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Chemistry Design IA

Pre-IB Year 10 Term 2


How will changing the temperature of a liquid affect the height of the liquid in a capillary tube? Spandan Gangopadhyay Teacher: Dr Natt Date: 13/05/2010

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h Qu stion

1.1 R s

Will increasing the temperature of water (H2O) increase its height in a capillary tube?

1.2 B k ound R s
1.2.1 C pill it / C pill

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A tion ( p nd nt V i bl )

Capillary Ac ion Capillarity is the tendency of a liquid in a narrow tube or pore to rise or fall as a result of certain variables such as surface tension of the liquid (Oxford, 2005). A key process to de onstrate this concept is the capillary tube. When a capillary tube is placed in a liquid such as water a concave meniscus forms because of the surface tension pulling the liquid column up until there is a sufficient mass of liquid for gravity to overcome the intermolecular force of the liquid. Capillarity acts on concave menisci to pull the liquid up, increasing the amount of favourable contact area between the liquid and the container. On convex menisci, however, capillarity acts to pull the liquid down, reducing the amount of contact area (Tsokos, 2010). The diameter of the tube is in an inverse relation to the height of the liquid in the tube, as a liquid will rise higher in a narrow tube compared to a wider tube (provided the liquid forms a concave meniscus for a liquid that forms a convex meniscus, the liquid will sink lower in a narrow tube, compared to a wider tube). The height of a liquid in a capillary tube is given by the formula,

Where:      is the liquid-air surface tension (energy/area) is the contact angle of the liquid on the substance of the capillary tube is the density of liquid (mass/volume) g is acceleration due to gravity (length/time2) r is radius of the capillary tube (length).

Spandan Gangopadhyay Che

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2 Pre-IB 2

1 2 2 Temperature Independent Variable

Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter, expressed in terms of units or degrees designated on a standard scale (Oxford, 2005 Or basically, temperature is a way of measuring the heat on an object. A higher temperature means that the molecules of the object have more energy and thus move at a faster speed compared to molecules of an object with a lower temperature (about.com). Since the molecules move at a faster speed, their intermolecular force their attraction towards each other is also lower (Tsokos, 2010). This is because the intermolecular space increases when an object is heated, thus things expand when heated. But even though an object expands when heated, its mass stays the same. The only difference occurs in its density. Density is simply a measurement of how densely the molecules of an object are packed together. A higher density means the molecules of the object have a greater intermolecular force which in turn means that they also have smaller intermolecular spaces. Another thing temperature affects in a liquid is the surface tension. Surface tension is a property of liquids such that their surface behaves like a thin, elastic film. Surface tension is an effect of intermolecular attraction, in which molecules near the surface undergo a net attraction to the rest of the fluid, while molecules in the centre of the substance are attracted to other molecules equally in all directions and undergo no net attraction (Tsokos, 2010). Thus, by changing the temperature of the liquid one indirectly changes the density and surface tension of the liquid both of which are variables that th o tica affect the height of the liquid in a capillary tube (see 1.2.1).

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1 3 Variables
1 3 1 Independent Variable and Dependent Variable
Independent Variable

Dependent Variable

1 3 2 Controlling Variables
Variable Volume of water
Pressure Radius of Capillary Tube

Angle of contact between capillary tube and water Experimenter

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Temperature of the water, measured using a thermometer with a maximum tolerance of 100 oC  20oC ( 1oC)  30oC ( 1oC)  40oC ( 1oC)  50oC ( 1oC)  60oC ( 1oC)  70oC ( 1oC)  80oC ( 1oC)  90oC ( 1oC) The height of water in a capillary tube, measured using the scale on the capillary tube.

Table 1: Variable and their Method of Control

Method of Control 100mL measured using a measuring cylinder ( 0.5mL) Kept constant at lab Same capillary tube used (diameter = 0.1cm) *Note: the diameter increased slightly when in contact with the hot water but the change was negligible. 90o ( 1o) measured using a L-square ruler
Only one person will read the ruler and one will hold the capillary tube. This will keep the degree of error consistent.

1 4 Equipment and Procedure


1 4 1 Equipment

1 4 2 Procedure

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Thermometer Distilled Water 100mL Measuring Cylinder L-square ruler Clamp and Stand 100mL Beaker Capillary Tube with millimetre scale (diameter = 0.1cm) Electric water heater/cooler capable of specific temperatures

1. The electric water heater/cooler was used to get the distilled water to the desired temperature, 20 oC. The temperature of the water was checked with the thermometer. 2. 100mL of water was measured into the beaker using the measuring cylinder. 3. The L-square ruler was used to ensure that the capillary tube was perpendicular to the surface of the water. The L-square was placed along the edge of the beaker and the capillary tube was lowered into the water such that it touched the Lsquare. 4. The capillary tube was lowered into the water until it was exactly 1cm into the beaker; the scale on the capillary tube was used for exact measurements. It was then secured with the clamp and stand. 5. No action was taken until the height of the liquid in the capillary tube was stable for approximately 1 minute. 6. The millimetre scale on the capillary tube was used to read the height which was then recorded (Table 2). 7. Steps 1-6 were repeated 5 times to ensure reliable data. 8. Steps 1-7 were repeated 7 times with the temperature of the water 30 oC, 40oC, 50oC, 60 oC, 70 oC, 80 oC and 90oC respectively.

Table 2: Height of water in a capillary tube with temperature of the water Temperature Height of Water in the Capillary Tube (millimetres)

20oC 30oC 40oC 50oC 60oC 70oC 80oC 90oC

1 5 is Assessment
Table 3: Risks, precautions and actions to take.

Fragile glassware (capillary tubes)

Handle with care

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is Hot Water

Precaution Avoid contact with skin

Action to Ta e Wash with room temperature water and then with cold water to prevent burn/s Wash with water if bleeding; ensure no glass is left buried under the skin.

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2 0 Bibliography
about.com. (n.d.). about ph ics: th od na ics. Retrieved may 9, 2010, from http://physics.about.com/od/thermodynamics/p/thermodynamics.htm Oxford. (2005). Oxfo d Dictiona 11th Edition. Oxford University Press. Tsokos, K. A. (2010). Ca b idg Ph sics fo th IB Dip o a. Cambridge University Press.

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