0141 Or{]anlzational Theory Essay Questions p.

1
1. Ilow have American companies sullered in recent years?
In an effort to reduce costs, restructuring and downsizing have affected almost
every organization. However, recent research suggests Ihat there <Ire cost!> for
Ihese organizations In terms of their Impaired ability to perform tOllg lerm. Many COfTl­
panles have shown poor leadership when trying to capit<JIL!:e 0(1 lcc:hrtologic:al
throughs; e.g., Kodak; Xerox.
2. VVhat are some of the new challenges confronting m,lnC1gcrs in t()dOJy's b1151­
ness environment?
The global, one\wortd economy is changing the nature of GOrllpcllllon, The :iccol1!l
generation of the Information Age, rna/ked by "dvancl}s In ,.recision SIJpnolt
communications technology. is changing the natura or wOlk In ;11\ org,Hliz\ll!(ms.
The "quality Service Revolution" is changing \lie Qr c;ornpCltlliun worlc1
competitors as product and service quality become Irnp()(tarH 1(, eonsum­
ers, bolh internally and externally.
3_ What are the three dimensions of manaoemont <!nil !lOW <lre liwy IrnpurJanL
The three dimension of management are C()f1 copll)lll, <Inc! 11Ut11(I!L ab··
'·1
solulely essential for managers to develop meaningru! sotutlons to today':; complex
management problems by using Innovative technological soiutions that provide an­
swers \0 problems people and organizations are having. Furthermore, it Is critical to
management's success that they be able to meaningrully understand human resource
"!leds and be able to successfully deploy these
.0\ , VVhat are the differences between organizational behavior, organization theory
(011. personnel/human resources (P/HR), and organization development? Organiza­
tional ,is theoretical and micro-oriented. OT is theoretical and macro­
P/HR Is applied and micro-oriented. 00 is applied and macro-oriented .
0141 Oiganizational Theory Essay Que5ti ons p. 2
5. Discuss Henri Fayors contributions to organizational theory.
Henri Fayol has been called the father of management. Henri Fayol was a suc­
cessful French industrialist. He also created the first school of management. He was
responsible for developing the major classical management concepts of planning, or­
ganizing, devoloplng, staffing, coordina!ing, and budgeting (PODSCORB) . He also
was ttw first to develop U)e Importance of laleral communications with his gang plank
lI\coly of communicnllDns In orgilnlzalion.
Henri Ftlyol be!ong.s to the administrative management branch of the classical
school. I lis cn!ire working Career was spent with a mining company, Commentary­
Cornpllny, where he rose from an apprenlice 10 General Manager in
1600 rC:Hllainl1l9 thero unli! t:i::; retirement In 1918. He is credited with turning the
COlnpany orolJl!d from a threatened bill1kruptcy into a strong financial position by the
tlmc of his rellrcment ill (lgc 77.
t\s f:! of his management Fayol strongly believed management
!heorl es CQuid devdcpcd lind taught to others. His first writing on administration,
Admln/sirIJCio!1 l!!t/!1'5(rlefle 'l( Genera/e, was PJJblished in 1916 in (he Bulletin of
{Ire S()c/!lly or MincrallndlJ:Jirii!s and lilter appeared as a book. The book became
rrUl]llflO!lt ip HiC UniiM StCitos aner a :lecond English translation appeared in 1949
limier tho tHle General and IndustrIal Management.
As a resuH of his long management career, Fayol developed fourteen management
principles;
a. Division of Work. Division or work, specialization, produces more and better
work with the same effort. It focuses erfort while maximizing employee efforts. It is
applicable to all work including technical applications. There are limitations to spe-..
clalization which are determined by its application.
b. and responsibitity. Authority Is the right to give orders and the power
to exact obedience. Dislinclion must be made between a manager's orficial authority
deriving rrom ofrice and personal aulhorily crealed through Individu;;1i rersonalily, in­
telliaence anti cxpericllr.e. Alilhorily creales respollsibility .
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p.3
c. Discipline. Obedience and respect between a firm and its employees based on
clear and lair agreements is abliolutely essential to the of ony orgCinl2a­
lion. Good discipline requires managers to appiy sanctions viDlaticns be­
_", . come apparent.
.' .. d. Unity of command. An empluyee should receive orders from only one superior.
Employees cannot adapt to dual command.
e. Unity of direction. Organizational activities must have one (unt' .... ' authori;,.. and
\ one plan 01 action.
r. Subordination of Individual Interest to Gener,,1 Tile inlcrosts oi one
employee or group of employees are subordinate to tho inlcre!;ls and gO:lls o( the or­
ganization and cannol prevail over it.
g. Remuneration of Personnel. Saiaries am the prio:u or services rellt.ierad by DIll­
ployees. It should be rair and provide buth 10 tho employee Md t'!ril­
ployer. The rale of remuneration is dependent on the value of til!) servic(!s rendered
as determined by the employmenl marke!.
h. Cenlralization. The optimum degn.le of v;:liiQS according to lh:!
dynamics of each organization. The objective of centr<tliz.aliol1 is lhe br.!st ulitiz.i.ltiull
of personnel.
. . i. Scalar chain. A chain of authority exisls from the highest org<Jnir.ational author­
ity to the lowest ranks. While needless departure from the chain of command should
be discouraged, using the "gang plank" principle of direct communication b-etweefl
employees can be extremely expeditious and increase the erlectiveness of organiza­
tional communication.
j . Order. Organizational order for materials and personnel is essential. The right
materials and the right employees are necessary lor each organizational function and
activity.
I. Equity. In organizations equity is a combination or kindliness and Justice. The
desire for equily and equality of treatment ,He aspir<ltions to be laken into account ill
dealing with employees.
01-11 OrQ<llliZ<lliorwl Theory Ess<lY Questions p.-I
111. Stabilily or Tenure or Personnel. In order 10 aUain the maximum product
personnel, it is essential to mainlain a stable work force. Management Ins
producf.iS unc!lli;irabll3 consequences. Generally the managerial peraonnel 0
perous coriCGIfiS Is stable, tho[ of unsuccessful ones is unstable.
r1. lpi!l;:.liva, 'ihlnkipo out a plan and ensuring its success is an extremely
motivalor. N all loveis of the organizalionalladder zeal and energy on I he
Clnpio)ieC!!> aft! <'Iugfllf!nlf)d by initiative.
o Esprit til; GQfPS. Teal1",vcrk is fundamenlally important to an organizalior
enc::ow,l(jIHl by cleating work teams and using extensive face-to-Iace
CCii -,lrnUJ1ic allo(l.
'ilJili!e subsE1qUGn! organizational research has created controversy over n
r-"yol's principles, thay are sli!! widely used In management theory.
6. DiscUS!! Vv'ob-:!r's contributions to organizational theory.
Max Weber C:;:Hl be cl;}!;sified in the bureClucralic management branch of 1I; '
(:ni school. Wcl.J(H, Ow !;on of ;) prominent Bismarckian era German pbllllc'
r<liseu in Berlin and sludiad law at the University of Berlin. After assl1mlng
poifllll1en\ le:1cliing 1,,\'1 al the University of Berlin, assumed teaching,
menls in ecollomics at the Universities of Freiburg, Heidelberg, Vienna, end
his death after a bout with pneumonia at the University of Munich.
I .
Weber's interest in organizalions evolves from his view of the institutionaliz
power and authority in the modern Western world. He constructed a "rallor
authority" model of all ideal type bureaucracy. This Ideal type rested on a
the "legality" 01 patterns 01 normative rules and the right of those elevated to <
to issue commands (legal aUlhority). Weber postUlated the rules and regula!
bureaucracy serve to insulate Its members against the possibility of I
f'lVoritisrll.
Weber believes Olll bureaucracies have cerlain characteristics:
a. A well dclilled hierarchy. All positions within a bureoucracy are slruc\
WOly permitting the higher positions 10 supervise and control the lower posiUo
-,
0141 Oryanizational Theory Essay Questions p.5
provides a clear chain of command facilitating control and order throughout the
organization.
b. Division of labor and specialization. All responsibilities in an organization are
rationalized to the point where each employee will have !lie necessary expertise to
' " master a particular task. This necessitates granting each employee the reCluisitc
.'
authority to complete all such tasks.
c. Rules and regulations. All organizational O)clivilic5 :;110111<1 10 the
point where standard operating procedure!! nre (Jovelaped 10 prqvldo <:!!rlalnly \!Y\d lil­
cilitate coordination.
d. Impersonal relationships between !710n,l!Je:rs fif1d omploYQ Weber It
is necessary for managers to mainlair', iH1 imperSQI1;li rel<.ltiol1ship willl the
,
because of the need to have a declslQI' rn<lKltlg rathqr tlwn one Illflu­
enced by favoritism and personal iliis organ!ZaliQI'lal '1\mosphqm ",",OUlll
also facilitate rational evaluation of mJlcOrnc:j where persQ!1n! preJuQice
would not be a dominant considerfttio/'l.
e. Competence. Competence 5ho..,lo t:/J fi,e lJafjl:; for i:l!1 rlla(le !n.
job assignments, and promotions. Tll;S WOqlrj biatl anN lit H
cance of "knowing someone" i,l centrEIi PQIt,QnrWI iTiir. ro :!tt')tb ablilly .11)(:
merit as the primary characteristics or a bljrealj.:;r.!I!G QrQ<lhi1vl.1on ,
f. Records. Weber feels it Is absolu!eiy for a bi l(60ucmc:y to fTliiintiJln
complete files regarding al\ its activities. This advances an accurate organizational
"memory" where accurate and complete documents will be available concerning all
bureaucratic actions and determinations.
Weber's bureaucratic principles have been widely adopted throughout the world.
Yet, there are many critics.
7. Discuss Frederick W. Taylor's contributions to organizational theory.
Taylor has been termed the father of scientific management. As the name implies,
it was a scientific approach to managerial decision making. The name was intended
to contrast his approach with the unscientific approaches that characterized
. 0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. 6
traditional mallagernent practices at the time. Taylor's major techniques included
time and motion studies whereby the work task was divided into its constituent ele­
ments or motions and eliminating wasted motions so that the work would be done in
the "one best way" as well as timing the remaining motions in order to arrive at an ex­
pected rate of production.
Taylor also pushed strongiy for standardization in the deSign and use of tools.
Tools find procedures slandardized in accordance wilh what designs were most
effcctive in !l given context, Taylor also advocaled a worker be assigned a given
quanlity of work eaC/1 day based on the results of time study. This was forerunner of
nlc,Gern (jay
Taylor c!alnwej the piim<lry mulivation of an employee was to earn money. There­
foro, H18 way to get <111 employee to work haider was to pay by the piece. This sys­
lO
r
!1, krwwn as tile ;,liece rale syslem, was intended to provide individual employee
prOdll<;l!vity incentives.
fl . \!Vllat \'!a:> !!!!l HilwihOine study and why Vias it important?
n!G IIQ;>;lhorw! consist of two studies conducted at the Hawthorne
Works or \i,!) ElectriC Cornpany in Chicago from 1924 to 1932. The study's
P2,rllc:uiar focus is on lighting and attempts to operationalize many of the principles
of scientific management.
The initial study in 1924 was conducted by a group of engineers seeking to de­
terminethe relationship of lighting levels to worker productivity. The stUdy wal!
done in connection with the National Research Council of the Nalional Academy Or
Sciences.
The results of the study findings are extremely interesting since worker
increases as ,the lighting levels decrease until the employees are unable to slOe
what Ihey are doing after which performance naturally declines.
Beginning in 1927 a second group of experiments commenced with a group Df
five women in the bank wiring room. During the course or Ihe experimcnl. the
women are supervised by the eXperimenters conducting the study. Addilionally the
014i Organizational Theory Essay Questions p.7
workers ;" the experimental group are given special privileges including the right to
leave; their workstation without permission, rest periods, free lunches and varia­
tions in pay levels and workdays. As with the first set of experiments, the second
. ' group C;f experiments result in signiocantly increased rates of productivity.
III the second experimental study in 1928 Harvard researchers, F. J. Roethlis­
berger, Professor of Human Relations, and Elton Mayo, a Professor of the Indus­
trial Research Department, became associated with it. ArIer extensive research, the
results were not published until 1939, they conclude the primary determinant of the
increase in productivity is the change in the supervisory arrangement r;:lthp.r than
the changes in lighting or other associated worker beneol5. Since \he.:;xperi­
menters became the primary supervisors of tile employees, the inierer;i
displayed for the workers was the basis for the increa:;ed motivation and reswi! .
ing productivity.
Essentially the experimenters became a part of tile study and iniluenced Itt;
outcome. This is the origin of the term Hawthorne Effect describing tho at­
tention researchers give to a study's subjects and the impact it /!;:!s em its findings,
While the result of the Hawthorne studies failed to anS'Ner the spcciOc question of
the relation between illumination and worker productivity, the study did create a
strong theoretical foundation for the human relations view of management.
9, Discuss Chester Barnard's contributions to organizational theory.
Barnard led a highly successful management career rising to the position of the
President of New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. He was also very active prores­
sionally including acting as the head of the Rockefeller Foundation. Arter giving a se­
ries of lectures on management, Barnard published his only book, The Functions o(
the Executive, in 1938.
Basically, Barnard reels organizations are communication systems. He reels il is
particularly important ror managers to develop a sense of comfnon purpdse where a
willingness to cooperate is strongly encouraged. He is credited with developing the
, "mnhrlsi7inn the williflqness or people to accept
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. 8
those having authority to act. He feels the manager's ability 10 exercise authority Is
strongly determined by the employee's "zone of indifference" where orders are ac­
cepted without undue question .
I . ",
Contrary to Weber beliefs that communication nows from the top of the organiza­
tion to the bottom, Barnard feels organizational communication nows from the bottom
to the top. He states there are four factors arrecting the willingness of employees 10
accept authority:
1, Tha empioyo(!s mllst understa,:,d tile communication.
2. lhe ()rnpl<.)y,ji)S accept the communication 3S being consistenl with the organl­
z,Hklif!i
3. The cmn!,)yees reel th,',i r (lcti::>ns will be consistent with the needs and desires
!)f tnf) utiliH
4. 'fhe e1flr.luyecs feel inc'! are mentally amI physically carry out the order from
ih/"! hig!ler ::Illthority.
Oaffli1id also f(!cls irifOlfn"i NO:lnizatiofls within formal organizations perform nec­
:j:;SiHy and Vi/ill cDrnllllmi catioll functions ror the overall organization. This Is consls­
,
IC"lt with his belief that ihu eXecuti"e's main organizational fUnction is acling as a
clJanllei of cOll1munlcalion and maintaining the organization in operation.
8<lrnilrd's sympathy for and understanding of employee needs in the dynamics of
tflo organil.alionai cOfnmunication process positions him as a bridge 10 the behavioral
school or management many of whose early members were his contemporaries.
10. Who was Mary Parker Follel and why was she Important to organizational
theory?
One of the earliest pioneers in the behavioral movement was Mary Parker Folie!.
Follct received an education in political science and pursued a professional career as
a social worker where she became absorbed in work place related issues, She
strongly believes in tile inherent problem solving ability of people workIng In groups,
Rather than aS5uming classical management's slrongly hierarchical position of power
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p.9
In organizations, Follet asserls power should be cooperativety shared for the purpose
of resolving contlict.
She is best known for her integration method of conflict resolution as opposed to
the three choices she sites of domination, compromise or volunlary submission by
one side over another. If, for example, an individual is silting in a library on a warm
-spring day near an open window and a second person to sl)are the lable btlt
wishes to close the window 10 avoirj the draft, '.'Ie have lhe basis of a connict , No"J
one person could try and dominate tile ell'ler and force ille window to pe ()pen
or closed leaving the other person unhappy. ,tl, SQr,ontj tlllt)ft1\itive (or aile nltfllOfl to
sImply submit to the wishes of the other, tlllt be very un/wppy. third ... tjvlol is
10 compromIse and close the window haif way whicll wiilllo\ Satisfy ",thdr person.
Follet states !he best way to handte thIs situ'Jlion 19 Ihe l;i sUe
through "creative connict resolution" wherc. il1 our c)i"rnple, :.I\e newcqlll"r may vo!­
untarily agree 10 sit in another part of the library ildjl!sting il1(j winoow to
hlslher preference. In this case, both partIes to the G()t10!ct efe t1ilDDY !:i ll Iho ISSl)e
has been resolved according to their OW'l i1el"irss. cQ(1r1id reSl)lIJtion if':­
valves cooperatively working with olhers to devise I1fJW oftl'in rrr:lVidil1f1
strong Interpersonal benefits.
11 . Discuss Herbert Simon's contribution:: 10 organiLu\lonn! n-.tt9!Y.
The death knell of classical management theory was prc:mQlJnc.;ed by Herbert Si­
mon in his book Admlnlslratlve Behavior: A Sludy of Decision-Making Processes
In Admlnlstral/on' Organization published n 1947. Simon is particularly critical of
the principles of administration including span of control and unity of command while
laying al/ of the principles col/ectively were "no more than proverbs". Simon found
the principles of classical administration to be contradictory and vague.
Simon's greatest management contribulion is in decision making theory for which
he received a Nobel prize. Simon states decision makers perform in an arena of
rationalily and that the approach to decision making must be one of satis­
ficin)} where satisfactory rather than optimum decisions are often re<lched.
0141 OrganizationLlI Theory Ess<lY Queslions p. 10
Satisficing successfully adapts to and is a realistic solution for the limited time and
resources a manager has when considering alternatives in the decision making
process.
12. Di5ccuss Abmham Maslow's contributions to organizational theory.
his doctorale in psychology, Abraham Maslow was the first psychologist
to dt:lvel,)P a theory of motivation based upon a consideration of human needs.
MaslOW'S \lIBory C)f human needs has Ihree assumptions. First, human needs are
never completely Second, human behavior is purposeful and is motivated
by need stltisf1lcUon. Third, needs can be classified according to a hierarchical struc­
ture of importa;1cC from tile lowest to highest.
h.c::li,w::n1 U-,c rweds !llcrarchy can be classified into five specinc groups. To
fClIch .. r,ce$sl\l" !evels of hierarchy required the satisfaction of the lower level

'j. P!lY3i"logilZtll needs. Maslow groups all physical needs necessary for maintain­
infJ P1JSIC hlJi1li:ll1 .... ell bo::ina in in this caH:gory. These needs become acute and pre­
(lorl,lntlnl if any C! <l!1 of !!lese n8cds are unsatisfied. However, consistent with
M<l:O;!Qw'S theory of motivation. once a need is satisfied, such as thirst. it no longer is a
rnoti'lot6r.
2. Safety needs. These needs include the need for basic security, stability, pro­
tection. and freedom from fear. A normal state exists for an Individual to have all of
'.
these needs generally satisfied. Otherwise, they become primary motivators.
3. The belonging ness and love needs. Once the physical and safety are satisfied
and no longer are motivators, than the belongingness and love needs emerge as pri­
mary motivators. The individual will strive to establish meaningful relationships with . ..
significant others. Deprivation of the belongingness and love need will result in sig­
nificant personality maladjuslment.
4. The esteem needs. An individual must develop self confidence. In order to do
Illis it is essenti;)1 to Ille individual to have adc'll1acy from acllicvina mastery and
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. 11
competence leading to the achievement of status, reputation, fame and glory. This
achieves satisfaction of the self-esteem needs.
.'.' 5, The need for self-actualization. Assuming all of the previous needs in the hier­
.. archy are satisfied, a "new discontent and restlessness will soon develop ... A musi­
cian must make musIc, an artist must paint, a poet must write ... What a man can be,
he must be,"
Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory helps the manager to visualiz:e employee moti­
vation. It helps in understanding the motivations and [i(H.ld; ernployoes 11;''10 ;mel the
requirement to satisfy basic needs in order to achieve higher level motivation.
13, Discuss Douglas McGregor's c:ontributions to organiz;)tional UlcQiY.
McGregor is the other major theorist with ihe Human Rei;ltiofii:l
of management. McGregor believes there are two basic kinds of miH12ger1i.
One type of manager, Theory X, has a negative vlew of assuming thoy
are lazy, untrustworthy and incapable of responsibility while the other type
of Manager, Theory Y, assumes employees are trtJstworthy and cap3ble of assuTfling
responsibility having high levels of motivation.
Theory X
1, Employees normally do not like to work and will try to avoid it.
2. Since employees do not like working, they have to coerced, controlled. directed
and threatened with punishment to motivate them to work.
3. The average employee is lazy, shuns responsibility, is not ambitious, needs di­
rection and principally desires security.
Theory Y
1. Work is as natural as play and therefore people desire to work.
2. Employees are responsible for accomplishing their own work objectives.
3. Comparable personal rewards are important for employee commitment to
achieving work goals.
4. Under favorable conditions, the average employee will seek and accert
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. 12
5. Employees can be innovative in solving organizational problems.
6. Most 'Jrganizafions utilize only a small proportion of their employees' abilities.
Mcgregor's Theory X and Y is appealing to managers and dramatically dE:mon­
strate the divergence in management viewpoints toward employees. As such, Theory
X and Y has been extremely helprul In promoting management understanding or eu­
pervisory styles ,]fld employee mOlivational . . ;,
I';. Liked's contributions to organizational theory.
Whil", l leinQ the director of the Institute of Human Relations at Ann Arbor, Michl­
gt1r1, Uk"' ii Cljlt(iuct6d U !;r)rio8 or empirical studies on the dirferences between good
ar1d tJ;d SiiPG,VisQrS defined on Ihe basis of high and low productivity. His research
i$ baf,ed 011 inlerV'iows in separate departments In many dirferent organiza­
hillS ,\ $calo of is developed, the Likert scale, regarding employee at1!.
toward Ih.)ir i:lipurvisolt.. This was correlated with their productivity.
Oil his rm;eait:h, Likert deveioped a rour level managerial classification sys­
lern. Sy:JlUr1
1
1 <1 gllpervisory 5ystem based primarily on,fear and pUnishmen ..
ihis result!; In on nlJthori!arian supelvisory system where employees are usually not
cOllsuihlcJ concerning major decisions.
In System 2 organizations rew;J(us are used to motivate employees with some
being allowed to Gomment on organizational decisions. However, managers
have the primary decision making responsibility and employees in a System 2 organi­
zation must act caUtiousiy.
System 3 organizations are more open to employee consultation regarding thA
managerial decision making process and overt managerial threats are avoided.
Likert states the System 4 organization is the most open and participative and Is
tile ideal state managers should strive to achieve. This is termed the democraU
model. Likert stJtcs tile more an organization's management aprw)·':·· I. Sy
tem 4 model. the more productive It will be.
0141 Organizationat Theory Essay Questions p, 13
15. Discuss Frederick Herzberg's contribulions 10 Ihe study of organizational
behavior?
Additional empirical research was performed by Herzberg on 200 engineers and
accountants. The research objective was to uetcilnlne work situations whera Ihe
.' subjects feel highly satisfied and motivated as opposed lei those where the reverse is
true. The research reveals that the work itsclr and a(:ilicvcnlcnt well as recouni ·
lion for the achievement are the primary ! Icrzberg terms these factors
satisfiers or motivators.
Factors having a negative motivation impOict on trIC research S\Jpj ol1t!i art'.'
working conditions, salary, job security, superJisofY mc\lH)(1s and the ::/I!riell'.ll (it)ln,
pany management climate. Herzberg terms theSe fl)ctors factor!.; or
,
dlssallsfiers.
From this research Herzberg developed the lllot!va!lop-hygienEl rom)el of man3gc,
men!. The model states that employee motivation is ;lC!1Ic..ved W!ttl enjoy.
' able work where achievement, growth, ond tlr(l
encouraged and recognized. The environmental I,yg!ene faclors, :;uCh as poor
lighllng, ventilation, poor working conditior.s, low :;ilIOlies, ::mil PP.oJ[ rcILl"
lions, serve as dissatisfiers.
The difference between motivators and hygier:e fi!tJ:ors. I:; (1,,,( Ji1tiUv[llor:; 01)
employee to develop his/her own internat motivati.1ch, wtw[eus r" i:;!Qrll c;.ill
make an employee unhappy and dissatisfied, hut cannot motivate him/her. The job
Itself is the motivator.
16. Discuss David C. McLelland contributions to organization theory.
He performed research on motivation patterns. In the Thematic Apperception Test
(TAn where an individual writes a descriptive analysis of their individual reactions
from unstructured pictures. McClelland determines the motivational state of the sub­
Jects from these descriptions.
, Aased upon this research, McClelland developed an achievement motivation the­
ory of four sets of needs: achievement, affiliation, competence and power.
AchIevement motivation is a need people have to succeed through overcoming
0141. Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. 14
ch<lllenges, The afiili<llion motivation is similar \0 Maslow's belongingness and love
need where people relate 10 others on a social basis. The competence need is the
desire to accomplish a job well done, and the power motivation is the need to control
olhers and make a difference in the oulcome of a given situation.
McClelland believes people have slrong needs. His achievement motivation theory
is irnporlanl for ITI<lf1agers seeldng understanding of employee motivational pallerns.
17. Discuss W. EdwUids Deming's contributions to organizational theory.
Doming his doctorate in physics from Yale and was invited 'by the Union
of .Jllp
a
flCS8 Scil3ntlsts <lnd Engi;leers 10 visit Japan in 1950. In addition to urging the
to usc lIQmpling methods to test for quality control, he also taught them the
WilY lowtJred production cost3 was improved quality. Dr. Deming is concerned
wilh increascQ Ng1.lniU!lional productivity by applying statistical quality controls as
well <;IS Improving org1!ni.?atlonal Communication
,.l\i\11C)lJgl] wlJli known in Japan, Deming was ignored for years in the U.S.; however,
till;; Degf:H1 I() ch ange after h'.l wC'S ia<1tured on an American TV show dealing wilh the
r';l1S0r1s \.oJ!lY t!iC t;OIT'lpeti1ion wa .. thieiltening American business. He soon
bCKa:11C s(lught <.tfic!r by American CI.Hporations coping with the mounting international
ccmpc!iiivG Ihrej'IL
Deming fOIJrleen nlanagement points:
1 Create constancy of purpose ioward improvement of product and service,
with the aim to become competitive, to stay in business, and to provide jobs. I,',
2 Adopt a new philosophy. We are In a new economic age, created by Japan.
We can no longer live with commonly accepted styles of American management, nor
with commonly accepted levels of delays, mistakes, or defective products. , ' .:
3 Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need for
inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place.
4 End the practice of awarding business on the basis of prico tag. Instead,
minimize total cost.
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p.15
5 Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service to
improve quality and productivity, and thus constanlly decrease costs.
6 Institute training on the job.
.,.' 7 Institute supervision: the aim of supervision should be to help people and ma­
chines and gadgets do a better job. Supervision of management is in need of over­
haul, as well as supervision of production workers.
8 Drivo out fear, so that everyone may work elfectively for the company.
9 Break down the barriers between departments. People in research, desiyn,
sales, and production must work as a team to foresoe problems of production ami
use that may be encounteied with the product or service.
10 Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets fo,. tile work forca whic!! [I .sk
for zero defects and new levels of Such (;nl;1 cm'lte Ct d­
versarial relationships. The bulk of the causes of 101'1 productivity iJelong to the (;yf;'
tem, and thus lie beyond the power of the wOlk forcG.
11 Eliminate work standards that numerical quot:Js for Ihe clay.
Substitute aids and helpful supervision.
12 Remove tile barriers tllat rob the Ilourly worker of his rigllt to pride Dr'
workmanship. The responsibility of !:upervisors ml1st be changed from sheer num­
bers to quality. Remove the that rob peoplE' in rnan<lqerner:l illld engineer ing
of their right to pride of workmanship. This means abolishment of the annual rating,
or merit rating, and management by objective.
13 Institute a vigorous program of education and retraining.
14 Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation.
18. Discuss the evolution of management theory.
The evolution of management thought has followed societal trends of the nine­
teenth and twentieth centuries. The nineteenth century works of Charles Babbage
and Robert Owen were concerned with the e<Jrly f<Jctory system as well making social
progress. The classical school and bureaucratic scllool of tile early twentieth cenlury
Wf>lf! Ihe first erforts to generate a comprehensive theory of management. This
01<11 Organiz<Jlional Theory Ess<ly Questions p. 16
school included Max Weber and Henri Fayol. Fayol was the father of the administra­
tive management school. He had a profound affect on much of administrative theQry
during the early part of the twentieth century.
Frederick Taylor, the engineer, established the scientific method of managem6nt.
The behavioral school made a profound influence on management theory. It Iii e.
revolutionary period of management theory. It includes the Nobel prize winning crille
of the early proverbs of administration, Herbert Simon, as well as' the landmark Haw­
thorne Experiment ughering in Ihe human relations branch of the bureaucratic
rnolhod. TI1,.' I.H:ii:!vk)r,!1 :1choQI <llso includes the first female organizational theorist
Mary PMY..;r FQI!,)t. A mJjor r(:sui! of the behavioral school is the demise and repu­
Ji:iliuil rtf (iii) or rnanagemeflt.
TfiG hu",,,n mi'liiOr1!l b(;hool of management Is extremely Important In dealing with
iht' cC>f1cQpt D; rnollv<1tiJrl. Herbert Maslow developed the hierarchy of
nel! ti s whll!) Di,'ll;Qias McGregor developed Theory X and Y. The behavioral
&choQi flppiies r,iuch of the needs theory developed by Maslow in actual or­
ganiz<ltiui):!i St:tlings.
Tho GOllie
r
llPOml''1 mnn3g0f1l;:)llt !ichool brings a more Interdisciplinary approach Ie
thl.! field 0; The very important writings of W. EdWards Deming In the
::I1C!a or ptodudivity irnprovement ond those of Peter Drucker on MBO and manage­
(lion! innovation have a major irnpnct on the way today's organizations are managed.
Thn ifll !!grati\le rndhodologies of the s)'stems approach and contingency theory give
the latitude they need to integrate the research of the many management
schools.
Finally, the quality school of management is extremely important in presenting a
comparative management model. W. Edwards Deming is the pre-eminent theorlsl !
this school. It has also become known as Total Quality Management (TOM).
19. Discllss the Behavioral School of Management.
The bei1<Jvioral movement in management was a direct result of the frustration e
perienced wilh Ihe cl<lssical school's failure to explain individual behavior with!
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. 17
organizations. Curiously, the Hawthorne experiment. originally intended ;15 a show­
case apptication of classical management theory, so draroalicaily demonstrated till}
classical school's shortcomings that it marked a point or no return. The behavioral
school was an outgrowth of this revolutionary rTlilnagcrnent e)(peri:nenl.
The behavioral movement includes Mary P<Jrker Follet imd I !crbQrt Simon as well
as numerous psychologists who turned (rom studying behnvlor to Qrganiza-.
Ilonal behavior. In addition. the Hawthorne r:larked 01<: pnGll
i
nf) of HIe
classical school of management.
20. is exlremely intorc.!i$c:lf.,lin(Hy. WI1al " f Cl round<ltlons
for the discipline?
There are three basic building blocks f<Jr 'the)! ('Ire nnlhro­
pology, SOCiology, and psychology.
21., Discuss the significance of r€ilia b!!lt,1 IlJid validity in drgill)lr- GIiOnCiI lf1 e0f¥
research.
Reliability is the accuracy of measurement and consistency or results. Vaiidiiy is
whelher the study really demonslrates what it is supposed to demonstrate. Internal
validity assures that there are no plausible alternative explanations other than those
reported (threats of internal validity).
Additionally, ·there are 3 types of validity researchers must be concerned with in
understanding research in organizational behavior:
Content· how well the measure captures the behavior of inlerest.
Predictive • an objective statistical relationship between what is being predicted
(ciiterlon) and what Is being used to predict it (predictor).
Construct - the degree to Which observable characteristics converge wilh similar
or discriminate between dissimilar concepts.
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. 18
22. Compare and contrast sensation with perception.
Sensation deals mainly with very elementary behavior that is determined largely by
physiological function. The senses are bombarded by numerous internal and exter­
nal stimuli and persons lise the sensa to experience color, shapes. loudness. odor.
and Perception is more complex and broader than sensation, and can be de­
fined a3 <In interaction of scle<:lion. organization, and Interpretation. White perception
on th", senS6S for rClw data, the cognitive process filters and modifies these
dilli! .
23. aiEi confrollted by constant stimuli, they are unable to allend
tQ they :;el8ct only a small number at any given time. This is ac­
the principles of perceptual selectivity. What are the various ex­
l ij rnil l allenl.ion iacl0rs triat affect pert;eptual selectivity.
d. !nten(;ity - the more intense the stimulus. the more likely it is to be perceived.
b. Sizc J I1le Illnler. the ol!ject. the more likely it is to be perceived.
c. C::olli rost - elitmn'ii stimuli which !,tand out or which are not what people are ex­
pecling will receive more attention.
d. Repetition - repeated external stimuli are more attention-getting than a single
stimUlUS.
e. Motion - mote attention will be paid to moving objects than to stationery ones.
t. Novelty and Familiarity - new objects In a familiar setting or familiar objects in a
new setting are attention getting.
23. What is attribution?
Attribution refers to how persons explain the causes of behavior. PercepIi6r,: wiil
vary depending on whelher internal, personal allributions or external, situational attri­
butions are made. People attribute bad outcomes to others while claiming for
positive outcomes_
24 . Discuss tile role of heredity in determining personality.
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p.19
Th(J exact role tllat heredity plays in personality is inconclusive. However, re­
search on identical twins (the Jim twins) raised apart has shown some support for this
perspective. Despite a continuing debate on heredity versus environment, genetics
... experts and educational psychologists generally argue tllat intelligence is to some de­
. giee inherited.
25. What did the Milgram study demonstrate about the role that the situation plays
in the human personality?
1. Subjects from a variety of occupations administered increasing levels of shock
to a fellow learner.
2. The subjects were exposed to the accomplice's vocal responses (moans,
screams, pleas, etc.) and were encouraged by the experimenter to continue the
experiment.
3. Contrary to expert opinion, almost two-thirds of the subjects went ahead and
administered what they thought was a very dangerous or even fatal amount of
voltage.
4. The results of the experiment suggested that people tend to obey those in
authority positions, even though their behavior goes against their personality or
better Judgment.
26 . . What are successful organizational socialization strategies?
1. Provide a challenging first job.
2. Provide relevant training.
3. Provide timely and consistent feedback
4. Select a good supervisor to be in charge of socialization.
5. Design a relaxed orientation program.
6. Place new recruits in work groups with high morale.
27. Discuss altitudes as a complex cognitive process.
1. They tend to persist unless something is done to change them .
0141 Organizational Theory ESSClY Queslions p.20
2. They can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very
unfavorable.
3. They are directed toward some object about which a person has feelings and
beliefs .
2B. Discuss the role attitudes play in organizational behavior in terms of help peo­
ple adapt to their work environment.
1. They help employees adjust tot heir environments and are a basis for future
behaviors.
2. They help employees delend their self images and Justify actions.
3. They provide a basis for expressing central values.
4. They help supply standards that allow people to organize and explain the world
around them.
29. Discuss how it is possible to change employee attitudes.
1. Provide new information.
2. Use lear
\
3. Resolve discrepancies between attitudes and behavior
4. Use innuence from friends or peers.
5. Employ co·optation whereby disgruntled employees are made a part of the
process and given credit for it.
30. Discuss the importance 01 job satislaction in achieving productivity.
Most research evidence indicates that there is no large positive relationship be­
tween satisfaction and productivity; however, if people are rewarded equitably. they
will be more satisfied and they may strive for a greater performance effort.
31. Discuss the rel<1tiollsilip between job satisf<lction and absenteeism.
There is all inverse rel<1tiollship between job satislaction and absenteeism. People
who believe that their work is important tend to have lower absenteeism then those
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. 21
who don't. It is important to remember, however, lhal high job salisfnclion will not
necessarily resull in low absenleeism, but low job snlisfaction is likely to bring about
high absenteeism.
.32. Discuss how Viclor Vroom's Expectancy Theory depicts a process of r.ogllitive
I· .'
variables which renect individual differences in moli vu\l on. Whal are the varl"blcs in
his the Expectancy Theory.
1. Valence - the strength of an individual's for a p:Hli clIlilr oulcorl1e.
2. Instrumentality - the degree to which Cl Il,::.\ lev,) 1 (lulcome will lei.\ d I!> dfJsired
second level outcome.
3. Expectancy - the probability thot a porticul " r effcr\ will lead 19 a fJJ riiQlIlar iir t. l
level outcO(lle.
The model helps management understand worl<()rs' Il\(H!vatiofl, t3tJi does not prQ­
specific solullons to motivational problems.
33. Discuss how equity theory argues that a major !!'FaH per-rorm<)nce a'l<1
satisfaction is the degree of equily or ineqlJity it,,!t perceive !n tf1eir w.C]rk
situation.
Inequity occurs when a person perceives ill\! ri.I[iQ Cjf tlll;'tler QuICOf11\lS 10 In­
puts are unequal. Inputs and oulcomes are bast'ld on parccp\lor. . Motiv,,\lol"l tInder
Ihls perspective can be defined by the drive 10 restore equily. This may be done in
several ways: .. ,_
1. Aller the Inputs or outcomes
2. Cognilively distorts the Inputs or outcomes.
3. Leave the field
4. Acl on the other
5. Change the other
of Inequity can occur nol only when a person feels cheated, bul also in
the Case c!f overreward_ There has been research support for the Iheory.
'. /
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p.22
34. Compare nnd conlrnst job enlnroemcnt <1nd job enrichment.
Job enlargemenl is tcrmed horizontal job loading. II makes the job less specialized
by adding more functions to it, but withoul increased responsibility for Ihe worker.
Job enrichment is a direcl outgrowth of Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of
motivalion. In particular, job enrichment is concerned with designing jobs that include
v;lrit:ty of work content, require higher levels of skill, give workers more auton­
tJrtiy illl!J provide feedback.
Job enrichment vCl li c:Jlly tgads \tIe job, which means that there are not necessarily
rTlClfe 10 pcrrcmp, but more responsibility for the overall job.
35. ExpliJill the Q\ i3!ity of worK life (OWL) approach 10 job design. Q\Nl is a more
flppro!)cll !c jOb <j!JSigli. It i3 primarily concerned wilh the impact of work and
Qf(l!lnll. ation<1! cliJTltltc en poople, and how this in turn innuences organizational effec­
D:::;!gn e!lO!l5 Ure focused on the human-technology-organization inlerface.
P;JfUClpntion In problem solving and decision making is cenlral to Ihis
il P P r(l aen.
Ey.pli.iin (l I e approach to job design. This approach is
grCllJmlc!j In systems irH':OP)' , If i:; concerned wilh the harmony between personal, so­
t;lal and lcchnologica! functioning. This approach generally involves the redesign of
lechnological work processes and the formation of autonomous, self-regulating work
groups.
37. Discuss the interrelationship of goal selting with human resource
management.
Effective goal setting includes the following elements:

1. specific goals are more effeclive than vague, general or "do your best goals."
2. difficult, challenging goals tend 10 be more effective than relatively easy,
mundane goals.
I
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p.23
3. c'lVned and accepted goals arrived at through participation are preferred to
goals.
4. objective, timely feedback about progress toward goals is preferable to no

38. VVhat are the four major techniques of administering reinforcement?
1. Fixed-ratio schedules - reinforcement is given after a fixed number of
responses. This schedule tends to produce a high response rate that is
vigorous and steady.
2. Fixed-interval schedules - reinforcement is given after a specined time or period,
measured from the tast reinforced response. Under a fjxe0-iniervat schedule
there is an uneven pattern that varies from a slow respan:;e imrnediatf; ly
following reinforcement to a vigorous r",spollse immediately preceding
reinforcement.
3. Variable-ration schedules - reinforcement is given after a randomly varietl
number of responses. Each response has an equal chance of beirlg reinforced
regardless of the number of responses that have preceded it.
4. Variable-interval schedules - reinforcement is given ::Ifter a randomly distributed
length of time.
39. Discuss the five step problem solving model for O.B. Mod.
1. The first step involves the identincation of critical behavior. These behaviors are
those which make a significant impact on performance - the ten percent of the
behaviors that account for eighty percent of the performance. Critical behaviors
may be identined by a person closest to the job, like the immediate supervisor or
the job holder.
2. The next step involves measuring the bel13'1iors. A baseline frequency is
obtained by counling the number of times the behavior occurs under existing
conditions. Measurement also occurs arler tile intervention a5 well to note
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. 24
changes occurring because of the intervention. It is important that observational
data be gathered as unobtrusively as possible.
3. After identification and measurement of the behaviors, a functional analysIs Is
performed (A-S-C) . A Is the antecedent cue, B Is the behavior, and C Is tlld
I;. .
contingent consequence. The functional analysis often reveals there are
many competing contingencies for behavior. Thus, It Is Important to Idenllfy only
the contingent consequences.
4. The intervention strategy strengthens and accelerates functional 'performance
behaviors andlor weakens and decelerales dysfunctional behaviors. There are
two major strategies:
11. Pot;Hive - repfOS()!lts a form of positive control of behavior; it
Ii; mult! "iffl,;ti\'C f.ll!d long ld!;ting til;:)n negative control. This involves the
:1pp!icBlil)l) d a positive COn$equflnce following functional performance
bof1(lviuf.
b. PlIni"ll1lCflVnosi !ivo - II should be used to weaken and de­
dY5(wndioil;:,1 bohaviors. II never be used always
be cOiilbirHld wiil! r(:!info(cement. Reasons for this include the fact
tita! punished beh;] vior tands to bo only temporarily suppressed, Ihat il may
hal:e 11 CJiS8$irous :;ide drect, and it is difficult for a supervisor 10 swllch
roles (rein to positive reinfOicer.
5. The last step involve::: a systematic evaluation or performance improvement.
Thore are four leve!s of evalu<ltion:
a. Tile reaction level refers to whether people administering and experiencing
the approach like it.
b. The second level is learning. This helps answer the question of whether
people using the approach know why they are using it.
c. The third level is ainled at behavioral change; that is, are the behaviors ac­
tually changing?
\
: i
'j
I'
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Queslions p.25
d. The Fourth level is performance improvement which is the overriding pur­
pose for O.B. Mod. This slep is important. since bel1'lVioral change may
not necessarily reflect performance improvement.
.. .'
40. What improvements have O.B. Mod application:; mach: i!l OfQ<lllizations?
1. Increased employee productivity
2. Reduced absenteeism and tardiness
3. Improved safety and accident prevention
4. Improved sales performance
41. Discuss'the Iowa leadership studies.
The Iowa study was the first to analyze icnders11!p foclenliflc methodolOGY
and they showed that different styles of leadership cnn oilferen! fOl
ac1
i(lJ1s
from the same or similar groups. A group of boys al.lumllWJ to ihree
types of leadership (authoritarian, democratic, lai (jlu;z It'lir). The!;t: wefl'l ,na­
nipulated to show their eNects on satisfaction fn.JW!lUon/p90rosSI()t1 , ,11!l
authoritarian group reacted either aggresslve!y (Ii tlf/qtt-,eli"llIy. ihe laio)
group produced the greatest number or eggr!.!s5ive 6C10, ond ejenloG
r
a!IC !all in
between. The vast majority preferred the democratic leader to [jie olh,x two.
42. Discuss the Ohio State Leadership Studies.
The Ohio Stilte Leadership studies showed consistency in identifying two dimen­
sion of leadership: consideration and Initiating structure. These studies were the first
to point out and emphasize the important of both task and human dimensions in as­
Sessing leadership. While this approach lessened the gap between scientific man­
i:gement and human relations, the validity and focus of the study has been criticized.
43. Discuss Ihe Michigan Leadership Studies.
Uslr1q supervisors and clerical workers in an insurance company, these studies
::howea that supervisors of high producing. groups were more likely to have
0141 Orgonizationol Theory Essoy Questions p. 26
employee-centered and general supervisory styles. Low producing groups had su­
pervisors wilh essentially opposite characteristics and techniques. Employee salis­
faction, however, did nol show a direct relationship to productivity.
44. Discuss the trait theory of leadership.
The "Great Man" theory says thai a person is born either with or without the neces­
sary traits for !eaderslllp. 1\ more recent and realistic approach accepts the fact that
ieadersIllp trails are not tompletely inborn, but can be acquired through learning.
The results of il search for universal traits are disappointing, and the only consistent
reslill was Hlilt are generaliy brighter than their followers, but not too much
!)c.
Flt.dier's Contingency Theory of Leadership.
HI:) cO'1tin!]ency model COiltairiC!d the relationship between leadership style (human
r;;:I£ltion" or tfJSk·dir<.:cl) f:!6 measured by the Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale.
<lnd till! filVOrLlVlcne!Js or the Bituation (leader-member relations, degree of lask slruc­
ture, end power).
1. Situations favorable for the leader when all three situational dimensions are
high. When the dimensions are low, the situation is unfavorable.
2. Under highly favorable or unfavorable situations, task directed leaders are more
effective. In situations of moderate favorableness, by far the most
situation, human relations leaders are more eHective.
46. Discuss Blake and Mouton's managerial leadership grid.
These theorists identify five leadership styles arranged along the 'of
"concern for production" and "concern for people."
1. The impoverished" style (1,1 manager) shows minimum concern for people and
production.
2. The most effective style (9.9) manager) is higtlly concerned with both people
and production.
01-11 Organiz;]tiollal Theory Essay Questions p. 27
J. The "middle-of-the-roader" is the 5.5 mnn;]ger.
4.4. The "country club"style (1,9) manager) is very concerned about people and
minimally concerned about production.
.'. 5. The "task" style (9,1 manager) is very concerned about production and
minimally concerned about people.
47. Discuss Hersey and Blanchard's life-cycle or situational approach to
leadership.
The model suggests there are tyvo major styles (task and Ic,!<.itionship) ;;l:ld a
leader's style should be varied according to the level of maturi:y exhibited tll'
subordinates.
1. Task style: organizing and defining subordinate roles; flxplaining t3sks in
of when, where, and how subordinates should do them.
2. Relationship style: open communication and psychological arlJ clnotion ;;iJpport
in leader's personal with subordinates.
3. Subordinate maturity is defined by degree of achievern'3nt molivati'm,
willingness to take on responsibility. amount of education/experience.
4. Four basic leader styles in this approach are:
a. telling (hgh-task/low relationship)
b. selling (high-task/high-relationship)
c. participating ((Iow-task/high/relationship)
d. delegating (low taSk/low-relationship)
46. Discuss the findings of Luthans' Real Managers Study.
In an attempt to discover what managers really do, Luthans and his colleagues
conducted a comprehensive four-year study based on observations of the daily activi­
ties of managers from various levels and types of organizations.
1. "Successful" managers, defined in terms of speed of promotion, spent relatively
more time than other managers in networking activities and retativety less time
in human resource management activities.

U 141 Organizational Tileory [SS;]y Questions p. 26
2. "Effective" managers, defined In terms of their unit's performance and the
satisfaction and commitment of their subordinates, spent relatively more
than other managers on communication and human resource management
activities and relatively less time in networking activities.
3. The differences found between those managers being promoted and those
managers judged as most effective point to the need for organizations to
properly identify and reward good performance. Short-run solutions may focus
on perform;}nc0 appr;Jisat and rew;]rd systems; long-run may involve
the de;:t}!QPIT,,,nt of ouitUi31 values that support and reward effective
00rfrJrmo liCe.
-10. th<: rnujor cli;clf::lr.teris\ics of a group.
!\ gfr;t.I0 ;! (;clilCc;tion ,)1 illdividu • .l£1 in which there is;
i. ini{Jrfl!:l !iorl amonll rncl1, bers
2. peiGPp!iofl 01 groUp iilc!libcrship
3. shared norm:; and values. ilnd
4. iVle (Wh3t to one member affects other members,
8ild w!lal h;1ppons to lhe group as a whole affects individual members)
50. OI:;clJs$ n1:c1jor characteristics of a primary group.
(, rrirnGIY gruup ha$ of comradeship, loyalty, and a common sense of val­
ues (family and peer groups). Work groups also have primary group qualities.
51. Discuss tile major characteristics of a coalition.
Coalitions are very powerful groups in organizations. They include the following
characteristics:
1. Inter;]cting group of individuals;
2. constructed deliberately by members for a specific purpose;
3. independent of fornwl org;lIlization structure;
4. lacking <:I formal intern<:ll structure;
0141 Organlzallonal Theory Essay Questions p. 29
5. mutual perception of membership:
'. ,
6. Issues-oriented to advance purposes of numbers:
7. external forms; and
.. 8; concerted member action.
52. Besides primary groups and coalitions, what 'lfl! somo olher of Qro
u
ps7
1. Membership groups - groups to which tht! indlvidll<11 OGillnlfy be!ol'£1
s
.
2. Reference groups - those to which an individual wcu!(l iikE! 10 bCfonO
she or he Identifies with them.
3. In groups - thQse who have the dominant values.
4. Out groups - those who are on the outside lOOKing ifl .
53. Describe the concept of groupthink and whai cau:;·;!! it.
Groupthink is a dysfunction of highly COlifl:;ivf! groups. 1\ from pte!' .·
sures on Individual members to conform and reach Cc>,,:lO!1f!tJS . (j11!! (If Hi <:! fir:;t s yt11 P­
toms Is called "risky shift." This refers to ti:F. fact HHll :;r:".Ip:, 1110r",
decisions than individual members do cn the:r own. To help 1I1
e

effects of groupthink. minority and unpopular viewpoints should be encouraged, and
the pros and cons of each alternative course of action should be examined
thoroughly.
II". What are some advantages of committee action over that of individual action.
1. and integrated judgment
2. l;;reater horizontal communication between departments and reduced conflict
3. I"creased motivation and commitment of members due to participation.
55. 'What are some disadvantages associated with committees
1. time consuming and costly
2. Divided responsibility teading to no individuilt responsibility or nccountability
3. Decisioris are often products of excessive compromise and minority dorniru
1
t
l
on.
0141 Orgnnizational Theory Essay Questions p. 30
56. Discuss the role of norms in organizations.
1. Aid il\ grot1p :;uNivJI ,lnd provision of benefits .
2. 5implity or oli1ke predictable ttle behavior expected of group members.
3. Hetp Ihe group to avoid interpersonal problems.
4. Expross the ccntr;:Ji vatues or goali of the group and clarity what is distinctive
1Il(3 group':!
57. WIllit £HO some practical benefits to be derived from informal organization.
1, Mi,lkl}' for a mar" system;
2. ti l e wOlk IClad on !T'lanagen. ent;
3. rill", in g<lps in m:lflaOf!rll ' abililii!s:
'1. i1 safeiY Viilue for emplc.!yee· e;no!ions: and
5. !il'lpro,<es 'JOrnf·nllllication.
513. Discuss some sources of job stress such as extra organizational, organiza­
tional. group and individual stressors.
1. Job stress is not limited to things that happen at work. Extraorganizational
I
stessors Include things such as change, gender and class, and community
conditions.
2. Organizational stressors can be grouped into organizational policies. structures,
physical conditions, and processes.
. . .,:
3. The work group can be a potential source of slress stemming from three major
areas: lack of group cohesiveness, lack of social support, and conflict.
4. There ' are many individual-level stressors. Role stressors (including conflict,
ambiguity, overload. and underload), and personality dispositions that ha.... !3
dramiltic effects 011 the il1dividunl nt work.
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p.31
59. What are some of the dysfunctional eHects of high levels of stress that are of
major concern to human resource managers.
)'he problems exhibited by the individuals may be physical, psychological or
behal/ioral:
1. Most of the research over the years has been devoted to the impact that stress
has on physical health. A high level of stress accompanies by high blood
pressure and high cholesterol can result in heart disease, ulcers, and arthritis.
such physical ailments have consequences lor both individuals and tho
organlz.ation.
2. Little attention has been given to the impact of stre!'oS Oil fIl!!f'1tai h,,;::llh, Qut til:;!
psychological problems resulting from ;He just ;lS irlirOr{;;;T!!:J:> the
physical problems. Affective and emotional outcomes ineiudl?: al10er, am<inty.
depression, irritability, loss of 'self estp.em, moodiness and dis!;c;tisfactiuii .
Stress-related workers' compensation insurance claims are inCle3(lln[; at il
faster rate than other types of claims.
3. Direct behaviors that may accompany high leveis e)f stress inclutk3:
a. under/overeating
b. sleeplessness
c. increased smoking and drinking
d. drug abuse
60. Discuss the major classifications of power as outlined by French and Raven.
1. Reward power - this source of power depends on the person's ability and
sources to reward others. The target of the power must value these rewards .
2. Coercive power - this source of power depends on fear. The person with
coercive power has the ability to innict aversive consequences or to make
threats that the target believes will result in aversive consequences.
3. Legitimate power - this power source depends 011 the position or role that the
person holds. Legitimate power can come rrom tile cultural , values of a
0141 Olg<lllizatiol1<ll Theory Essay Questions p.32
dominant group, accepled social structure, and being as
representative of a powerful person or group.
4. Referent power - this source comes from the desire on the part of other persons
to identify with the agent wielding power.
5. Expert power - this source is based on the extent to which others atlribute
knowledge and expertise to the agent. In particular the target must percelvti tht'l
agent to be credible, trustworthy. and relevant.
61. How :1(6 rH..Wt,r politics intmrela'ed in organizations?
Tho <:,(;(i lj isiiioil of P()':-ihi in organi.wOon depends greatly on political strategies.
fCljf tHo
'1. tn Dj(l cornpete for resources.
7. . C:oni; tiol'" wil! SQok to protect their interests and positions of innuence by
i'li\JderntirI9 cnvir(: nmeI1i:.1 pressures.
3. Unr;,(lu"l di:.lributiul1 oi IjOWOr h"IS dehumanizing effects.
4. 'fh" '.' ;tor<;iso of pOVJ(lr within ()rgor.!zations is one aspect of the exercise 01
PC'Nor witllin the klrger $oci;J1 system.
G2 . Wiwt are 1:I0l11Q polltical strategies for acquisition within I
org,.nizntiol1s?
1. Maintain n/liances with powerful people.
2. Embrace or uf.! molish.
3. Divide and rule.
4. Manipulate classified information.
5. Make a quick shuwing.
6. Collect and lise IOU·s.
7. Avoid decisive engagement (don't rurne feathers).
8. Progress one step at a time.
9. Wait for a crisis.
10. Take counsel with caution.
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Question:; p.33
63. What are the major categories of organizational communication.
1. Management Information Systems - gellerilily computerized systems which
integrate networks of information that support managemcnt deCision making,
J, ­
strategic planning, customer service aclivitie!; ,. ond <letup! cornrnunlcil!iOIl.
2. Telecommunication Technology - involves the of information within
and between organizations l!slng COmpl.ltflr, WlcphQne, and tl!levi!iion
lechnologies, wireless systems .of portab!e phone, and wir !! c1 Qf fiber
optic linkages. Existing telecomrnunica!i()f\S oppliCiitior'l> include:; telephons
caUer 10, electronic mail, electronic dat5 1r.:.e
rch
llIl9/l (12DI). votce
, .
and electronic bulletin boards.
3. Nonverbal - nonword human response::, ,',S boey Ii 111 e , IipaClJ,
paralanguage, enVironmental context. etc., t!,a\ !11
Ca
n
ln
Q.
64. Feedback makes communication C!. t't"Q w!?y prOG!liU!. c!ie_clive Gi.ln
be characterized by the following:
": f
1. Intention - feedback should be directed \QW<i(d Q!iil{J Qi s 0' tho Joti .
2. Specificity _ feedback should provide specific information so that the recipient
knows what needs to be done.
3. Description - effective feedback provides information in objective terms rather
than presenting a value judgment.
4. Usefulness _ effective feedback is Information that an employee can use to
. Improve performance.
5. Timeliness - the more immediate the feedback. the better.
6. Readiness - employees must be ready to receive feedback.
7. Glarity - feedback should be clearly understood by the recipient.
8. Validity - effective feedback is reliable and valid.
65. Wni1! et!.'l some methods of promoting effective upward communication and
Improv!ng listening habits?
0141 OrgilniziltionLiI Theory Essay Qucstions p. 34
1. Grievance procedure - illiow employees to make upward appeals and protect
individuals from arbitrary action by their direct supervisor.
2. Open Door policy - allows subordinales to interact wilh their supervisor when
needed or wanted.
3. Counseling, altitude questionnaires, and exit interviews - these contribule
upward information for manilgement to correct or prevent probtems.
4. Participative lechniques - either informal or formal participation programs
generail), result iil more salisfied employees and, occasionally, beller
pcrformerc.
5. OmtilJdspcrson - oncourages subordinate-initiated communication, especially in
!iHSjC. depersonalized organIzations.
oc. PiSCUf,6 "le effectiveness and problems of participative decision making. Er­
is In.f!uEr1Cr.d by !eadership styles, and personality, and situational, con-
1(J)(!Val, nmJ idl3o:ogiC'iJ! [f;lctors. One of the problems with participation is that it is
vC>.ry lii'ne conr,Uflling. /1,1$0, fn;)nagers often ask for participation but do not let subor­
dll1a!f!6 Decome or emolionally involved or utilize their suggestions.
67 . What are some examples of formal programs of employee participation in
organizations?
1. The Scanlon Plan is a pioneering form of labor-management cooperalion.
2. Suggestion plans or boxes represent another traditional participation program.
3. Quality circles, a technique widely used in Japan, are small groups of volunteers
from the same work area who collectively solve work-related problems.
4. Self-managed work groups have become very popular in the most
firms. These groups run themselves and have proved to be very producti"'e in
firms such as General Mills.
66. What are some criticisms of the Weber's bureaucratic model?
·1. Speclillizalion - creates conflict between speciatized units.
0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. 35
2. Hierarchy - individual initiative and participation are often blocked . Upward
communication and horizontal communication are impeded. .
.... ,
,.. 3. Rules - rules often become ends In themselves. Rules are used for punitive
control from above.
4. Impersonal characteristics - are concerned with human problems (both
employees an customers) associated wit bureaucratic structures.
69. What are Warren Bennis' criticisms of bureaucracy?
1. Does not allow personal growth and development.
2. Develops conformity and groupthink.
3. Does not take into account the inform,,! organiziltion.
4. Has no judicial process.
5. Does not possess adequate means for connict resolution.
6. Communication and innovation are distorted or thwarted.
7. Does not fully utilize hUman resources.
B. Cannot assimilate the influx of new technolog y.
9. People In bureaucracies become conditioned and duil .
70: What are the various types of departmentation?
There are many types of departmentation: functional, product, geographic. lime,
service, customer, equipment and alpha-numeric. An organization is identified by tbe
type or departmentation at the primary level, allhough lower levels may be repre­
sented by different types.
71. The staff concept in organizations was developed by the military. One of the
problems in using this concept in organizations is the conflicting definitions regarding
line and staff positions. Under a pure military approach. line carried decision making
authority, whereas, staff acts in an advisory capacity. When applied to other types of
organizations, the distinction becomes fuzzy. Orten, lower and middle managers are
01-11 Organiz<ltional Theory Essay Questions p. 36
line within their own departments, but become staff when dealing with outsldQ depar1
ments. This can result in a breakdown of communication and open connict.
72. Discuss the composition or a the matrix form of organization.
The functional department heads have line authority over their departmenl., bIJ
the functional personnel are assigned to given projects.
1. Matrix designs have both vertical and horizontal structures- and
characteristics such as hierarchy and unity of command .
2. Matrix structures discourage informal groups and the nurturing
siJperit.,; - $ bordin ;Jte rei a lions hips.
3. Mat; ix strliC{U'::'!:l inci ,.de tlle positive aspects of both the functional and proJ
such iioxibility of personnel, responsiveness to project needs
tiasires. apecialized knowledge, and one manager is the focal pain!
erAth pi0!e:cl.
n. Whnt is ofg'Jl1iz<1t ional cuilure and how does it develop.
1. t:.:Jr. bo defined as <.l common perception by the "rganization's'membe
2. Cuiturer. develop scmo version of the following steps:

b. Inili3i core group who shares a common vision with the founder .
c. FoUl1ding c<, 're group creales the organization.
d. CorrlJllOn history is developed with the addition or others.
74 . WI1at are the ct1aracteristics of Theory Z?
1. Employment witt1 the organization is fairly long term.
2. More emphasis is given to training and evaluation than promotion.
3. There is emphasis on job rotation and broad based training.
4. Decisioll making is carried out with emphasis on group participation.
5. There is attention and concern for all aspects of the workers' life.

01-11 OrQ<llliZ<lliorwl Theory Ess<lY Questions p. Subordination of Individual Interest to Gener.:liiQS according to lh:! dynamics of each organization. Heidelberg. Organizational activities must have one (unt' . A well dclilled hierarchy .onil1g of ony orgCinl2a­ lion. Cenlralization..irabll3 consequences. N all loveis of the organizalionalladder zeal and energy on I he Clnpio)ieC!!> aft! <'Iugfllf!nlf)d by initiative. .liva.1 intl~res!.:Hl be cl. Good discipline requires managers to appiy sanctions _". While needless departure from the chain of command should be discouraged. Obedience and respect between a firm and its employees based on clear and lair agreements is abliolutely essential to the r~mcl. Unity of direction.:. e. A chain of authority exisls from the highest org<Jnir. Weber's interest in organizalions evolves from his view of the institutionaliz power and authority in the modern Western world. I. The right materials and the right employees are necessary lor each organizational function and activity. GQfPS. He constructed a "rallor authority" model of all ideal type bureaucracy.l(jIHl by cleating work teams and using extensive face-to-Iace ~ one plan 01 action .)x Vv'ob-:!r's contributions to organizational theory. Weber believes Olll bureaucracies have cerlain characteristics: a.-I 0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. Scalar chain. Stabilily or Tenure or Personnel.aliol1 is lhe br.ational author­ ity to the lowest ranks. Unity of command. Remuneration of Personnel.J(H.ierad by DIll­ ployees. h. All positions within a bureoucracy are slruc \ WOly permitting the higher positions 10 supervise and control the lower posiUo j. Teal1".. .i. I . come apparent. Management Ins Generally the managerial peraonnel 0 wtHln~.\'1 al the University of Berlin.on of .ltiull of personnel.iS unc!lli. 'ilJili!e subsE1qUGn! organizational research has created controversy over n r-"yol's principles. 'ihlnkipo out a plan and ensuring its success is an extremely motivalor..le of cel\iralil~liD[) v. lpi!l. thay are sli!! widely used In management theory. This Ideal type rested on a the "legality" 01 patterns 01 normative rules and the right of those elevated to < to issue commands (legal aUlhority). Max Weber C:.' ."er viDlaticns be­ perous coriCGIfiS Is stable.ls and gO:lls o( the or­ ganization and cannol prevail over it. The desire for equily and equality of treatment . tho[ of unsuccessful ones is unstable. .sified in the bureClucralic management branch of 1I. r1. DiscUS!! ~A. Wcl. In organizations equity is a combination or kindliness and Justice. ' (:ni school. Discipline.vcrk is fundamenlally important to an organizalior i~ enc::ow. Ow !. Web~r assumed teaching. It should be rair and provide ~atisf3clioll buth 10 tho employee Md t'!ril­ 6. The objective of centr<tliz.. employee or group of employees are subordinate to tho inlcre!.. o Esprit til. . using the "gang plank" principle of direct communication b-etweefl employees can be extremely expeditious and increase the erlectiveness of organiza­ tional communication. Order. Saiaries am the prio:u or services rellt.) prominent Bismarckian era German pbllllc' r<liseu in Berlin and sludiad law at the University of Berlin.. i. menls in ecollomics at the Universities of Freiburg. end his death after a bout with pneumonia at the University of Munich. producf. it is essential to mainlain a stable work force. Organizational order for materials and personnel is essential.. Employees cannot adapt to dual command . Tile inlcrosts oi one CCii. g. The rale of remuneration is dependent on the value of til!) servic(!s rendered as determined by the employmenl marke!.!st ulitiz.He aspir<ltions to be laken into account ill dealing with employees. In order 10 aUain the maximum product c. r.3 111. and \ personnel. The optimum degn. .. ' authori. An empluyee should receive orders from only one superior. Equity. Weber postUlated the rules and regula! bureaucracy serve to insulate Its members against the possibility of I f'lVoritisrll..lrnUJ1ic allo(l. Vienna.}!. d. After assl1mlng poifllll1en\ le:1cliing 1. ployer.

the women are supervised by the eXperimenters conducting the study.lhorw! Eiiperirnerit~ consist of two studies conducted at the Hawthorne Works or \i. hiri!1~. Beginning in 1927 a second group of experiments commenced with a group Df five women in the bank wiring room. ro :!tt')tb ablilly merit as the primary characteristics or a bljrealj. \!Vllat \'!a:> !!!!l HilwihOine study and why Vias it important? n!G IIQ. This necessitates granting each employee the reCluisitc authority to complete all such tasks .>.l!vity incentives. c.-. As the name implies. Taylor's major techniques included time and motion studies whereby the work task was divided into its constituent ele­ ments or motions and eliminating wasted motions so that the work would be done in the "one best way" as well as timing the remaining motions in order to arrive at an ex­ pected rate of production. iTiir.li rel<. iliis organ!ZaliQI'lal '1\mosphqm ". 0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p.lo t:/J fi. The initial study in 1924 was conducted by a group of engineers seeking to de ­ terminethe relationship of lighting levels to worker productivity. Records. Tll.I~i(.Gern (jay ~lo[jI·~cttiil9. All organizational O)clivilic5 :. fl .. Taylor c!alnwej the piim<lry mulivation of an employee was to earn money.' master a particular task. Taylor's contributions to organizational theory. done in connection with the National Research Council of the Nalional Academy Sciences. The name was intended to contrast his approach with the unscientific approaches that characterized increases as . This was forerunner of nlc.!) Wc~tcrn ElectriC Cornpany in Chicago from 1924 to 1932.S WOqlrj f.l!Je:rs fif1d omploYQ Weber b(lli ~ vos It quanlity of work eaC/1 day based on the results of time study. Tools find procedures point where standard operating procedure!! nre (Jovelaped 10 prqvldo <:!!rlalnly \!Y\d lil­ cilitate coordination.1on . This sys­ r lO !1.. Discuss Frederick W.r.:. Competence 5ho.liece rale syslem. Weber's bureaucratic principles have been widely adopted throughout the world. 0141 Oryanizational Theory Essay Questions p. was intended to provide individual employee prOdll<.a.".:!G::. !710n. krwwn as tile .110111<1 b~ fillionali~ecl 10 the Taylor also pushed strongiy for standardization in the deSign and use of tools.r1~ . There­ foro. Rules and regulations.!I!G QrQ<lhi1vl. iH1 imperSQI1.ltiol1ship willl the ~tf1flloye f.~ pOr~Oni:ll biatl anN lit H ~ i9flin­ cance of "knowing someone" i. for i:l!1 deC::ls!Q i\ ~ rlla(le !n. H18 way to get <111 employee to work haider was to pay by the piece. Impersonal relationships between w~rc slandardized in accordance wilh what designs were most Taylor also advocaled a worker be assigned a given effcctive in !l given context. . This advances an accurate organizational "memory" where accurate and complete documents will be available concerning all bureaucratic actions and determinations. Taylor has been termed the father of scientific management. During the course or Ihe experimcnl.OUlll also facilitate rational evaluation of ernr!oy~~" mJlcOrnc:j where persQ!1n! preJuQice would not be a dominant considerfttio/'l. job assignments. '" . All responsibilities in an organization are rationalized to the point where each employee will have !lie necessary expertise to traditional mallagernent practices at the time. The stUdy wal! complete files regarding al\ its activities . it was a scientific approach to managerial decision making.rllc:uiar focus is on lighting and attempts to operationalize many of the principles of scientific management. d. Competence.l centrEIi PQIt.11)(: . Or The results of the study findings are extremely interesting since worker produc~ivity 7.e lJafjl:. Division of labor and specialization. 6 provides a clear chain of command facilitating control and order throughout the organization. Addilionally the . The study's f. Yet.the lighting levels decrease until the employees are unable to slOe what Ihey are doing after which performance naturally declines. b.5 . Weber feels it Is absolu!eiy e3s~nUal for a bi l(60ucmc:y to fTliiintiJln P2. and promotions.ljmin<1!. is necessary for managers to mainlair'.QnrWI '. there are many critics..:i because of the need to have a rtJtion~1 declslQI' rn<lKltlg prQc~~s rathqr tlwn one Illflu­ enced by favoritism and personal pr~jljdi(. e.

He was also very active prores­ sionally including acting as the head of the Rockefeller Foundation. While the result of the Hawthorne studies failed to anS'Ner the spcciOc question of the relation between illumination and worker productivity. This Is consls­ a IC"lt with his belief that ihu eXecuti"e's main organizational fUnction is acling as a clJanllei of cOll1munlcalion and maintaining the organization in operation. Barnard feels organizational communication nows from the bottom to the top.luyecs feel inc'! are mentally amI physically carry out the order from ih/"! hig!ler ::Illthority. Discuss Chester Barnard's contributions to organizational theory. The cmn!. Follct received an education in political science and pursued a professional career as a social worker where she became absorbed in work place related issues. He states there are four factors arrecting the willingness of employees 10 accept authority: 1. He reels il is particularly important ror managers to develop a sense of comfnon purpdse where a willingness to cooperate is strongly encouraged.". the interJ~e inierer.)yees reel th. the results were not published until 1939.xperi­ those having authority to act.:.alionai cOfnmunication process positions him as a bridge 10 the behavioral school or management many of whose early members were his contemporaries. Contrary to Weber beliefs that communication nows from the top of the organiza­ tion to the bottom. 'fhe e1flr. rest periods. J. 8<lrnilrd's sympathy for and understanding of employee needs in the dynamics of .ir (lcti::>ns will be consistent with the needs and desires !)f tnf) utiliH N'l~iQYb('$. became associated with it. the changes in lighting or other associated worker beneol5. 3S being consistenl with the organl­ menters became the primary supervisors of tile employees. Who was Mary Parker Follel and why was she Important to organizational theory? One of the earliest pioneers in the behavioral movement was Mary Parker Folie!. in 1938. ing productivity. The Functions o( tflo organil. their workstation without permission. they conclude the primary determinant of the increase in productivity is the change in the supervisory arrangement r.ed motivation and reswi! .' group C. and Vi/ill cDrnllllmica tioll functions ror the overall organization.ji)S accept the communication z. He is credited with developing the . Basically. and Elton Mayo. a Professor of the Indus­ trial Research Department. Barnard reels organizations are communication systems. 4.'. Oaffli1id also f(!cls irifOlfn"i NO:lnizatiofls within formal organizations perform nec­ :j:.r than Since \he. Roethlis­ berger. Essentially the experimenters became a part of tile study and iniluenced Itt." the experimental group are given special privileges including the right to leave. lhe ()rnpl<.i \h~y displayed for the workers was the basis for the increa:. free lunches and varia­ tions in pay levels and workdays. Tha empioyo(!s mllst understa.d tile communication.7 0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. She the Executive.:.:lthp. the study did create strong theoretical foundation for the human relations view of management. Rather than aS5uming classical management's slrongly hierarchical position of power "mnhrlsi7inn the williflqness or people to accept . ArIer extensive research. 9. He feels the manager's ability 10 exercise authority Is strongly determined by the employee's "zone of indifference" where orders are ac­ cepted without undue question .014i Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. III the second experimental study in 1928 th~ Harvard researchers.Hklif!i PiJrpO ~d".SiHy em its findings .)y.:!s 3. This is the origin of the term Hawthorne Effect describing tho spt!ci~i at­ tention researchers give to a study's subjects and the impact it /!. I . Barnard published his only book. 10. 8 workers . Barnard led a highly successful management career rising to the position of the President of New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. Professor of Human Relations. F. outcome. As with the first set of experiments. 2. ' "' ~"~~~'n~"1 strongly believes in tile inherent problem solving ability of people workIng In groups.f experiments result in signiocantly increased rates of productivity. Arter giving a se­ ries of lectures on management. the second .

these needs generally satisfied.c.!Qw'S theory of motivation. Follet asserls power should be cooperativety shared for the purpose of resolving contlict. '. 12. compromise or volunlary submission by one side over another. Simon is particularly critical of the principles of administration including span of control and unity of command while laying al/ of the principles col/ectively were "no more than proverbs".tt9!Y.c::li. A normal state exists for an Individual to have all of '. human needs are (or aile nltfllOfl to sImply submit to the wishes of the other. Once the physical and safety are satisfied and no longer are motivators. Discuss Herbert Simon's contribution:: 10 organiLu\lonn! n-. needs can be classified according to a hierarchical struc­ Follet states !he best way to handte thIs situ'Jlion i~ 19 r~sOlvlJ Ihe l.tl. P!lY3i"logilZ tll needs. 10 In organizations. . bOL~nded rnoti'lot6r.. pro­ tection.orrJln~1 to hlslher preference. These needs become acute and pre­ (lorl... Third. An individual must develop self confidence.. T!1t~ third alt~rl1 .I\e newcqlll"r may vo!­ untarily agree 10 sit in another part of the library ildjl!sting il1(j winoow ilc. The belonging ness and love needs. Maslow groups all physical needs necessary for maintain­ valves cooperatively working with olhers to devise lf1vcnl!v~ I1fJW Ic) ~ o~ oftl'in rrr:lVidil1f1 strong Interpersonal benefits. both partIes to the G()t10!ct efe t1ilDDY !:ill Iho ISSl)e has been resolved according to their OW'l i1el"irss.thdr person. consistent with M<l:O. and freedom from fear. In this case. The esteem needs. r. Di5ccuss Abmham Maslow's contributions to organizational theory .w::n1 U-. If.9 0141 OrganizationLlI Theory Ess<lY Queslions p. Abraham Maslow was the first psychologist to dt:lvel.0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p.lntlnl if any C! <l!1 of !!lese n8cds are unsatisfied . Otherwise. Simon's greatest management contribulion is in decision making theory for which he received a Nobel prize. it no longer is a 11 .d~: cQ(1r1id reSl)lIJtion if':­ 'j.)P a theory of motivation based upon a consideration of human needs. :. SQr.'l!lv~ fClIch ~\. Deprivation of the belongingness and love need will result in sig­ nificant personality maladjuslment. human behavior is purposeful and is motivated by need stltisf1lcUon. once a need is satisfied. . 2. In order to do Illis it is essenti. ell bo::ina in in this caH:gory. tjvlol is 10 compromIse and close the window haif way whicll wiilllo\ Satisfy ". 4. To through "creative connict resolution" wherc. infJ P1JSIC hlJi1li:ll1 ~.. never completely s~I!!sr1ed. MaslOW'S \lIBory C)f human needs has Ihree assumptions.isUe j~)i!"llty ture of importa.'Ie have lhe basis of a connict.1cC from tile lowest to highest. No"J one person could try and dominate tile ell'ler and force ille window to eith~r pe ()pen or closed leaving the other person unhappy. an individual is silting in a library on a warm -spring day near an open window and a second person t:l'~Gidali to sl)are the lable btlt wishes to close the window 10 avoirj the draft.. they become primary motivators. for example. tlllt be very un/wppy. Safety needs. stability. She is best known for her integration method of conflict resolution as opposed to the three choices she sites of domination. M!\~IOW h. The death knell of classical management theory was prc:mQlJnc. Second. First..ce$sl\l" !evels of \I!~ hierarchy required the satisfaction of the lower level lice.ontj tlllt)ft1\itive i~ Satisficing successfully adapts to and is a realistic solution for the limited time and resources a manager has when considering alternatives in the decision making process. Cre. These needs include the need for basic security. However.c rweds !llcrarchy can be classified into five specinc groups . The individual will strive to establish meaningful relationships with . .. il1 our c)i"rnple. than the belongingness and love needs emerge as pri­ mary motivators. such as thirst. significant others.)1 to Ille individual to have adc'll1acy from acllicvina mastery and Simon states decision makers perform in an arena of rationalily and that the approach to decision making must be one of satis­ ficin)} where satisfactory rather than optimum decisions are often re<lched. Simon found the principles of classical administration to be contradictory and vague. Rccelvin~ his doctorale in psychology. 3.ed by Herbert Si­ mon in his book Admlnlslratlve Behavior: A Sludy of Decision-Making Processes In Admlnlstral/on' Organization published n 1947.

As such. Di~Gij<.. assumes employees are trtJstworthy and cap3ble of assuTfling responsibility having high levels of motivation.' 5. a poet must write . Most 'Jrganizafions utilize only a small proportion of their employees' abilities. Comparable personal rewards are important for employee commitment to achieving work goals. an artist must paint. Work is as natural as play and therefore people desire to work. . Theory Y. .mel the requirement to satisfy basic needs in order to achieve higher level motivation. or eu­ I'. Sy:JlU r11 1 utiiiZe~.]fld employee mOlivational assumpti~ns . th~ Sy Under favorable conditions. Michl­ Uk"' ii Cljlt(iuct6d U !.s r~en0sis Liked's contributions to organizational theory.fear and pUnishmen . lern. Theory Y 1. . the Likert scale. 3.$ociated ar1d tJ. archy are satisfied. A musi ­ cian must make musIc. untrustworthy and incapable of a~s\Jming responsibility while the other type n<l~".ltiofii:l i$ baf.d SiiPG. Theory X 1.VisQrS defined on Ihe basis of high and low productivity. has a negative vlew of ernpi<)ycc~ assuming thoy are lazy. of management. The need for self-actualization.. reputation. directed and threatened with punishment to motivate them to work. ernployoes 11. have the primary decision making responsibility and employees in a System 2 organi ­ zation must act caUtiousiy. regarding employee at1!. This was correlated with their productivity. In on nlJthori!arian supelvisory system where employees are usually not cOllsuihlcJ concerning major decisions. Likert deveioped a rour level managerial classification sys­ of Manager. the average employee will seek and accert . 6. McGregor is the other major theorist a~. Employees are responsible for accomplishing their own work objectives. Theory X and Y has been extremely helprul In promoting management understanding pervisory styles ...)tional UlcQiY. controlled.. System 3 organizations are more open to employee consultation regarding thA managerial decision making process and overt managerial threats are avoided.\ $calo of re~iings is developed. Likert states the System 4 organization is the most open and participative and Is tile ideal state managers should strive to achieve. il". Since employees do not like working. However. 11 competence leading to the achievement of status. is not ambitious. It helps in understanding the motivations and [i(H. The average employee is lazy. Likert stJtcs tile more an organization's management aprw)·':·· tem 4 model. One type of manager." Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory helps the manager to visualiz:e employee moti­ vation. needs di­ rection and principally desires security. 12 5. managers 2. Discuss Douglas McGregor's c:ontributions to organiz..ed 011 ~rn!)!oYiJe inlerV'iows in separate departments In many dirferent organiza­ hillS Wh5r(~ . Employees normally do not like to work and will try to avoid it.''10 . <1 gllpervisory 5ystem based primarily on. 2. shuns responsibility.eait:h. model.J(us are used to motivate employees with some rre~dom being allowed to Gomment on organizational decisions. a "new discontent and restlessness will soon develop . What a man can be.0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. Mcgregor's Theory X and Y is appealing to managers and dramatically dE:mon­ strate the divergence in management viewpoints toward employees.r)rio8 or empirical studies on the dirferences between good 13..)ir i:lipurvisolt. fame and glory.. His research ~H."Qol with ihe Human Rei.'. d Oil his rm. This is termed the democraU I. Whil". ihis result!. he must be. 4.. Assuming all of the previous needs in the hier­ 0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. . Employees can be innovative in solving organizational problems. McGregor believes there are two basic kinds of miH12ger1i. lleinQ the director of the Institute of Human Relations at Ann Arbor. Theory X. 3. gt1r1. This achieves satisfaction of the self-esteem needs.ld. the more productive It will be. they have to coerced.h~s toward Ih. In System 2 organizations rew.

(1. salary. ' . competence and power. The research reveals that the work itsclr and a(:ilicvcnlcnt lion for the achievement are the primary satisfiers or motivators. fe~pon$it}iiity l. ::mil PP.OIT'lpeti1ion wa .tfic!r by American CI. hut cannot motivate him/her. The environmental Q~ I. enjoy. affiliation.uCh as poor lighllng. ventilation.IS Improving org1!ni. pany management climate.l1S0r1s \. 13 15. Discuss Frederick Herzberg's contribulions 10 Ihe study of organizational behavior? Additional empirical research was performed by Herzberg on 200 engineers and accountants.lC!1Ic. McClelland determines the motivational state of the sub­ Jects from these descriptions.0141 Organizationat Theory Essay Questions p. he also taught them the . Discuss David C. mistakes.. His achievement motivation theory is irnporlanl for ITI<lf1agers seeldng understanding of employee motivational pallerns. men!. EdwUids Deming 's contributions to organizational theory. 0141. 4 End the practice of awarding business on the basis of prico tag.. In the Thematic Apperception Test (TAn where an individual writes a descriptive analysis of their individual reactions from unstructured pictures. Degf:H1 I() ch ange after h'. and the power motivation is the need to control olhers and make a difference in the oulcome of a given situation. serve as dissatisfiers.yg!ene faclors.Hporations coping with the mounting international ccmpc!iiivG Ihrej'IL Deming develop~d fOIJrleen nlanagement points: 1 Create constancy of purpose ioward improvement of product and service. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place. with the aim to become competitive.ill make an employee unhappy and dissatisfied. low :.Jllp a flCS8 Scil3ntlsts <lnd Engi. . minimize total cost.s. I:. He soon bCKa:11C s(lught <. however....lU~O 01) till. He performed research on motivation patterns.. Aased upon this research.oJ!lY t!iC . The competence need is the desire to accomplish a job well done. . superJisofY mc\lH)(1s and the ::/I!riell'. Deming is concerned wilh increascQ Ng1. We are In a new economic age. and to provide jobs.l wC'S ia<1tured on an American TV show dealing wilh the r'.!Qrll c. created by Japan..'. job security. employee to develop his/her own internat motivati.leers 10 visit Japan in 1950. We can no longer live with commonly accepted styles of American management. of four sets of needs: achievement. 14 ch<lllenges.' It\~ working conditions. The research objective was to uetcilnlne work situations whera Ihe .l\i\11C)lJgl] wlJli known in Japan. AchIevement motivation is a need people have to succeed through overcoming . 2 I. McClelland developed an achievement motivation the­ ory C:~nsisting Adopt a new philosophy.( Ji1tiUv[llor:. poor working conditior. Factors having a negative motivation impOict on trIC research S\Jpjol1t!i art'..lniU!lional productivity by applying statistical quality controls as well <. Instead. C:. Doming r~r::(1ived his doctorate in physics from Yale and was invited 'by the Union of . The difference between motivators and hygier:e fi!tJ:ors. wtw[eus I\~' giene r" i:. Herzberg terms theSe fl)ctors hY~ljCr.S.. growth. The model states that employee motivation is .ved W!ttl ' able work where achievement. McLelland contributions to organization theory. dlssallsfiers. 16. to stay in business. il~ well as recouni· ! Icrzberg terms these factors 17. The job Itself is the motivator. In addition to urging the Jllpane5~ to usc lIQmpling methods to test for quality control. Organizational Theory Essay Questions p.?atlonal Communication . or defective products.J:lpDr-:e~e t. thieiltening American business. nor with commonly accepted levels of delays.. McClelland believes people have slrong needs. Deming was ignored for years in the U.!oI factor!.' subjects feel highly satisfied and motivated as opposed lei those where the reverse is true. Discuss W. Dr.1ch.hali~ngirlg rnoiivat(~rs.oJ[ tlupervl~Qry rcILl" lions. tlr(l ond advanc~)rnl'!n: encouraged and recognized .ilIOlies. or b~5t WilY ~o lowtJred production cost3 was improved quality. From this research Herzberg developed the lllot!va!lop-hygienEl rom)el of man3gc. The afiili<llion motivation is similar \0 Maslow's belongingness and love need where people relate 10 others on a social basis. :.: 3 Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality.ll (it)ln.

exhortations.iuch of the needs theory developed by Maslow in actual or­ numerical quot:Js for Ihe clay.!1 :1choQI <llso includes the first female organizational theorist Mary PMY. The behavioral school made a profound influence on management theory.r FQI!. 19. and thus lie beyond the power of the wOlk forcG.. 16 school included Max Weber and Henri Fayol.' tem. 9 Break down the barriers between departments. Such o:: ~( hortaliojns or rnanagemeflt. and thus constanlly decrease costs.'ll. and targets fo. revolutionary period of management theory. and production must work as a team to foresoe problems of production ami use that may be encounteied with the product or service. The bulk of the causes of 101'1 productivity iJelong to the (. The evolution of management thought has followed societal trends of the nine­ teenth and twentieth centuries. established the scientific method of managem6nt. He had a profound affect on much of administrative theQry during the early part of the twentieth century. W. o rnp l Oy~ 9 rnollv<1tiJrl. 5 Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service to improve quality and productivity. This . Fayol was the father of the administra­ tive management school. The classical school and bureaucratic scllool of tile early twentieth cenlury Wf>lf! comparative management model. Finally.0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. Frederick Taylor. This means abolishment of the annual rating. desiyn. Remove the barrier~ that rob peoplE' in rnan<lqerner:l illld engineer ing ::I1C!a or ptodudivity irnprovement ond those of Peter Drucker on MBO and manage­ of their right to pride of workmanship. The responsibility of !:upervisors ml1st be changed from sheer num­ ganiz<ltiui):!i St:tlings. (lion! innovation have a major irnpnct on the way today's organizations are managed.. A mJjor r(:sui! of the behavioral school is the demise and repu­ Ji:iliuil rtf (iii) c::1/l~ sicni ScilQ(~i sales. 13 Institute a vigorous program of education and retraining. k s for zero defects and new levels of pro':iucti~·ity. 12 Remove tile barriers tllat rob the Ilourly worker of his rigllt to pride Dr' workmanship.yf.:)llt !ichool brings a more Interdisciplinary approach Ie thl. Tho GOllie rllPOml''1 mnn3g0f1l. as well as' the landmark Haw­ thorne Experiment ughering in Ihe human relations branch of the bureaucratic rnolhod.)t.. The behavioral reS~:lrch &choQi flppiies r. Discuss the evolution of management theory. 6 Institute training on the job. Herbert Simon.Qias McGregor developed Theory X and Y. and management by objective. so that everyone may work elfectively for the company.15 01<11 Organiz<Jlional Theory Ess<ly Questions p. People in research. Edwards Deming is the pre-eminent theorlsl ! this school. tile work forca whic!! [I .. the engineer.' 7 Institute supervision: the aim of supervision should be to help people and ma­ chines and gadgets do a better job.! field 0. 14 Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation.. f11~Jnagomcllt. Thn ifll!!g rati\le rndhodologies of the s)'stems approach and contingency theory give mamlger~ the latitude they need to integrate the research of the many management schools. Supervision of management is in need of over­ haul. nel!ti s !hf~O"Y whll!) Di.' I. 11 Eliminate work standards that pre5crib~ D. It includes the Nobel prize winning crille of the early proverbs of administration. EdWards Deming In the bers to quality. The very important writings of W. 10 Eliminate slogans. Substitute aids and helpful supervision.hool of management Is extremely Important In dealing with iht' cC>f1cQpt versarial relationships. 8 Drivo out fear. Discllss the Behavioral School of Management.H:ii:!vk)r. TI1. It has also become known as Total Quality Management (TOM). It Iii e.nl. or merit rating.n mi'liiOr1!l b(. Herbert Maslow developed the hierarchy of (.1 cm'lte Ct d­ TfiG hu". the quality school of management is extremely important in presenting a 18. as well as supervision of production workers .. The nineteenth century works of Charles Babbage and Robert Owen were concerned with the e<Jrly f<Jctory system as well making social progress .. .. The bei1<Jvioral movement in management was a direct result of the frustration e perienced wilh Ihe cl<lssical school's failure to explain individual behavior with! Ihe first erforts to generate a comprehensive theory of management.

Sizc I1le Illnler. originally intended . In addition. c. d. the Hawthorne experiment. Internal validity assures that there are no plausible alternative explanations other than those reported (threats of internal validity).eptual selectivity. case apptication of classical management theory. organization. Perception is more complex and broader than sensation. situational attri­ butions are made. J 21. d. Vaiidiiy is whelher the study really demonslrates what it is supposed to demonstrate.ity . WI1al " f Cl tll~ round<ltlons 23. ·there are 3 types of validity researchers must be concerned with in understanding research in organizational behavior: Content· how well the measure captures the behavior of inlerest. People attribute bad outcomes to others while claiming positive outcom es_ cr~dit for 24 . odor. Ilonal behavior. C::ollirost . shapes.mote attention will be paid to moving objects than to stationery ones . t. senS6S for rClw data .. 23. the cognitive process filters and modifies these dilli!. the more likely it is to be perceived . The behavioral movement includes Mary P<Jrker Follet imd I !crb Qrt Simon as well and ta~!e. and psychology. Compare and contrast sensation with perception. 20..the degree to Which observable characteristics converge wilh similar conce~ts or discriminate between dissimilar concepts. 18 a show­ 22.~r(lre. the principles of perceptual selectivity. White perception tlepenrJ~ on th".. TI 1 ~. Discuss the significance of r€ilia b!!lt. 'the)! ('Ire nnlhro­ pology. Novelty and Familiarity . Additionally.repeated external stimuli are more attention-getting than a single stimUlUS. so draroalicaily demonstrated till} classical school's shortcomings that it marked a point or no return . fined a3 <In interaction of scle<:lion. Motion .lin(Hy.. the ol!ject. they are unable to allend for the discipline? There are three basic building blocks f<Jr ~rg~(d<:l1!i<m . b. Predictive • an objective statistical relationship between what is being predicted (ciiterlon) and what Is being used to predict it (predictor).: wiil vary depending on whelher internal. The senses are bombarded by numerous internal and exter­ nal stimuli and persons lise the sensa to experience color. and can be de­ as numerous psychologists who turned (rom studying indivithJ i~1 behnvlor to Qrganiza-. The behavioral school was an outgrowth of this revolutionary rTlilnagcrnent e)(peri:nenl. 17 organizations. This is ac­ ctlmpll~!HFJ lhro u g~. Organi~ationaltheory is exlremely intorc. .!i$c:lf. PercepIi6r. Curiously.15 0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. B~caLr :l Cl p ~O p le aiEi confrollted by constant stimuli. tQ tll~rr1 ~I! . 1/1~0i"Y. Discuss tile role of heredity in determining personality. What are the various ex­ lij rnil l allenl.el8ct only a small number at any given time. and Interpretation. the Hawthorne eXrQ[lrrH:lpI~ r:larked 01<: pnG ll inf) of HIe classical school of management. loudness.1 IlJid validity in drgill)lr.0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. What is attribution? Attribution refers to how persons explain the causes of behavior. !nten(.. they :. e.ion iacl0rs triat affect pert. Construct .GIiOnCiI lf1 e0f¥ research.elitmn'ii stimuli which !. Sensation deals mainly with very elementary behavior that is determined largely by physiological function . the more likely it is to be perceived. personal allributions or external. Repetition .new objects In a familiar setting or familiar objects in a new setting are attention getting.tand out or which are not what people are ex­ pecling will receive more attention. SOCiology.the more intense the stimulus. Reliability is the accuracy of measurement and consistency or results.

0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. 2. Provide new information. Employ co·optation whereby disgruntled employees are made a part of the 26 .20 2. etc. They provide a basis for expressing central values. Resolve discrepancies between attitudes and behavior 4. Subjects from a variety of occupations administered increasing levels of shock to a fellow learner. They are directed toward some object about which a person has feelings and beliefs . Use lear 3. search on identical twins (the Jim twins) raised apart has shown some support for this perspective. They help supply standards that allow people to organize and explain the world around them. 1.) and were encouraged by the experimenter to continue the experiment. However. Provide timely and consistent feedback 4.19 Th(J exact role tllat heredity plays in personality is inconclusive. if people are rewarded equitably. 2. They help employees delend their self images and Justify actions. 29. experts and educational psychologists generally argue tllat intelligence is to some de ­ . . . Contrary to expert opinion. 27. They tend to persist unless something is done to change them .. People who believe that their work is important tend to have lower absenteeism then those 30. 4. Discuss altitudes as a complex cognitive process.. pleas. The subjects were exposed to the accomplice's vocal responses (moans. 3. \ ple adapt to their work environment. Place new recruits in work groups with high morale. 1. giee inherited. 2. 3. 5. re­ 0141 Organizational Theory ESSClY Queslions p. screams. 5. Provide a challenging first job. They help employees adjust tot heir environments and are a basis for future behaviors. Use innuence from friends or peers. 31. Discuss the role attitudes play in organizational behavior in terms of help peo ­ 25. The results of the experiment suggested that people tend to obey those in authority positions. Design a relaxed orientation program. There is all inverse rel<1tiollship between job satislaction and absenteeism. Despite a continuing debate on heredity versus environment. 3. What did the Milgram study demonstrate about the role that the situation plays in the human personality? 1. even though their behavior goes against their personality or better Judgment. 3. Discuss the importance 01 job satislaction in achieving productivity. almost two-thirds of the subjects went ahead and administered what they thought was a very dangerous or even fatal amount of voltage. 4. They can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very unfavorable. 2B. Most research evidence indicates that there is no large positive relationship be­ tween satisfaction and productivity. genetics . Provide relevant training . Discuss the rel<1tiollsilip between job satisf<lction and absenteeism. What are successful organizational socialization strategies? 1. 6. they will be more satisfied and they may strive for a greater performance effort. process and given credit for it. 1. however. 2. Discuss how it is possible to change employee attitudes. Select a good supervisor to be in charge of socialization.

lal and lcchnologica! functioning . Inequity occurs when a person perceives tll~it 1'~ \CllOb per-rorm<)nce a'l<1 il PPr(l aen.32. t3tJi does not prQ­ vl~e 35. Change the other Feeliri~s of Inequity can occur nol only when a person feels cheated.the strength of an individual's prere ((~ nCc v. give workers more auton­ tJrtiy illl!J provid e feedba ck. 1. require higher levels of skill. Instrumentality .~. for a p:HliclIlilr oulc orl1e. puts are unequal. Aller the Inputs or outcomes 2._ 1. Discuss how Viclor Vroom's Expectancy Theory depicts a process of r. general or "do your best goals.. job enrichment is concerned with designing jobs that include 9i~at!)r variables which renect individual differences in molivu\lon.'tler QuICOf11\lS 10 In­ grCllJmlc!j In systems irH':OP)' .l level outcO(lle. ' motivalion. mundane goals. Leave the field 4. Job enlargemenl is tcrmed horizontal job loading. which means that there are not necessarily rTlClfe ta ~ KS 10 pcrrcmp.!gn e!lO!l5 Ure focused on the human-technology-organization inlerface. This may be done in several ways: .lrit:ty of work content. Cognilively distorts the Inputs or outcomes. This approach generally involves the redesign of lechnological work processes and the formation of autonomous.. . II makes the job less specialized by adding more functions to it. Job enrichment vC l lic:Jlly tgads \tIe job." 2.. Q\Nl is a more !Jen~ra! flppro!)cll !c jOb <j!JSigli. Expectancy . Discuss the interrelationship of goal selting with human resource 3. It i3 primarily concerned wilh the impact of work and Qf(l!lnll. ~ 5. 37. The model helps management understand worl<()rs' Il\(H!vatiofl. satisfaction is the degree of equily or ineq lJity it. Job enrichment is a direcl outgrowth of Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of necessarily resull in low absenleeism.the degree to which second level outcome. difficult.the probability thot a porticul" r effcr\ will lead 19 a fJJ riiQlIlar iir t. In particular. Cl Il. ~mployel} specific solullons to motivational problems. and how this in turn innuences organizational effec­ lIvene. . Motiv. Inputs and oulcomes are bast'ld on parccp\lor. Acl on the other management. ~H3. concerned wilh the harmony between personal.\d I!> ~ dfJsired 3. challenging goals tend 10 be more effective than relatively easy.22 It is important to remember. P. but withoul increased responsibility for Ihe worker.\lol"l tInder Ihls perspective can be defined by the drive 10 restore equily . so­ t. Discuss how equity theory argues that a major !!'FaH situation. 21 who don't. a tion<1! cliJTltltc en poople.0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. Effective goal setting includes the following elements: 1. / . 0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. Whal are the varl"blcs in his the Expectancy Theory.::. self-regulating work groups.) 1 (lulcome will lei. but low job snlisfaction is lik ely to bring about high absenteeism. Compare nnd conlrnst job enlnroemcnt <1nd job enrichment.I[iQ Cjf tlll.. but more responsibility for the overall job. lhal high job salisfnclion will not 34.. however.C]rk Ey. bul also in the Case c!f overreward _ There has been research support for the Iheory.JfUClpntion In problem solving and decision making is cenlral to Ihis 33. specific goals are more effeclive than vague.!t pCQp. ExpliJill th e Q\ i3!ity of worK life (OWL) approach 10 job design. . This approach is ill\! ri. '. If i:. 2.iin (l I e !iDci(1\~chnlcal approach to job design.\ lev.ogllitive I· . Valence . Ii~ perceive !n tf1eir w.pli. D:::.

It Is Important to Idenllfy only the contingent consequences. like the immediate supervisor or the job holder. 2. PlIni"ll1lCflVnosi !ivo lP. timely feedback about progress toward goals is preferable to no fQo!~1back.B .ll!d long ld!. dY5(wndioil. This involves the :1pp!icBlil)l) d a positive COn$equflnce following functional performance reinforcement. and it is difficult for a supervisor 10 swllch roles (rein PUnl~11cr to positive reinfOicer. Thus.. Variable-interval schedules . The second level is learning. c. b.e imrnediatf. goals.Hive r~. 2.ini~r~Qmi)!l1 .reinforcement is given after a fixed responses .:.I \ 0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. 24 changes occurring because of the intervention. Thore are four leve!s of evalu<ltion : a. B Is the behavior.the ten percent of the behaviors that account for eighty percent of the performance . The third level is ainled at behavioral change. Pot. II ~h'Juld never be used alone~ut always be cOiilb irHld wiil! flOslUv~ r(:!info(cement. :~i 'j contingent consequence . A baseline frequency is 5.23 3.reinforcement is given after a randomly varietl number of responses. The last step involve::: a systematic evaluation or performance improvement. Critical behaviors may be identined by a person closest to the job. 4. mult! "iffl. 39. c'lVned and accepted goals arrived at through participation are preferred to ~:'6igned 0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. number of many competing contingencies for behavior. b. are the behaviors ac­ tually changing? obtained by counling the number of times the behavior occurs under existing conditions .II should be used to weaken and de­ ::il!fH ~ltc. ly following reinforcement to a vigorous r". Under a fjxe0-iniervat schedule there is an uneven pattern that varies from a slow respan:. Discuss the five step problem solving model for O. bof1(lviuf. . a functional analysIs Is performed (A-S-C) . Tile reaction level refers to whether people administering and experiencing the approach like it. VVhat are the four major techniques of administering reinforcement? 1. This helps answer the question of whether people using the approach know why they are using it.ide drect. It is important that observational data be gathered as unobtrusively as possible.ting til. Ihat il may hal:e 11 CJiS8$irous :. 4. 3.1 bohaviors. Variable-ration schedules . Fixed-ratio schedules .repfOS()!lts a form of positive control of behavior.l1lar~:cllll('!ni . The next step involves measuring the bel13'1iors. Measurement also occurs arler tile intervention a5 well to note . Fixed-interval schedules .] vior tands to bo only temporarily suppressed. 3. The functional analysis often reveals t~at there are 38.reinforcement is given ::Ifter a randomly distributed length of time.:)n negative control. Reasons for this include the fact tita! punished beh.spollse immediately preceding 11. After identification and measurement of the behaviors. objective. and C Is tlld I. There are two major strategies: I' This schedule tends to produce a high response rate that is vigorous and steady. Each response has an equal chance of beirlg reinforced regardless of the number of responses that have preceded it. The first step involves the identincation of critical behavior. These behaviors are those which make a significant impact on performance . that is.reinforcement is given after a specined time or period. The intervention strategy strengthens and accelerates functional 'performance behaviors andlor weakens and decelerales dysfunctional behaviors. A Is the antecedent cue. it Ii. 1. measured from the tast reinforced response . Mod.ti\'C f. 4..

dier's Contingency Theory of Leadership . 26 employee-centered and general supervisory styles.lumllWJ to ihree dirr~ren! types of leadership (authoritarian.x two. .t: slyie~ wefl'l . authoritarian group reacted either aggresslve!y (Ii 4~ .1 manager) shows minimum concern for people and 43. 1\ more recent and realistic approach accepts the fact that ieadersIllp trails are not tompletely inborn. 46.!s5ive 6C10. did nol show a direct relationship to productivity. Discuss'the Iowa leadership studies. democratic. effective. these studies ::howea that supervisors of high producing. but not too much !)c . mach: i!l OfQ<lllizations? 44. and the only consistent reslill was Hlilt :~aders are generaliy brighter than their followers. Discuss the Ohio State Leadership Studies. since bel1'lVioral change may not necessarily reflect performance improvement. . What improvements have O. Uslr1q supervisors and clerical workers in an insurance company. the situation is unfavorable." 1. Discuss Ihe Michigan Leadership Studies. These theorists identify five leadership styles arranged along the dimensl~~s 'of "concern for production" and "concern for people. 2. but can be acquired through learning. These studies were the first to point out and emphasize the important of both task and human dimensions in as­ Sessing leadership. The!. Discuss the trait theory of leadership. The Fourth level is performance improvement which is the overriding pur­ pose for O. The impoverished" style (1. ihe l\li~ sG~ laio) group produced the greatest number or eggr!. Employee salis­ faction.9) manager) is higtlly concerned with both people and production. Mod application:. the validity and focus of the study has been criticized. .B.B.0141 Organizational Theory Essay Queslions p. end PC~it!ori f:!6 measured by the Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale. ' 40. 0141 Orgonizationol Theory Essoy Questions p. Under highly favorable or unfavorable situations. lai(jlu. 3. task directed leaders are more tlf/qtt-.eli"llIy.25 d. 1.11!l <lnd till! filVOrLlVlcne!Js or the Bituation (leader-member relations. however. Increased employee productivity 2. Improved safety and accident prevention 4. . When the dimensions are low. The Iowa study was the first to analyze icnders11!p lJ~ing foclenliflc methodolOGY and they showed that different styles of leadership cnn rJf('(h/(~e oilferen! fOl ac1 i(lJ1s from the same or similar groups. Situations ar~ favorable for the leader when all three situational dimensions are high. ond \ll~ ejenloG r a!IC !all in between. While this approach lessened the gap between scientific man­ i:gement and human relations.:cl) ture. In situations of moderate favorableness. A group of boys ~verS al. 42. degree of lask slruc­ power). The "Great Man" theory says thai a person is born either with or without the neces­ 1. The most effective style (9. The vast majority preferred the democratic leader to [jie olh. Discuss Blake and Mouton's managerial leadership grid. Low producing groups had su­ pervisors wilh essentially opposite characteristics and techniques . Improved sales performance 41. human relations leaders are more eHective. This slep is important. The results of il search for universal traits are disappointing.:I£ltion" or tfJSk·dir<..na­ nipulated to show their eNects on satisfaction ~nd fn. The Ohio Stilte Leadership studies showed consistency in identifying two dimen­ sion of leadership: consideration and Initiating structure . HI:) cO'1tin!]ency model COiltairiC!d the relationship between leadership style (human r. QiSG~lli' Flt.JW!lUon/p90rosSI()t1 . by far the most comm"~ situation.z It'lir). Reduced absenteeism and tardiness sary traits for !eaderslllp.. groups were more likely to have production . Mod. 2.

rrirnGIY gruup ha$ f(~e iin g:'l of comradeship. (. Coalitions are very powerful groups in organizations. peiGPp!iofl 01 groUp iilc!libcrship with subordinates. In an attempt to discover what managers really do. and values.! (. Luthans and his colleagues conducted a comprehensive four-year study based on observations of the daily activi­ ties of managers from various levels and types of organizations. 3.I0 i~ .4. Subordinate maturity is defined 4. -10.]y Questions p. Short-run solutions may focus 47. "Effective" managers. The "country club"style (1. 46.t· U 141 Organizational Tileory [SS.l£1 in which there is.)1 illdividu •. . OI:.5 mnn.teris\ics of a group. Task style: organizing and defining subordinate roles. Discuss the findings of Luthans' Real Managers Study. The "middle-of-the-roader" is the 5.1ppons to lhe group as a whole affects individual members) willingness to take on responsibility. by degree of achievern'3nt molivati'm. spent relatively more time than other managers in networking activities and retativety less time in human resource management activities. The "task" style (9. 26 01-11 Organiz. and how subordinates should do them. Discuss Hersey and Blanchard's life-cycle or situational approach to on perform.1 manager) is very concerned about production and minimally concerned about people. delegating (low taSk/low-relationship) 50. participating ((Iow-task/high/relationship) d. "Successful" managers.]tiollal Theory Essay Questions p. telling (hgh-task/low relationship) b. Relationship style: open communication and psychological arlJ clnotion . shared norm:. 3. tEml~ 1. independent of fornwl org.nt of ouitUi31 values that support and reward effective leadership.9) manager) is very concerned about people and minimally concerned about production.s may involve the de. satisfaction and commitment of their subordinates. Discuss tile major characteristics of a coalition. 4. iVle lfiierd(~PGr1\:iCince (Wh3t lY: i ~'pf!nS to one member affects other members. flxplaining t3sks in of when. D.Jisa t and rew..]cting group of individuals. where.. spent relatively more t~me than other managers on communication and human resource management activities and relatively less time in networking activities. ilnd 3.itionship) . loyalty. lacking <:I formal intern<:ll structure.~c\jss th<: rnujor cli. amount of education/experience. 4.'. 00rfrJ rm o liCe. ini{Jrfl!:l !iorl amonll rn c l1. 1. i.lIlization structure..}nc0 appr.!<. They include the following characteristics: 1. and a common sense of ues (family and pee r groups).iJpport in leader's personal relationshir~ 2. val­ 51. . The differences found between those managers being promoted and those managers judged as most effective point to the need for organizations to properly identify and reward good performance.:t}!QPIT.t. 27 2. The model suggests there are tyvo major styles (task and Ic.. selling (high-task/high-relationship) c. 3.]rd systems.bers 2. long-run solutio~.clJs$ 1~1t:! n1:c1jor characteristics of a primary group. 2.tion . !\ gfr.clf::lr.]ger. Inter. Four basic leader styles in this approach are: a. defined In terms of their unit's performance and the J. 4. constructed deliberately by members for a specific purpose.l:ld a leader's style should be varied according to the level of maturi:y exhibited tll' subordinates. defined in terms of speed of promotion.clilCc. Work groups also have primary group qualities. 8ild w!lal h. 5.

5implity or oli1ke predictable ttle behavior expected of group members. Reference groups . minority and unpopular viewpoints should be encouraged. sures on Individual members to conform and reach Cc>. Job stress is not limited to things that happen at work. 3.. Issues-oriented to advance purposes of numbers: 0141 Orgnnizational Theory Essay Questions p. iikE! 10 bCfonO tJecal~(ie 57. 2. 7. lack of social support.Ip:.: 1. Decisioris are often products of excessive compromise and minority dorniru1 tl on. group and individual stressors .· '1.. structures. !il'lpro. i1 safeiY Viilue for emplc.. Mi..:lO!1f!tJS . Groupthink is a dysfunction of highly COlifl:.·.r:". . I"creased motivation and commitment of members due to participation. 'What are some disadvantages associated with committees 1. Aid il\ grot1p :. Extraorganizational I stessors Include things such as change. In groups . 56. l. What are some advantages of committee action over that of individual action. and the pros and cons of each alternative course of action should be examined thoroughly. 29 5.y 513.uNivJI . tional. concerted member action. 3. and . Discuss the role of norms in organizations. overload. Discuss some sources of job stress such as extra organizational. rill". organiza ­ decisions than individual members do cn the:r own. 55. 2. 30 '. Expross the ccntr. .. 3. Out groups . . what 'lfl! somo olher \ype~ of Qro u ps7 4.groups to which tht! indlvidll<11 OGillnlfy be!ol'£1 s . 4. Besides primary groups and coalitions. 1. (j11!! toms Is called "risky shift. and personality dispositions that ha. WIllit £HO some practical benefits to be derived from informal organization . time consuming and costly 2.0141 Organlzallonal Theory Essay Questions p.!! it. Organizational stressors can be grouped into organizational policies. Lt~hlt<r):i ti le wOlk IClad on !T'lanagen ent. 52. Describe the concept of groupthink and whai cau:. 3. ..those who are on the outside lOOKing ifl . 2.lkl}' for a mar" eff'~c!ive system. !3 dramiltic effects 011 the il1dividunl nt work. 1. in g<lps in m:lflaOf!rll ' abililii!s: 53. 1. ri~lo. Role stressors (including conflict.t s yt11 P­ This refers to ti:F. I tin !~(l 1110r". gender and class. 4 .tity.. physical conditions. To help oli~r(. and conflict." (If Hi <:! fir:. Divided responsibility teading to no individuilt responsibility or nccountability 3. and processes.those to which an individual wcu!(l she or he Identifies with them.ivf! groups. external forms.lnd provision of benefits . fact HHll :..!yee· e. 2.reater horizontal communication between departments and reduced conflict 3. There ' are many individual-level stressors. . f'roV!d~l. II".:Ji vatues or goali of the group and clarity what is distinctive ~b0lJt 1Il(3 group':! id~r. 8. 1. ~omblned and integrated judgment 2.no!ions: and 5.o!1\iJ 1I1 e dii:lil ~ tr" \l ~ effects of groupthink. The work group can be a potential source of slress stemming from three major areas: lack of group cohesiveness.<es 'JOrnf·nllllication .thQse who have the dominant values. mutual perception of membership: 6. and community conditions . Membership groups . and underload). Hetp Ihe group to avoid cmbarra~sing interpersonal problems. ambiguity. 1\ i'~~ull!j from Ul~ pte!'.

loss of 'self estp. increased smoking and drinking d. The target of the power must value these rewards . Stress-related workers' compensation insurance claims are inCle3(lln[.! molish .pecilil~ polltical strategies for powe~ acquisition within I org. Progress one step at a time.Wt. values of a .. Take counsel with caution . Embrace or uf.iso of pOVJ(lr within ()rgor. Discuss the major classifications of power as outlined by French and Raven.. 3..iit:tJns tn Dj(l ~!.0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. Maintain n/liances with powerful people. tiol'" wil! SQok to protect their interests and positions of innuence by i'li\JderntirI9 cn vir(:nmeI1i:.(i ljisiiioil of P()':-ihi in organi. Manipulate classified information.T!!:J:> the fCljf "c' i~~~Cr.lS Tho <:.em. Expert power . Affective and emotional outcomes ineiudl?: al10er. 2. psychological or as representative of a powerful person or group. Unr.J1 system.tisfactiuii. 4. 'fh" '.31 0141 Olg<lllizatiol1<ll Theory Essay Questions p. Most of the research over the years has been devoted to the impact that stress has on physical health. .i tHo o:v~n i~)i thi~ GonclLJ~lon: r physical problems. Divide and rule. at il faster rate than other types of claims. 7. Avoid decisive engagement (don't rurne feathers). and relevant.c.ation. Referent power . ulcers. accepled social structure.lributiul1 oi IjOWOr h"IS dehumanizing effects. 60. Reward power . irritability.. C8~.(. In particular the target must percelvti tht'l agent to be credible.this power source depends person holds. Little attention has been given to the impact of stre!'oS psychological problems resulting from stfe~s fIl!!f'1tai h.this source is based on the extent to which others atlribute knowledge and expertise to the agent. 3..32 dominant group..' . under/overeating b. . 9 .this source of power depends on fear. and being deslgnale~ 59. 1. Legitimate power can come rrom tile cultural . 10. Collect and lise IOU·s. The person with coercive power has the ability to innict aversive consequences or to make threats that the target believes will result in aversive consequences. G2 . 61. 4. Wait for a crisis. 7. 3.1 pressures.r an. pressure and high cholesterol can result in heart disease. )'he problems exhibited by the individuals may be physical. sleeplessness c. 2. What are some of the dysfunctional eHects of high levels of stress that are of major concern to human resource managers. Coercive power .wOon depends greatly on political strategies. depression. trustworthy. Legitimate power . 3.!zations is one aspect of the exercise 01 PC'Nor witllin the klrger $oci.(lu"l di:. 011 the position or role that the 8. Make a quick shuwing. such physical ailments have consequences lor both individuals and tho organlz.this source of power depends on the person's ability and sources to reward others.::llh.this source comes from the desire on the part of other persons to identify with the agent wielding power. '1.. 5. am<inty. Wiwt are 1:I0l11Q r.nizntiol1s? 1. 6. behal/ioral: 1.! . drug abuse 4.He just irlirOr{.:z"il6i'r::: cornpete for resources . moodiness and dis!.tor<. and arthritis. How Oil :1(6 rH. C:on i.~ politics intmrela'ed in organizations? l~i1 2. Qut til:. A high level of stress accompanies by high blood 5. Direct behaviors that may accompany high leveis e)f stress inclutk3: a.

nmJ idl3o:ogiC'iJ! [f. Usefulness _ effective feedback is Information that an employee can use to .employees must be ready to receive feedback.nonword human response::. Specificity _ feedback should provide specific information so that the recipient knows what needs to be done. Intention .feedback should be directed \QW<i(d Q!iil{J Qi s ": f 0' tho Joti .lCk.gellerilily computerized systems which integrate networks of information that support managemcnt deCision making.(iv~ne$~ is In. 5 . What are some criticisms of the Weber's bureaucratic model? 65. altitude questionnaires. . Glarity .ry lii'ne conr.e rch llIl9/l (12DI). and electronic bulletin boards. 4. 66.effective feedback provides information in objective terms rather than presenting a value judgment. Er­ fflc. 67 . a technique widely used in Japan. 34 0141 Organizational Theory Essay Question:. 63. PiSCUf.:. customer service aclivitie!. Speclillizalion .6 "le effectiveness and problems of participative decision making. 2. . ~\I'.effective feedback is reliable and valid . enVironmental context. fn.illiow employees to make upward appeals and protect individuals from arbitrary action by their direct supervisor. 1.. etc .:![llnu . paralanguage.!~le. Management Information Systems . 5. vC>.h . 3. /1. p. or emolionally involved or utilize their suggestions . IipaClJ.oncourages subordinate-initiated communication. ­ 2.'. Feedback makes communication be characterized by the following: C!. wireless systems . 8. Validity .d by !eadership styles. Counseling. 3. Quality circles. Readiness .creates conflict between speciatized units. caUer 10.lctors.of portab!e phone.feedback should be clearly understood by the recipient. and situational. and tl!levi!iion lechnologies.f!uEr1Cr. occasionally. What are the major categories of organizational communication.involves the tfilnslp i :i ~lo n of information within and between organizations l!slng COmpl. electronic dat5 1r. Open Door policy . WlcphQne. 4. Self-managed work groups have become very popular in the most inn?~~!ive firms . and wir !! c1 ~y~iten):? Qf fiber optic linkages. Suggestion plans or boxes represent another traditional participation program. Nonverbal . beller pcrformerc. Existing telecomrnunica!i()f\S oppliCiitior'l> include:. These groups run themselves and have proved to be very producti"'e in firms such as General Mills. 2. J. Wni1! et!.1$0. depersonalized organIzations.0141 OrgilniziltionLiI Theory Essay Qucstions p. Grievance procedure . 6. 3.either informal or formal participation programs gen erail). ond <letup! cornrnunlcil!iOIl. are small groups of volunteers from the same work area who collectively solve work-related problems. Gi. 3. the better. upward information for manilgement to correct or prevent probtems.the more immediate the feedback. electronic mail. 64.allows subordinales to interact wilh their supervisor when needed or wanted. Description . Improve performance. c!ie_ clive ri~~db. 4. result iil more salisfied employees and. Timeliness .ln oc. The Scanlon Plan is a pioneering form of labor-management cooperalion. t!. t't"Q w!?y prOG!liU!. and personality. What are some examples of formal programs of employee participation in organizations? 1.ltflr. Telecommunication Technology .. OmtilJdspcrson .)nagers often ask for participation but do not let subor­ dll1a!f!6 Decome i nl!~"ectliaily 1.33 1. votce m~ss.these contribule valuabl~ strategic planning. 2. and exit interviews .'l some methods of promoting effective upward communication and Improv!ng ma:-OBgtlr~' listening habits? ·1. conOne of the problems with participation is that it is 1(J)(!Val.S boey lan\lllf. telephons .Uflling. Participative lechniques . . Ii 111 e .a\ <:on'1~y !11 Ca n ln Q. especially in !iHSjC. 7.

Employment witt1 the organization is fairly long term. The functional department heads have line authority over their departmenl. such e~ iioxibility of personnel.are concerned with human problems (both employees an customers) associated wit bureaucratic structures. Does not possess adequate means for connict resolution.. bIJ the functional personnel are assigned to given projects. bo defined as ~.l common perception by the "rganization's'membe 1. Rules . FoUl1ding c<. 4. Upward 01-11 Organiz<ltional Theory Essay Questions p. product. lime. lower and middle managers are 1. Communication and innovation are distorted or thwarted.. 3. ix strliC{U'::'!:l inci. . Does not fully utilize hUman resources .and In~or"o. 5.de tlle positive aspects of both the functional and proJ (J e:ligi't~ .. 3. 2. 6. 3. . staff acts in an advisory capacity. roundc~ ~ lnnuenc~ ... 2. Decisioll making is carried out with emphasis on group participation. 4. equipment and alpha-numeric. d. Inili3i core group who shares a common vision with the founder . C:~JiiuJc t:. More emphasis is given to training and evaluation than promotion. 3. b. Hierarchy . erAth pi0!e:cl. <. n. Orten . Matrix structures 69. apecialized knowledge. WI1at are the ct1aracteristics of Theory Z? 71. Rules are used for punitive 72. geographic. Discuss the composition or a the matrix form of organization. The staff concept in organizations was developed by the military. 4. whereas.. develop u~ing scmo version of the following steps: 70: What are the various types of departmentation? There are many types of departmentation: functional. When applied to other types of organizations.0141 Organizational Theory Essay Questions p. siJperit. . . 74 . Mat. 36 line within their own departments. One of the problems in using this concept in organizations is the conflicting definitions regarding line and staff positions. allhough lower levels may be repre­ sented by different types. There is attention and concern for all aspects of the workers' life . the distinction becomes fuzzy . What are Warren Bennis' criticisms of bureaucracy? 1. Matrix designs have both vertical and horizontal structures. An organization is identified by tbe type or departmentation at the primary level.Jte rei a lions hips. Impersonal characteristics . responsiveness to project needs ~ ClJstO!lH~r tiasires.! organiziltion.individual initiative and participation are often blocked . There is emphasis on job rotation and broad based training.:Jr. discourage informal groups and the nurturing 2. service.. control from above. Under a pure military approach.. People In bureaucracies become conditioned and duil.' re group creales the organization. Does not allow personal growth and development. Develops conformity and groupthink. but become staff when dealing with outsldQ depar1 ments. c. communication and horizontal communication are impeded. Does not take into account the inform. characteristics such as hierarchy and unity of command . CorrlJllOn history is developed with the addition or others. line carried decision making authority.. 2. This can result in a breakdown of communication and open connict.$ ~l bord in .rules often become ends In themselves. and one manager is the focal pain! 5.. B. . 35 2. Cannot assimilate the influx of new technolog y. 1. 9. Has no judicial process.. Wh nt is ofg'Jl1iz<1t i onal cuilure and how does it develop. Cuiturer. 7. customer..

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