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CABLE INSTALLATION MAN UAL


SEVENTH EDITION

1600 West Main Street Willimantic, CT 06226-1128 (800) 338-0901 FAX (860) 450-7019

Division of: BICC Cables Corporation / One Crosfield Avenue

West Nyack, NY 10994

BICC CABLES CABLE INSTALLATION MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction ................................................. 11. Preinstallation ............................................... A. Overview ................................................. B. Cable Inspection ........................................... C. Cable Handling ......................... D. Cable Storage ............................................. E. Preinstallation Checklist ..................................... Ill. Installation .................................................. A. Overview ........ B. Ambient Temperatu're' C . Equipm ent ................................................ 1. Checklist .............................................. 2. Diagram s ............................................. D. Conduit Fill .............................................. 1. Overview ............................................. 2. Form ulae ............................................. 3. Raceway Data ......................................... a. Rigid Conduit Information ............................ b. Duct Inform ation ................................... c. Sweep Elbow Radius ................................. d. Conduit Spacing ................................... e. Durasheath EP, 600v ................................ f. Unicon FREP, 600v .................................. g. Durasheath EP, 5kv ................................. h. EP - Lead ......................................... i. UniBlend .......................................... j. UniShield ......................................... E. Mechanical Fit of Cable in Raceway .... ..................... 1. Configuration .......................................... 2. W eight Correct Factor ................................... 3. Clearance ............................................. 4. Jam Ratio ............................................. 5. Coefficient of Dynamic Friction. ........................... F. Physical Limitations of Cables ............ .................. 1. Overview ............................................. 2. Maximum Pulling Tensions .................. ............ a. O verview ...................... ..... ............. b. On Pulling Device ............ ...................... c. On Conductor ....................................... 1. Form ulae ....................................... 2. Conductor Data .................................. 3. Si Units ......................................... 4. In Parallel or in Assemblies ......................... 5. Multiconductor Cables ............................. 6. Verticle Bend, Pulling Up ........................... 7. Verticle Bend, Pulling Down ......................... 8. Horizontal Pull ................................... 4 5 5 5 5 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 13 13 13 13 15 16 17 18 19 22 24 26 30 34 38 38 38 40 40 41 42 42 42 42 42 43 43 44 45 46 47 48 48 48

BICC CABLES CABLE INSTALLATION MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS 9. Inclined Pull ...................................... 1 0. Horizontal Bend ................................... 11. Around Bends ..................................... 12. Calculation Correlation .............................. 13. Bend M ultiplier .................................... 3. Sidewall Loading ....................................... 4. Training and Bending .................................... 5. Calculation Examples ................................... 6. Installation Checklist .................................... IV. Splicing &Terminating ........................................ A. Why Shield Power Cables? ................................. B. Splicing & Terminating Overview ............................. C. Precautions .............................................. D. Equipment ............................................... E. Medium Voltage Cable Components .......................... F. Cable Preparation ......................................... G. Tape Termination ......................................... H. Tape Splice .............................................. 1.Tape Construction Materials ................................ J. Accessory Manufacturers .................................. Splicing and Terminating Checklist ........................... V. Testing .................................................... A. Overview ................................................ B. Equipm ent ............................................... C. Procedures ............................................... D. High Potential (HiPot) Testing ................................ E. Common Problems ........................................ F. Equipment Suppliers ....................................... G. ICEA, NEMA and IEEE Standard 400 .......................... H. AEIC CS5 & CS6-87, Section K .............................. 1. Test Report Format ........................................ J. Fault Testing ............................................. K.- ac Testing ............................................... L. Insulation Testing ......................................... M .Testing Checklist .......................................... IV. Appendix .................................................. A. Circuit Design Considerations ............................... 1. Calculation Procedures .................................. 2. Calculation Input ....................................... 3. Pull Box Sizing ......................................... 4. Dynamometer Correction ................................ 5. Suspending Cable ...................................... 6. Overall Diameter of Multiconductor Assemblies .............. B. Purging Water from Strand or Shield .......................... C. Sym bols ................................................ D. Cable Installation Data Sheet ................................ 48 48 49 49 49 51 52 55 58 60 60 61 62 62 63 65 67 69 71 72 73 74 74 74 74 75 76 76 77 77 78 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 88 89

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BICC CABLES CABLE INSTALLATION MANUAL 1.INTRODUCTION


A power cable and its components are governed by the fundamental laws of physics, chemistry and mechanics. Thus, these laws must be considered during installation if your cable investment is to be protected. This manual provides installation methods based on these laws and should be used in conjunction with the circuit designer's installation specifications and all applicable codes. The methods are valid for all types of cable: power, control, instrumentation, and telecommunication. This manual is intended for the installer's use in the field and is not a text on power system design or electrical circuit analysis. The information given is concise, but should be sufficient for the majority of installations. If you require additional information, please contact BICC Cables at (800) 338-0901.

Th data and recommendationsthat follow are based on information currently availableand beli ved to be reliable.BICC Cables makes no guaranteeof the results and assumes no obligation or liability whatsoever in connection with these recommendations.

11. PREINSTALLATION A. OVERVIEW To ensure safety during cable installation and reliability once the cable is installed, you should confirm the following prior to installation. * The cable selected is proper for your application * The cable has not been damaged in transit or storage. Review all applicable, state and national codes to verity that the cable chosen is appropriate for the job. Also, consult your local building authority. Next, you must identify any existing cable damage and prevent any further damage from occuring. This is done through proper cable inspection, handling and storage. B. CABLE INSPECTION Inspect every cable reel for damage before accepting the shipment. Be particularly alert for cable damage if: * * * * * * * * A reel is laying flat on its side Several reels are stacked Other freight is stacked on a reel Nails have been driven into reel flanges to secure shipping blocks A reel flange is damaged A cable covering is removed, stained or damaged A cable end seal is removed or damaged A reel has been dropped (hidden damage likely)

C. CABLE HANDLING Remove all nails and staples from the reel flanges before moving a reel, and avoid all objects that could crush, gouge or impact the cable when moving. NEVER use the cable as a means to move a reel When unreeling, observe recommended bending radii, use swivels to prevent twisting and avoid overruns.

PREINSTALLATION (CONT.)

How to Handle Cable Reels

Cradle both reel flanges between forks.

Upended heavy reels will often arrive damaged. Refuse or receive subject to inspection for hidden damage.

F,

Reels can be hoisted with a shaft extending through both flanges.

Do not lift by top flange. Cable or reel will be damaged.

Lower reels from truck using hydraulic gate, hoist or fork lift. LOWER CAREFULLY.

Never allow forks to touch cable surface or reel wrap.

Always load with flanges on edge and check and block securely.

Never drop reels.

PREINSTALLATION (CONT.)
D. Cable Storage Cables should be stored on hard surfaces so that reel flanges cannot sink. Small reels may weigh several hundred pounds while large reels can exceed 1000 pounds. Prevent impact damage by: Aligning reels flange to flange Using guards across flanges when different reel sizes are stored together * Maintaining adequate aisles and barricades to prevent equipment from hitting the cable. Seal the ends of all cable stored outdoors, and reseal both ends when a length is cut from the reel. E. Preinstallation Checklist Code Review Review local, state and national codes relating to cable installation Consult local inspection authority Cable Inspection Check for shipping damage before accepting shipment Confirm tlat the cable specified was received Reseal cable ends Cable Handling Remove nails and staples from reel flanges Calculate and observe recommended bending radii Use swivels and avoid overruns when unreeling Cable Storage Provide firm support for reels Protect cable from mechanical damage and from liquid spills Check cable end seals periodically Advise all splicers, installers and handlers of all special instructions

111. INSTALLATION
A. Overview A survey of customer complaints revealed that 92% of the cables in question failed due to mechanical damage. When does mechanical damage usually occur? During installation. In tact, most cables are subjected to more mechanical stress during installation than they ever experience in actual operation. Needless to say, handling and pulling your cable according to manufacturer's recommendations is extremely important. There are five main considerations in any cable installation: * * * * * Ambient Temperature Equipment Conduit Fill Mechanical Fit in Raceway Physical Limitations

These considerations were developed and refined by installers of paper-lead cables. Two excellent references are the "Underground Systems Reference Book" and "Pipeline Design for Pipe Type Feeders The former was published by Edison Electric Institute in 1931 and was last revised in 1957. The latter was an AIEE paper (#53-389) by R.C. Rifqnburg, published in POWER APPARATUS & SYSTEMS in December, 1953. B. Ambient Temperature Low temperatures are a cause for concern when installing cable. The following are temperatures below which cable should not be installed. CP/EP - 1/C CPE Jacket CPE/EP - 1/C - 31 OF - 31OF - 31OF FREP, PE, XLPIE - 1 /C PVC - 58OF + 14OF

CIP = Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (HypalonO), CPE = Chlorinated Polyethylene, EP = Ethylene Propylene. FREP = Flame Retardant EP PVC = Polyvinyl Chloride. During cold weather installation, cable should be pulled more slowly and trained in place the same day it is removed from storage. Do not impact, drop, kink or bend cable sharply in low temperatures.

INSTALLATION (CONT.)
B. EQUIPMENT The proper use of appropriate equipment is crucial to a successful cable installation. The equipment needed for most installations is detailed in the following checklist. CHECK LIST M portable electric generator E] extension cords & GFCl M pump, diaphragm F] make-up air blower & hose [:] manhole cover hooks E] warning flags, signs electrostatic kV tester electric safety blankets and clamps radios or telephones gloves flood lamps fishtape or string blower/vacuum hand line M duct cleaning mandrels M duct testing mandrels F1 capstan type puller Ej snatch blocks short ropes for temp tie-offs M guide-in flexible tubing (elephant trunks) several wire rope slings of various lengths M reel arbor M ree1jacks reel brakes E] cable cutter lint free rags cable pulling lubricant prelubing devices plywood sheets M diameter tape M 50 ft measuring tape M silicone caulking (to seal cable ends) M shackles/clevis M gang rollers; with at least 4 11effective radius M hand winces (come-a-long)

manhole edge sheave pulling rope swivels E] basket grip pullers M 0-1/5/10 kip dynamometer

The following diagrams illustrate various cable feed-in setups.

INSTALLATION (CONT.) EOUIPMENT

CABLE FEED-IN SETUPS

PPLY LUBE HERE

GUIDE IN TUBE

Reels on truck

11111111777 PI
Setup for duct close to floor

Setup for overhead. into tray

The feed-in setup should unreel the cable with a natural curvature (Fig. 1) as opposed to a reverse "S" curvature (Fig. 2).

IMPROPER

PROPER

(Fig.,2)

(Fig. 1)

INSTALLATION (CONT.) EQUIPMENT

CAPSTAN

I I I PULLING ROPE

I Setup with timber because of no pulling eyes

I I I I &K

11

INSTALLATION (CONT.)

EQUIPMENT
SINGLE SHEAVE

Single Sheaves may be used only for GUIDING cables. Arrange multiple blocks to hold bending radii whenever cable is deflected.

SHEAVE ASSEMBLY

For pulling around bends, use conveyor sheave assemblies of the appropriate radius series.

The pulleys must be positioned to ensure that the effective curvature is smooth and deflected evenly at each pulley. Never allow a polygon curvature to occur. (Fig. C) The fit of the pulley around the cable, is also important when polling heavy weights (ex. pulleys at the top of a vertical drop).

Fig. C
RADIUS

Remember to use the radius of the surface over which the cable is bent, not the outside flange diameter of the pulley. A "10 inch" cable sheave typically has an inside (bending) radius of 3 inches,

NEVER ALLOW

12

INSTALLATION (CONT.) D. CONDUIT FILL 1. Overview Heat is generated as current passes through conductor. The safe dissipation of this heat to the surrounding conduit is a major consideration during cable installation and dictates allowable conduit fill. Conduit fill is the percentage of area inside the conduit occupied by cable. It determines the maximum ampacity of the enclosed cables since an increase in the number of current-carrying conductors in the conduit decreases the amount of current each conductor can carry without exceeding its temperature rating. Consult the applicable codes for your maximum specified conduit fill and for the influence that fill has on circuit ampacity. The effect of conduit fill on jamming, clearance and friction is covered in Section E, Mechanical Fit of Cable in Raceway. 2. Formulae Conduit fill is calculated as follows: % Fill= 1: Conductor Area X 100 Raceway Area For round conduits and cables with equal diameters: 0/b Fill= (d/D)' n X 100 3. Data The following pages contain the data needed to calculate conduit fill for various BICC cables. WHERE': d D n 1/c cable diameter ID of conduit number of conductors

13

INSTALLATION (CONT)

EQUIPMENT
BICC CABLES APPROVAL LIST CABLE PULLING LUBRICANTS

Name of Lubricant

Manufacturer

POLYWATERQD A, G, & J

American Polywater Corporation Stillwater, MN American Polywater Corporation Stillwater, MN

POLYWATERQD Plus Silicone, Types NN, WNN, FS

Wire LubeO & Aqua-Gel"

Ideal Industries, Sycamore, IL

DYNA-BLUEO Cable Lubricant

American Polywater Corporation Stillwater, MN

Wirepull

Mac Products, Kearney, NJ

Other lubricants may be suitable for use with BICC Cable designs. Contact the lubricant manufacturer about the compatibility of their products with specific cables. Cable lubricants should be currently I.I.L. listed. Contact lubricant manufacturer for-proof of approval.

14

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RACEWAY DATA

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~~~~~This the inside radius for manufactured rigid steel conduit elbows. table lists
The inside radius (R,) equals the centerline radius (Rj)less half of the conduit inside diameter (0).

Std. Conduit Size 1 Ri: 0.44

12

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20

INSTALLATION (CONT.) RACEWAY DATA

.TcMCo

coco',t

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04--

C\ICI)V

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INSTALLATION (CONT.) RACEWAY DATA

(0,14rcM

-00

000

000

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in 0

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0

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22

INSTALLATION (CONT.) RACEWAY DATA

(Dl.T0j

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oco

Ln N

000

Ln 0 Lp MLo N

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23

INSTALLATION (CONT.) RACEWAY DATA

CO (D'.0, N

a
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to cm

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24

INSTALLATION (CONT.) RACEWAY DATA

CO "T W

C) C) C)

& C;

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Ln cm

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aocoT

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m co a M rlCM N V) m m
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25

INSTALLATION (CONT.) RACEWAY DATA

N-0

000 LO

000
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26

INSTALLATION (CONT.) RACEWAY DATA

C"J-o 000 000 0 & 4 in Ln 0 Ln 0


N
M

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97

INSTALLATION (CONT.) RACEWAY DATA

E 0

CM-0

C)oo

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28

INSTALLATION (CONT.) RACEWAY DATA

"-o 000 00 00 to to
C CO

Ln r- 0

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INSTALLATION (CONT) RACEWAY DATA

(DNtN -!20

000

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0 000 OLno to f,-

30

INSTALLATION (CONT.) RACEWAY DATA

CIJ

CD 0 0

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INSTALLATION (CONT.) RACEWAY DATA

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-27

INSTALLATION (CONT.) E. MECHANICAL FIT OF CABLE IN RACEWAY Five parameters influence a cable's mechanical fit in a raceway: its configuration, weight, clearance, jam ratio and coefficient of friction. 1. Configuration The configuration of the cable in the raceway is measured by the ratio of the inner diameter of the conduit to the overall diameter of one of the cables within the conduit (Did). Acradled configuration occurs when cables with a ratio of 2.5 or greater are pulled in parallel from individual reels. A triangular configuration occurs when cables with a ratio of less than 2.5 are pulled in parallel from individual reels or when cables are assembled.

Single Cable

Cradled

Triplexed

Configuration directly affects drag which is computed as Weight Correction Factor (w) in thefoliowing section. 2. Weight When making installation calculations, use the total weight per unit length of the cables being pulled. Cabled assemblies will weigh more than paralleled cables unless the cables were specially ordered to have several paralleled cable wound on a reel. Weight Correction Factor (w): Due to its geometric configuration, a cable is subjected to uneven force when it is pulled into a conduit. This imbalance results in additional frictional drag which must be calculated and allowed for if your installation is to be successful. No. Conductors Configuration Factor (w)

dY-d-) Cradled

3 Triplexed The following graph illustrates the Weight Correction Factor (w):

GA

.(5d J2 D- Y

38

INSTALLATION (CONT.) MECHANICAL FIT OF CABLES IN RACEWAY

I I I

~~W
1.55-

WEIGHT CORRECTION FACTOR


1.50 for quantities shown, of cables of equal diameters and weights, for all others, use ME 1.4, = except for one cable, then w =1 .0

~~~~~~1.45

~~~~~1.40.

1.35-

1.30

I~~~~~~~~~IM I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I I I K II
~~~~~1.156
1.10~~~~~~~~~~~~~11
12.2.3.0K35

4
I

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5.

E mI

I/ 13.680.1
TI = rip d

=1

3.37, II

1.1

CRI

rde

I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-R

INSTALLATION (CONT.)
MECHANICAL FIT IN RACEWAY (CONT.) When computing Weight Correction Factor, ensure all cable diameters are equal. When in doubt, use the cradled configuration formula. The cables may be in either a single or multiple conductor construction. But, when only one cable (whether single conductor or multiple conductor under common jacket) is being pulled, no weight correction factor is needed. 3. Clearance Clearance refers to the distance between the uppermost cable in the conduit and the inner top of the conduit. Clearance should be 1/4 inch at minimum and up to one inch for large cable installations or installations involving numerous bends. It is calculated as follows: Of Conductors/Cables Configuration Formula

D-d

1.366d +

DA 2

_d _d

TRIPLEXED

6-d _

d2

D-cl

CRADLED When calculating clearance, ensure all cable diameters are equal. Use the triplexed configuration formula if you are in doubt. Again, the cables may be of single or multiple conductor construction. 4. Jam Ratio Jamming is the wedging of three cables lying side by side in a conduit. This usually occurs when cables are being pulled around bends or when cables twist. Jam Ratio is calculated by slightly modifying the ratio used to measure configuration (D/d). A value of 1.05D is used for the inner diameter of the conduit because bending a cylinder creates an oval cross-section in the bend (1.05D/d). * If 1.05D/d is larger than 3.0, jamming is impossible. * If 1.05D/d is between 2.8 and 3.0, serious jamming is probable. * If 1.05D/d is less than 2.5 jamming is impossible but clearance should be checked. Since there are manufacturing tolerances on cable, the actual overall diameter should be measured prior to computing jam ratio. 40

INSTALLATION (CONT.)
MECHANICAL FIT IN RACEWAY (CONT.) 5. Coefficient of Dynamic Friction The coefficient of dynamic friction is a measure of the friction between the cable and the conduit or roller, and can vary from 0.03 to 0.8, even with lubrication. Typical values are shown in Table below: TYPICAL COEFFICIENTS OF DYNAMIC OF FRICTION (f) WITH ADEQUATE CABLE LUBRICATION AT TIME OF PULL TYPE OF CONDUIT CABLE EXTERIOR PVC - Polyvinyl Chloride PE - Low Density HMW Polyethylene CPE - Chlorinated Polyethylene HypalonO -CSPE (Chlorosulfonated PE) NeopreneO - N (Chloroprene) FREP - Flame Retardant EP XLPE - Cross Linked PE LEAD M .4 .35 .35 .5 .5 .4 .35 .5 PVC .35 .35 .35 .5 .5 .4 .35 .5 FIB .5 .5 .5 .7 .7 .5 .5 .5 ASB .5 .5 .5 .6 .6 .5 .5 .5

M = Metallic, Steel or Aluminum PVC Polyvinyl Chloride, Thinwall or Heavy Schedule 40 FIB Fiber Conduit - Orangeburg or Nocrete ASB Asbestos Cement - Transite or Korduct The coefficient of friction of a duct or conduit varies with the type of cable covering, condition of duct or conduit internal surface, type and amount of pulling lubricant used and ambient installation temperature. High ambient temperatures (8010F and over) can increase the coefficient of dynamic friction for cable having a nonmetallic jacket. Pulling lubricants must be compatible with the cable's components and be applied while the cable is being pulled. Note: These values may be conservative and lubricant manufacturer should be consulted for recommended coefficients of friction.

41

INSTALLATION (CONT.)
F. Physical Limitations of Cables 1. Overview The fifth and final consideration in any cable installation is the physical limitations of a cable as it is being pulled into position. Pulling subjects cable to extreme stress and, if done improperly. can displace a cable's components. Thus, it is important that the followin g guidelines be observed: Calculate and stay within the cable's maximum pulling tension, maximum sidewall load and minimum bending radii. Ensure that the raceway joints are aligned and that the wiring space is sufficient. Train the cable to avoid dragging on the edge of the raceway. It using a basket grip, secure it to the cable with steel strapping and cut well behind the area it covers once the cable is in place. Ensure that the pull rope's elongation minimizes jerking. Pull NO FASTER than 40 feet per minute. Pull with a capstan, if possible. Do not stop a pull unless absolutely necessary. NEVER pull the middle of the cable. Seal the cable ends with high voltage putty or silicon caulking and overwrap with tape. 2. Maximum Pulling Tensions a. Overview Excessive pulling tension can cause delamination and displacement of a cable's components. This can cause voids which become the focal, points for corona deterioration. Pulling Tension should NOT EXCEED the SMALLER of these values: * Allowable Tension on Pulling Device. * Allowable Tension on Conductor. * Allowable Sidewall Load. 1. Allowable Tension on Pulling Device. Do not exceed the working load stated by the manufacturer of the pulling devices (pulling eyes, ropes, an'chors, basket grips, etc.). If catalog information is not available, work at 10% of the rated braking tensile strength. Basket Grip - The allowable tension with a basket grip must not exceed the lbs/cmil value (as shown in the Table on page 47) or 1000 lbs, whichever is smaller. Exceptions to this rule are the following Cablec products, for which the upper limit is 1250 lbs. Single Conductor - Durasheath EPR, Durasheath XLPE, Unicon FREP Multiple Conductor - Flame-Guard Durasheath EPR.

42

INSTALLATION (CONT.)
PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS OF CABLES 2. Allowable Tension on Conductor The metallic phase conductors are the tensile members of the cables and should bear all pulling forces. Shielding drain wires or braids should never be used for pulling. Conductor pulling tension should not exceed: Material Copper Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum All Cable Type All Power Power Power URD (solid) Thermocouple Temper Soft Hard 3/4 Hard 'AWM' Soft (112 hard) lb/cmil 0.008 0.008 0.006 0.005 0.003 0.008

Three-quarter hard aluminum is allowed for power cable. AWM is required for UL labeled 600V aluminum solid wire 8 AWG and smaller, it may be used in larger sizes. Soft is sometimes used for large solid aluminum. AWM is a UL designated aluminum.

Reduce the maximum pulling tension by 20% to 40% if several conductors are being pulled simultaneously since the tension is not always evenly distributed among the conductors. While BIGC Cables does not recommend the practice, we recognize that some users pull a combination of conductor sizes simultaneously, observing the maximum pulling tension of the largest conductors. During such a pull, the smaller cables may get crushed at bends or may have the pulling forces transf rred to them momentarily (which greatly exceeds their tensile strength). Maximum pulling tension is calculated as follows: TENSION MAXIMUM, single conductors, pulled in parallel:
n < = 3: TM = TI/c n TM = TI/c n 0.8 t = sheath thickness n > 3:

lead sheath: Trrr = 471 2 t (d-t)

TENSION MAXIMUM: multiple conductors: For cables 8 AWG and larger, and over 3 conductors: TM = 0.8 ETI/c For cables smaller than 8 AWG, and having no twisted subassemblies, and over 6 conductors: TM = 0.8 ET1/c For cables having twisted subassemblies: TM= 0.6 ET1/c The following charts provide the data necessary for calculating allowable tensions:

43

INSTALUIXION (CON-1.) PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS OF CAB't..ES

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44

INSTALLATION (CONT) PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS OF CABLES


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CD

C4 ci rl U . . co - . w. C.) le in (D t- CDCY). cmC-) . 40 it

w Cy 0 ov 0 a-ODLn . . . . to co. 0) &I" CY . CY . . . . CY 40. IC04

In

E
z

Z lao

-W m

r.- a N W) 0 w r.. w ci 6 oi

cq to r. 6 4 ui

co cd vi rco

M.2 0 ro
0

RN

o w
C4 C

E cc' m E

(I u? cR N co m 0 -

to cm

0 04

4)

.0 E o C im3

C4 w

w 04 00 en

in o;z 4m cn

r- 4m 0 W Cc (D

C;

CIAm PI -W -a -W

"i 4

4 uid

z .6

(D a, t i ci ".: ci - -

0 C) V) W) r, W Z 6 : 'd C5 :
- - -

P. W)m co Q -4 wi f.

C.)

0 G E CD
#A
CL

- cl CY N 0A Cm Cm r0

tm.2 in
> Wu >

E 0
0

cV CM 0 Lo 0 C4 M ID Im 0 C4 c

0 MM in in r. -4 W M CM CQ ci 4 ui ui (a r--:cd ci 6
CY

f,

Ecl u OR o o

CM CO M CM 40 N CM
cj q v) c4 'P cl N c4 r: 'P "Q: 'TEo r.: Ln to co v) & w c-) cq w? N oli Cj en v m Co CD0 Ln CD P, N Cl CO -T It 0 (D N Cyt, 0 V) #- 0 W)CD 0 0 0 CY CY M V) V3 V W Cli
C4 0 00 W.WC4 ochco wqrr) C4-0

ui ei X
-

Co

co

.2 -Z g 0 E E cis 2 0

E = P

Oil

.08 cull 8 -on 8 00


Mm

IV Ln Ln to g r

C)0 ul 0

CD 0

U)

Ar,

INSTALLATION (CONT.) PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS CONDUCTORS INPARALLEL OR AS ASSEMBLIES SOFT DRAWN COPPER OR HARD DRAWN ALUMINUM The following maximum tensions are for direct attachment to the conductor. However, the pulling force must not exceed the smallest value of 1) conductor tension, or 2) pulling device tension, or 3) sidewall load. #CDR 2 3 4' 5 6
AWG/kcrnil 20 18 16 14 12 11 10 9 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 -450 500 600 700 750 800 900 1000 8 13 21 33 52 66 83 100 130 210 330 420 530 670 840 1060 1340 1690 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4800 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONDUCTOR TENSION (LBS) 16 26 41 66 100 130 160 200 260 420 660 840 1060 1330 1690 2130 2680 3380 4000 4800 5600 6400 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 24 39 62 99 150 190 240 310 390 630 1000 1260 1590 2000 2530 3190 4020 5070 6000 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 26 41 66 100 160 210 260 330 420 670 1060 1340 1690 2140 2700 3400 4290 5410 6400 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 33 52 83 .130 200 260 330 410 520 840 1330 1680 2120 2670 3370 4250 5370 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 39 62 99 150 250 310 390 500 630 1000 1600 2020 2540 3210 4050 5110 6440 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 AWG/kcmil 20 18 16 14 12 11 10 9 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 750 800 900 1000

CHARTS

T = 0.008 x CM x N, if N < = 3. T = 0.008 x CM x, N x 0.8, if N > 3. This chart may also be used for hard temperature aluminum conductors. However, use 1/2 of these chart values for all other UL labeled cables having aluminum conductors.

46

I I I I

~INSTALLATION (CONT.) PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS OF CABLES ~CHARTS HAVING EOUAL SIZED CONDUCTORS; WITHOUT SUBASSEMBLIES SOFT DRAWN COPPER

MULTICONDUCTOR CABLES

The following maximumn tensions are for direct attachment to the cable jacket. However, the pulling force
must not exceed the smallest value of 1) conductor tension, or 2) pulling device tension or 3) sidewall load. AWG-= 20 is 16 14 12 11 10 9

~
2

~~CDR
16

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONDUCTOR TENSION (LBS)


26 41 66 130 160 190 210 260 100 130 260 160 200

CDR
2

4 5 7 8

~~3 24
33 41 478 49 52

39
52 65 78 83

62
83 100 1090 120 130

99

150

200 260 30 310 330 410 460 500 540

190

240

330 410 490 90 530 590 660 730 790 860

310
410 520 606 620 670 7509 830 920 1000 1000

3
4 5

320 390 90 420 470 520 570 630 680

9 10 11 12 13

~~~
65 72 78 85

100

~~~ 93
110 120 130

230 ~~~ ~~~~~~~59 370 140 160

8 10 11 12 13

I I~ I

180 190 210

280 310 340

~~~~14
15 16 17 19 20 22 24 26 28

91
98 100 110

140
150 160

230
240 260

360
390 420 440 500 520 570 630 680 730

580
620 660 710

730
790 840

930
990 1000

1000
1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

14
15 16

~~~1

170 190

7 8 40 70 8010 00 1
280 8940 1000 310 330 360 390 420 460 790 830 910 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

17 19 20 22 24 26 28

120 130 140 150 170 10

200 220 240 270 290

~
32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50

~~30 190
200 220 230 240 260 270 280 300 310 320

310
3330 350 370 390 410 430 450 470 490 510

490
520 560 590 620 660 690 720 760 790 820

780
840 890 940 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

1000
1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

1000
1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

1000
1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

1000
1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

30
32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50

THE MAXIMUM LIMIT IS 1000 LBS.

T =0.O8 x CM xN,ifN<=6.

~
T

= 0.008 ~~~T
=

x CM x N x 0.8, if N>6.

0.008 x CM x N x 0.6, if twist d subassembli s.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~47

INSTALLATION (CONT.) CALCULATION FORMULAE


These tension formulas are for estimating the forces due to dynamic frfiction. THEY DO NOT ACCOUNT FOR BENDINGI FORCES. The bending forces will vary with cable construction and material stiffness, especially with conductor hardness.
If T ~, < 0, use zero as tension for next section of raceway.I 0

TENSIONS, VERTICAL BEND, PULLING UP

Large concave down angle (VUCD)I


Tout = Ti
+ WRM

[2ytfe fsinO +(1

1f2 wf

VC

Large concave up angle (VUCU)I

vuCu

OD

T0 ~ T eWfO.

iiWRv

[2wf sinO-(l-w 2I2) (et

-coso)]I

TENSIONS, VERTICAL BEND, PULLING DOWN

Large concave down angle (VDCD)I wlO WR


T0 Te T~ +rf + 1+

[2.vif sine (O

_2 2(
.

f) AleDCD - cosO)I (e

Larg concave up angle (VDCU)TI


OT 0

~TineklfO~-

+WR

[2yife-wf0 sino + (1- _Wf2) (1-e Wf0cosOE)]

VC

OIf T,,, < WR. use formulatfor concave down.T


TENSIONS, HORIZONTAL PULLI
Straght ecton' = wfWL + (Prior tension) Straight section
__

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~to find et"'.

See the Chart Bend Multiplier on page 59


Symbol meanings shown on pag 8

Maximum length Lm = TM/(WfW) TENSIONS, INCLINE PULL Upward T Downward T


=WL(sin
-

0 + wf cos 0) + (Prior tension) WL (sin 0 - wf cos 0) + (Prior tension)

TENSIONS HORIZONTAL BEND2I


Tout = Tin cosh wf 6 + (sinI~wf 0) \/(Tin) + (WR) TENSIONS, BEND, APPROXIMATION if Tin > 1O0WR then Tout =Tin ARCHES
2 Z
+

41- 2
si'Z

8H

o- 360

2R
S 2R cos R

K'

-----

tan~'2-

48

CALCULATION DISCUSSON
PULLING AROUND BENDS The preceding formulae for vertical bends assumes that the cable is sliding on the INSIDE SURFACE of the bend. This would not occur on concave up bends when the sidewall loading is less than the weight of the cable. -Cable --- Duct

Standard formulae are valid W<T/R

Standard formulae not valid W>T/R

Typical installation having cable dragging the bottom of the duct are river crossings or up and downhill pulls of long lengths. BENDS MULTIPLY INCOMING TENSION. STRAIGHT RUNS ADD TENSION. The difference: where: Mt = 1.1 W = 2 f 0.5 Tn = 500 lb wfWL + T.n = 61 0 lb

pull 100 It horizontally- Tc),,t

pull around 90' ell: T out Tn e 12001b (See page 59) Thus for the given conditions, one 90' bend increased the tension almost double that of 1 00 ft of straight duct! Because of this multiplying effect, it is better to feed into the duct end having the greater number of bends. But calculate the tensions for pulling either direction to determine which will be easier. CALCULATIONS CORRELATION Even though the foregoing parameters and formulae give exact answers, because of variances in installation techniques, these answers may not correspond to facts. THESE CALCULATIONS MUST BE USED ONLY AS GUIDELINES TO PREDICT "NORMAL" OR "DIFFICULT" CABLE PULLS. The stated parameters and formulae do not consider forces required to bend the cables, and the coefficient of friction is arbitrarily selected - in fact it may change during the pull it the lubricant is not spread evenly. Seldom are the bends located exactly as shown on the designer's drawing, nor are the exact bends' angle or radius known. Nevertheless, one major engineeringcontracting firm states that for 90% of the pulls at a given project, the actual was within 10% of the predicted pulling tension. CAUTION The formulae do not take into account: 1) Weight Correction Factor when there are more than 6 cables (use w = 1.4); 2) Sidewall Loading when there are more than 3 cables; 3) Bending forces in short pulls of large cables through several bends. To better correlate tensions: 1) read just before the pulling head starts into a bend, 2) read just after the head exits a bend, 3) read just after the cable exits the raceway, 4) the meters should have range switches so that the readings are made at half to full scale of the meter, 5) the main reading is the last when the pulling head and rope have minimum influence, 6) record the relative position of the pulling head for any unusual surges.

49

INSTALLATION (CONT.) BEND MULTIPLIER

Wfe
1800 BEND MULTIPLIER

e
90,

7 This isthe multiplier used incomputing ten - - - sions around bends. 6 I1Jq I 70' - -

19
0

-I0440 7 -

1xi I 01

40,

3-

- - - - -

I 1XI I A IZI I - - - 00 0,100,I -. -.411 1, I I Lo, I so, 1L4 i1o,I I 14ol 100' I - - - Yi I v yo, 1.100 70 -Pq -45' /I v Yl 000 .0 '01 ly LOO 00.1

ol
010

0,11 O v I, 00, XA I XII Ik, I X IKIY

00

11?,

AV I 'IO' 41 .0e I Yo, I

LK 41 1 1 --- LLo.

40

IL 30-

o, oo ooo

01, I. 01 10 )ooq ooI


oo

oo
e I .22.5' 20' I

OOV, 00

o" " ." -, oo, oo,- loo,

01 / 010 0,0n ol S
140

ol
00

:a 4
-t7T

o-

IT[Lu Ii iI
1.0 1.2 1.4

I01

-'4 0.2
examol

0.4

0.6

0.8

Wf The line for 9'fffO when wt-0-55 and e-30- is 1.33.

50

INSTALLATION (CONT.)
F. PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS OF CABLE (CONT.) 3. Sidewall Loading (Sidewall Bearing Pressure) a. Overview Sidewall load is the radial force exerted on a cable being pulled around a conduit bend or sheave. Excessive sidewall loading can crush a cable and is, therefore, one of the most restrictive factors in installations having bends or high tensions.

TENSION

LOAD

Sidewall loading is reduced by increasing the radius of bends. To illustrate, a 15 kv 350 kcmil cable installation dropping six feet vertically underground, traveling horizontally, then rising to a motor should have bends at least six feet in radius to maximize the horizontal distance and still be within the sidewall limit of 500 lbs./ft. Sidewall loading is calculated as follows: SIDEWALL LOADING Where T is tension out of a bend, in pounds and R is radius of a bend, in feet 1 /C per conduit: 3-1 /C cradled: 3-1 /C triangular: SW SW SW
T R 3w-2 ] 3 T R T

Laboratory tests conducted on standard BICC cables after they had been subjected to conduit ,pull tests through 900 elbows of appropriate radii, indicate no significant change in the cabi 's electrical parameters at the following sidewall loads:

Cable type 600V nonshielded control 600V & 1 kV nonshielded EP power 5-35 kV Unishield & Uniblend, 5 kV Durasheath EP Interlocked & Philsheath armored cable (All Voltage Classes)

SWIL (lb/ft) 300 500 500 300

INSTALLATION (CONT.)
4. Training and Bending a. Overview Training is the positioning of cable which is not under tension. Bending is the positioning of cable which is under tension. When installing cable, the object is to limit these forces so that the cable's physical and electrical characteristics are maintained for the expected service life. The recommended limits are: b. Tables per National Electric Code (Page 57) c. Tables per ICEAMEMA (Page 58) d. A nonshielded cable can tolerate a sharper bend than a shielded cable can. This is especially true for cables having helical metal tapes which, when bent too sharply, can separate, buckle and cut into the insulation. The problem is compounded by the fact that most tapes are under jackets which conceal such damage. The shielding bedding tapes or extruded polymers have sufficient conductivity and coverage initially to pass acceptance testing, then fail prematurely due to corona at the shield/insulation interface. Remember that offsets are bends.

52

INSTALLATION (CONT.)
4. Training and bending (cont.) b. Applications in accordance with the NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE.

Table I

Shielded or Lead-Covered Cable (Non-Armored) Single and Multiple Conductor All Voltages Over 600 Volt Nominal 12 x Overall Diameter

Table 11

Non-Shielded and Non-Armored

Single and Multiple Conductor All Voltages Over 600 Volt Nominal 8 x Overall Diameter

Table III Armored Cable - Type MC Interlocked or Corrugated Sheath Multiple Conductors - Non Shielded 7 x External Diameter of Armor Multiple Conductors - Shielded 12 x Diameter of One Shielded Conductor or 7 x External Diameter of Armor Whichever is Greater

In all cases the minimum bending radius specified refers to the inner surface of the cable and not to axis of the cable.

INSTALLATION (CONT.)
4. Training and Bending (Cont.) c. Applications in Accordance With ICEA/NEMA STIDS. (Non-Code) Table I Non-Shielded, Non-Armored Power & Control Cable Thickness of Conductor Insulation Inches Up to 1.000 Overall Diameter of Cable, Inches 1.001 To 2.000 Over 2.000

Min. Bend Radius As A Multiple of Cable O.D.

.155 and less .1 70 to .31 0 .325 and Over

4 5 -

5 6 7

6 7 8

Table 11 Metallic Shielded and/or Armored Power & Control Cable Minimum Bending Radius Type of Cable Flat Tape or Wire Armored Armored, Interlocked (Duralox ) or (PhilflexO ) -----As A Multiple of Cable O.D. 12 12 12 12 Table I Above

Armored, Welded Corrugated Sheath (Philsheath *Non-Armored, Tape Shielded UniBlendO *Non-Armored, Wire Shielded or UniShieldO -

'Includes 12 x Single Conductor O.D. in Cabled Assemblies, i.e. Triplexed, Quadruplexed, etc.

The above Tables contain the minimum values for the radii to which insulated cables may be bent for perman nt training during installation. These limits do not apply to conduit bends, sheaves or other curved surfaces around which the cable may be pulled under tension while being installed. Larger radii bends are required for such conditions due to the limitation of sidewall bearing pressure. In all cases the minimum radii specified refers to the inner surface of the cable and not to the axis of the cable.

54

INSTALLATION (CONT.) CALCULATION EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE 1

Maximum length

_____

__

__

__

__

I I I I

Problem: Find the maximum manhole spacing for a feeder. Cable: 3-1IC, 350 kcmil Cu, 15 kV GN, 0.175 " EP - Lead; to be

~~~~~~~~~~~~~installed in parallel.

Cable Size: Weight = 3180 lb/MFT for I1/C, d

=1.39

in

~~~~~~~~~Conduit 4 in (see Chart '3/C % fill Selection =


This avoids jamming and conforms with NEC

-EP-Lead'

0~~~~~~~~~~~ Sld Ri = 1.17 ft (see Chart 'Conduit'). = 4.026 in,

~~~~~~~~Clearance

0.5D

1.366d + 0.5 (D-d)


-

1(

=0.5 (4.03)

(1.366) (1.39)

=1.24

in. =0OK

Maximum pulling length

~~~~~~~~~~Tm Tm
Lm find Tm Mf i~ d
2

=6500

lb Per Installation, Physical Limitations Chart

m +1 3

((0.5)
6500 40-.9i1000/

-=

995 feet

(3

55

INSTALLATION (CONT.)I
CALCULATION EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE 2 10 ft

I
vertical

7~~~~ 5 6~~~~~
Probem:Insall15 V fede beteen1 ad 8in igi codui 4I 0tt 9

Prole nsal
UniShield weight
=

Cu (gedrounding); cabld

nrgd odi

673 lb/IVFT. d

0.92 in

Per "Conductor Data":

Class B bare = 128.9 lb/MFT, d = 0.232" area = 0.0423 in2 Per Conductor Tension, Tm = 2530 for 3/C

Conduit Selection:I
Cable Area = 3.irl/4*0.922 + 0.0423 =2.04 in2 For fill < 400/ use 3"1C (see "Conduit Info" - 3"C has 40% area of 2.96 in2) 0.96 ftI Conduit Info 3"C: 0 = 3.068 in, stid R 1 Jam: 1.05D/d
=

1.05 (3.068/0.92)

3.5

=OK

Clearance; check if # 4 fits interstice of phase cdrs.I Interstice factor = 0.483 (see Appendix)

Fit =0.483*0.92 =0.44I


0.44>0.23 so we can use the 3/C "cbl" factor of 2.155: Cl
=

2.155d

3.068- 2.155*0.92

=1.11

inch

Bending: (See NEC 300-34) Training radius: 1/C cable


= =

0.92* 12

11 inches
=

0.92*2.155(12

23.5 in

2 ft
=2.37

Bending radius: we must use conduit elbow having at least 30-inch radius (R xceed 2 ft training limitation.

ft) because we must

56

I I I I I

INSTALLATION (CONT.)
~CALCULATION EXAMPLE ~EXAMPLE 2
See Weight Correction Chart, for Did wf -1.1.0.5 K
=

3.068/0.92_ w -1.1

0.55

W
=

0.68-3.03 +1.01-0.129 =2.19 lb/ft 10WR


=
=

WfW=0.55*2.19 500 lb/ft


=

1.20

10.2 19.2.37

52

PM

w/2R =1. 1/(2-2.37) 0.55. 0


= =
0 30., eAI'

0.232

See chart: for Al

1 .33 (see Bend Multiplier chart)

~~~~~for0.55. 0 wf =
Pulling from 1 to 8:'
T2= wfWL
=

90., ettfO zz2.37

KL -=1 .20*320 = 384 lb

since T2 >1OWR then T3 ztT 2 e~~0, likewise for T5 &T7 T3 zzT 2 e~f U= 384.1.33 =51 1 lb

~P ~

Iw/2R1 3 =

T3

=0.232-51

119 lb /ft
=

=OK

since 119<-500.

T4 z KL +T 3 P5

=1.20.290+511

859 lb

:~:T 5 ~T = 4 ewt()
=

859*1.33
=

1142 lb
=

[w/2RJT 5
5
=

0.232-1 142

265 lb/ft

OK

T6 z~. KL +T T7 .zT 6 e~O

==1.20.140+1142 = 1310 lb 1310*2.37


= =

3100 lb
=

NO because-.TM
=

P7 = [&/2R]T 7

0.232-31 00

719 lb/ft

NO because >Pm

Thus we cannot pull from 1 to 8 because both maximum tension and sidewall load are exceeded at 7. Pulling Example 2 Pulling from 8 to 1

I I,~ I

Because the calculated tension will be negative at 6 & 7, compute from 6 to 1.

:zLKL 5~T

= 1.20.140 = 168 lb 0.232*223 =52 lb/ft


=

T4 z:T 5 e~ t = 168*1.33 =223 lb


= =

~P = [W/2R]T 4
T3 :z:KL + T 4
=

OK

1.20-290+ 223
=

571 lb

:-,T 2 ~T3 e
P2
=

=751 *1.33=759 lb
1 76 lb/ft =OK
=

[ml/2RJT 2 = 0.232*759

T 1 :~:KL +T 2

1.20*320+ 759 =1 1 43 lb =0OK


=31

Using the exact formulae, pulling from 1 to 7 calculations give T7 6 tol1giveT = 11 56 lb P 2 =1 79 lb

65 lb

.P

=736

lb

pulling from

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~57

INSTALLATION (CONT.) CHECKLIST RACEWAYS E] Bending - Check sidewall loads; the use of long sweeps (over 6 ft) allows longer shielded medium voltage cable pulls. - Avoid bends and offsets at the 'pulling' end of a raceway section. Training - Make sure to meet or exceed the minimum training radius. E] Size - Consider weight correction factor and clearance. El Jam Ratio - Avoid a conduit to cable ratio which may cause jamming; elbows may be out of round. El Conduit Fill - Raceways that are too full create pull-in problems and possible cable damage. E] H at Transfer - Route raceways to avoid high ambient temperatures and high thermal resistivity locations. - Separate cables in raceway seals and fire stops. Abrasion - Use duct end-bells, conduit bushings,'and rack saddles to prevent abrasion. n Grounding - Be sure metallic raceways are grounded. Expansion - Thermal expansion of raceways should be considered in duct layout. Spacing - Heat dissipation improves with greater spacing between raceways. Manhole/Spli6e Box - Allow enough working space for pulling and splicing. - Install anchor bolts and grounding electrode during box fabrication. - Provide cable supports. - Chamfer concrete edges at openings. - Provide drainage holes in bottom of boxes, adequate lips on covers. E] Supports - Support raceway system, during system and cable installation, especially trays. - Provide for gang rollers' insertion to be used during pulling. E] Ties - Allow for radial expansion of cable during electrical loading. DIRECT BURIED C] Backfill - Use screened backfill to keep rocks, and debris from damaging cables. r7 Crossovers - Do not lay one cable on top of another. Cable Slack - Allow for earth movement due to freezing, drying or settlement. D pth - Stay below frost-line, check Code requirements. Protection - Use marker tape, and post warning signs.

58

INSTALLATION (CONT.) CHECKLIST PULLING El Conduit Cleanout - Provide clean, SMOOth COncentric inner duct surface; test with a mandrel for obstructions. R Bending -- Bends during pulling must be larger than those permitted for final training; ESPECIALLY THE LAST BEND, WHICH MAY BE TEMPORARY FOR INSTALLATION! F1 Edges - Install temporary guides, tubes, sheaves, etc., as necessary to prevent cutting of cable on sharp edges, such as at panelboards. E] Maximum Tension - Keep sidewall loads below specified maximum. - Check maximum allowable pulling tension. - Check limitation for type of pulling attachment used. M Lubrication - Use pulling compound liberally. Be sure itis compatible with the particular cable being installed. Prelube just before making a difficult pull. Temperature - Check for minimum allowable installation temperature. Allow for change of the coefficient of friction with temperature. El End Seals - Keep moisture out of cable. R Special Instructions - Check shipping container for special instructions.

59

IV

SPLICING AND TERMINATING


1. Why Shield Power Cables? All electrically insulated conductors are capacitors. When a changing voltage is applied across a capacitor a charging current will flow through that capacitor. In most cable installations the cable's surface makes only random casual contacts with its grounded physical supports or with the surfaces of other cables. Except at these points of actual physical contact there are air gaps which are also capacitors. The result is a series circuit consisting of the capacitance of the cable and the capacitance of the air gap. The surface of the cable then becomes the "floating" tap of a capacitive voltage divider. Consequently, the voltage on the cable surface can vary from almost zero to nearly the phase-to-ground voltage of the insulated conductor, depending upon the size of these external air gap capacitors. If the voltage along the cable surface or across the air gap capacitors is sufficiently high, the surface of the cable may be deteriorated by surface tracking, and/or there can be corona and sparking discharges across the air gaps, and the surface may be a shock hazard. Shielded Cables INSULATION SHIELDING PROPERLY APPLIED AND GROUNDED,' ELIMINATES ELECTROSTATIC CHARGES EXTERNAL TO THE CABLE SHIELD AND PROVIDES A FIXED KNOWN PATH TO GROUND FOR THE CHARGING CURRENT SHIELDS ARE RECOMMENDED ON CABLES ENERGIZED OVER 2 KV. The shield of a power cable, by providing a fixed electrical path to ground that is in intimate contact with the external surface of the cable insulation, eliminates the surface discharge problems associat d with nonshielded cables. In addition, shielding assures uniform electrical stress distribution within the cable insulation; and because of the fixed conductor-to-ground capacitance per unit length of cable, shielding minimizes voltage surge reflections along the cable. Carefully designed and grounded shields provide personal safety by eliminating surface potential, minimizing shield loss, and minimizing insulation stress.

60

SPLICING AND TERMINATING (CONT.) Ov rview


A shielded power cable termination must be properly designed and properly applied or the termination may fail within a short time. Remember that a splice in the middle of a cable is in effect two shield terminations! As described in the section "Why Shielded Cables" the shield is always grounded. The shield must be removed for a distance when making splices and terminations to provide sufficient dielectric strength to prevent voltage breakdown along the insulation surface. The length of cable from which the shield is removed is usually called the "creepage length." P nciling the insulation relieves the gradient at the insulation end. Voltage breakdown or flashover from the bare conductor over the insulation surface to a grounded shield is prevented by maintaining creepage I ngths, and reinsulation at splices Splices introduce the problem of heat dissipation. Minimize connection resistance. control insulation thickness and provide surface area to help solve this problem. That is, use high quality connectors designed for medium voltage, insulated cables: do not add more insulation tape than the drawings specify; do not cram several splices together. About 75% of the conductor-to-shield voltage gradient is concentrated along the first longitudinal inch of insulation

surface: (If
1 = conductor 2 = stress control layer 3 = insulation 4 grounded shield 5 creepage length

O
This gradient may be controlled with a stress cone by altering the relative capacitance and insulation thickness; much as an optical lens retracts light:

1= 2= 3= 4= 5= 6= 7=

conductor stress control layer insulation grounded shi Id creepage length stress cone flared shield

Lik wise, special tapes or paints may be used to alter the relative capacitance

SPLICING AND TERMINATING (CONT.)


C. PRECAUTIONS When splicing and terminatingmedium voltage cable: * * * * * * * * * * * * Keep both the cable and the work area clean and dry. Do not cut the insulation. Completely remove the semi-conducting insulation shield, but do not lift it at the cut-off point. Support the cable near its splices, never under them. Keep nonshielded conductors away from ground and from other phase conductors. Keep stress cones aligned. Ensure bends in nonshielded conductors are smooth. Use skirted terminators outdoors or in contaminated areas. Keep nonblack insulation out of direct sunlight by using a tube or track resistant tape. Use shielded cables in all applications requiring 2 kV and higher. Use a minimum amount of cleaning solvent. Consider lead sheathing for hostile environments (oils, water, solvents, chemicals, etc.)

Tape: Half-lap and stretch per manufacturer's recommendations - usually 3/4 original width; over-stretch ends and roll each layer to prevent voids; use fresh tape only; remove separator backing, start and end taping at the middle of the splice or termination. Grounding: Except in unusual installations, ground shields at every opportunity; grounding leads should be copper, solid 6 AWG minimum and insulated outside of splice or termination to resist corrosion; connect outdoor termination grounds directly to lightning arrestor grounds; span splices with grounding lead for fault ampacity. TOOLS/SUPPLIES Diameter Tape Knife & Stone Soldering Iron Crimping Tool Plastic Pipe Cutter Linesmen's Pliers Hacksaw Screwdriver Ruler, Grease Pencil Splicing Separators Scissors Hose Clamp Rat-tail File Concave Roller (tape roller) Wire, solid copper, Nos. 12 & 6 AWG (tie wire, gn bond)

62

SPLICING AND TERMINATING (CONT.)

~~~~~~MEDIUM VOLTAGE CABLE COMPONENTS

CONDUCTOR (ANAPACT)*

CONDUCTOR STRESS CONTROL(ESS)"*

~~INSULATION~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~SHIELD DRAIN WIRES*


INSULATION SHIELD (EXTRUDED LEAD SHEATH* JACKET JACKET I INSULATION SHIELD*M

UnIShIeId*8

EP- Lead

'Electrically Conducting

I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~A1

SPLICING AND TERMINATING (CONT.)

MEDIUM VOLTAGE CABLE COMPONENTS

(ANAPACTi

CDUTRCONDUCTOR

CONDUCTOR STRESS CTRLCONDUCTOR STRESS CONTROL

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SHIELD CONCENTRIC NEUTRAL*

(TAPE)*
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Tape Shielded Unibi nd 'Electrically Conducting

Wire Shielded

URD

SPLICING AND TERMINATING (CONT.)


5 kV Nonshielded Cables For splices and end seals, follow the same dimensions and procedure as for shielded cables, only delete the shield portions. Do apply conducting tape over the connector or lug to make a smooth configuration. Stress relief cones are not necessary. 2 kV or less No special terminations are necessary, unless they are to be in wet environments. Then it is suggested that the outdoor ends be sealed against moisture entry into the conductor, and multiconductor cables be sealed at the jacket cut-off. Heat shrink tubing is compatible with either type. For both splices and terminations use HV insulating tape for the best seal, for high temperature use silicone tape. Overlap the original cable insulation by at least one inch applying two half-lapped layers of tape.

Identify Cable Shield System TAPE SHIELD - UNIBLEND6 - This cable has copper-tape shields and between these tapes and the insulation surface will be a layer of electrically conducting material. This cable has an overall jacket. WIRE SHIELD - UNISHIELDO - This cable shield consists of longitudinally applied corrugated wires embedded in a conducting jacket. This conducting jacket adheres to the cable insulation. WIRE SHIELD-URD - This cable shield consists of wires wrapped around a conducting polymer jacket which adheres to the cable insulation. EP-LEAD insulation. Cabi This cable shield consists of a lead sheath over a conducting polymer which adheres to the cable

Preparation

Be sure the splice/termination is the correct one for your specific cable type Review cable manufacturer's instructions. Review and follow splice/termination manufacturer's instructions. Determine proper dimensions. Train cable into final position Cut off excess cable. Remove overall jacket. Remove single conductor jacket for all except those constructions having drain wires emb dded within the jacket, such as UniShield. METALLIC Component of Shield: Concentric Neutral (URD): bind wires (but not tightly); unwrap and twist into pigtail-, tie back out of way. Drain Wires (or UniShleld): mark pull-out point with two wraps of PVC tape; unwrap wires or pull out UniShield wires and twist into pigtail; tie back odt of way; remove PVC tape. Tapes (Uniblend): tack solder at cut off; apply hose clamp; score; unwrap and tear tape against knife edge. Tube (EP-Lead): apply hose clamp; score.- make one or more longitudinal cuts-, roll back and t ar.

65

SPLICING AND TERMINATING (CONT.) Cable Preparation (continued) Extruded Conducting Layer (EIS)-. Conducting Tapes: apply clamp; score; unwrap and tear against knife edge. The circumferential cut may be made using a plastic pipe cutter, a knife in conjunction with a hose clamp for its guide, or a file - rat-tail or triangular - when a taper is desired. The longitudinal cuts are made in UniShield by pulling out the drain wires. For other cables, use a guarded tip knife - such as Stanley No. 199 - which has had the tip or guard ground to give a tip long enough to just cut 85-95% through the conducting layer. Make longitudinal cuts 0.625-0.75 inch apart. Heat may be applied to soften the conducting layer. Excess heat will be indicated by smoking of the material. Roll or pull the longitudinal strips back to the cut-off point. Penciling (when required) Mark pencil area with two wraps of PVC tape on each side: slice the insulation into a taper using a 4-inch knife; smooth with abrasive cloth (nonconducting); then remove PVC tapes and insulation stub which has served as a handle and guard unless solder connectors are to be used, then part of the stub may be left temporarily as a heat shield. Charrifer insulation edge slightly if penciling is not required (penciling is done also to provide a long bonding area for taping.) Cleaning Wipe the insulation towards the shield with a solvent-dampened cloth to remove conducting particles on the surface. Loosen remaining conducting material with a nylon solvent-dampened scouring pad backed with a cloth. Buff only if absolutely necessary with a 240 grit nonconductive abrasive cloth. Wipe clean with a solvent-dampened lint-free cloth DO NOT POUR SOLVENTS OVER CABLE Protecting Seal and protect insulation with a single layer of PVC tape during a temporary splice/termination stoppage - i.e. for lunch. Rewipe with lint-free solvent-dampened cloth after tape is removed just prior to splicing/terminating. NOTES Minor scratches on the insulation must be buffed. Cuts or gouges into the insulation necessitate removal of insulation to that point and restarting. All conducting material must be removed from the creepage area. Do not loosen remaining shield beyond the cut-off point either by allowing flaring or by solvent flowing under the shield. Make cuts square, trim away raveling or jagged edges Insulation without a conducting layer is lighter in color, its surface resistance is higher. Remember that black rubber has carbon black as a constituent, so it will also discolor a solventdampened cloth. Follow the solvent manufacturer's handling precautions. Use a minimum amount of solvent and buff ing on the "creepage" area. The 1/4 inch of insulation adjoining the shield cut-off need not be perfectly clean, since this area is reshielded during the splice or termination installation.

66

SPLICING AND TERMINATING (CONT.)


TAPE TERMINATION

Stress Cone Apply half-lapped tightly-stretched layers of high voltage (HV) insulating tape back and forth to build a tapered stress cone. Keep 1/4 inch away from any shield component Grounding Attachment UniShield: Twist drain wires together; cut to 1 1/2 inch; splice to 6 AWG solid copper grounding bond. Uniblend & EP-LEAD:- Apply a 3/4 inch tack of solder longitudinally to hold the 6 AWG solid copper grounding bond to the metal shield component. Shi Iding For all cable types, apply one half-lapped tightly stretched layer of conducting tape overlapping the cable shield to within 1/8 inch of the stress cone peak. NO VOIDS If it is desired to 'beef-up' the stress cone shield, apply one half-lapped layer of shielding braid 1/8 inch from the edge of the conducting ta0e (near the cone peak) to 1 inch beyond the conducting tape overlapping the cable shield. Jacketing Apply two slightly-stretched half-lapped layers of HV insulating tape over stress cone, overlapping the cable jacket and onto the insulation creepage area by 1/4 inch maximum. Make a good sea[ at the grounding bond exit. Apply two half-lapped layers of PVC tape over this HV tape just applied, overlapping it by 1/4 inch. Connecting - see that prior page. Sealing For outdoor terminations seal the conductor against moisture entry at the lug. It is not necessary, nor desirable, to seal the cable ends in dry locations just against water vapor. However, it may be desirable to seal against other corrosive environments. Fill any indents in the lug with conducting tape strips after burrs have been removed. Apply one half-lapped slightly stretched layer of conducting tape overlapping the lug barrel and just 1/1 6 inch onto the penciled insulation. Apply HV insulating tape in half-lapped slightly stretched layers to fill in the penciled area, then overlapping the lug barrel and insulation. Apply two layers of PVC tape over the sealed end. (Do NOT apply PVC over the insulation between the lug seal and stress cone.) Grounding URD: Wrap neutral back into place to the bottom of the stress cone. With slight tension apply three turns of 6 AWG solid copper around the neutral wires leaving a lead. The solid copper should be coated if the n utral wires are coated. For all: Connect the shield grounding bond to the system ground. UNGROUNDED SHIELDS ARE DANGEROUS. Keep the distance between the termination and its surge protector as short as possible. NOTE: When the circuit designer designates that the shield is not to be grounded, particular attention must be given to keep the shield isolated from ground, which is only practical with Uniblend type cables. Tracking Protection For areas exposed to sunlight or airborne contaminants (i.e. dust) apply two half-lapped layers of trackresistant silicone rubber tape, starting at the highest part of the exposed insulation (usually the lug end) wrapping down over the entire stress cone, then back up to the starting point.

A7

SPLICING AND TERMINATING (CONT.)


UNISHIELD & URD
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SPLICING AND TERMINATING (CONT.) TAPE SPLICE Pr paration - see that prior page Connecting - see that prior page Stress Control Remove any burrs from the conductor connector Fill any Apply one half-lapped tightly stretched layer of conducting connector indents with conducting tape strips tape across the connector to provide a smooth configuration, overlapping the penciling as shown. Dimension Measure and record the diameter over the taped connector (DOC). Compute what will be the diameter over the high voltage (HV) insulating tape: DOI = DOC + 21 (see drawing for dimension 1). Insulating Do not start or end application of insulating tape at a splice end, ie - stagger the tape endings. tightly-stretched, half-lapped high voltage (HV) insulating tape back and forth between penciling,Apply back and forth across splice to within 1/4 inch then diameter over the connector, with a gradual taper of the shield bedding at each end Build up to proper at both ends as shown Roll each second layer VOIDS CAUSE FAILURE. Shielding Apply onetightly-stretched, half-lapped layer of conducting tape across-the splice, overlapping the existing cable shield at both ends as shown. NO VOIDS. For all but URD cables, apply one halt-lapped layer of braid tape across the splice as shown Fasten the braid by tucking its ends under the last wrap: soldering is not necessary. Grounding Attachment UniShield: Twist the drain wires together; splice to 6 AWG solid copper grounding bond, spanning the splice. Uniblend: span the splice with 6 AWG solid copper grounding bond and tack solder 3/4 inch of the bond longitudinally to the metal shield component at each end. All: bend the grounding bond at a right angle to the cable axis. Apply a spiral wrap of tape to hold the wire in place. Jacketing Apply two half-lapped slightly-stretched layers of HV insulating tape across the splice, overlapping the cable jacket as shown. Make good seal at grounding bond exit. Apply two layers of PVC or jacketing tape as shown Grounding URD: span splice with concentric neutral wires and splice to grounding bond. All: Connect grounding bond to system ground. UNGROUNDED SHIELDS ARE DANGEROUS NOTE: When circuit designer designates that the made to keep the shield insulated from ground, shield is not to be grounded, particular attention must be which is only practical with Uniblend type cables. Protection When a splice must endure a continually wet environment, apply one half-lapped layer of electrical filler tape over the prior tape to span the splice and overlap the cable jacket 2 inches at each end. Apply two layers of PVC tape.

69

SPLICING AND TERMINATING (CONT.)


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70

SPLICING AND TERMINATING (CONT.)


MATERIALS FOR CONVENTIONAL TAPE CONSTRUCTION BICC Cables does not make individual recommendations. Below is a partial listing of available materials for field construction of cable terminations and splices by conventional tape techniques. Tapes Conducting Fireproofing Insulating High Voltage High Temp, 600V glass, 1300C silicone, 180'C teflon,2600C PVC-Cold Weather PVC-Heavy Duty Jack t Track Resistant MISCELLANEOUS C m nt Color Tape Filler Grounding Strap Shielding Braid ST1 030 Splice Cement MACSEAL SA582 SA121 35 Scotchfill 25 24 37 Slipknot Filler Plystrap Plybraid

Mac Products TAPSCN AP TAPRUB GCT ST1 030 MAC 85

3M 13 77 23,130C 27 70 33+/88 22 23,130C 70

Plymouth Plyshield Plyarc Plyvolt/Plysafe Plyglas Plysil Premium CW Premium Grey (or Black) HD2 Plytuff Plysil

Caution- Some sealing compounds may have detrimental effects on components of power and control cables. These materials at the time of testing were found to be compatible with most conducting cable polymers: 3M Company "Scotchfil", Mac Products "Mac Seal". Data and recommendations are based on information currently available and believed to be reliable. BICC Cables makes no guaranteeof resultsand assumes no obligation or liability whatsoever in connection with this information.

71

SPLICING AND TERMINATING (CONT.)


CLEANING SOLVENTS Follow the solvent manufacturer's precautions and instructions! Consult the current Occupational Safety and Health Standards for allowable concentrations, required ventilation, etc. (Especially 1910.94). The following solvents are frequently used to clean cables. BICC Cables has tested these only with regard to their relative cleaning ability on BICC Cables Medium Voltage Insulations EPR, XLP and TRXLPE. Solvent Low Toxicity and nonflammable methylene chloride 1,1,1 - trichloroethane CRC- "Cable Clean" Dow " Chlorothene Nu" 3M- "Cable Preparation Kit" West "Westsafe" More Hazardous acetone gasoline, white petroleum naptha Toluene Xylene mineral-spirits lacquer thinner Terpolene West - "Electros6lve" Evaporation very fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast slow slow very slow slow slow slow slow Cleaning fair excellent excellent good excellent good good good good good good fair good good good

EXERCISE CAUTION WHEN USING SOLVENTS. PROVIDE ADEQUATE VENTILATION. AVOID BREATHING VAPORS. AVOID SKIN CONTACT. PROTECT EYES. DO NOT ALLOW SMOKING, OPEN FLAMES, OR HOT METAL IN AREA. Regard all cleaning solvents as hazardous. Most are toxic or will decompose into toxic gases at high temperatures. Some are also flammable. Use minimum quantities. do not permit solvents to contact insulation shielding components. Data and recommendations are based on information currentlyavailable and believed to be reliable. BICC Cab/es makes no guarantee of results and assumes no obligation or liability whatsoever in connection with this information.

72

SPLICING AND TERMINATING (CONT.)


BICC Cables does not make individual recommendations. Below is a partial listing of suppliers of specific cable accessories for installing power and control cables. Amerace Corp, Elastimold Div. AMP Hackettstown NJ Harrisburg PA

Cable Spinning Equip. G&W Electric Specialty General Electric Company Greenlee His Business Hotsplicer ITT Blackburn Joslyn Mfg. & Supply, Electrical Apparatus Div. Mac Products 3M Company, Electro-Products Div. Oz/Gedney PLM Products Plymouth Rubber, High Voltage Products Raychem, Elec Pwr Products Richmond Screw Anchor Reliable Electric Richards Mfg. Sherman & Reilly Tel-Eye Industries

New London MN Blue Island IL Schenectady NY: Hickory NC Rockford IL San Diego CA Wauconda IL St. Louis MO Chicago IL Kearny NJ Austin TX Terryville CT Cleveland OH Canton MA Menlo Park CA Ft Worth TX Franklin Park IL Irvington NJ Chattanooga TN Cornith MS

SPLICE/TERMINATION Rating - Record the temperature rating for each device's terminal and of its cable for proper overcurrent protection device coordination. Drawings and instructions - Be sure these are proper for the cable involved. - Follow supplier's instructions. Cable Size, Type, Rating, Dimensions Check these before starting to splice or terminate. F1 Materials - Be sure materials won't harm cable components. Review instructions and have materials on hand before starting to splice or terminate. 'El Tools - R-eview instructions and have proper tools on hand before starting to splice or terminate. E] Shelter - Provide clean, dry and safe work area for splicers n Grounding - Protect personnel from energized circuits. - Be sure termination of a shield is adequate to meet the short circuit capability of the shield. n Circuit Identity - Use permanent tags held with nonmetallic binder.

71

V. TESTING DC HIGH POTENTIAL (HIPOT) TESTING OF MEDIUM VOLTAGE POWER CABLES OVERVIEW This procedure is intended to provide general guidelines for high potential dc testing of power cables. All tests made after cable installation and during the guarantee period shall be made in accordance with applicable specifications. All safety precautions must be observed during testing at high voltage. Read and understand and follow the Operator's Manual for the particular test set being used! TEST EQUIPMENT Dir ct current test equipment is available commercially with a wide range of voltages. Accessory ment is necessary to safely conduct high voltage tests such as safety barriers, rubber gloves and equip. noncon ducting hard hats must be used; consult appropriate safety officer. TEST PROCEDURES See IEEE Standard 400. Acceptable procedures, although varying slightly in technique, have more less b en standardized as either a "withstand test" or a "time-leakage current test". Befor performing any dc overpotential tests: All equipment'must be disconnected from the taps, motors, circuit breakers, surge arrestors, cable circuit, i.e. disconnect transformers, switct etc. This and will prevent test interruptions due to flashovers will preclude damage to such equipmen and/or trip-outs resulting from excessiv( leakage current. Establish adequate clearance between the circuit test ends and any grounded object, and to othe equipment not under test (about 2.5 feet). Ground all circuit conductors not under test with all cable shields including nearby equipment Consult termination manufacturers for maximum test voltage recommendations and time limitations. Th direct current test voltage may be applied either continuously or in predetermined steps to the max imum value in accordance with applicable specifications. Continuous Method - Apply test voltage at an approximate rise rate of 1 kV per second or 75% the rated current output of the equipment, whichever o is less. Some equipment will take longer t( reach the maximum test voltage because of the amount of charging current. Step Method - Apply test voltage slowly in 5 to 7 increments of equal value, to the maximun specified. Allow sufficient time at each step for the leakage current to stabilize.

74

TESTING (CONT.)
HIPOT TESTING PROCEDURE Normally this requires only a few seconds unless cable circuits of high capacitance are involved. Record leakage current at each step. Maintain the test voltage at the prescribed value for the time designated in applicable specifications. The following times are usually considered adequateAt the end of the test period, set the test set voltage control to zero. Allow the residual voltage on the circuit to decay then ground the conductor just tested. Caution - It should be recognized that dc charges on cable can build up to potentially dangerous levels if grounds are removed too quickly. Maintain solid grounds after the test on the cable for at I ast 4 times the duration of the test. On exceptionally long cable lengths it may be necessary to increase the grounding time. It is advantageous to maintain these grounds longer and while reconnecting circuit components. Acceptance Testing - After installation and before the cable is placed in regular service the specified test voltage shall be applied for 15 consecutive minutes. Proof Testing - At any time during the period of guarantee the cable circuit may be removed from service and tested at a reduced voltage (normally 65 percent of the original acceptance value) for 5 consecutive minutes. Record the leakage current, at one minute intervals for the duration of the test time involved. COMMENTS DC overpotential testing of medium voltage power cables is usually performed with negative polarity connected to the conductor. DC overpotential testing is a tool only for determining insulation resistance at higher voltages. Effective resistance of the cable system may be calculated insulation by means of Ohms Law: R = V/1. The relation is: Megohms Kilovolts Microamperes X 1000

Insulation resistance may also be measured with standard instruments which give a direct reading at 500 volts (or higher, depending on the model). IR in general has little or no direct relationship to dielectric or breakdown strength. The significance of conducting dc High Voltage tests on nonshielded, nonmetallic-sheathed dependent upon the environment in which cable is it is installed because the characteristics of the return circuits are unknown. The environment must be carefully considered or test results may not be significant. In fact these tests can result in damage to the cable insulation. Humidity, condensation and actual precipitation on the surface of a cable termination can increase the leakage current by several orders of magnitude. Humidity also increases the corona current, indication is included in the total leakage which current. Wind prevents the accumulation of space charges at all bare energized terminals. This results in an increase of corona. It is most desirable to reduce or eliminate corona current at the bare metal extremities of cable or terminations. This may be accomplished by covering these areas with plastic envelopes, plastic or glass containers, plastic wrap (e.g. 'Saran"k or 'Handiwrap') or suitable electrical putty. Routine periodic dc maintenance testing of cable for the evaluation of the insulation strength is not a com-

75

TESTING (CONT.)
HIPOT TESTING PROCEDURE (Cont.) mon practice. Some power cable users have adopted a program of testing circuits during plann d outages, preferring possible breakdowns during testing rather than experiencing a service outage. It is impossibletorecommendtestvoltagevaluesforthosemaintenancetestswiththehistoryofthecabI nearly cuit. An arbitrary test voltage level could cirbreakdown a cable circuit that would otherwise render long trouble-free service at normal operating ac voltage. The main usefulness of dc high voltage testing is to detect conducting particles left on the creepage surface during splicing or termination. Test equipment should be supplied from a stable, constant voltage source. Do not use the same source which is supplying arc welders or othe'r equipment causing line voltage fluctuations. The output voltage of the test set must be filtered and regulated. Consider using a portable motor driven alternator to energize test set. The gradual decrease or nonincrease of leakage current with respect to time at maximum test voltage is the acceptance criteria for dc hipot testing. TESTING PROBLEMS Extra Leakage CurrentFailure to guard against corona Failure to clean insulation surface Failure to keep cable ends dry Failure to provide adequate clearance to ground Improper shield termination Erratic Readings Fluctuating voltage to test set Improper test leads RESULTS vs CABLE LIFE To date there is no basis for correlation between dc test results and cable life expectancy. PARTIAL LISTING OF EQUIPMENT SUPPLIERS J. G. Biddle Company Associated Research Inc. Blue Bell PA 19422 Chicago IL 60648 Hipotronics Brewster NY 10519 Von Corporation Birmingham AL 35211

Environmental Influences. High Relative Humidity, Dampness, Dew, Fog, Wind, Snow

76

TESTING (CONT.)
MAXIMUM DC TEST VOLTAGES FOR SHIELDED CABLES NATIONAL ELECTRICAL MANUFACTURERS'ASSOCIATION EPR = NEMA WC-8, ICEA S-68-516 XLP = NEMA WC-7. ICEA S-66-524 PE = NEMA WC-5. ICEA S-61-402 ACCEPTANCE Rated Circuit Voltage Phase to Phase Volts 2001-5000 5001-8000 8001-15000 15001-25000 25001-28000 28001-35000 Conductor Size AWG-kcmil 8-1000 6-1000 2-1000 G) 100% (For Grounded I kV 25 35 55 80 85 100 Q Not in IEEE-400 25 35 65 (D
20

& IEEE STANDARD 400

133% (For Ungrounded)

1-looo (D

100

1-1000 1-1000 1/0-1000

(D Combined in S-61-402, S-68-516 Test to be made immediately after installation

IBICC; Cables does not make any recommendations for maintenance testing. ASSOCIATION OF EDISON ILLUMINATING COMPANIES The values listed are for ACCEPTANCE testing before the cable is placed in regular service, a and are derived per AEIC CS5 & CS6-87, Section K.2: 'After installation and high-voltage dc test may be made at 80 percent of the test voltage specified in Table 131 & B2 applied for 15 consecutive minutes." RatedkV Voltage Phas -to-Phase 5 8 15 15 25 28 35 46 69 Conductor Size AWG-kcmil B-1000 6-1000 2-1000 2-1000 1-2000 1-2000 1/0-2000 4/0-2000 500-2000 Insulation Thickness Mils 90 115 175 220 260 280 345 445 650

Acceptance Test kV 28 36 56 64 80 84 100 132 192

AEIC factory dc test voltages equal to 1.25 times the acceptance test values listed on this sheet. Two other testing values are given in AEIC CS5 & CS6-87, Section K ''Tests During and After Installation---"K-1 - At any time during installation, a dc voltage specified in Table B1 and B2 applied proof test may be made at a voltage not exceeding 75 percent of the test for 5 consecutive minutes." (Thus take 1.25 x 0.75 x values listed on the above table.) -K-3 - After the cable has been completely during the periodof guaranteeat 65 percent of installed and placed in service, a dc proof test may be made at any time the test voltage specified in Table B 1 &B2 applied for 5 consecutive minutes." (Thus take 1.25 x 0.65 x values listed on the above table.)

77

HIGH VOLTAGE DC TEST REPORT WARNING: TEST VOLTAGES ARE LETHAL CAREFULLY REVIEW "TEST PROCEDURE"
OWNER
______________DATE _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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'70

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
FAULT LOCATING Time Domain Reflectorneter (TDR) units are portable commercially available devices which can be used in the field to locate some types of conductor breaks or shorts Connected to the end of a cable the device functions much like radar, sending out low voltage pulses which travel the length of the cable and echo back when an open, short. or tap is encountered The device can usually locate faults within + 2". of the cable length However. TDRs are only capable of locating breaks or shortshaving an impedance different than that of a cable. for most cables. shorts having a resistance of less than a few ohms and opens having a resistance greater than several hundred ohms Splices. taps etc sometimes distort the echo and can mask the fault. Nevertheless, the method is nondestructive and is used successfully on faults having characteristics within the capabilities of the method Note that the conductor may be in a low voltage or medium voltage cable, shielded or nonshielded, it may even be the shield AC TESTING Several cable users are also including high voltage ac testing to determine RELATIVE CAPACITANCE (SIC) and DISSIPATION FACTOR (insulation power factor) for cables being used in ac circuits HOWEVER. the test voltage levels used and equipment are much different. INSULATION TESTING It the dc voltage applied during an insulation resistance (IR) test on power cables is relatively low, 0.6 to 2.5 kV, the test is nondestructive. One such test instrument is the MEGGEWO which is a portable high-range resistance ohmmeter. These low voltage IR tests are particularly useful in detecting dead shorts and indicating grossly deteriorated insulation The limitation for this low voltage IR test is its interpretation The significance of such testing on nonshi Ided, nonmetallic-sheathed cable is very dependent upon the environment because the characteristics of the return circuits are unknown. Even though the test voltage is lower, the safety precautions stated in the Hipot Testing Procedure, and by the test equipment manufacturer. must be observed Again, low resistance readings may be caused by contaminated or moist cable ends, variable test voltage because of too slow of cranking or variable input voltage to motor driven units, high humidity, etc Failure to clean water based cable pulling lubricants from the cable test ends has caused erroneous rejection of good cable. TESTING F Safety Follow test equipment supplier's instructions. Stay clear of energized ends, operators must know equipment. Be sure shields are grounded! Insulated conductors are capacitors. Check cable and termination manufacturer's guidelines. Keep detailed records and provide copy to owner.

r-1 Voltages -

E]

Records -

79

VI. APPENDIX A. CIRCUIT DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS WHY CALCULATE


Mechanical damage, unless severe. is not usually detected until there is a path of moisture or carbon thru the insulation. because the state of the art of field testing power cables is poor. Neither is it practical to measure sidewall loading during cable pulling. Shields, especially of medium voltage cables, are likewise difficult to test for mechanical damage. USE CALCULATIONS TO ESTIMATE THE EXPECTED TQ4SIONS CULT" CABLE PULLS. TO INDICATE "NORMAL" OR "DIFFI-

1. CALCULATION PROCEDURE
Select raceway size considering fill, clearance, jam ratio and code requirements. Remember, NEC is minimal. Select values for bending radii and coefficient of friction'. Determine weight and weight correction factor. For each raceway section, i.e. bend or straight 1) compute the expected tension, 2) compare to limits sidewall, attachment method/device, conductor.

When limit has been exceeded: increase bending radii to reduce sidewall loading, decrease fill, reduce the number of bends, check pulling opposite direction. Even for new installations with optimum conditions, 0.4 seems to be the lower limit for coefficient of friction for cables in conduits.

80

I I U I

~APPENDIX (CONT.)

2. CALCULATION INPUT
~~~Job
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Date

C per NEC

C noncode iit/d uctI

C parallel

C cabled

C multiconductor kV
_____

~~~Cables

Phase

type_______
__________

size
_______

Neutral (Grounded)

______

~~~~Grounding
Duct C existing size_

__

__

C new metal plastic C rigid C PVC-40 C tray C~~~~~~~~~~~~ special

C design is 'locked' C IMC C PVC-80 C fibre C EMT C PUD C transite

I
Describe bends: ending # V
.

Make single line diagram. not necessarily to-scale, of raceway. Number sections of duct: with a section being a straight portion or a curve. Offsets are two or more curves back-to-back radius: angle: H/VUCD/VUCU/VDCDIVDCU & entrance angle radius, angle, H/VUCD/VUCU/VDCD/VDCU Vertical U
=

I
*

Describe bends

ending z
= =

& entrance angle C


=

~where H = Horizontal
le. NOTE
EXAMPLE

Up

Down

Incline

Concave

VUCD

cable being pulled vertically up. with the concave side of the elbow down

~~~~~~The the angle of deviation angle is


The designer can do the most accurate take-oft from the dravwings
*

iS 'I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'

81~~~~~~~~

APPENDIX (CONT.) 3. PULL BOX SIZING


Over 600 V - Straight Pull See '96 NEC370-71 (a).I L = 4 x Largest Cable Bending Multiplier.

EXAMPLE
L

5kV UniShieldI
3-350 (1.12")

3-4/0 (0.94")I
L = 48 x 1.1 2=54 inches, minimum Over600 V -Angle Pull See '96 NEC370-71 (b). L = 3 x Largest Cable Bending Multiplier + sum of other cables O.D.'s entering same side.I

3-500 (1.21"
3-/ (09"

VW UniShield 5k =I3 .1 3x09)+( L 3-4/0 3-500


= 9 inches, minimum

.1

600 V - for conduits of 3/4 inch and larger, or having #4 or larger conductors.

Straight Pull

See '96 NEC370-28(a)(1)I

L = 8 x diameter of largest raceway

2"0

2"

=8

x 3=24 inches, minimum

Angle Pull

See '96 NEC370-28(a)(2).

L =3 x Largest Cable Bending Multiplier + sum of other cables O.D.'s entering same side.

2"

~ L (6 x3) +2 20 inches, minimum


L

3"

82

~APPENDIX (CONT.) 4. DYNAMOMETER CORRECTION

(Load Cell) W =tare weight of idler pulley assembly R [ Io~/)


-

Pulling Force (F)


=C ~~~S

+ 0/2 (3

cos (1/2) =T 1

S.D

(3____________

_____

(degrees)
0 30

2 cos ((3/2)
0.500 0.518

(degrees)
120 125

2 cos (13/2)
1.00 1.08

(degrees)
150 155

2 cos (13/2)
1.93 2.31

45 60 90 100 105 110 115


Example ~

0.541 0.577 0.707 0.778 0.821 0.872 0.931

130 135 140 145

1.18 1.31 1.46 1.66

160 165 170 175

2.88 3.83 5.74 11.5

~1:
60

I
Example 2:12ic
13.875 inch:

(
4

~~=(4500) (0.577)

-1

=2580

lb

~~R = 4500 lb ~~~~~~~~~~~~W = 15 lb

5=~~~~~~~S 12 +13.875/2= R=40lb

18.9 inch

cos ((3/2) T 4500


2 (0.816)

W =15 lb

1.-385, 12 -15 =2740 lb

1.

.1

I I I

To Size Dynamometer: ~ -~~~R (T+W) [2 Cos ((3/2)]1

Example: estimated T = 1800 lb W = 15 lb R -(1 800 + 15) [2 cos (45/2) J - 3350 lbs

13=45'

~ ~

We would use a 5000 lb Dynamometer. ~~Urnitatlons


1. the forces of friction at the pulley must be negligible 2. "tare" w ight of idler assembly must be zeroed out

angle ~~3. is constant and accurat ly known


4. dynamometer is swinging free so its line bia. cts )3; but avoid drag on duct opening

APPENDIX (CONT.)I
5. SUSPENDING CABLE I. Suspending By Clamping Around CableO
for 600 V = see '96 NEC 300-19 for 600 + V - use the severest of either the cniteria of NEC 300-1 9, or 70 lb per clamp for single conductor-, wrap single conductor cables with two half-lapped layers of jacketing tape under clamp. 11. Suspending by Conductor (Single Conductor)
0

Reference NEMA WC3; ICEA S-1 9-81, 7.2.2.1 F ATW Where A = conductor area -sq inchI LW ~~T conductor tensile strength-lb/in 2 = W = cable weight - pound/foot

=
=

length -feetI

minimum safety factor

7. unless otherwise

required by appropriate authorityI


Example: Suspended 470 ft of 15 kV cable having three 4/0 AWG soft-drawn copper conductors, 1080 lb/MF weight, each supported at top, with full tension terminal:

F = ((211 600) (ir/4) /1 000 000 1 24 000 =- 79 1(1080) (47 0/1000)1

=OKI

OWhen the suspended cable is laid over an elbow at the top, check sidewall loading.I

84~~~~~~~

APPENDIX (CONT.)

6. DIAMETER OVERALL OF MULTI-CONDUCTOR ASSEMBLIES


DOA = d ia meter of 1/C - f actor f rom chart: Number of Conductors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Factor 1.000 2.000 2.155 2.414 2.700 3.000 3.000 3.310 3.610

Diameter of Largest Possible Conductor in Outer Interstices of Cables (Keeping within a circumscribing circle.) Diameter of interstice Diameter of main conductor x factor from chart

Number of Main Conductors 2-Flat 2-Round 3-Triangle 4-Round 5-Round 6-Round

Factor 0.250 0.667 0.483 0.414 0.377 0.354

85

APPENDIX (CONT.) B. PURGING WATER FROM STRAND OR SHIELD


NOTE: Shielding systems, such as UniShield, having the metal shield components embedded within a polymer do not collect water droplets in the shield system. CABLES ON REELS: Position the inside end to its lowest possible elevation. Unlash the cable ends. ALL CABLES: Purge the shield separately from the insulated strands; otherwise the gas will only flow thru the path offering the least resistance. CABLES NOT INSTALLED: Remove end seals. At the cable end having the highest elevation apply two layers of half-lapped HV insulating tape to act as a sealing cushion. Interconnect the cable ends to the dry gas supply using hoses, valves, pipefittings, and flow regulators as necessary. Attach a one gallon plastic bag to the exhaust end of the cable. Secure the bag with tape or clamps. Make a small vent hole by clipping one bag corner. As shown in the sketch, several cables may be manifolded to the gas supply. Dry nitrogen is available from a welding gas supplier. Apply 15-25 psig. Maintain pressure for at least eight hours after all indications of moisture have stopped. Water vapor may be readily detected by sprinkling in the plastic bag, one tablespoon of Anhydrous Cupric Sulfate which turns blue instead of 'off' white. The Sulfate is available from scientific laboratory supply houses. INSTALLED CABLES: Of course, the splices and terminations can be removed and the cable purged as related earlier. To remove water from the strand, the cable can be lightly loaded to drive the vapor out one end of the cable, providing the cable's termination design has an open strand. Or a termination can be removed and low voltage and low current applied to drive out water. A shield system may be purged by attaching a truck air valve (having stem removed) over 112 inch holes cut into the jacket at both ends of the cable section. Then gas applied and checked as before, except to 15 psig maximum. Do not try to purge across or thru splices!

0C

APPENDIX (CONT.) PURGING WATER FROM STRAND OR SHIELD


REDUCING COUPLING SUPPLY 12" HOSE

HOSE

1/C CABLE
'THREADED CLAMPS NIPPLE HOSE 'CLAMP ADAPTOR PRESSURE --- ,REGULATOR

CRY NITROGEN

3/C CABLE

87

APPENDIX (CONT.)I
CONSTANTS

e=2.718
.T= 1.414 Vr 1.732 7r/4 0.7854

10,

100I
1021 =i /ioo=o0.0 Io-,, 1/1 000 000
-/000.1

106 = 1000 000 sinh x =(W-e-'e) /2 cosh x =(ex+e-E)/2

= 0.000

001I

SYMBOLSI Cl
cmil d 0 DOA =clearance
=

circular mu l

area of circle having diameter of 0.001 inch

=overall diameter of a single conductor cable

=inside diameter of racewayI


= =

diameter overall coefficient of fri ction

Y. kip L Lm kcmil MFT

=sumnmation =lOO00lb = length of duct run, ftI = maximum length, ft


= =

thousands of circular milsI thousands of feet

mm
n m P R T1 Tm

=
= =

millimeterI
number of conductors

sidewall load limit, lb/ftI = sidewall load, calculated, lb/ft


= =

radius of bend, ft

pulling tension at point ' 1. = maximum tension, lb

W
w 6) 1/C

=cable weight, lb/ft


=weight correction factor
=

angle of deviation= radians= degree x

7r

/180I

=one conductor

3/C
>

==three conductorI
g~reater than (the large part of arrow to biggest) <= less than or equalI
<

less than

>= greater than or equalI

88

APPENDIX (CONT.) CABLE INSTALLATION DATA


By: USER: Name Cable Installation Address INSTALLER: Company Site Supervisor DESIGNER: Company Individual PURCHASER: Company Phase Cable Type Grounded (Neutral) Cable Type Grounding Cable TypeWHEN: Manufactured 0 wet 0 dry efivered . . -Order Voltage --size Voltage---Size .---.-- Size Installed 0 indoor 0 outdoor Mfgr -/buct ::/!Duct --/Duct -- Energized 0 hazardous 0 ambient temp. Inside Dimensions Order Reel Reel Reel DATE-

ENVIRONMENT: RACEWAY: CABLE END: Type

0 air 0 raceway . 0 underground 0 no raceway . .- Material 0 indoor 0 outdoor gn lead size mfgr &type

1 -Termination

Lightning or Surge Arrestor - feet of wire from arrestor to cable end mfgr &type.. 2: Termination 0 indoor C outdoor gn lead size-

mfgr &typeLightning or Surge Arrestor - feet of wire from arrestor to cable end mfgr &type SPLICE: 1. 0 straight 0 Y 03 T 0 transition, mfgr &type 2. 0 straight 0 Y 0 T 0 transition, mfgr &type pulling rope - material puller - type lubricant - mfgr & type dynamometer - mfgr TESTING: (attach data sheet): when &who cleaning solvent (brand &type)corona suppression (lugs, etc)SKETCH: .-. -. .range--sizegn lead size gn lead size 0 eyes basket grip 0 serving how many grips cabled 0 parallel type time .time .time

INSTALLATION:

ins. resistance volt .dc hi voltage- volt . ac hi voltage- volt .

(Put on back or separate sheet] - Include all bends such as offsets, and vertical sections as shown in Pulling Calculation Input, page 46. Indicate where reels were set-up, size of boxes or manholes, location of splices or taps.

CIRCUIT:

Identity Source: Vol t Fault -Hz AMPS 0 circuit breaker type o clearing time (sec) Loadsload factor-power factor 4) kVA

I ength (source to load) Ogr 0 ungr C] A 0 Y 0 1 phase 0 3 phase

Overcurrent Protection:

gn

type. motor- type, size, how started transformers. capacitors, furnaces, lighting fixtures- size. type, connection all: gn/ungn . wy. 1 /34i,. amps: running, full load

I I
I

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General Cabl V~~~ e

4Tesseneer brive ~ ~

107 HighandHeihtsK Phone:(888) 93-335 Fax: 572-844 (859 www~geeralcal

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