70-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7748205

37. Cobb BL, Jauchem JR, Mason PA, Dooley MP, Miller SA, Ziriax JM, Murphy MR,(2000).
Neural and behavioral teratological evaluation of rats exposed to ultra-wideband electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 21(7):524-537. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11015117

38. Cocozza, G., A. Blasio, and B. Nunziata (1960): [Remarks on short-wave embryopathies].
Pediatria (Napoli). 68 (1): 7-23 [Article in Italian. No abstract]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=13810837

39. Daşdag S, MZ Akdag, O Ayyıldız, ÖC Demirtaş, M Yayla, C Sert. (2000). Do Cellular Phones
Alter Blood Parameters And Birth Weight Of Rats? Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 19(1): 107-113. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1081/JBC-100100301

40. De-Kun Li, Roxana Odouli, S Wi, T Janevic, I Golditch, TD Bracken, R Senior, R Rankin, R
Iriye (January 2002). "A population-based prospective cohort study of personal exposure to


EMF Exposures and Prenatal Effects

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magnetic fields during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage". Epidemiology 13 (1): 9-20 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11805581

41. Delgado JM, Leal J, Monteagudo JL, Gracia MG (1982). Embryological changes induced by
weak, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. Journal of Anatomy 134 (3): 533–51. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/7107514/?tool=pubmed

42. Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J. (2010). Cell phone use and behavioural problems in
young children. J Epidemiol Community Health. Dec 7.; doi:10.1136/jech.2010.115402 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=21138897

43. Divan, HA; Kheifets, L.; Obel, C & J.Olsen (2008). Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Cell
Phone Use and Behavioral Problems in Children. Epidemiology.9(4). pp 523-29. http://newsatjama.jama.com/2011/08/01/author-insights-magnetic-fields-may-increaseasthma-risks/

44. Dundar B., Cesur G., Comlekci S., Songur A., Caliskan S., et al .(2009). The Effect of Prenatal
and Post-Natal Long-Term Exposure To 50 Hz Electric Field On Growth, Pubertal Development And Igf-1 Levels in Female Wistar Rats. Toxicol Ind. Health. Vol. 25, Pg. 479 – 487. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19783573

45. Eckert EE.(1976). [Plötzlicher und underwarteter Tod im Kleinkindesalter und
elektromagnetische] Felder. Med Klin. 71(37):1500–05. [Article in German]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/958113

46. Environmental Health Criteria 16 (1981): Radiofrequency and Microwaves, WHO, Geneva,
Switzerland, ISBN 92- 4- 154076- 1. http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc016.htm#SubSectionNumber:1.1.3

47. Falugi , M Grattarola, G Prestipino (1987). Effects of low-intensity pulsed electromagnetic fields
on the early development of sea urchins. Biophys J. 51(6): 999–1003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1330035/

48. Farrell, J.M., Barker, M., Krause, D. and Litovitz, T.A., (1997). Effects of low-frequency
electromagnetic fields on the activity of ornithine decarboxylase in developing chicken embryos. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 43: 91-96.

49. Figà-Talamanca I., P. Nardone, C. Giliberti. (2010). Exposure to electromagnetic fields and
human reproduction: the epidemiologic evidence. In, " Non Thermal Effects and Mechanisms of interaction between electromagnetic fields and living matter ", European J. OncologyLibrary vol.5, pp 387-402. L. Giuliani and M. Soffritti (eds).

50. Findlay, R.P.; Lee, AK & P. J. Dimbylow (2009): FDTD calculations of SAR for child voxel
models in different postures between 10 MHz and 3 GHz. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 135(4): 226-231. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19589878

51. Fleming AH, Joyner KH. (1992). Estimates of absorption of radiofrequency radiation by the
embryo and fetus during pregnancy. Health Phys. 63(2):149-59. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1399613

52. Fragopouloua AF, SL Koussoulakos, and LH Margaritisa. (2010). Cranial and postcranial
skeletal variations induced in mouse embryos by mobile phone radiation. Pathophysiology. 17(3):169-77; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19854628

53. Frey AH. (1978) Blood-brain, blood-vitrous humor, and placental barrier modification due to
microwave exposure [abstract]. Biophysical J 21(3):110a

54. Frölen H, Svedenstål BM, Paulsson LE. (1993). Effects of pulsed magnetic fields on the
developing mouse embryo. Bioelectromagnetics. 14(3):197-204. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8323570

55. Galat VV, Mezhevikina LM, Zubin MN, Lepikhov KA, Khramov RN, Chaĭlakhian LM. (1999).
[Effect of millimeter waves on the early development of the mouse and sea urchin embryo].


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Biofizika; 44(1):137-40. [Article in Russian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10330591

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56. Galvin MJ, Tilson HA, Mitchell CL, Peterson J, and McRee DI.(1986). Influence of Pre- and
Postnatal Exposure of Rats to 2.45-GHz Microwave Radiation on Neurobehavioral Function. Bioelectromagnetics 7: 57-71. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3730002 57. Giarola, A. J. and Krueger, W. F.: Continuous exposure of chicks and rats to electromagnetic fields. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT 22:432-37, 1974.

58. Gildersleeve RP, Bryan TE, Galvin MJ, McRee DI, Thaxton JP. (1988). Serum enzymes in
hemorrhaged Japanese quail after microwave irradiation during embryogeny. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 89(4):531-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2899471

59. Gildersleeve RP, MJGalvin, DI McRee, JP Thaxton (1986). Response of Japanese quail to
hemorrhagic stress after exposure to microwave radiation during embryogeny. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 85(4): 679-687. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed? term=2879671

60. Gildersleeve RP, Satterlee DG, McRee DI, Bryan TE, Parkhurst CR. (1988). Plasma
corticosterone in hemorrhaged Japanese quail after microwave irradiation in ovo. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 89(3):415-24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2896572

61. Goldhaber MK, Polen MR, Hiatt RA. (1988). The risk of miscarriage and birth defects among
women who use visual display terminals during pregnancy. Am J Ind Med 13:695-706. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3389364

62. Goldhaber, M. K., M. R. Polen and R. A. Hiatt. (1988). Risk of miscarriage and birth defects
among women who use visual display terminals during pregnancy. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 13:695-706. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3389364

63. Goldsworthy, A. (2011). How Smart Meters May Cause Autism and Cancer. MSCA News 6(8).
Pp 2-7. http://mcs-america.org/August2011pg234567.pdf

64. Gonet, B., Kosik-Bogacka, D.I., Kuźna-Grygiel, W. (2009). Effects of extremely low-frequency
magnetic fields on the oviposition of Drosophila melanogaster over three generations. Bioelectromagnetics. 30(8):687-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19630039

65. Grigor'ev IuG. (2003). [Biological effects of mobile phone electromagnetic field on chick
embryo (risk assessment using the mortality rate)]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 43(5):541-3. [Article in Russian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14658287

66. Gul A., Celebi H., Ugras S. (2009). The effects of microwave emitted by cellular phones on
ovarian follicles in rats. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 280 (5): 729-33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19494549

67. Guler G, Tomruk A, Ozgur E, Seyhan N. (2010): The effect of radiofrequency radiation on DNA
and lipid damage in non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits and their newborns. Gen Physiol Biophys. 29(1):59-66. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20371881 68. Gunn, S. A., Gould, T. C., and Anderson,W. A. D.: The effect of microwave radiation on morphology and function of rat testis. Lab. Invest. 10:301-14, 1961. 69. Haidt, S. J. and McTighe, A. H.: The Effect of Chronic, Low-Level Microwave Radiation on the Testicles of Mice. In: 1973 IEEE-G-MTT International Microwave Symposium, Maley, S. W.,editor. 1973, pp. 324-25.

70. Hassa H, Yalcin O, Basmak N, et al. (1999). Teratogenic effects of electromagnetic fields on the
skeletal systems of rat fetuses. Tr J of Medical Sciences. 29: 555-9. http://www.avaate.org/IMG/pdf/Sag-29-5-10-98043.pdf


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______________________________________________________________________ 71. Hemminki K, Niemi ML, Koskinen K, Vainio H. (1980). Spontaneous abortions among women
employed in the metal industry in Finland. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 47:53-60 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1650457/

72. Huuskonen H, Juutilainen J, Julkunen A, et al. (1998). Effects of low-frequency magnetic fields
on fetal development in CBA/Ca Mice, Bioelectromagnetics 19: 477-85. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=9849917

73. Ingole IV, S.K. Ghosh. (2006). Cell phone radiation and developing tissues in chicken embryo—
a light microscopic study of kidneys, J. Anat. Soc. India 55: 19–23. http://medind.nic.in/jae/t06/i2/jaet06i2p19.pdf

74. Jensh RP, Vogel WH, Brent RL. (1983). An evaluation of the teratogenic potential of protracted
exposure of pregnant rats to 2450-MHz microwave radiation. II. Postnatal psychophysiologic analysis. J Toxicol Environ Health. 11(1):37-59. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9241682

75. Jensh, R.P. (1997). Behavioral teratologic studies using microwave radiation: Is there an
increased risk from exposure to cellular phones and microwave ovens Reprod Toxicol. 11(4):601-11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9241682

76. Jing J, Zhang Yuhua, Yang Xiao-qian, Jiang Rongping, Guo Dong-mei, Cui Xi (2012). The
influence of microwave radiation from cellular phone on fetal rat brain. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Posted online on 23 Jan 2012. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368378.2011.624652

77. Jové M, Torrente M, Gilabert R, Espinar A, Cobos P, Piera V. (1999). Effects of static
electromagnetic fields on chick embryo pineal gland development. Cells Tissues Organs. 165(2):74-80 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10516420

78. Juutilainen J, Harri M, Saali K, Lahtinen T. (1986). Effects of 100-Hz magnetic fields with
various waveforms on the development of chick embryos. Radiat Environ Biophys. 25(1):65-74. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3714975

79. Juutilainen, J., Matilainen, P., Saarikoski, S., Laara, E. and Suonio, S., 1993: "Early pregnancy
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80. Kane, R.C. (2004). A Possible Association Between Fetal/neonatal Exposure to Radiofrequency
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81. Kaplan, J., P. Polson, C. Rebert, K. Lunan, and M. Gage. (1982). Biological and behavioral
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82. Karolinska Institute Press Release (2011). Press Release. Stockholm, Sweden: “Scientists Urge
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83. Kismali G, Ozgur E, Guler G, Akcay A, Sel T, Seyhan N. (2012). The influence of 1800 MHz
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84. Krueger WF, A. J. Giarola, J. W. Bradley, and A. Shrekenhamer (1975). Effects of
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85. Krueger, W. F., Giarola, A. J., Bradley, J. W., and Daruvalla, S. R.: Influence of low-level electric and magnetic fields on the growth of young chicks. Biomed.Sci. Instrum. 9:183-86, 1972.

86. Krylov, V.V. (2010). Effects of electromagnetic fields on parthenogenic eggs of Daphnia magna
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87. Lahijani MS, S Farivar, and M Khodaeian. (2011). Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on
the histology, apoptosis, and expression of c-Fos and β-Catenin on the livers of preincubated white leghorn chicken embryos. Electromagn Biol Med. 30(3): 158-169. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368378.2011.596603

88. Lahijani MS, SE Nojooshi, SF Siadat (2007). Light and Electron Microscope Studies of Effects
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89. Leach WM (1980). Genetic, growth, and reproductive effects of microwave radiation. Bulletin
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90. Lee GM, Neutra RR, Hristova L, Yost M, and Hiatt RA. (2000). The use of electric bed heaters
and the risk of clinically recognized spontaneous abortion. Epidemiology 11(4): 406-415.

91. Lee, G. M., Neutra, R. R., Hristova, L., Yost, M. and Hiatt, R. A. (2002). A nested case-control
study of residential and personal magnetic field measures and miscarriages. Epidemiology, 13: 21-31. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11805582

92. Lemaire, V., Koehl, M., Le Moal, M., Abrous, D.N., 2000. Prenatal stress produces learning
deficits associated with an inhibition of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. http://www.pnas.org/content/97/20/11032.full

93. Li DK, H Chen & R Odouli. (2011). Maternal Exposure to Magnetic Fields During Pregnancy in
Relation to the Risk of Asthma in Offspring. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Published online August 1, 2011. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.135. http://electromagnetichealth.org/wpcontent/uploads/2011/08/Li_et_al_2011.pdf

94. Li DK, Odouli R, Wi S, Janevic T, Golditch I, Bracken TD, Senior R, Rankin R, Iriye R. (2002).
A population-based prospective cohort study of personal exposure to magnetic fields during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Epidemiology.13(1):9-20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11805581

95. Li P., McLaughlin J., Infante-Rivard C. (2009). Maternal Occupational Exposure to Extremely
Low Frequency Magnetic Fields And The Risk Of Brain Cancer In The Offspring. Cancer Causes Control. 20:945 – 955. http://www.urucan.org.uy/iah/toc/7520/2009/752020090800-6-15.pdf

96. Liu X. Y., Bian X. M., Han J. X., Cao Z. J., Fan G. S., Zhang C., Zhang W. L., Zhang S.Z. and
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Ubeda, A., M. Trillo, L. Chacon, M. Blanco and J. Leal. (1994). Chick embryo development can be irreversibly altered by early exposure to weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 15: 385-398. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7802707 Watson, W. C. DeHaas and S. S. Hauser. (1975). Effect of Electric Fields on Growth Rate of Embryonic Chick Tibiae in vitro. Nature 254: 331. [No abstract] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1118013 Wertheimer N, Leeper E. (1986). Possible effects of electric blankets and heated waterbeds on fetal development. Bioelectromagnetics. 7(1):13-22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3729998 Wertheimer N, Leeper E. (1989). Fetal loss associated with two seasonal sources of electromagnetic field exposure. Am J Epidemiol. 129(1):220-4 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2910064 Xenos TD, Magras IN. In (Ed) Stavroulakis P. (2003). Low power density RF-radiation effects on experimental animal embryos and foetuses. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation.. Springer (ISBN 3-540-42989-1, 793 pages) pp 579 – 602. http://emfportal.de/viewer.php?aid=16936&l=e Yao G, Fu Y, Lu D. (1995). [Effects of pregnant exposure to electromagnetic field emitted by electric blankets on brain catecholamine and behavior in offspring mice]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 29(1):41-3 [Article in Chinese] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed? term=7600890%20 Yoshida Y, Seto T, Ohsu W, Hayashi S, Okazawa T, Nagase H, Yoshida M, Nakamura H. (1995). [Endocrine mechanism of placental circulatory disturbances induced by microwave in pregnant rats]. Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 47(2):101-8. [Article in Japanese] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7706849 Zareen N, Khan MY & LA Minhas (2009). Dose Related Shifts In The Developmental Progress Of Chick Embryos Exposed To Mobile Phone Induced Electromagnetic Fields. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 21(1): 130-134. http://ayubmed.edu.pk/JAMC/PAST/211/Zareen.pdf Zareen N, Khan MY. (2008). Effect of mobile phone induced electromagnetic fields on the development of chick embryo. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 18(8):528-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18798598 Zareen, N. Khan, M Yunus. Minhas, L A. (2009). Derangement of chick embryo retinal differentiation caused by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Congenital Anomalies.49(1): 15-9. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/cga/2009/00000049/00000001/art00004 Zhang Q, F. L. Tabrah, G. C. Whittow (1993). Effect of 60-HZ Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Field on Avian Embryonic Growth and Oxygen Consumption. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 12(1): 27-37. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368379309012860











Zusman I., Yaffe P, Pinus H, Ornoy A. (1990). Effects of pulsing electromagnetic fields on the prenatal and postnatal development in mice and rats. Teratology. 42(2):157-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2218943 Here are the links to some Scribd collections which may be of interest. These are public collections, so please feel free to add any additional articles. http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3228507 (Electrosmog and wildlife) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3228470 (Conflict of interest in science) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3220833 (EMF-related health risks) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3222035 (Electrosensitivity) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3221670 (Electrosmog and male fertility)


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EMF Exposures and Prenatal Effects
http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3222195 (The precautionary principle)

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If you are concerned about the inadequacy of the current ICNIRP’s safety guidelines, please suggest this to Avaaz as a future campaign: http://www.avaaz.org/en/contact/

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