Dutch/Cover Dutch/Introduction Dutch/Lesson 1 Dutch/Example 1 Dutch/Lesson 1A Dutch/Lesson 2 Dutch/Lesson 3 Dutch/Lesson 4 Dutch/Lesson 5 Dutch/Lesson 6 Dutch/Lesson 7 Dutch/Lesson 8 Dutch/Lesson 9 Dutch/Lesson 10 Dutch/Lesson 11 Dutch/Lesson 12 Dutch/Lesson 13 Dutch/Lesson 14 Dutch/Lesson 15 Dutch/Lesson 16 Dutch/Lesson 17 Dutch/Lesson 18 Dutch/Lesson Afrikaans Dutch/Lesson 2A Dutch/Alfabet Dutch/Appendix 2 Dutch/Appendix 3 Dutch/Websites Dutch/What time is it? Dutch/The numbers 1 2 7 13 16 18 24 31 37 42 49 53 58 61 64 66 73 76 83 88 94 105 107 111 111 118 120 124 124 126

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Dutch ~ English

Learning the Dutch Language Continue to the Main Content Page

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and in a major part of both Belgium and Surinam.g. This may have been an obstacle when learning to write English but when learning Dutch the investment pays off. so make sure your computer can play them. Dutch has licht and the ch is very much . e. Dutch also has been exposed to contact with first vulgar Latin and then French. Germanic) in origin. Continue reading about the Dutch language and its history at Wikipedia. This is particularly true for everyday words in English that are Anglo-Saxon (i. sometimes aside the Latin one: proclaim ~ uitroepen English spelling has conserved many now silent consonants.Dutch/Introduction 2 Dutch/Introduction Inleiding ~ Introduction Hoe Nederlands leren met dit lesboek ~ How to Study Dutch using this Textbook Les 1 >> The Dutch Language Dutch (Nederlands) is a member of the western group of the Germanic languages. gh in light.e. you may be surprised to learn that English and Dutch are closely related languages and share many words that are very similar. but the French influence has been less pervasive. After 1066 English has absorbed a lot of (Norman) French. Listening and speaking yourself are an important part of language acquisition. Consider the following list of English words followed by their Dutch counterparts: arm ~ arm book ~ boek cat ~ kat father ~ vader finger ~ vinger house ~ huis hand ~ hand man ~ man mother ~ moeder mouse ~ muis name ~ naam son ~ zoon begin! ~ begin! Many words of French origin have entered both languages and are quite recognizable: communication ~ communicatie proclaim ~ proclameren But in many cases Dutch retains a Germanic word. Dutch and English If you are an English speaker unfamiliar with Dutch. There are many sound files embedded in the course. It is spoken primarily in the Netherlands.

It has lost most of its case endings and much of one of the three original genders (feminine). Some of these developments are still taking place today. even in many short words. London or Indianapolis. In Brugge (Flanders). but it hardly ever leads to miscommunication. slechtst sausage ~ worst Nevertheless. A dynamic language Dutch has undergone far more sweeping changes in grammar and syntax in the last century or two than either English or German. 3 Dialects As a standard language Dutch is relatively young phenomenon. even words whose spelling is no different in English and Dutch may be pronounced quite differently or mean something different (false friends): door ~ deur through. This is because Dutch has retained something that English has lost: the rather complicated word order (syntax) of the West-Germanic languages. so that it is now the mother tongue of most.Dutch/Introduction still pronounced as a guttural fricative /x/ like in German Bach or Scottish Loch. These sentences consist almost entirely of cognates: words that evolved from the same source. Of course. including for English as spoken in the UK. This has led to some interesting shifts in its grammar and syntax. . Notice however the position of the verb is in these two phrases. But even in the way that it is spoken there are many regional differences in pronunciation but even in syntax and grammar. Rotterdam (Netherlands) or Paramaribo (Surinam) Dutch will sound as different as English does in Edinburgh. when reading Dutch you will see the kinship between the languages. Many English speakers who learn Dutch find that one of the most difficult aspects to learn to do correctly. Occasionally we will have to discuss the evolution rather than the creature to explain modern Dutch usage. common or not. In Dutch it stands in front of the father. by ~ door worst ~ ergst. suburbanization and the influence of the mass media the standard language has been gaining ground at the cost of the dialects for over a century. This course aims at teaching Dutch that would be received by most if not all speakers but will point out a number of important differences that a non-native speaker is likely to encounter in his/her interaction with native speakers. By urbanization. Deze week is mijn vader op de werf met mijn broer en zijn dochter. This means that Dutch grammar is less set in stone than the reader may be familiar with from other grammars. This holds for many languages. The standard is based on a variety of dialects that are much older and show considerable differences not only in pronunciation but even in grammar and syntax. For example compare: This week. my father is on the wharf with my brother and his daughter.

Here you need to repeat words or utterances in the pauses. First of all. Age is a definite disadvantage in language learning. (High-) German underwent a major shift of almost all its consonants in the early Middle Ages. German retained its system of case endings in contrast to Dutch and English. Use them as much as you can. It is not easy to master that system if your mother-tongue does not have it. They are useful when you are trying to memorize vocabulary 2. Compare: English water make! pepper Dutch water maak! peper German Wasser mache! Pfeffer This makes a major part of Dutch vocabulary easier to memorize. More than once. These files take different forms 1. A topic where knowledge of German is a great help is syntax (word order). Compare: English Dutch German the old man sees the pretty woman de oude man ziet de mooie vrouw der alte Mann sieht die hübsche Frau the pretty woman sees the old man de mooie vrouw ziet de oude man die hübsche Frau sieht den alten Mann Knowledge of German can certainly help in learning Dutch. Acquiring vocabulary is a "simple" matter of memorization. Secondly. Here you are told to say something in Dutch yourself. Translation drills. If you do not have the opportunity of residing in a Dutch speaking area an alternative is to listen to recordings and we are in process of adding bits and pieces as . However. 4. A good example is the letter combination sch. like in schip. Single words.Dutch/Introduction 4 Dutch and German Both Dutch and German are West-Germanic languages and this means that there are many resemblances. In Dutch 'sch' can either denote and [s] followed by a velar spirant [x].ogg files so that you can learn by ear. Drills. They should be used to study the conversations 3. In term of its consonants Dutch has been pretty conservative. Learning by ear Children do it all the time. The child's learning process can be "reactivated" to some extent by immersion in a second language: a method of learning a new language by moving to a place where that language is spoken and having to get around and live without use of one's native tongue. French etc. In the ending -isch the 'ch' is mute and it is pronounced as [-is] as in English 'fleece'. but they usually do not stop you from being understood). Dutch is easier to learn for a speaker of English for a number of reasons. in Dutch this sound is relatively rare. English. . It only occurs in loans from languages like Frisian. In German it denotes the same consonant as sh in English (in IPA: [ʃ]). Spoken text of the chapter. but it can also be a source of confusion. two important aspects to be mastered are vocabulary and grammar (others are pronunciation and syntax. but they are at an advantage: they memorize far easier than grown-ups. Vocabulary and Grammar In learning to read or speak any new language.

To speak and write Dutch you do need to learn its grammar and syntax. a Dutch version of the English Wikibooks project—a library of textbooks in Dutch — is available at Dutch Language Textbooks and there is a growing Dutch version of wiktionary to which a number of words in the text have been linked for direct reference. but this will not work without effort from your side. Other sources of Dutch.he is seen hij is gezien . In part they are visual and there are exercises to go with them (still being created). You as an internet user. Just keep at it and look at what you have gained not at what you don't understand. The Dutch Wikipedia [1]provides an ever expanding source of Dutch language articles that can be used for this purpose. Be sure to "learn"—commit to memory—all of the vocabulary words in each lesson as they are presented. . e. can also be useful in building vocabulary and developing a sense of how Dutch words are put together. magazines. Particularly the latter (word order) is rather different. To help you accumulate vocabulary there are a number of additional pages see: Dutch/Vocabulary. in the way that the passive voice is formed: hij wordt gezien .he has been seen. We are tackling the problem with a multi-pronged approach. a sentence can usually be translated correctly. Learning grammar and syntax This is where as a grown up you are at an advantage. The student should generally recognize the parts of a sentence. because you may already know how grammar works from your mother tongue or other languages you are proficient in to some extent. With a good dictionary. Further. Of course there are some notable exceptions and false friends. such as newspapers. It may be helpful to translate these using a Dutch-English dictionary (access to one is a must). structure by structure. Do not be daunted by it. Throughout the text. Early lessons have simple sentences because it is assumed that the student's vocabulary is limited.g. more complex discourses (often as photo captions) are included to introduce the student to regular Dutch in use.Dutch/Introduction Of course there is also a drawback to the by-ear method: You do not get much immersion into reading Dutch. This is why we often say: Your turn! (Uw beurt!) So what do you need to do? There are a variety of things. web sites. 5 Learning by eye This is why this course also tries to train your eyes. etc. but they are not ashamed or humiliated by that. will most likely want to be literate in Dutch. Children don't always understand everything either. Learning a language goes bit by bit. word for word. Dutch grammar is sufficiently similar to English grammar that "reading" Dutch is possible with minimal vocabulary. We will gradually introduce it.

As the Dutch is read (out loud is better). wikipedia. Most of the text must be translated by the student using his or her acquired vocabulary and the vocabulary presented at the bottom of each lesson. In addition there are pages intended to build up vocabulary. grammars etc. Which way the reader wishes to use the book may vary. Substantial text in Dutch is included and the student should read all of it. The main lessons aim at introducing grammatical topics by means of conversations. Each lesson should be read thoroughly and mastered before moving on. Of course that is not sufficient to actually start speaking the language. Layout of Lessons This textbook is intended as a beginning course in the Dutch language for English speakers. To the beginner. Nothing can replace learning a language from a native speaker. the student must succeed in gaining an understanding of the meaning of each sentence. Therefore each lesson is accompanied by a parallel lesson 1⇒1A that elaborates the material further in conversations. You should become familiar with this page early on. References [1] http:/ / nl. These add subtleties to the language that will make sense eventually. and the role each word plays in establishing that meaning. Complete translations into English are included only in selected places. The pronunciation guide in Appendix 1 can only closely. etc. but multiple times. not exactly. but the text is liberally sprinkled with audio files providing the student with valuable input from hearing spoken Dutch. interspersed with some exercises. not once. fill in the blank exercises etc. org/ . The Student and the Lesson The text is designed to constitute a course of study in the Dutch language. rather than focussing on grammar. In addition. there will seem to be many words in a Dutch sentence that are out of place or even redundant or unnecessary. might want to follow the order Lesson 1 > 2 > 3 > 4 > and on to the end of the basic text Others that want to start tackling the language in context of a situation and worry about grammar later might want to start with Lesson 1A and then check 1 to understand some of the grammatical details Another strategy is Lesson 1 > 1A > 2 > 2A > 3 > 3A >. convey how Dutch words should be pronounced. Early lessons emphasize conversational subjects and gradually introduce Dutch grammatical concepts and rules. Analyze the spoken words carefully. But it is important to experience these subtleties from the very beginning. and refer to it often. reading material.Dutch/Introduction 6 Pronunciation A guide to pronunciation of Dutch is provided as Appendix 1. People who have experience with other languages. sound files accompany appropriate parts of each lesson.

Dutch grammar is more complex than English grammar. Of course the layout is in Dutch and you may not immediately understand everything. 2A etc. English speakers will find many strong parallels between their language and Dutch. If you can: listen to the pronunciation a few times: it will help you remember the word and become an active speaker. The basic lessons of this textbook are set up to first introduce the parts of speech. more conversation etc. as noted in the introduction. There may even be a geluidsopname (sound recording) or an phonetic description under Uitspraak. but that is not a disaster. concentrate on introducing points of grammar.Dutch/Lesson 1 7 Dutch/Lesson 1 Les 1 ~ Lesson 1 Eenvoudige Gesprekken ~ Simple Conversations • Simple conversations • Grammar: Pronouns: I. Where possible we will try to point out the similarities and exploit them. However these are helpful for anyone attempting to learn a second language from a book or a website. Don't let that scare you off! Here are a few useful pieces: 1. Firefox seems to give easier access to them than other browsers. but that is still a cumbersome substitute. nouns and phrases. and identifying the meaning of words in a Dutch sentence is difficult without understanding the clues to word function that come from the grammatical rules. First guess what a word etc. 2 etc. concentrate more on practice. but don't give in to it too easily! We strongly encourage you to use the links to expand your vocabulary. pronunciation drills. sound files etc. Lessons 1A. However. Pay particular attention to sentence word order as you progress through the lessons. and then bring in the rules that govern these. As of June 30 2009 they are still in construction. But such a speaker may not always be available to you. If you are really lost use the interwiki link to the English version (or any other language you know) as back up. marked Engels 2. although there are exercises. There usually is an English translation of a word under the heading Vertalingen. The main lessons Dutch/Lesson 1. Using Wiktionary Throughout the texts and in the vocabulary lists there are blue links that take you to the Dutch version of our sister project Wikitionary [1]. This book will try to compensate this by addition of audio files. then click! . Of course the children have it right: the best way to learn a language is to listen to a mother tongue speaker and simply repeat. We do recommend that you use them as much as you can. If you want to learn a language you also should learn to be a bit of a detective: you often need to get the gist of something with a few pieces of the puzzle missing. • Polite and clitic forms << Voorwoord | Les 1 | Les 2 >> Grammatica 1-1 ~ Introduction to Dutch grammar Children learn their mother tongue without knowing the parts of speech such as verbs.

an old friend typically je. In colloquial English the same thing can be heard at times: seeya! instead of see you!.jɑn Grammatica 1-2 ~ Forms Clitic forms Notice the difference between "Hoe gaat het met je"? and "En met jou?".Dutch/Lesson 1 8 Hovering Some words will be underlined. Jou carries emphasis.'tsins.də(n) ɦɔj. It utilizes the familiar form of the personal pronoun (je. jou) where English uses you. comparable with Sie in German.'mɛɪ. Gesprek 1-1 ~ Vrienden: Jan en Karel Read the following conversation. En met jou? Jan: Dank je. but there is a difference in emphasis.'tsins tɔ. You will also see that Dutch sometimes strings words together a bit differently than English. there are often two forms of the same pronoun: a strong one and a weak ('clitic') one. Karel! Hoe gaat het met je? Karel: Hoi! Dank je. is generally u. Jan: Hoi. Use the hover method to see an instant translation of a certain word and try to piece together the meaning of the story. or Вы in Russian .'ɣat. Picking up their meaning from context is an important skill. The latter roughly corresponds with the 'first name basis' in English. Many languages have this distinction. vous in French. Karel: Tot ziens.ɔp. u.'ka.'stra.cə ɦɔj.vrin. but the following gives a reasonable idea: 'jɑn.'ka.'te.kjə. When to use one or the other is not always easy to decide. Both translate literally into with you. Jan komt Karel op straat tegen.ət.ɦu. tɔ.g. . usted in Spanish.xut. Polite forms The above conversation was between two good friends. Try to hover your mouse over such words.'cɑʊ dɑŋ.rəl.zɛɪn.'mɛ. It is e.kɔmt. met mij gaat het ook goed.ət.'ɣat. Tot ziens. Someone unknown. However. The clitic forms cannot have emphasis and the vowel in a clitic is often reduced to a neutral 'schwa' [ə] or omitted entirely. particularly if older. When learning a new language it is very important to be able to deduce meaning from limited information. je does not. In Dutch. Jan! Dutch pronunciation varies with region and speaker. met mij gaat het goed. Notice the use of u in the conversation below. jou.'ɣat.ʔɛn.mɛt.'ok. because you will often not know all the words used. Once you have an idea of the gist of the story you can open up the drop down box and read the translation to see if you were right. Dutch also has a polite or formal form of the personal pronoun for the second person (you).mɛɪ.mɛt.kjə. Ze zijn vrienden.dɑŋ.xut. Dutch word order is quite different and a difficult aspect of the language.ət.rəl.ɣə(n) zə.'mɛ.

This course is mostly based on northern usage as this is most widely mevrouw De Vries! Mevrouw De Vries: Goedendag. It is a pronoun that stands for (pro. Mevrouw De Vries: Mooi. If you are not sure of the meaning of a word. You see me.he. people do not distinguish between familiar and polite forms. A translation will pop up.them. Grammatica 1-3 ~ Introduction to pronouns A pronoun is a short word that takes the place of a noun previously mentioned in the sentence. You remains the same. or Much like in English ik (subject) turns into mij as object in Dutch. It is a bit more formal than the one before. There is a variety of pronouns like personal.she. meneer Jansen! Meneer Jansen: Hoe gaat het met u? Mevrouw De Vries: Zeer goed. paragraph. Het zijn handelaars. Compare: I see you. if it is underlined. At least this is the case for the subject (nominative case). Je ziet mij. En met u? Meneer Jansen: Ook goed. Have you figured out the gist yet? Then open the translation box to see if you were right: Go back to the pronunciation.him. Hij spreekt Nederlands. Kent u meneer Standish? Bent u hem al tegengekomen? Meneer Jansen: Uit Engeland? Nee. You may have to repeat the process a few and they. relative and indefinite ones. close your eyes and see how much you understand now. Is hij op bezoek? Mevrouw De Vries: Ja.thou shalt not steal. instead they use yet another pronoun gij (clitic: ge. Meneer Jansen komt mevrouw De Vries tegen. Notice how I turns into me when used as an object. hover your mouse over it. Please read the following conversation. but some important differences will be pointed out. . As object (accusative) some of them are different: me. • • • • • • • • • Meneer Jansen: Goedendag. whereas je remains the same in both roles: Ik zie je. including in Suriname and the Antilles. Personal pronouns Personal pronouns are quite familiar in English: They are words like I. Gesprek 1-2 ~ De handelaars Push the button and listen to the following text. Tot ziens. Recall: Kent u meneer Standish? Bent u hem al tegengekomen? Hem refers back to meneer Standish. In the North gij is only encountered in archaic phrases like: gij zult niet stelen .you. It is recommended to first just listen.we. dank u object: u). mevrouw De Vries.!) meneer Standish.Dutch/Lesson 1 9 Regional forms In the South of the area where Dutch is spoken (Flanders mostly). possessive. It is used much like you in English for both singular and plural. Let's look at the personal pronouns first. meneer Jansen! Meneer Jansen: Tot ziens.

Dutch/Lesson 1 The system in Dutch resembles the English one quite a bit, after all the languages are close relatives: • • • • As in English there are three persons in Dutch grammar: first (I), second (you) and third (he) As in English there is a distinction in number between singular (I) and plural (we). As in English there are gender distinctions in the third person singular (he, she, it) As in English there are case distinctions between subject and object (he, him)


Nevertheless the Dutch system is a little more involved, as we have seen there are: • familiar and polite forms: je versus u. • weak (clitics) and strong forms: je versus jou. In addition there are • regional differences: (jij/jullie - u) (North) versus (gij) (South) • a growing rift between how inanimate and animate nouns are treated In English he and she are reserved for animate nouns -usually persons- and this is increasingly the case in Dutch as well, certainly in Northern usage. In English all inanimate objects can be referred to as it. However, in Dutch this is only true for het-words (neuter gender) and that leaves two thirds of all nouns uncovered.... We will revisit this awkward problem later.

Subject case (nominative)
Person 1st 2nd (fam.) 2nd (polite) 2nd (South) 3rd ge (-ie) ze ('t) u gij zij singular clitic ('k) plural clitic we ge ze

Object case (accusative)
person 1st 2nd (fam.) 2nd (polite) 2nd (South) 3rd u u hem haar het singular clitic me je (-m) (d'r) ('t) plural ons jullie u u clitic -

hen (hun*) ze

Dutch/Lesson 1 Remarks 1. As you see not all pronouns have clitics and some of them (shown in parentheses) are not used in the written language. 2. The pronouns in italics: hij, zij (sing.), hem, haar, hen and hun are increasingly reserved for persons and animate objects. For inanimate objects these pronouns usually get replaced either by demonstrative pronouns (see lesson 4) or by a special kind of adverb, the pronominal adverb (see lesson 8) 3. *In speaking, many Dutch speakers use the dative form hun instead of the accusative hen. This is because the hen form was artificially created by the grammarians of the past [2] In the spoken language hen is seldom used and speakers increasingly avoid the issue by opting for the clitic ze.


Woordenlijst 1
You have already encountered quite a few words above. Now make sure you own them! Listen to their pronunciation, sort the table by English and read back to Dutch, check the pronunciation again. Click on the blue link to go to the Dutch wiktionary and try to figure out what you may. If you do not understand, follow the interwiki link to go to the English wiktionary. In short: there are many ways to use this table and you can try one thing one day and come back another to try something different. Dutch word de appendix het bezoek (het) Engeland het Nederlands de vriend, vrienden de handelaars het gesprek, gesprekken de grammatica de les de straat de woordenlijst de woordenschat op straat tot ziens uit Engeland Met mij gaat het goed goedendag! (de) dag! goed En met jou? Hoe gaat het met jou (u)? hoe gaan audio file English translation appendix, supplement visit, attendance England Dutch friend, friends business people, businessmen, tradesmen, merchants (pl.) conversation, conversations grammar lesson street word list vocabulary on (in) the street goodbye (lit: see you again) from England I am fine (lit: With me goes it well) Good day (greeting) (Good) day! Hi! Hello! good And how are you? (lit: And with you?) How are you (lit: How goes it with you?) how to go

Dutch/Lesson 1

12 it goes with is visiting to meet, come across, encounter, run into comes across , runs into, meets to visit but, however also, too, as well thank you; thanks simple it (pronoun) Ms., Miss, or Mrs. Mr. me no yes correct already, yet beautiful (in this case, 'nice' or 'fine') very and

het gaat met is op bezoek tegenkomen komt ... tegen bezoeken maar ook dank je, dank u. bedankt simpel het mevrouw meneer mij nee ja correct al mooi zeer en

Your turn! Building vocabulary 1
When learning a language you need to start building up your vocabulary. There are various ways of doing that. One is to study the above conversations well. Often words are easier to remember when put in context. But there are other ways. Wiki adds a few methods to the range of possibilities. One is the hover method. Just hover your mouse over this. We will add vocabulary building exercises to each lesson to make it easier for you to memorize it all. You may want to study some example conversations from world literature in Voorbeeld 1. • Les 1A: more conversations and practice >>
<< Lesson Layout Guide Pronunciation Guide >> [1] http:/ / nl. wiktionary. org/ wiki/ Hoofdpagina [2] "Dutch" by Jan G. Kooij in The world's major languages edt. Bernard Comrie ISBN 0-19-520521-9 Oxford University Press 1987

ben je daar? Zo. how do you do? heel: very. dear miss Kittycat. I'm very well at the moment. In order to get a literal translation. mejuffrouw Poesje. so.Dutch/Example 1 13 Dutch/Example 1 The following voorbeelden (examples) accompany Les 1. thank you." Woordenlijst en: vuur: met: and fire with hoe gaat het met je: lit. dank je. Nederlands Poesje zit naast het vuur Hoe kan zij braaf zijn? Dan komt het kleine hondje binnen "Poesje. Poesje en Hondje The following text was taken from a Mother Goose rhyme and translated to Dutch. are you there? So. "Pussy. How can she be fair? In comes the little dog. Hondje. also whole . Pray tell me how do you do?" "Thank you. zo. how are you?. Zeg me. hoe gaat het met je?" "Dank je." English Kittycat sits beside the fire. Het gaat heel goed met me op dit moment. little dog. 'How goes it with you'. The original appears in the Project Gutenberg [1] text 'Verse and Prose for Beginners in Reading'. the Dutch text was not made to rhyme.

to fit the meter (but this is non-standard pronunciation). Poesje is pronounced puss-yah. The English word pussy is actually a very Dutch-like diminutive of puss. Poesje Mauw The following is a Dutch volksliedje (folk song).Dutch/Example 1 14 Opmerkingen 1. Among some speakers of Dutch. . Lekkere is pronounced as 'le-kre' in this case. from the August Strindberg comedy There Are Crimes and Crimes. pussy would be an acceptable pronunciation. The meter in the Dutch version is nearly perfect and should provide hints for pronouncing the words. The Cremerie. The digraph oe is pronounced somewhere between 'u' and 'oo'. as translated by Edwin Bjorkman and included in Project Gutenberg [1]. Woordenlijst • brij: mash • smullen: to thoroughly enjoy food Crimes and Crimes The following is a fragment of act 1. scene 2. 2. Nederlands Poesje Mauw Kom eens gauw Ik heb lekkere melk voor jou En voor mij Rijstebrij O wat heerlijk smullen wij English Pussy Mou Come quickly I have tasty milk for you And for me Rice porridge Oh how we will enjoy this meal Opmerkingen 1.

Is that so? When. ADOLPHE. ADOLPHE. if I may ask? MAURICE. Dutch speakers won't use phrases such as 'how are you' and 'nice to meet you'. HENRIETTA. na hem HENRIETTA] Hee. The play takes place in Paris. kletsen. References [1] http:/ / www. [Stijfjes groetend] Aangenaam kennis te maken. MAURICE. 'Gezien' is an irregular form. Hier. Woordenlijst • • • • • voorstellen: to introduce aan: to (addressing) aangenaam kennis te maken: lit. O-oh!--Maar nu moet je blijven en wat met ons kletsen. • Jan: Jan van Galen. Mademoiselle Henriette--Monsieur Maurice. It is not wrong to use them. Hoe gaat het met je? Laat me deze dame voorstellen aan mijn oudste en beste vriend. MAURICE. als ik vragen mag? MAURICE. but neither is it considered impolite to leave them out of a conversation. daar heb je Maurice. We hebben elkaar al eerder gezien. nice to make your acquaintance. HENRIETTA. How are you? Let me introduce this lady here to my oldest and best friend. [Comes in first. Mademoiselle Henriette--Monsieur Maurice. een praatje maken: chat (compare 'prate' for the last form. We have seen each other before. [Komt eerst binnen. gutenberg. 'seen'. A moment ago. Past participles in Dutch often end in 'd' or 't'. net . after him HENRIETTE] Why. 2. Right here. pleased to meet you. there's Maurice. ADOLPHE. 3. English ADOLPHE. as is its English counterpart. Zojuist. and start with 'ge'. Generally. ADOLPHE. mag ik Jan van Galen aan je voorstellen? • Hariette: Hariette van Dorp. Is dat zo? Wanneer. elkaar: each other. Such a conversation could have the following course: • Anonieme spreker: Hariette van Dorp. hence the French names and phrases. [Saluting stiffly] Pleased to meet you.Dutch/Example 1 15 Dutch ADOLPHE. O-oh!--But now you must stay and have a chat with us. although Dutch praten lacks the negative connotation) Opmerkingen 1. babbelen.

met jou? Ben je gisteren naar dat concert geweest? Nee.1A-1-F Dat is de baas van het hotel niet. ik had andere verplichtingen. tot ____! Ben je hier elke week om deze ____? Ben je ___ naar het concert geweest? Heb ik dat verkeerd ____? . Met ____ gaat het goed. Is die man daar de baas van het hotel? Nee. Some words will already look familiar. verplichtingen zijn niet altijd ____. Het was prettig om kennis met je te maken. dat is slechts een _____. Try to memorize some phrases. Ik moet nu gaan. Tot ziens Dag! Fill in the blank. If not hover to see an instant translation.Dutch/Lesson 1A 16 Dutch/Lesson 1A back to Lesson 1 Gesprek 1A-1 Let's have a look at some more conversations with everyday phrases. Ik moet nu gaan. Wanneer ben je hier weer? Ik ben hier elke week om deze tijd Vorige week was ik hier ook. Hoe gaat het met je? Met mij gaat het prima. particularly the greetings. hij is slechts een medewerker Dan heb ik dat verkeerd begrepen. en met jou? Nee.

eigenlijk wil ik ook wel iets eten. This is very common in casual speech. Je hebt al een buikje! Ach kom. en jij? Geef mij maar groene thee Appelpannenkoek . dan ga ik wel weer naar de gym. Gesprek 1A-2 Jan en Mieke have a bite to eat in a small restaurant Mieke. Kijk Jan. Notice how "met" and "je" 'meld' together. Ik heb trek. ik heb liever een spekpannenkoek! Pas op. mevrouw. wilt u iets eten? Ja. Kijk dat lijkt wel een leuk tentje. This happens a lot to voiced consonants in initial position. ja. meneer. That's why the sentence starts with it. All final obstruents are voiceless automatically and they even infect the next word! If you are American pay attention to the [u] sound in moet. dat lijkt wel aardig. it is quite a bit more rounded than Americans pronounce a 'u' sound. vind je niet? Ja. because emphasis is put on it. This in turn switches the words "het" and "gaat" into inverse order. Notice the use of the full pronoun 'mij'. Did you notice how the z of ziens assimilates from [z] to [s] once it is put behind the -t of tot?. graag! Kunnen we op het terras zitten? Natuurlijk! Ik pak even de menukaarten. eh. wil je iets drinken? Nou.Dutch/Lesson 1A 17 Pronunciation drill 1A-1-P Listen to the following audio files and repeat what the speaker says in the pauzes. much like in the question above. Wat wil je drinken? Een biertje. Goedemiddag. je wordt veel te dik. Ze gaan het restaurant binnen. ze appelpannenkoeken hebben Hmmm.

hover your mouse over a word if you don't know it. At least in the Netherlands it is. but today (2009) there are many different varieties being used. Standish: Goedemorgen meneer. so that you do need to practise them.. Hoe gaat het met u? Jansen: Goedemorgen. Ze heet Alice Koopman. Dutch/Lesson 2 Les 2 ~ Lesson 2 Onbekenden en vrienden ~ Strangers and Friends • Simple conversations II • Grammar: Introduction to Verbs • Grammar: Adjectives. producing interesting combinations if preceded or followed by a g or ch. Finally listen to the conversation again and see how much you understand. In Flanders and in Surinam a bilabial w is more common. . Weet u hoe die mevrouw daar heet? Jansen: Ik geloof dat zij Alice heet.. Once you think you understand the conversation open the dropdown below to see the full translation. En u? Wat is uw naam? Jansen: U heet Robert? Wat toevallig! Ik heet ook Robert. Then study the text to find out what the meaning is. 2. so it is not a disaster if you do that one wrong. Robert Standish. They are quite numerous in Dutch. go back to step 2. Then do it with eyes closed.Dutch/Lesson 1A 18 Pronunciation drill 1A-2-P Did you notice the /w/? It is produced not between the upper and lower lips as in English or French. Standish: Inderdaad toevallig! Wij heten allebei Robert. Hoe heet u? Standish: Ik heet Standish. this speaker still uses the oldfashioned rrolling one. Of course the latter will test your abilities to produce gutturals. 3. Robert Jansen. First push the button to simply listen to the following conversation. First with eyes open to see the text. but between the upper teeth and the lower lips. If necessary. demonstratives and articles • Syntax: Question and negation << Les 1 | Les 2 | Les 3 >> Gesprek 2-1 1. 4. As the /r/ is concerned. If there are parts you do not understand when listening. Goed. Standish: Gelooft u dat of bent u zeker ervan? Jansen: Vrij zeker.

.dat ze 'Alice' heet Wij heten allebei Robert The Dutch verb heten can best be translated as "to be named" or "to be called" and we see two forms of it here 1. Verbs come in an almost bewildering array of tenses.Dutch/Lesson 2 19 Grammatica 2-1 ~ Introduction to Verbs A verb (in Dutch: werkwoord) is that part of speech that describes an action. and there are several major types: intransitive. transitive. Zij is het meisje daar. gaat naar de boekhouding. Even though Dutch verbs are not so much more complicated than English ones.. ditransitive.. Mevrouw Nieman: Goed zo! Mag ik u mijn collega voorstellen.u. The irregular verb to be-zijn has a few more forms in both languages. Als u een beetje langzamer spreekt. This can be seen from: I believe do you believe? Ik geloof gelooft u? In the case of heten the extra -t does not get added because the stem already ends in a -t. a singular one: heet used with ik.ze 2. Kunt u mij verstaan? Meneer Standish: Ja. Mevrouw Nieman: Aangenaam kennis te maken. . For the moment let's just leave the above sentence for what it is and start with questions. In fact it is quite a bit more complicated than in English.that she is named (called) 'Alice' We are both called Robert Ik heet Standish Hoe heet u? . and ergative verbs. ik ben een Engelsman. Bent u mevrouw Koopman? Mevrouw Nieman: Nee. In a later lesson we will revisit the verb forms associated with each person. the Dutch verb is not too different from the English one.. En u? Hoe heet u? Meneer Standish: Ik heet Standish. moods. a plural one heten used for wij (as well the other plural persons). word order is. voices and aspects. I am called Standish What are you called (named)? . Actually there are usually three forms. mevrouw Koopman? Meneer Standish: Jazeker! Grammatica 2-2 ~ Inversion in questions and negations You may have wondered about the order of the words in ik geloof dat ze Alice heet. • • • • • • • • • Meneer Standish: Goedemorgen. although it does have a few more forms. Mevrouw Nieman: Echt waar? Dat is erg interessant. Fortunately. een Engelsman. Bent u Nederlander? Meneer Standish: Nee. Ik ben mevrouw Nieman. Gesprek 2-2 ~ De Engelsman Meneer Standish.

Heleen: Ik geloof dat ze Karolien you know? (instead of "know you?") Negations The negative is formed by simply adding niet at the end: Ik versta u . (In fact using it sounds very foreign. an interrogative (hoe or "how") added.weet u? I know . Karel: Ze is erg mooi.Don't you understand me? Gesprek 2-3 ~ Het nieuwe meisje In this conversation. wie is dat nieuwe meisje? Die brunette daar. It became: Hoe heet u? as a question The normal word order of subject (u or "you") then verb (heten) is reversed and. Additional examples: Hoe gaat het met u? ↔ Het gaat goed met u Bent u mevrouw Koopman? ↔ U bent mevrouw Koopman Bent u Nederlander? Verstaat u mij? Gelooft u? ↔ U bent Nederlander ("You are Dutch"). Wat een mooie meid! Heleen: Karel toch! . Heleen: Ze is leuk. ↔ U verstaat mij ("You understand me"). Karel: Ja.Dutch/Lesson 2 20 Questions A question sentence in Dutch simply reverses the order of subject and verb. the parties are close friends.bent u? Dutch does not use the auxiliary to do as English requires in most other cases: ik weet .) Even a negative question does not use to do: Verstaat u mij niet? . ↔ Ik geloof English does the same thing when using the verb to be: I am . als je kleine meisjes met lange zwarte haren leuk vindt. Recall: U heet meneer Standish ('You are named Mr.I understand you Ik versta u niet .are you? ik ben . Ik ben gek op dat haar. in this case. Standish). • • • • • • Karel: Heleen.I do not understand you Again. Dutch does not use the auxiliary to do.

red cars Neuter words are the ones that carry the definite article het and the demonstrative dat. . In English the adjective remains the same regardless: The house is red (copula + adjective) The red car (adjective + noun) Behind a copula (as predicate) this is true in Dutch as well: Ik ben gek (I am crazy) Ze is mooi (She is pretty) De auto is rood (The car is red) But in Dutch they are inflected if they occur in front of a noun (as attribute). This also holds if there is no article: met groot gemak . ones that take de and die ones that take het and dat Both articles and demonstrative pronouns are a special kind of adjectives: words that are added to make the meaning of another word more precise. like new. Die brunette.a red house de rode huizen rode huizen As you see the adjective is not inflected after the indefinite article een. They are a bit different (Again: we will revisit them in the next lesson. the girl We will revisit this phenomenon (gender) in the next lesson more extensively.the administration. Adjectives can be used in two ways: in front of a noun and after a verb like is (a copula). het desparate need (de nood) . For the moment it is enough to realize that there are two kinds of words.the red car een rode auto .with great ease (het gemak: neuter) But: in hoge nood . . demonstratives and articles Gender Where English uses the demonstrative pronoun that.Dutch/Lesson 2 21 Grammatica 2-2 Adjectives.where English uses the article the. sometimes they did not (is erg mooi). Dutch uses either dat or die.a red car de rode auto's . that brunette Similarly. small or exciting Inflection Recall that some adjectives in the dialogue ended in -e (mooie meid). Dutch has two possibilities: de or het. There is a bit of a problem with it in Dutch.that new girl. recall: dat nieuwe meisje. Compare: de rode auto . recall: de boekhouding.the red cars rode auto's .) het rode huis een rood huis .

by assuming their inflected form: Dat is een grote That is a big one Dat is een kleine That is a small one Die lange heeft mijn fiets gestolen That tall guy has stolen my bike Notice that Dutch does not use 'one' in such cases. In English the corresponding suffix is -th: wijd – wijdte (wide . They all carry de.drought) hoog – hoogte (high .: de man .crowd) duur – duurte (expensive . There are a number of adjectives that can be turned into nouns by adding -te.the man een grote man .a big man een groot man .strength) droog – droogte (dry .habit) More about nouns in the next lesson.narrowness) zwaar – zwaarte (heavy .height) menig – menigte (many .heat) warm – warmte (warm .Dutch/Lesson 2 Thus.breadth) eng – engte (narrow .g.size) breed – breedte (broad .length) groot – grootte (big . tall .weakness) sterk – sterkte (strong .heaviness) heet – hitte (hot . apart from the indefinite neuter an attributive adjective is usually inflected with -e. compare e.a great man 22 Making nouns out of adjectives Adjectives can be turned into nouns.width) lang – lengte (long.dearth) gewoon – gewoonte (usual .warmth) zwak – zwakte (weak . Woordenlijst 2 . There are a few exceptions.

Dutch/Lesson 2 23 Dutch word de brunette de Engelsman het haar. indeed Pleased to meet you That's nice! to be crazy (about) to understand do you understand? to believe I believe to name.. girls colleague May I introduce. leuk vindt Nederlands het (neuter) de (m/f) dat (neuter) die (m/f) daar daarginds daarachter een een beetje haar interessant leuk kort.... Dutch the the that that there over there over there a.? yes. an somewhat.voorstellen? Jazeker Aangenaam kennis te maken Goed zo! gek zijn (op) verstaan verstaat u? geloven ik geloof heten ze heet praten u praat voorstellen leuk vinden als je .. korte lang. lange langzaam audio file English translation brunette Englishman hair(s) girl. a bit her interesting cute short long slow . call (a name) she is called to speak. to talk you speak to introduce to like if you like ... de meisjes de collega Mag ik.. de haren het meisje.

Other numbers will be the subject of more advanced lessons. Mam: en je andere hand? Jeroen: ook vijf! Mam: Ja. As in English. acht. 'Ten' becomes 'tenth' in English. 15 is vijftien and 16 is zestien. For example. negen en tien Leren 3 ~ Tellen van 1 tot 12 In Dutch. nieuwe zwart. Above twelve. twee. . tel ze maar: zes. drie. zeven. tien become tiende in Dutch. zwarte zij u als wie? slower my me beautiful to new black she you if who? Pronunciation Guide >> • Advanced Lesson 2 >> Dutch/Lesson 3 Les 3 ~ Lesson 3 De Getallen ~ The Numbers << Les 2 | Les 3 | Les 4 >> Gesprek 3-1 Mam teaches her toddler. vijf. and achtste. Note in the table how ordinals are formed from the cardinals in Dutch by adding -de. as in English. derde. vier. numbers are formed by combination. there are several variants: eerste. Jeroen to count: Mam: Hoeveel vingertjes heb je.Dutch/Lesson 2 24 langzamer mijn mij mooi naar nieuw. and number formation is similar in that the first twelve numbers are unique. Jeroen? Jeroen: een. there are both ordinal and cardinal numbers.

They always have the inflection -e. Hendrik: Dat is goed.Dutch/Lesson 3 25 hoofdtelwoorden rangtelwoorden cardinal numbers ordinal numbers one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve een twee drie vier vijf zes zeven acht negen tien elf twaalf 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th eerste tweede derde vierde vijfde zesde zevende achtste negende tiende elfde twaalfde Remark: een is used both as an indefinite article (a or an) and a number (one). zijn vrienden. As in English.he first goes home Its opposite (antonym) is laatst as adverb and laatste as adjective: de laatste trein . • • • • • • • • Hendrik: Karel. We spelen nog een uur lang! Karel: Ja. it can be used as an adverb: Hij gaat eerst naar huis . Hendrik en Karel. . words like *zesd do not exist. you can now begin asking and telling time in Dutch. Hoe gaat het? Karel: Hallo! Hendrik: Wil je voetballen? Karel: Graag. Op een middag komen ze elkaar tegen. Grammatica 3-1 ~ Telling time (hours) Knowing the numbers from 1 to 12. The only exception is eerst. maar hoe laat is het? Hendrik: Het is één uur. Eerst en laatst The ordinals are a special kind of adjectives. Gesprek 3-2 Twee jongens.the last train. En daarna breng je me op je motor naar huis. Karel: Dan kan ik nog tot twee uur spelen. There is also a difference in pronunciation: /ən/ (schwa-n) for the article and /e:n/ (ayn) for the number. So. One often puts accents on the e's when one is meant in case of ambiguity: één.

breng je Grammatica 3-3 ~ Introduction to naamwoorden Dutch grammar uses the word naamwoord (lit. name-word) that does not translate well into English. The reason is that the adverb daarna or the adverbial expression op een middag was put before the subject + verb part for emphasis. Notice that the verb loses final -t when using the informal second person jij of je in such cases as it does in questions: jij brengt . The answer is: Het is ____ uur . "girl" 3. three. . As a generality.5:45 het is kwart over zes . We could also have said: Jij brengt mij daarna op je motor naar huis. lit. occurring in sentences in two different ways: as subjects (performers of action). A noun is a fundamental part of speech.11:30 it is half past eleven Kwart het is kwart voor zes .op een middag komen ze. "Janet" 2..daarna breng je. .Dutch/Lesson 3 26 Asking for the time is accomplished by the sentence: Hoe laat is het? ("What time is it?". "How late is it?").. one. two. place. Dutch grammar is therefore structured a bit differently from the English one. a noun is the name of a "person.."It is ____ o'clock".g. Besides naamwoorden there are two other large classes of words in Dutch: werkwoorden (verbs) and bijwoorden (adverbs). This causes inversion. These are not questions. both independently used (like nouns) or used to specify another word (like adjectives). cardinals (telwoorden): e. common nouns (zelfstandige naamwoorden): e. . proper nouns (eigennamen): e.. recall from the conversation that inversion happens for other reasons. or objects (recipients of action). still there is inversion.. substituting the correct cardinal value.6:15 De klokkentoren van Antwerpen Grammatica 3-2 ~ Some more word order: inversion We have seen that inversion of subject and verb is used to create a question: Het is twee uur Hoe laat is het? However.. thing or concept". etc.. Naamwoorden indicates a rather broad class of words..g. Nouns are classified into 1. Half The half hours are indicated differently in Dutch: het is half twaalf .g. Zij komen elkaar op een middag tegen.

. "h-eh-t") de: (pronounce /də/) all other cases Animate nouns Much like in English there are three genders for animate nouns (people.) and this shows up clearly in their personal pronouns: hij. Adjectives are usually added to nouns to further determine them: "mooi" weer "beautiful" weather Some pronouns. You would say: Het (it) is een kalf. you would say de man. "her" The latter group is often considered a separate class of words. You would say: Zij (she) is een vrouw.g. You refer to de man with hij (he): Hij is een man. Een kalf en zijn (its) stal However. It derives from the Latin term nomen: nomen substantivum (zelfstandig naamwoord) and nomen adiectivum (bijvoeglijk naamwoord). you would say de vrouw. because kalf is a neuter noun. as this is a good way to memorize gender. and the two basic gender forms in Dutch are as follows: het: neuter singular (pronounce /hEt/. voor-) nouns. and 'it' in English and hij. her. Noun is rendered as zelfstandig naamwoord ('nameword that stands on itself'). Een man en zijn (his) hond To say 'the woman' in Dutch. pets etc. Noun gender is also reflected in the definite article It should always be learned as part of the noun. zij. possessive pronouns (bezittelijk voornaamwoord) are used as adjectives: "mijn" auto "my" car A special class of adjectives is formed by the articles (lidwoorden): "the" car "de" auto 27 Gender of Nouns We have seen evidence of word gender in the pronouns we have been encountering. because vrouw is a feminine noun. zij and het (he. "she". you would say het kalf. but mostly it must be learned as children do: word by word. Naamwoord is more general than noun.Dutch/Lesson 3 4. and het in Dutch. its): To say 'the man' in Dutch. zijn is not used much anymore to refer to a neuter word and we will see a different way of expressing "its" later. she and it) and their possessive pronouns zijn. pronouns (voornaamwoorden): e. There are a few rules that help to determine a noun's gender. haar and zijn (his. because man is a masculine noun. Definite Articles Definite articles are equivalent to an English 'the'. Een vrouw en haar (her) werk To say 'the calf' in Dutch. An adjective is called bijvoeglijk naamwoord (nameword that can be added). 'she'. They stand in for (pro-. Words like "hij" . notably 'he'.g. We also saw that adjectives depend on gender in Dutch. e."he" are known as personal pronouns (persoonlijke voornaamwoorden) Dutch has its own grammatical nomenclature and to use dictionaries and grammars it is useful to know it.

its) a similar problem exists. Nowadays hij and zij are pretty much restricted to people or their pets. The reference problem As we saw above the personal pronouns (hij.Dutch/Lesson 3 In the plural the gender distinctions are absent: de mannen. That makes it hard to use personal pronouns for an inanimate common gender word. but it is not just definite articles. Someone learning the language therefore best considers Dutch a two-gender language for anything but persons: the clock is de klok. not simply boek. so they indicate natural rather than grammatical gender. This leaves roughly two thirds of all inanimate nouns without a personal pronoun to refer them by. but also adjectives and pronouns that must match the gender of the noun they are related to. but it is acceptable standard Dutch to disregard the masculine-feminine distinction. the Rhine and its branches) almost entirely. Inanimate nouns In the Netherlands (the North) the distinction between masculine and feminine was lost for inanimate nouns (things. certainly in the North. not simply klok. that for example German or English do not have and must be mastered to speak Dutch well.zij. de vrouwen. because it is common gender the book is het boek. As you see the definite article is the same for masculine and feminine. the twofold split common-neuter is still very much alive in Dutch and this must be mastered by any beginner to learn the language well. Notice that you cannot resort to het (it) as done in English. For possessive pronouns (his. In the South de klok may still be called a she. Therefore. her. it is important when learning Dutch nouns to always learn them together with their correct definite article.het) still show the three-gender distinction that Dutch inherited from its Indoeuropean ancestry. but Northerners avoid such references and so should you. Memorize the word for 'clock' in Dutch as de klok. 28 ... because de klok is not neuter. The fine distinctions between the varieties of the language can wait. By contrast. This is by far the most important thing you should do right now. That is: Memorize the word for 'book' in Dutch as het boek. where a "de klok" may still be referred to as "zij" (she). because it is neuter gender This does not hold for the South. We shall see three common ways that speakers use to avoid this reference problem: • using demonstratives • using pronominal adverbs • using diminutives (always neuter) These three aspects of the language play a more prominent role in Dutch than they do in English. One could say that the merger of m/f into common gender has triggered a number of shifts in the language. The feminine and the masculine have merged into a common gender north of de grote riveren (the Great Rivers: the Meuse. de kalveren are all refered to by zij (they) and hun (their).) in the 17th century. concepts etc.

zij etc.Dutch/Lesson 3 29 Rules for gender There are a few general (and helpful) rules for gender: 1. It is What is the time? one afternoon until two o'clock . Diminutives are neuter: de klok → het klokje 2.. So. (they are actually feminine. de jongens de klok de klokkentoren de man het meisje de middag de motor het uur de vrouw breng je me. nouns should be memorized together with their definite article. de getallen het huis de jongen.. e.. learn "de klok". -te carry de. spelen Het is Hoe laat is het? op een middag tot twee uur audio file English translation book number... Loans usually retain their gender: (Latin) museum → het museum (both neuter). dat is goed Ik kan. diminutives of people: The girl: het meisje The (little) boy: het jongetje Grammatically they are neuter and their articles. also "o'clock" woman you take me. However the personal and possessive pronouns follow the natural gender: Een mooi (n!) meisje en haar (f!) moeder Dat (n!) jongetje? Hij (m!) is niet hier Woordenlijst 3 Dutch word het boek het getal. -heid.: "that is good") I can play. but do not worry about that). 3. die. not just "klok" and "het paard" not just "paard" Double gender There is an interesting group of words for which the natural gender is in conflict with the grammatical gender. adjectives and demonstratives follow the neuter pattern. -teit. numbers house boy. Apart from these general rules. very well (lit. all use de.. Another helpful fact is that all genders behave the same in the plural..g.. Words in -ing. boys clock clock tower man girl afternoon motorcycle hour.

. Pronunciation Guide>> • Advanced Lesson 3>> .... also: Would you like to.Dutch/Lesson 3 30 Wil je.. ?) from x to y (exclusive) to bring to play to count to play soccer/football then after that each other hello your you long late my to (as in "I'm driving to London. ? (familiar form.. ? van x tot y Do you want.") to/until we brengen spelen tellen voetballen dan daarna elkaar hallo jouw je lang laat mijn naar tot we Also included in the vocabulary for Lesson 3 are the ordinal and cardinal numbers 1 through 12 from the table at the beginning of this lesson.

whereas 'a book' or een boek is indefinite about which book is referred to. Die heb ik echt nodig. Hij gaat naar de universiteit.. Nou. studeren is duur.. The use of definite and indefinite articles is virtually the same as in English.. so they don't display gender.. Grammatica 4-1 ~ The indefinite articles een en geen .. Thus. He Pa. maar hij heeft geen geld. tafel . Indefinite articles precede nouns in the same way that definite articles do.. 'the book' or het boek refers to a definite or specific book.Dutch/Lesson 4 31 Dutch/Lesson 4 Les 4 ~ Lesson 4 << Les 3 | Les 4 | Les 5 >> Gesprek 4-1 Peter is een student medicijnen. ik heb geld nodig! Alweer? Ja. ja.has no money.. stoelen en een tafel .. Hij kan er niks aan doen. Feesten zul je bedoelen. The few deviations are best learned when listening to the language or speaking it. Hij wil Elly uitnodigen voor een etentje. toe nou. Pa.. These are 'a' or 'an' in English. Dutch indefinite articles only come in one form (een). but convey a general or indefinite sense. tafels en stoelen zeker. heeft geen geld In the previous lesson you were introduced to the definite articles—'the' in English and het or de in Dutch. hoor.chairs and a table . vooruit dan maar weer.. maar ik heb echt stoelen en een tafel nodig! Ja... sorry hoor.

Occasionally Dutch has one and English the other: op een middag .one afternoon Notice that one is used here in the meaning of a certain. One could argue that one is a clitic form of the other. Soms heeft Nederlands het ene. In Dutch there is a special negative of een: geen. not say in contrast to two or three.een raam (the window . Engels het andere Negation In English a negative of an indefinite article is simply formed by adding not: this is a car this is not a car Alternatively one can drop the article and say: this is no car. one could place accents on the numeral. Also. The combination niet + een is only used in contrasting things: dit is niet een fuut maar een eend. dit is een auto dit is geen auto. there is a difference in pronunciation.een tafel (the table .a window) een het neuter Please note (see also previous lesson) that the indefinite article has the same form as the numeral one (één). To denote the difference. There is an inflected form ene that is used independently: Occasionally Dutch has one. . The numeral één (one) is pronounced /e:n/. this is not a grebe but a duck. English the other.a table) het raam . the article een (a) with a much weaker /ən/.Dutch/Lesson 4 32 stoel een de masculine/feminine de tafel .

In Dutch a similar distinction that . this is used as demonstrative pronoun to indicate something in proximity.this train het huis → dit huis . Dutch uses objective case for this: dit huis van mij as if 'van' (of) is a preposition. In English one could say this house of mine.yesterday de gist . theirs) is possessive case. one replaces 'de' by deze and 'het' by dit. jouw or je. hers. The pronoun je is a weak form of jouw and it is used when the emphasis is on something else. Dutch does not have a possessive case as English does. and 'his/her/its' in English and mijn. but it is about as common as its English equivalent yon. Which translates as: 'Yes. yours. a g in Dutch corresponds to a y in English. Dutch will have d: the . the two languages betray their kinship.Dutch/Lesson 4 33 Grammatica 4-2 ~ Possessive and demonstrative pronouns Recall the following from Gesprek 3-1: Ja. his.denk A third. At a greater distance: de trein → die trein het huis → dat huis Notice that often when English has th. Again. And after that take me home on your motorcycle'.the yeast geel .this house So. In some words.yellow . 'your'. These are (singular) 'my'. gindse). and zijn/haar/(zijn) in Dutch. En daarna breng je me op je motor naar huis. even more distant pronoun exists (gene. yonder. The sentence demonstrates one of the possessive pronouns. ours. but gender plays a role: de trein → deze trein . In English. Compare: gisteren . such as the motorcycle in this case. See Dutch/Appendix 3 for a table of the possessive pronouns. where mine (and yours.dat think .. That indicates greater distance.

-o. e+liquid: -el. With few exceptions like ox . because die follows the common gender pattern of the definite article.oxen pretty much all words simply get an -s in English. although we can attempt a general rule: All words of more than one syllable get -s. -u and -y . Which plural applies is best learned case by case as gender is. -e. -er.. Note: because de auto is not tafels de familie . He is strong. Many recent (latinate) loans from English or French and all diminutives get a -s.I see his car.I see John. But saying hij is duur or zij is duur makes the word specifically masculine or feminine. Hij is sterk . -em. All others get -en. Forming the plural of the noun itself is a bit more complicated. Dutch however has two main ways to form a plural: by adding -s and by adding -en. Using die avoids the issue. personal pronouns are reserved for reference to persons (natural gender as in English). To refer to things people resort to substituting the demonstratives. this makes demonstrative pronouns a more attractive choice to refer things by than personal pronouns. -i and -y get an apostrophe before the -s baby . vowels: -a. indef. Grammatica 4-3 Plural of nouns As seen above the plural definite article is always de (for all genders). Ik zie zijn auto.. hoor! As we have seen Dutch is on its way to a two-gender system. Die is duur. -en. -o. The latter is pronounced /-ən/.Dutch/Lesson 4 34 Using demonstrative pronouns instead of personal pronouns Recall: Die heb ik echt nodig. Increasingly. Recall: .de families . if they end in: 1.tafels en stoelen. The ones in -a. Compare: Ik zie Jan. demonstrative dit deze dat die het de article een masculine hij feminine (plural) zij zij -- As you see demonstratives do not distinguish whether a word is feminine or masculine and follow the same common-neuter pattern as the articles. de tafel . it is not correct to say: Het is duur. there is no indefinite article and the demonstratives are deze and die and the personal pronoun is zij or its weak form ze.'s Unfortunately there are lots of exceptions. . It is expensive. /-ə/ or even as a syllabic /-n/ depending on the region.. 2. Compare: close gender neuter personal het far def. For inanimate nouns..

Dutch/Lesson 4 het meisje - de meisjes Words in -te and -laar usually get -s: de hoogte - de hoogtes de kandelaar - de kandelaars Amongst the many words that get -en are the ones in -ing: de helling - de hellingen


Vowel changes
Most monosyllabic words have -en in the plural: de stoel - de stoelen het raam - de ramen In the latter case, notice that one of the a's is dropped in the spelling of the plural. This difficulty is related to the fact that most Dutch vowels occur in two varieties, a closed one and an open one. Dutch spelling has a rather ingenious and systematic way of denoting which one is intended. It involves the doubling of either vowels or consonants. Compare: het bot /bɔt/ (the bone) has an open vowel /ɔ/ like British pot (or American paw) de boot /bot/ (the boat) sounds much like British boat. In this case the vowels remain the same in the plural, but notice the doubling: het bot - de botten ['bɔtə(n)] (bot-ten) de boot - de boten ['botə(n)] (bo-ten) It is customary to call the first sound [ɔ] a 'short o' and the second [o] a 'long o', but this terminology can be rather confusing. There are languages like Czech where vowels are indeed distinguished purely on their length. In Dutch, however, the difference in length (quantity) is actually pretty negligible, but the difference in vowel sound (quality) is not. This presents a problem for speakers of the many languages with a five-vowel system, like Italian, Russian, Arabic or isiXhosa whose ears are not accustomed to this kind of difference. Anglophones usually do quite well.

The Dutch spelling rule
The Dutch Spelling Rule is: an 'open' syllable that ends in a vowel such as bo- sounds like boat /o/, a 'closed' one bot- like pot (/ɔ/). If the opposite is desired, either the vowel is doubled (→ boot) or the consonant (botten).

For non-native speakers a complication arises in those cases where the actual vowel changes ('lengthens') in the plural, compare: dat pad (/pɑt/) - die paden (/'padən/ - vowel changes) (that path - those paths) die pad (/pɑt/) - die padden (/'pɑdən/ - no vowel change) (that toad - those toads) The vowel /ɑ/ in pad and padden is approximately as in father. Paden has a vowel /a/ like in broad American 'Oh, my God' (In Dutch the spelling would be: Gaad). Also, notice the gender difference of the two words. Vowel change is systematic in the plural of the past of certain strong verbs (see 6). ik zat (/zɑt/) - wij zaten (/zatən/) (I sat - we sat) A few words show vowel changes other than between the open and closed variety of the same vowel: de stad - de steden (city).

Dutch/Lesson 4 Words ending in -heid get -heden: beleefdheid - beleefdheden There are about a dozen plurals in Dutch that end in -eren: het kind - de kinderen (child - children) het lam - de lammeren (lamb) The ending -eren is essentially a double plural. It derives from a plural in -er and in some compounds that is still visible: de kinderkamer - the children's room de lammergier - a species of vulture Some words in -ie have an -en plural that requires a diaeresis (trema in Dutch). The spelling depends on where the stress falls: de kolonie - de koloniën de dynastie - de dynastieën A trema is also used after -ee: de zee - de zeeën de diatomee - de diatomeeën Occasionally a Latin or Greek plural is preserved in Dutch: het museum - de musea de chemicus - de chemici


Woordenlijst 4
Dutch term de tafel de stoel het geld de student de universiteit het medicijn kan er niks aan doen nodig Ik heb nodig bezoeken verkopen wat niks nog duur weer vooruit Audio file English translation table chair money student (university) university the medication, the drug cannot help it necessary I need attend (as a student) sell some nothing still expensive again ahead, 'let's go'

Dutch/Lesson 4

37 te weinig too little

Pronunciation Guide>>

• Advanced Lesson 4>>

Dutch/Lesson 5
Les 5 ~ Lesson 5
<< Les 4 | Les

5 | Les 6 >>

Gesprek 5-1
The beautiful train station
John is te voet op zoek naar het station en spreekt een voorbijganger aan. Kunt u mij vertellen waar ik het station kan vinden? Zeker, neem de derde straat aan uw rechterhand. Als u de weg volgt, dan vindt u het station aan de linkerkant. Het is een prachtig gebouw. U kunt het niet missen. Ik vind het wel.
Station Valkenburg

Hij volgt de weg en vindt zijn bestemming. Dat gebouw ziet er inderdaad mooi uit. Vind je ook niet?

Grammatica 5-1 ~ Conjugation of verbs; the four moods
Dutch has a relatively simple system of verbs with four moods and eight tenses. The Dutch verb has a few more endings than the English one. We will focus on three forms: 1. stem 2. stem + -t 3. stem + -en

e.take (you all!).vertelt .I take The third person (he/she) singular acquires a final -t in the present. In English it gets a -s instead: ik volg .they can Notice that the vowel usually does not change and therefore we are doubling either consonants or vowels when we go from one syllable to two: vertel . We will look at the present tense only can (formal. polite) However.loˑpen => o remains [o].you (all) follow zij kunnen .loopt . Brief exercise Choose the correct form of the verb. as indicated by "oo". As in English it is simply the stem of the verb: Neem! . that takes an extra -t: Neemt! . then hover you mouse over the verb to see the right answer. when asking a question: Vind je dat ook niet? The Dutch verb has a 'plural' form that generally ends in -en.g. The first person singular has the same form as the imperative: neem! .to tell wij nemen .take! ik neem .take! There is a (rather archaic) plural of the imperative.Dutch/Lesson 5 38 Imperative mood The simplest form is the imperative mood. the -t ending is lost for the informal jij form.I follow hij volgt . Indicative mood in the present tense By far the most important mood is the indicative one and its tenses. loop . even in the closed syllable. which is used for all plural persons and for the infinitive as well: vertellen .you find (informal) U kunt .vertelˑlen => single e remains [ɛ] in syllable closed by extra l. when the word order is reversed.we take jullie volgen .he follows In contrast to English this also applies to the second person singular: jij vindt . .

Some verbs are There is a present translate de vertaling . zien .we make maken . vertalen . it ends in -end(e) rather than -ing. It is used mostly as an adjective: de week die volgt → de volgende week the week that follows → the following week volgend jaar next year There are forms ending in -ing in Dutch but they are (feminine) nouns of action only loosely associated with the verb they derive from.g.Dutch/Lesson 5 39 jij (werken) jullie (werken) wij (volgen) (werken)!! ik (lopen) u (graven) wij (lopen) zij (kijken) ik (bereiken) (verkopen) ik? (zitten) wij? (halen) jij hij (verstoppen) het (waaien) wij (begrijpen) Infinitive mood The plural form is also the infinitive of the verb: wij maken . het eten .that is hard to make The infinitive can be used as a noun where English uses the gerund in -ing. e.the food.g.he sees zij zien .to see ik zie .to make It occasionally takes 'te' as in English 'to' but that is more exceptional in Dutch and not usually considered part of the infinitve: dat is moeilijk te maken . the meal het eten is klaar! .I see hij ziet .they see .the translation We will revisit verbal nouns much more extensively in one of the later lessons.dinner's ready! het leven . It is always neuter in gender: het vertellen van volkverhalen is een leuk tijdverdrijf. the telling of folktales is a nice pastime. e.

In Dutch a similar thing happens: kunnen ik kan .je . In English can and may do not take an -s in the third person. It only exists in third person singular and (with few exceptions) present tense. Exercise (object) wij. there are a number of irregular verbs in Dutch.1 Read conversation can hij kan .be it so It is only mentioned here for the sake of (object) jij.none 1) . Mark all endings as 0) .you (subject) jou.we .je . Some irregular verbs Of s) We will revisit irregulars later.them The weak forms me.he can (no t . . we and ze are used when the emphasis lies on some other part of the sentence. It looks like the infinitive minus -n: Men neme twee pond gehakt lit.they or she hen.2 Translate into Dutch: Grammatica 5-2 Clitics revisited As shown before many personal pronouns have a strong and a weak form: mij.I may jij mag .ze . but often they are the same ones as in English.Dutch/Lesson 5 40 Subjunctive mood The subjunctive mood is even rarer in Dutch than it is in English.ze .1 again and underline all verbs. Exercise 5. je.I can jij kunt .t and 2) -en and identify in each case why this ending is used. It is only used in a few wishes and recipes.he may (no t .He sees me in the mirror (not on television).no s) mogen ik mag .we .you may hij mag . The strong form expresses mild emphasis. (May) one take two pounds of ground beef (minced meat) Het zij zo . Hij ziet me in de spiegel .

Dutch/Lesson 5 Hij ziet mij in de spiegel . In the spoken language there are more weak forms than in the written one. z'n.your zijn. sure indeed to tell to miss to follow to see You can the destination beautiful fine. The forms m'n.) de spiegel (m. (d'r). What is your bike? Ik wil graag een ritje op je motor maken.He sees me in the mirror (not my mother). beautiful the train station the side the road the mirror the building . Wat is jouw motor? .) prachtig mooi het station de kant (m.I'd love to ride y'r bike! mijn.My bike is a Honda.He beat 'r up Ze hebben 'm gezien -.) de weg (m. zijn and haar in formal writing. e.his haar. The form je is pretty much the only clitic possessive generally accepted in writing. z'n . . for he (ie).g. and especially d'r are often written as mijn.her Again the spoken language has a clearer distinction than the written one.He ain't done it Hij heeft 'r geslagen .my jouw. je . Compare: Mijn motor is een Honda. him ('m) and for her (d'r or 'r) Dat heeft-ie niet gedaan .They spotted him For possessive pronouns the same holds. pretty.) het gebouw Audio file English translation table certain(ly). 41 Woordenschat 5 Dutch term de tafel zeker inderdaad vertellen missen volgen zien U kunt de bestemming (f. m'n .

hoor. maar wat was er in zestienhonderdéén? Ma: Eh nou. it is mainly the simple number (e.. vijf. which means "ten" and is very similar to English -teen 13 dertien 14 veertien 15 vijftien 16 zestien 17 zeventien 18 achttien 19 negentien . heb je dat op school geleerd? En wat gebeurde er toen? Jan: Prins Maurits versloeg de Spanjaarden.Dutch/Lesson 6 42 Dutch/Lesson 6 Les 6 ~ Lesson 6 << Les 5 | Les 6 | Les 7 >> The Spanish general is led before Prince Maurits at Nieuwpoort Gesprek 6 Jan: Zestienhonderd was de Slag bij Nieuwpoort.1 ~ Numbers Use the sound buttons to help you with the pronunciation. he mam? Ma: Ja. -teen = -tien Dutch has a similar way of constructing the numbers for 13-19 as English. dat weet ik niet. zes) followed by -tien. natuurlijk.. jongen.g. Grammatica 6. Jan: Het éénjarig bestaan van de Slag bij Nieuwpoort.

The same system goes for 30.. There should be a space after '1000' (duizend). 40. Dutch puts the single unit before the ten-unit: 21 eenentwintig (literally: one-and-twenty) 22 tweeëntwintig 23 drieëntwintig 24 vierentwintig 25 vijfentwintig 26 zesentwintig 27 zevenentwintig 28 achtentwintig 29 negenentwintig Notice that one way to deal with two subsequent vowels in Dutch spelling is the diaeresis ë.. 1000 duizend 1001 duizend één 1017 duizend zeventien 1538 duizend vijfhonderdachtendertig or vijftienhonderdachtendertig 2000 tweeduizend 8000 achtduizend 100. Large numbers 100 honderd Dutch does not use one as in "one hundred" or "one thousand" 101 honderdéén 111 honderdelf 112 honderdtwaalf 113 honderddertien 121 honderdéénentwintig 957 negenhonderdzevenenvijftig In Dutch all numbers lower than one thousand are written as one word. 30 dertig 32 tweeëndertig 40 veertig 50 vijftig 60 zestig 70 zeventig 80 tachtig (!!) 90 negentig The only irregular one is tachtig. 50. biljoen. miljard. though.. is "-tig" in Dutch: 20 twintig Starting at twenty one things get a little funny.Dutch/Lesson 6 43 -ty = -tig As another example of the relationship between English y versus Dutch g. etc. Notice that 60 and 70 are pronounced with initial [s]. thirty etc.000 honderdduizend . There's also a space before and after: miljoen. the English ending -ty in twenty. biljard.

The numbers: 1.000.93 Dutch has a decimal comma.Dutch/Lesson 6 143.. 3. 1...500 honderddrieënveertigduizend vijfhonderd 1. These are examples of past and perfect tenses.000. f. Derived verbs included there are some 1500 strong verbs in total. k.I learn → stem is leer Past tense The past tense typically has a singular and a plural form: ik.000 twee miljoen 453..897. p and x) the endings are voiceless in Dutch -te.245 vierhonderddrieënvijftig miljoen achthonderdzevenennegentigduizend tweehonderdvijfenveertig For higher power of one thousand Dutch follows the British rather than the American system 1. the strong and irregular verbs are amongst the most frequently used ones.. Strong verbs change the vowel of the learn ik leer . Weak verbs leren . zij leerden .000. s. -ten: . There are only about six irregular roots and about two dozen derivatives. The more specialized and recently formed ones are typically weak. 2.we.000.000 één biljard 245. There are three kinds of verbs in Dutch when it comes to forming them.432. • Maurits versloeg. see below) 1.. not a decimal point.93 = Dutch: $1.000.879 tweehonderdvijfenveertig biljoen achtenzeventig miljard vierhonderdzesenzeventig miljoen vierhonderddrieënvijftigduizend achthonderdnegenenzeventig Notice also that the interpunction is the reverse: English: $1. you.000. ch.476.324. they learned Notice the similarity with English: the past is formed with a dental suffix: -de (Dutch) -ed (English). • .000.I. 3.000 één miljoen 2. jullie. you.heb je dat op school geleerd?.000 honderddrieënveertigduizend 143. Irregular verbs often have a combination of the two or show other idiosyncrasies. However if the root ends in a voiceless consonant (t. 44 Grammatica 6.000 één miljard (not: biljoen.000.000. 2.324.000 één biljoen 1. Weak verbs add either -te(n) or -de(n) to the stem of the verb. jij. The vast majority (thousands) of Dutch verbs are regular weak verbs. hij leerde . he learned wij.2 ~ Past and perfect tenses Recall: • .000. There are some 150 strong roots.078.432.000... However.wat gebeurde er .453.

to pass ik pas .I pass → stem is pas ik heb gepast . s.I have passed Dutch has "final obstruent devoicing". the ge. If the root already ends in -d or -t the ending is omitted: feesten .the lesson learned Gepaste eerbied . k. ch.prefix is omitted: Wat bedoel je? .Dutch/Lesson 6 passen . However. Prefixes If the verb already has a prefix like be. . As such it also has an inflected form with -e: De geleerde les . Perfect tense The past participle on -d and -t The perfect uses an auxiliary + the past participle. to fit ik pas .fitting reverence In this case the /d/ of geleerde is actually also pronounced [d] and the /t/ of gepaste as [t]. as [t]. That means that both the -d of "geleerd" and the -t of "gepast" as actually pronounced the same. It is formed by prefixing ge.and suffixing -d in the case of leren: the perfect ik heb geleerd .gefeest baden .to pass.I have learned If the root ends in a voiceless consonant (t. Wat gebeurt er? Wat gebeurde er? Wat is er gebeurd? 45 . f.I pass → stem is pas ik paste . p and x) the ending is a voiceless -t: passen .What do you mean? Ik heb dat zo niet bedoeld. as in English the participle can also be used as an adjective. a fancy term for the fact that a consonant at the end of a word is always pronounced as voiceless.or ver-.we passed This happens in about a third of the weak verbs.I did not mean it that way.gebaad Word order In contrast to English the participle is put at the end of the sentence: Ik heb dat op school geleerd.I passed wij pasten .

There are seven distinct patterns (classes) of vowel change.leed .. although sometimes the resemblance is still striking.I always did a lot of walking In the latter case the verb takes "hebben" because the emphasis is not on the movement process but on the activity (action)..geleden English has far fewer strong verbs left and they have become walk (cf. although the division of labor between the tenses is different in the two speak sprak .e. Compare: type process movement action zijn zijn hebben Dutch English 46 de sneeuwballen zijn gesmolten have the snowballs have melted ze zijn gegaan ze hebben dat gedaan have have they have gone they have done that Strong verbs lopen ..I walked (notice the vowel change) Ik heb gelopen The participle ends in -en in the case of strong verbs. unlike English there is a group of verbs (ergative verbs) that take zijn (to be) instead. Instead of an action such verbs express either a process or a movement.ij. . leap) Ik loop .past tense . Fortunately for all Dutch verbs except a handful it is enough to memorize de stamtijden (the primitive times): lopen-liep-gelopen (infinitive . The past tense corresponds more to the past continuous in English. There are more than 150 strong roots and including all derived forms lopen.. Notice that gebeuren (to happen) is one such case: It is an ergative verb.spoken We will come back to strong verbs there are more than 1500 strong verbs in Dutch.spoke gesproken . compare: spreken . However. verlopen etc.Dutch/Lesson 6 Auxiliaries The auxiliary is usually a form of hebben like it is to have in English (see below for its forms). This is why is uses to be as auxiliary if a direction of the movement process is specified. . i.I walk Ik liep .I was walking home The past of some of the strong verbs has a plural that undergoes lengthening of the vowel: ... belopen.bleef . Compare: Ik ben naar huis gelopen .geschreven blijven . The most common one (Class I) has . Notice that Dutch often uses the perfect tense where English uses a simple past.schreef .gebleven lijden .past participle) Lopen is a verb of movement. the patterns are no longer very recognizable.: schrijven .. Ik liep naar huis .I walked home Ik heb altijd veel gelopen ..

zullen. jullie.I was thinking (while sitting) Ik stond te bellen .we. you. This is a very ancient aspect of the language. toen ik hem zag I was (busy) walking home when I saw him Verbs like lopen. have hij heeft . he had wij. although there is a construction using aan het + infinitive that can be used to describe continuity rather emphatically: Ik was naar huis aan het lopen. zij hadden . Anglo-Saxon had something similar.he has wij. hij had . staan. It stems straight out of Indo-European.we.he is .Dutch/Lesson 6 breken-brak-gebroken ik brak (as in father) wij braken (as in Gaad) (Thus the verb has four stages of vowel are hij is . sit and lie) can also be used to express continuous action. zij hebben . mogen.I am jij bent .I have jij hebt . they have Past tense ik. kunnen and willen The auxiliary to have The most important irregular verbs are hebben and zijn: hebben-had-gehad hebben .to have ik heb . stand.) Past continuous Dutch does not have a past (or present) continuous as such. you. jullie. jij. wezen . They take te + infinitive: Ik zat te denken . you. liggen ( be ik ben .I. hebben. they had Perfect ik heb gehad The auxiliary to be zijn-was-geweest zijn.I was on the phone (while standing) 47 Irregular verbs There are only a few verbs (actually 6) that demand more knowledge than that which is contained in the three stamtijden (primitive tenses) They are: zijn.

thought). Notice that English has something similar (brought.gebracht denken .Dutch/Lesson 6 wij. they are Past tense ik was wij waren Perfect ik ben geweest . 48 Strong and weak verbs with irregularities Some strong and weak verbs do not completely follow any of the regular patterns. strong or irregular by these primitive tenses and reserve the term irregular for the handful cases where this does not suffice. jullie.dacht .gedacht The vowel of these roots also changes. battle nature boy naturally. but historically these verbs are weak. As this is the case for all Dutch verbs bar six it is customary to represent a verb whether weak. of course to write to read to learn.we. Woordenschat 6 Dutch word de school het jaar jarig zijn de slag de natuur de jongen natuurlijk schrijven-schreef-geschreven s lezen-las-gelezen s leren-leerde-geleerd w bedoelen-bedoelde-bedoeld w lopen-liep-gelopen s bestaan-bestond-bestaan s audio file English translation school year having a birthday blow. In these cases it is still enough to know the three primitive tenses to reconstruct the entire verb. but a 'process'. you. We have seen one: verslaan ik versla ik versloeg ik heb verslagen Notice that the present tense and the infinitive do not have a "g".I have been Notice that to be is seen as an ergative: it is not an action. There is also a group of weak verbs ends in -cht rather than just -t: brengen . to aim at to walk to exist .bracht . to teach to mean. zij zijn .

is often mocked for the (theoretical) possibility of creating long words such as randjongerenhangplekkenbeleidsambtenarensalarisbesprekingsafspraken (the agreements for the negotiations concerning the salary of public officials who decide on the policy regarding areas where unemployed youth are allowed to hang out). Grammatica 7. much like its Dutch counterpart "appelsap".1 Compounds In this chapter you will learn how to glue words together. Dutch.Dutch/Lesson 6 49 zijn-was-geweest irr hebben-had-gehad irr weten-wist-geweten irr zien-zag-gezien s zwemmen-zwom-gezwommen s vinden-vond-gevonden s eten-at-gegeten s zitten-zat-gezeten s denken-dacht-gedacht s slapen-sliep-geslapen s to be to have to know to see to swim to find to eat to sit to think to sleep Also see Dutch/The numbers for a synopsis and the hover test based on it. so English speakers are often not aware that a word like "apple juice" is a compound. Een kleintje? Nee. . This is what signals word compounding in English and Dutch alike. je bent braaf geweest. compounds are written as separate words. Notice that when you pronounce "apple juice" you pronounce the word "juice" with much less emphasis than you pronounce "apple" with. Dutch/Lesson 7 Les 7 ~ Lesson 7 Samenstellingen en Verkleinwoorden ~ Compounds and Diminutives • I want an ice cream • Grammar: compound nouns • Diminutives << Les 6 | Les 7 | Les 8 >> Gesprek 7 Ma. Wil je een vanilleijsje? Nee. like German. een grote. krijg ik een ijsje? Ach vooruit dan maar. ik wil een bananenframbozenmokkaijsje met vanilleslagroom. Actually compounds are seldom so excessive and the compounding of words happens in English as well. Norwegian and Danish. However in English.

you can replace it by a dash: • "ondergrens en bovengrens" (lower boundary and upper boundary) can be replaced by "onder. write them together. Always. In the latter case Linux-besturingssysteem is more usual because Linux is a brand name. This rule even applies to words imported from English into Dutch: • sciencefiction • businessunit This dash is required when one of the elements in a compound is an acronym: • DNA molecule → DNA-molecuul. For example. The question whether something is written separately. wrong: post bus • Linux operating system → Linuxbesturingssysteem.Dutch/Lesson 7 Sometimes. Many publishers and media representatives have joined the revolt. but recently we have seen revisions every decade. Many of these words had already changed in 1995. wrong: appel sap • mail box → postbus. Dashes are used sparingly and never in simple compounds like deurbel (door bell). or to the pressure as well.used to be changed every half century or so. The result of this kind of changing is that most speakers and writers of the language do not know what to do anymore. wrong: DNA molecuul If you use two compound words in the same phrase that have an element in common. no Dutch speaker will dare to fault a non-native for doing such things wrong.en bovengrens". It is fair to say that there is a government (i. . the text becomes ambiguous. In Dutch. For some words. In Dutch orthography however. One aspect of the new spelling is that in compounds a "collision of vowels" in not resolved with a diaeresis anymore but with a dash. wrong: Linux besturingssysteem Should a word get unreadable by writing it together. a double spelling can be used: "mail box" is also acceptable in English. now it is na-apen. the difference is made clear: • "Standaardtemperatuur en -druk" means standard temperature and standard pressure • "Standaardtemperatuur en druk" means standard temperature.e. Examples: • apple juice → appelsap. tax payer) sponsored craze for change and not always for the better. with a diaeresis (trema in Dutch) or with a hyphen seems to be a favorite playground for this kind of activity. Obviously. It used to be written as naäpen. by means of the dash. (lower and upper boundary) Remember that you can do this in English as well: "standard temperature and standard pressure" is often replaced by "standard temperature and pressure". it can no longer be seen from the text itself whether "standard" applies to just to the temperature. the rule for spelling compounds is simple: if two nouns form a compound. There is a verb for "to imitate" that literally means "to ape after" someone. together. such as "mailbox". you can use a dash to make it more readable. But note that by omitting the second occurrence of "standard". A good example can be found here [1]. and pressure 50 Spelling revisions Dutch orthography -in contrast to the English one. The Genootschap Onze Taal (Society 'Our Language') has even published an alternative spelling guide (the little white book) in opposition to the governmental one (the little green book). The exact meaning will have to be gathered from the context. This is a comparison of the changes between 1995 and 2005. the word "database" is a compilation of the words "data" and "base". compounds are spelled as a single word even in English.

2 Diminutives Apart from a plural the Dutch noun generally also has a diminutive. A handsize vase will generally be called vaasje.softly Even the names of persons are at times turned into the diminutive.the maid het meisje .het vaasje Diminutives have a plural in -s: het vaasje .the ticket. the original word meid can be rather derogatory: Die meid hoort in het gevang! lit. a big little ice).What a cutie! Grote meid! -. One reason is that turning a word into a diminutive is another way of avoiding the m/f gender problem.g.a snack Adverbs can be formed from adjective by adding an extra -s: zacht . the business card This implies that a big cone of ice cream becomes: een groot ijsje (lit.the ice het ijsje . Usage Het vaasje literally means the little vase. e. the postcard het kaartje .soft zachtjes . In some cases the diminutive has acquired a life of its own (become 'lexicalized'). The word 'vaas' is more reserved for something that needs to be carried with both hands.the ice cream de meid .Dutch/Lesson 7 51 Grammatica 7. but the usage in Dutch is quite pervasive.: . In the case of vaasjes.the (geographic. tussendoor . Often the diminutive is as frequently or even more frequently used than the noun itself. That 'broad' belongs in jail! It can also be a somewhat colloquial term of endearment: Wat 'n leuke meid! -. you are a darling Even cardinal numbers are not safe: We gaan met z'n tweetjes We'll go the two of us Some words are better left alone.the girl de kaart . road) map. je bent een schat Mary between een tussendoortje .Atta-girl! Lexicalized diminutives are even formed from other parts of speech than nouns. usually as a term of endearment: Marietje. It is formed by adding -je to the noun and is always neuter in gender: de vaas . Compare: het ijs .

taking someone out for dinner de bloem . the suffix tends to be -ke: meiske. In others.the little path. Woordenschat 7 Dutch word het ijs het ijsje braaf vooruit krijgen . to the front get. obtain apple juice cream (milk fat) whipped cream mail box molecule border. blommeke. If would indicate that the speaker is involved with such things for fun on a daily basis.the funeral Putting these in the diminutive is downright disrespectful and morbid.the little turtle In other cases an extra syllable is inserted: de kom . There is considerable variation between the dialects in the formation of the diminutives. obedient ahead.the murder • de begrafenis . come on. In other words diminutives in Dutch express a whole lot more than just small size.the turtles het schildpadje . 52 Formation The formation of the diminutive sometimes requires the addition of -tje or -pje.the path de paden .the flower het bloempje . (Paadje as IPA /'pacə/ rather than /'patje/).the little flower In some cases the vowel changes like it does in the plural: het pad .kreeg -gekregen s de appelsap de room de slagroom de postbus het molecuul de grens audio file English translation ice ice cream good. Many dialects pronounce -je as -ie /i:/.the turtle de schildpadden .the paths het paadje . limit .the bowl het kommetje The suffix -je often causes consonants to be more or less pronounced as palatals. the latter after m: het eten .Dutch/Lesson 7 • de moord .the food het etentje . They are a major mechanism of producing derived terms. the trail but: de schildpad .

dan doe ik dat wel even.Dutch/Lesson 7 53 de temperatuur de druk de vaas het meisje de kaart zacht zachtjes de schat de moord de begrafenis de bloem het pad de pad de kom temperature pressure. Nou. Zijn er zakjes? Ja. er zijn er zelfs twee. Heb je er ook nog een pak koekjes bij? Ja. Zie je de broodtrommel? Ze liggen er vlak onder. print edition vase girl map. org/ spelling/ archief/ overzicht_trefwoorden_met_spellingwijziging/ Dutch/Lesson 8 Les 8 ~ Lesson 8 Er en de voornaamwoordelijke bijwoorden ~ Er and the pronominal adverbs • Is there coffee? • Grammar: Pronominal replacement • Use of the locative er << Les 7 | Les 8 | Les 9 >> Gesprek 8 Marjo? Ja. wat is er? Is er al koffie? Nee ik heb er nog geen gezet. postcard soft softly treasure. in de kast. . darling murder funeral flower path toad bowl References [1] http:/ / taalunieversum.

Their formation is still an active mechanism. In computer terms you could say that er is *ere. However. In many cases where Dutch uses er. erna from a more specific (accentuated) daarvan. both of the Western and the Northern (Scandinavian) group. While rare in English. with * being a wildcard for h-. therefore. The two sources have coalesced so strongly that they cannot be distinguished anymore. Historically. They are quite old and occur in most Germanic languages. that or what. I have been there This is also true in the relatively few cases that English uses pronominal adverbs like thereof. there. particularly if the latter is an inanimate it or them: of it → thereof = ervan for it → therefore = ervoor Notice how the elements swap place: the prepositional part moves to the end. Compare: Dutch Type Personal Pronoun het Locative adverb er hier daar waar ergens nergens overal Pronoun it this that what English Locative adverb ?? here there where Demonstrative (close) dit Demonstrative (far) Rel. in many cases it is mandatory . The word is a kind of locative wildcard. Another way of putting it is that er is a clitic (weak) form of hier or daar. This is true in both languages. English will resort to a more specific there: Is er koffie . If anything their use is increasing (due to the gender problem). ervoor. where.or wh-. thereafter etc. daarvoor and daarna. Pronominal adverbs are commonly used in Dutch to replace the combination of preposition + pronoun. however. or somewhere in a similar way as the word it does to the more specific this.Do you know London? there coffee? Ken je Londen? Ja. because it does not have an exact counterpart in most other languages. in Dutch this replacement/swap is not just common./Interrogative Indefinite Negative indefinite General dat wat iets niets alles something somewhere nothing nowhere everything everywhere Er relates to more specific indications of place like here. . They form an important part of the grammar and have to be mastered to speak the language properly. ik ben er geweest. French being an exception with the words y and en. pronominal adverbs are much more prominent in Dutch than in English or the other Germanic languages. the word only partly originated as a weakening of hier or daar.Dutch/Lesson 8 54 Grammatica 8 ~ Er and the pronominal adverbs Locative adverbs The word er is one of the most ubiquitous words in the Dutch language and often rather hard to translate. Dutch will distinguish a more general (clitic) ervan. Indeed it never carries emphasis. Pronominal adverbs In English pronominal adverbs like therein or hereby are a remnant from the past. In part it also reflects an old genitive of the pronoun "het". .

just like the personal pronouns hij and zij. Possessives like zijn and haar are more and more reserved for animate masculine and animate feminine nouns (person. (No. because er is genderless.) Yes. Translating its by replacement In English it is common to use the possessive pronoun its to refer to a noun that indicates a thing. 55 . often only to get it wrong.. Deze vertelling is leuk.deze → hiervan van dat huis → van dat. please.. again representing a convenient way to avoid the gender issue: This tale is nice. In other cases an adverbial expression with two separate adverbs results. It is a major way of avoiding m/f gender references for inanimate nouns. Its beginning is spectacular. a pronominal adverb like ervan is used instead.Dutch/Lesson 8 Pronominal replacement Although in the spoken language even this is slowly changing. but a neuter (inanimate) possessive zijn is so uncommon that it is better avoided... In Dutch. Zijn begin is spectaculair. Het begin ervan is spectaculair.) The latter is strictly speaking correct Dutch.) Dit verhaal is leuk. (Yes. demonstrative (dit.. it is uncommon.)*: In this case the replacement is so common that not using the replacement is simply bad Dutch. especially if the noun is inanimate. pets) and indicate natural rather than grammatical gender. dat) or interrogative/relative (wat) the resulting pronominal adverb is written as one word (ervan. (No. Please use the adverbial ervan. but who remembers? Occasionally a writer will try to dazzle the reader with this kind of superior knowledge. waarvan). hiervan.. please. Haar begin is spectaculair. The most common pronominal replacements (from the table above) are: van het huis → (van het)* → ervan van dit huis → van dit. A word in -ing is feminine.die → daarvan van welk huis → (van wat)*. daarvaan.. This is true for neuter nouns as well Dit verhaal is leuk. van welk(e) → waarvan van iets → ergens van van niets → nergens van van alles → overal van (. This means that replacement can also be applied to common gender words that do not really have a personal pronoun to refer them by. please. even somewhat disrespectful to apply pronominal replacement to people (animate nouns): after her = na haar (not erna) for them = voor hen (not ervoor) In all other cases pronominal replacement is frequent or even mandatory..) Deze vertelling is leuk. please. Het begin ervan is spectaculair (Yes. Notice that if the replaced pronoun is personal (het). in principle the latter is correct.

nowhere from under out) do not raise any eyebrows. the third one is what most people would say. Compare: He has a remedy for it. Usually this prepositional adverb is the same as the preposition itself (van het)* → ervan (tussen het)* → ertussen But this is not always the case: (met het)* → ermee (arch.) do not have a corresponding prepositional adverb. giving the word er a partitive flavor: He has seven of them. Hij heeft zeven ervan. Because via does not have a prepositional adverb one is forced to use a relative pronoun like dewelke that is more and more experienced as awkward and archaic. ermede) (tot het)* → ertoe Pronominal adverbs can be formed from most prepositions. A few adverbial forms do not have a corresponding prepositions: eraf (off of it) erheen (expresses a direction: to) Conversely. Hij heeft er zeven. thereinbetween) or ergens achter (lit. Hij heeft zeven *(van ze). Hij heeft er een remedie voor'. somewhere behind) or even nergens onderuit (lit. This makes it difficult to use them in relative clauses or in combination with it.I have there(of) yet none made . Dit is de weg via dewelke ik naar huis fiets.Is there coffee? Ik heb er nog geen (van) gezet . pronominal adverbs are usually split apart in the sentence. This is the road along which I ride my bike on the way home. awkward. In the case of the preposition van (of). mits etc. behalve. Hij heeft een remedie ervoor.I haven't made any yet. Hij heeft er zeven van. Sometimes the two parts of the pronominal adverb can end up quite far apart. Hij heeft een remedie *(voor het). Words like ertussenin (lit.Dutch/Lesson 8 Formation A pronominal adverb is formed from the locative adverb that corresponds to the replaced pronoun + the preposition in adverbial form. Separation To further confuse the enemy. the van-part may be omitted. reasonable and most common respectively. Notice what happens to "by it" (door *het) => "erdoor": 56 . The first translation is unacceptable. The partitive flavor extends to the negative: Is er koffie . some prepositions (like via. Compare: Dit is de weg waarlangs ik naar huis fiets. because in most constructions it is replaced (langs dewelke → waarlangs). The four translations are unacceptable. The second one is awkward.

let alone producing them in speech. Lance Armstrong had cancer. Woordenschat 8 van met door voor achter tussen onder over boven tot na naar de overwinning de loopbaan het koekje de wielrenner het wiel de zak het zakje de koffie de wereld zetten koffie zetten weerhouden schrijven behalen of. However.Dutch/Lesson 8 Lance Armstrong heeft kanker gehad.2 Translate the above sentences into English in both forms. Het boek ligt in de kast → Het boek ligt erin. blijkens zijn zeven opeenvolgende overwinningen in de Tour de France. to obtain . to thwart write score. he did not in any way allow himself to be thwarted by it in his career as the world's strongest cyclist.g. Hij heeft zich er echter. beneath over above to. from with by.1 Replace the object by a pronominal adverb: e. through for. until after to victory career cookie (loanword of New York/Dutch origin) cyclist wheel bag baggie coffee world to to to to to put make coffee keep from. Getting used to understanding such sentences. As an exercise: identify all the parts of this sentence to see how different the word order is. takes a lot of practice. 57 Exercise 8. given his seven consecutive victories in the Tour de France. behind between under. Exercise 8. before after. op geen enkele manier in zijn loopbaan als 's werelds sterkste wielrenner door laten weerhouden.

Dutch/Lesson 8 echter even al nog niet geen geen enkel eenvoudig though, however quickly, with no effort, even already not yet no not a single simple


See also nl:wikt:Categorie:Nederlands voornaamwoordelijk bijwoord

Dutch/Lesson 9
Les 9 ~ Lesson 9
• Annemiek has her passport extended • Grammar: Future tense • Modal verbs: Kunnen and laten • Stative verbs: Staan, zitten, liggen, lopen.

<< Les 8 | Les

9 | Les 10 >>

Gesprek 9
Annemiek wil op reis naar Zuid-Afrika. Daarvoor heeft zij een paspoort nodig, maar haar paspoort is verlopen. Zij gaat daarom naar het gemeentehuis en vraagt een ambtenaar om inlichtingen A.: Dag meneer, zou u mij kunnen zeggen waar ik mijn paspoort zou kunnen laten verlengen? ambtenaar: Goedemiddag, mevrouw. Zeker, u kunt het beste de lift naar de derde verdieping nemen. Daar zult U een loket vinden. Het zal alleen nog niet open zijn. Het is nog lunchtijd. A.: Wanneer zal ik er dan terecht kunnen? ambtenaar:Dat zal maar een paar minuten duren. Dan is het half twee. A.: Weet u misschien hoe lang een verlenging gaat vergen? ambtenaar: Dat zou ik niet precies durven zeggen, maar het zal een weekje of twee duren.

Grammatica 9.1 ~ Zullen, kunnen and laten
The official future tense is formed using the auxiliary zullen + the infinitive In Dutch this tense is called: de onvoltooid tegenwoordige toekomstige tijd (ottt), the imperfect present future tense. We shall revisit this nomenclature later. ik vind - I find. ik zal vinden - I'll find. But you can also express the future by using a present, if futurity is declared in the sentence by an adverb (like 'tomorrow').

Dutch/Lesson 9 ik vind het - I find it. ik zal het vinden - I'll find it. ik vind het morgen wel - I'll find it tomorrow Occasionally, Dutch resorts to the use of gaan: dat gaat twee weken kosten - that is going to take two weeks. In both cases the infinitive ends up at the end of the sentence.: je zult het op de derde verdieping vinden - you will find it on the third floor zullen is an irregular verb (shall): ik zal jij zult, u zult (u zal) hij zal wij zullen jullie zullen zij zullen


Its past tense forms what it known as the onvoltooid verleden toekomstige tijd (ovtt), the imperfect past future tense that roughly corresponds to the conditional tense in English. ik zeg - I say ik zou zeggen - I would say ik zou jij zou, u zoudt/zou hij zou wij zouden jullie zouden zij zouden

Infinitives instead of participles
The verb zullen does not have a past participle, instead its infinitive is used in phrases like: Ja, ik heb dat zullen doen, maar ik had geen tijd meer. Yes I had intended to do so, but I ran out of time

There is a number of verbs that show this phenomenon, A good example is kunnen (can) although this verb does have a past participle and it can be used in separation: ik kan dat niet - I cannot do that ik heb dat nooit gekund - I have never been able to. ik heb dat nooit kunnen doen - I have never been able to do that. Sometimes this leads to lengthy strings of infinitives: waar ik het zou hebben kunnen laten verlengen.

Dutch/Lesson 9 where I would have been able to have it extended. Kunnen is an irregular verb as we have seen before. Its past tense is: ik, jij, hij kon wij, jullie, zij konden (could) hij kon niet meer - he was exhausted (lit. he could no more)


The verb laten corresponds to the English verb to let but is used somewhat differently. It is a regular strong verb: laten-liet-gelaten Laat mij maar rijden - just let me drive Dat zul je laten! - no, you won't! Ik heb het zo gelaten - I left it the way it was Hij liet zich niet kisten - He fought back. (lit. he did not let himself be put in a coffin.) Iets laten maken - Have something fixed. Laat maar! - Don't bother! Hij kan het roken niet laten - He can't stop smoking.

Stative verbs: staan, zitten, liggen, lopen
All of these are strong verbs: staan - stond - gestaan — to stand zitten - zat - gezeten — to sit liggen - lag - gelegen — to lie lopen - liep - gelopen — to walk Scholars do not agree whether to consider these verbs as auxiliaries. Some do consider them aspect auxiliaries, because but they often serve to express continuity: Ik zit te lezen - I am reading (while on my chair) Ik loop te denken - I am thinking (while going somewhere) The prefect of these expressions drop the "te" and use an infinitive to replace the past participle: Ik heb zitten denken - I have been thinking (on my chair) We hebben staan bellen - We have been on the phone (while on our feet) These verbs also frequently replace to be in impersonal expressions with er: Er liggen drie boeken op tafel - there are three books (lying) on the table Er zitten nog drie koekjes in de doos - there are still three cookies (sitting) in the box Er loopt een goeie film - there is a good movie on.

dat levert zo weer een dikke stroomrekening op. ruim je dan ook even op? Ja hoor. de bom zal afgaan.the grease solidifies De koude doet het vet stollen .the cold has made the grease solidify Dutch/Lesson 10 Les 10 ~ Lesson 10 Meer over werkwoorden ~ More about verbs << Les 9 | Les 10 | Les 11 >> Gesprek-10 Jan. wees maar niet bezorgd. In Dutch the association is even stronger. This means that there are two types of prefixes to a Dutch verb: inseparable ones (such as be-) and separable ones (like af-).gedaan Its role is much more restricted than in mean hij bedoelde .Dutch/Lesson 9 61 Doen: to do As in English this verb is irregular. het licht ging aan. This becomes clear in the future tense: the bomb will go off. alles wordt keurig opgeruimd. the light went on.the cold makes the grease solidify Again the perfect has an infinitive: De koude heeft het vet doen stollen. ik heb dat karweitje nog niet afgemaakt. because in some of the forms of such a verb. ik doe het straks wel uit. Wanneer ga je het afmaken? Ik moet alleen even naar de WC. but at times it can be used as an auxiliary that turns an ergative into an active construction: Het vet stolt .deed . The first kind we have seen before: bedoelen . Maar Jan. heb je het licht uitgedaan? Nee schat. the adverb af is actually written as a prefix. dan ga ik weer naar beneden. . e. In English one could consider to go off as the infinitive of a distinct verb. Grammatica 10-1 ~ Separable verbs A lot of verbs in English have fixed adverbial complements and a comparable association often holds in Dutch. Compare: the bomb went off. de bom ging af. doen . the infinitive. Als je het af hebt.g.

but this is not visible in the written one unless accents are deliberately added to avoid confusion. Notice that the separable verb does take the ge. (to march along with) (verbal separation) met alles => overal mee (with everything) (pronominal replacement) aanzitten aan . => loop mee met . (he was a high level social tiger) The latter should not be confused with: hij zat overal aan. 62 Relationship to the prepositional adverbs In fact the comparison between pronominal adverbs and separable verbs is rather pertinent. (he could not keep his hands off of anything) zitten aan (to touch.before) and in some cases there are two different verbs that look deceptively the absolve one's education at a school (takes 5 years).(for..(through. occasionally the same prepositional adverb appears twice at the end of the phrase: hij liep overal mee mee. but bedóélen. the two parts of the separable verb can end up rather far apart in the sentence.e.. the other not. Notice that just like in the case of the pronominal adverb ervan that translates its. There is another difference.. .to occur voorkomen .occurs more in NL than. one says áfgaan. Compare: voorkomen . Some prefixes can occur both separably and inseparably such as door. by) and voor.. .voorkomen . Another example: een school doorlopen .Dutch/Lesson 10 hij heeft bedoeld The primitive tenses of a separable verb look like: afgaan het ging af het is walk through a school building (takes 5 minutes) een school doorlopen . with different prevent de kluut komt meer in Nederland voor dan in Engeland. the Avocet is more numerous in the Netherlands than in England.. one separable. In the spoken language they differ by wordaccent. at least in the spoken language: the accent of the word lies on the prefix if it is separable. (he went along with anything at all) hij zat overal aan aan. Many prepositional adverbs occur both as part of pronominal adverbs and of separable verbs: meelopen met.voorkwam ..kwam voor .. (lit.) we have to prevent its disappearance.marker of the past participle whereas the inseparable ones do not. wij moeten er het verdwijnen van zien te voorkomen..voorgekomen . (to partake in an official dinner party) aan alles => overal aan (at everything) (pronominal replacement) Thus...) The comedian Toon Hermans exploited this oddity once to great effect in one of his One Man Shows. i. to not being able to keep your hands off something.

g.I switch the light off. Woordenschat uitdoen .Dutch/Lesson 10 63 Subclauses In a dependent subclause. electricity bill neat. ik zeg "dat" ik het licht uitdoe. switch off clean up deliver produce finish finialize fixing job current. before you know it quickly . well groomed worried in a moment again thus. e.opgeruimd opleveren afmaken karweitje stroom rekening keurig bezorgd straks weer zo even extinguish. Notice also the peculiar position of the verb in the subclause: it moves to the end of the phrase in its entirety. a clause that starts with dat ("that") the separated forms of a separable verb reunite ik doe het licht uit.deed uit .uitgedaan opruimen .ruimde op .I say "that" I switch off the light. . so. .

We'll examine a number of aspects. . Heb je een mooi huis? Apart from the fact that the final -t is lost for the jij-form of the verb. Some of them become quite fluent. Zonder twijfel gaat hij morgen naar huis. this is not unfamiliar. Undoubtedly he will go home tomorrow. particularly adverbs or adverbial expressions. Notice that the adverb of time (morgen) precedes the indication of place here. They do encounter a few problems. Tomorrow I'm going home.Dutch/Lesson 11 64 Dutch/Lesson 11 Les 11 ~ Lesson 11 << Les 10 | Les 11 | Les 12 >> Word order Many English speakers who set out to learn the Dutch language succeed in their effort to a considerable extent. that of the of verb and subject in questions: Jij hebt een mooi huis. how goes it? How are you? Another example of inversion occurs when the order is changed for the sake of emphasis by putting an item at the beginning of the sentence. For example. as inversion also occurs in some English phrases like: Hi. It is more a way to stuff a few more items in the same sentence. Sometimes this is not so much a question of emphasis. Een mooi huis heb je! That's a fine house you've got! Morgen ga ik naar huis. Inversion We have already seen a number of examples of inversion. Another major stumbling block is the fact that Dutch has retained West-Germanic word order and English has abandoned it in favor of one that resembled that of the French-speaking nobility that ruled the land after 1066. One is that Dutch speakers consider it polite to reply in English when detecting an English accent and it takes some insisting to break through that barrier. because naar huis gaan is felt as a verbal expression and verbs tend to end up at the end of the sentence.

. Conjunctions that produce a subordinate clause are known as onderschikkend. Whether gaan or kijken goes first varies a little from region to region. Je hebt gelijk omdat ik met de auto gegaan ben. The same principle applies after a conjunction like omdat (because). the ones that link two phrases in equality are called nevenschikkend. the conjugated part of the verb (that carries the -t ending) that moves to to the end of the clause to indicate that it has become the direct object of the main clause ik zie.. Onderschikkend and nevenschikkend Not all conjunctions produce a hierarchical relationship. co-ordinating conjunctions. the German wiktionary).. word order is used to mark what role a clause plays with respect to the rest of the sentence.) and that in compounds with more that one infinitive as gaan kijken (go have a look) they both end up at the end. Compare: Je hebt ongelijk want ik ben gisteren wel degelijk met de trein naar huis gegaan Je hebt ongelijk omdat ik gisteren wel degelijk met de trein naar huis gegaan ben In the case of want (for) the two clauses are on equal footing. particularly in the position of the the verb. Conjunctions (voegwoorden) like want (for) of (or) and en (and) maar (but) simply link two equivalent phrases.Dutch/Lesson 11 65 Verbs in final position Another feature we have already encountered is that in tenses that use an auxiliary the participle or infinitive is put at the end of the sentence: Ik heb gezien Gisteren heb ik vanaf de dijk een aantal kluten gezien Morgen zal ik nog eens op de dijk gaan kijken.. they are known as subordinating conjunctions.) .. This is also true if the persoonsvorm is an auxilliary: jij bent gisteren met de trein naar huis gegaan ik betwijfel dat je gisteren met de trein naar huis gegaan bent Again there is some variation possible: ik betwijfel dat je gisteren met de trein naar huis bent gegaan.. Notice that in this case the inversion is applied on the auxilliary (heb ik. in English. zal ik. jij hebt een mooi huis ik zie dat je een mooi huis hebt In this case it is the persoonsvorm. in the case of omdat (because) the first part je hebt gelijk (you are right) is the master program and the rest a subroutine initiated with omdat (because).e. (Sometimes the onderschikkend kind is called subjunctions rather than conjunctions (see e. in English. The indirect clause has a different order. but in English where the distinction is of no consequence for the syntax this is unusual. one can also hear—particularly in the south: Morgen zal ik nog eens op de dijk kijken gaan.. i. Indirect clauses and conjunctions In Dutch..g.

(en) Jan is met de trein gekomen. • Grammar: Transitives and the passive voice • Grammar: The use of the auxiliary zijn • Grammar: Ergatives and unergatives << Les 11 | Les 12 | Les 13 >> Gesprek 12 De telefoon Mirjam: Jan.whether) wanneer Nevenschikkend want en maar of (or) dus Most other voegwoorden are onderschikkend Because the relative role of the clauses is more clearly marked by their word order. er wordt gebeld! Jan: Ja. Je wordt bedankt. (maar) Jan is met de trein gekomen. het zal ma zijn. ik hoor het. Het is wel op deze manier gebeurd. a speaker of Dutch needs to fight the tendency to produce convoluted sentences. Conversely Dutch may look somewhat long-winded to an English speaker. . Anders wordt ze weer kwaad. Hij blijft hier een paar dagen. (of) Jan is met de trein gekomen. Jan: Ach ja. Hij is met de auto gekomen. Wanneer zal ze eens door je vader tot de orde geroepen worden? Ik word naar van haar gezeur. Neem even op. In English compound sentences become confusing and ambivalent more easily. Hij blijft hier een paar dagen. Jan: Ja ik zal wel een grote teleurstelling geweest zijn. Maar ze is al vaak door mensen teleurgesteld.Dutch/Lesson 11 66 Onderschikkend omdat hoewel zodat of (if. Mirjam: Ze bedoelt het goed. it is possible to make longer sentences in Dutch without generating ambiguity. het is uit. je moeder. (zodat) Dutch/Lesson 12 Les 12 ~ Lesson 12 De telefoon • Grammar: The use of the verb worden. When writing English. Exercise: Use the conjunction in brackets to unify into one sentence: Het is niet mogelijk. Is het antwoordapparaat ingeschakeld? Mirjan: Nee. Het is wel op deze manier gebeurd. Jan. (hoewel) Het is heel erg. (omdat) Het is niet mogelijk. Dit is niet op deze manier gebeurd.

It is this 'transition' that makes the verb to cook a transitive one. Jan: U spreekt met Jan Snijders.. mam . Compare: Ik word piloot I (will) become a pilot Hij werd zo rood als een kroot! He became as red as a beet (He blushed for shame).... Jan: Ja.... Je schilderij wordt erg mooi! Your painting is turning out very well! Niet kwaad worden! Don't get mad! . mam. . ik hoor je wel. The passive voice is formed by means of its own auxiliary worden in Dutch.Dutch/Lesson 12 Jan neemt de telefoon op. The object dinner of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive one. maar wat is er nou gebeurd? Is het. . Passive: Dinner is prepared by the cook. . . Jan: Maar wie is er ..... Jan: Oh. In English for example: Active: The cook prepares dinner. It is a regular strong verb: worden – werd – geworden Use as a copula The verb can also be used as a verb (copula) in its own right rather than as an auxiliary and then it translates into to become or to get.. Worden and the Passive Voice In most languages transitive verbs can be put in the passive voice. .. Jan: Ja... de kat! Is de kat weggelopen? 67 Grammatica 12-1.

waren etc. but into I have been!. They also generally take "to have" in English. active perfect auxiliary for ergative verbs. In Dutch that means that it takes the verb zijn in the perfect and not to have as in English. bent. As in English the subject (he) and the object (me) swap places.e. Thus. 2. is. . passive perfect auxiliary for transitive verbs. (copula) Ik ben naar huis gelopen (ergative perfect of directed motion) Dit ongeluk is gisteren gebeurd (ergative perfect of a process) Ik ben door hem geslagen (passive perfect) The latter sentense is a transpostion of: Hij heeft mij geslagen (active perfect) Notice that the agent of the action ("hij") reappears as a prepositional object with door: "door hem" in the passive. 3. 3. those of motion or those describing a process instead of an action. Compare: Ik ben piloot. (More about those below). copula (the verbal equal sign =) 2.Dutch/Lesson 12 68 The perfect of worden As worden describes a process rather than an action. i. Hij is piloot geworden He has become a pilot. Notice that this imparts to the verb zijn and its forms (ben. The old subject becomes an expression with door (English: by) The perfect tense of the passive The perfect tense of the passive can cause some confusion because of the ergative conjugation with zijn and the fact that the participle geworden is usually omitted: Ik ben door hem geslagen (geworden) Ik ben door hem geslagen I have been beaten by him. in such cases ik ben does not translate into I am. The ergative perfects do not have such an agent. it is itself an ergative verb. As in the case of the perfect tenses the past participle moves to the very end of the sentence. was. Use as an auxiliary As an auxiliary + past participle it expresses the passive voice: Hij verslaat me ==>Ik word door hem verslagen He beats me ==> I am beaten by him Notice the change in word order: 1.) three rather different roles: 1.

A house has been given to him by me Een huis is door mij aan hem geschonken. Er wordt veel van je verwacht. one expects that you participate – they expect you to participate men lacht erom / ze lachen erom they laugh at it Indirect objects and ditransitive verbs The transition to the passive construction normally involves the direct object. The active version of such expressions requires the use of the indefinite personal pronoun men that translates into one or an impersonal they men verwacht dat je meedoet lit. pseudopassive perfect He has been given a house by me The pseudopassive construction with krijgen is relatively rare in Dutch.Dutch/Lesson 12 69 Usage Particularly in the imperfect tenses. Er wordt vaak om gelachen (no subject) It is often laughed at. In Dutch that is not the case: a different auxiliary is used krijgen instead of worden. In English the same auxiliary "be" or "have been" is used to construct the new sentence. (veel is subject) Much is expected from you. . It often occurs without a clear subject in conjunction with the adverb er (8) to describe circumstance. Compare the following sentence where "him" is the indirect and "house" the direct object: construction active passive pseudopassive construction active perfect passive perfect English I give/donate a house to him A house is given to him by me He is given a house by me English I have given him a house Dutch Ik schenk hem een huis. probably more so than in English because the auxiliary worden makes it easily recognizable. the passive voice is quite common in Dutch. Hij heeft van mij een huis geschonken gekregen. Notice that the agent usually gets van rather than door in the pseudopassive. Hij krijgt van mij een huis geschonken. Er is veel om die grap gelachen That joke has been much laughed at. Dutch Ik heb hem een huis geschonken. However for some verbs it is also possible to make the indirect object the new subject. Er wordt van je verwacht dat je meedoet (dat je meedoet is subject) It is expected of you that you partake. Een huis wordt door mij aan hem geschonken. Such verbs are usually called ditransitive. Such a construction is usually called a pseudopassive construction.

They take zijn as their active(!) auxiliary in the perfect and they have no passive voice at all. komen. The cop sees a burglar ==> The burglar is seen by the cop. In Dutch however such constructions are very common. there is not really much of an English equivalent for this. Hij rookt -> Er wordt door hem gerookt. and a real direct translation does not really exist. In this case een inbreker is the subject. because the impersonal passive expresses the idea that the identity of the burglar is either not known or not of interest. as English does. such impersonal passives are a very common way to indicate that it is not clear who the actor is or that the focus is not on the actor. . worden and a few others. Unfortunately.He has smoked for many years. Some burglar was seen by the cop. In Dutch these verbs can form passive voice constructions much like in English: De politieman ziet een inbreker ==> De inbreker wordt door de politieman gezien. Neither sentence possesses a subject in Dutch. Impersonal passives are not limited to unergative intransitive verbs. Something like "smoking is done by him" is a clumsy rendering of the meaning of the impersonal passive sentence. English would often use a word like some. A sentence like: Er werd door de politiagent de inbreker gezien*. These verbs do take hebben in the active perfect. Dit is gisteren gebeurd . Impersonal passive voice In contrast to English intransitive verbs. Verbs that do not have an direct object are often called intransitive in English. smelten. Take smoking: Hij rookt. Transitive verbs also form them: Er werd door de politiagent een inbreker gezien. gebeuren. the most common usage is to leave the actor out altogether: Er wordt hier gerookt -. but it is an impersonal passive usually initiated with er. Notice that this sentence has the indefinite article een rather than definite de in the sentence above. In Dutch. Dutch unergatives such as "roken" do form a passive of sorts.He smokes.This (has) happened yesterday A different group is called unergative. is not possible. Ik ben gisteren gekomen .People smoke here.Dutch/Lesson 12 70 Ergatives (+zijn) and unergatives (+hebben) A verb that carries a direct object is called a transitive verb. Hij heeft vele jaren gerookt .Someone is calling.I have come yesterday. These sentences -indicating that someone is a smoker. There are the ergative verbs like not have a direct object. English typically resorts to an active sentence using someone or uses an entirely different construction like: I hear the bell. Actually. but there are really two kinds in Dutch. Er wordt gebeld! -. .

ergative perfect: Het vet is gestold . where English takes to have: ik ben gekomen . Sometimes however "process" verbs occur both in an ergative and in an active transitive form.I have come. 1. melting. The problem only arises when putting the verb in the perfect. their language has a very similar situation. Ergativity itself is not the problem: English has that too. Smelten .I melt the ice ergative: Het ijs smelt . solidifying. driving.I have melted the ice ergative: Het ijs is gesmolten . The subject of the latter (ijs/ice) is the object of the melt active: Ik smelt het ijs . not "to have" as English does. 2. het is gebeurd . This presents a problem for native English speakers.The ice melts Notice that in this case English has the same active .The grease has solidified. Verbs describing processes Such verbs often only occur as ergatives: Stollen .to solidify ergative present: Het vet stolt. because Dutch opts for a different auxiliary: active: Ik heb het ijs gesmolten . sinking. without a clear party who is to blame for it like happening. Because this verb involves a process. floating has happened.Dutch/Lesson 12 71 When is a verb ergative? As we saw above ergatives take zijn (to be) in their (active) perfect tense. The other is verbs that express a process or event that happens autonomously (not: a deliberate action). The difference is the presence of an agent ("door mij"). not an action.The grease solidifies. flowing.) How do you know what to use? There are two main groups of verbs that are ergative. (Germans have no problem. Dutch uses "to be" to form the perfect. Obviously the examples floating and sinking show that the two groups overlap.The ice has melted Notice that the active can also be switched into a passive using "worden" passive: Het ijs wordt door mij gesmolten passive perfect: Het ijs is door mij gesmolten geworden As "geworden" is typically omitted in Dutch (in contrast to German "worden") the perfects of the ergative and the passive are very similar.ergative switch. going. . One is the verbs that express motion like coming.

usually with "er": impersonal passive: Er wordt hier veel gelopen. Lopen . walk ergative: Ik ben naar huis gelopen. conman doubt satisfaction war negligence setback. The ergative version does not possess a passive.I have walked a lot today In general one can say that if the sentence focuses on a directed process of movement (e.I walked home unergative: Ik heb vandaag veel gelopen . custom take into use thief burglary fraud. uses zijn). in which case a personal passive can at times be formed: Rijden . -te raken.I have done a lot of driving today transitive active: Ik heb hem naar huis gereden .I drove home unergative: Ik heb vandaag veel gereden . If the focus is on the action (exercising in the park or so) the verb takes hebben.g. because can be used both as ergatives and as unergatives. but the unergative version can have an impersonal drive ergative: Ik ben naar huis gereden .He was taken home by me (in my car) Exercise 12-1: For solution see: .Dutch/Lesson 12 72 Verbs of motion Verbs of motion are often more complicated.e.. zette terug government law pilot misery usage. disappointment the hole century closed by means of to expect to touch put back . ./Lesson 12/Key Woordenschat de regering de wet de piloot de ellende het gebruik in gebruik nemen de dief de inbraak de oplichter de twijfel de voldoening de oorlog de nalatigheid de tegenslag het gat de eeuw gesloten met behulp van verwachten. raakte terugzetten. "home") the verb of motion is ergative (i.I took him home in my car transitive passive: Hij is door mij naar huis gereden . Besides the ergative and unergative there can also be a transitive variant.

De uitgebreide verzameling Oude Meesters uit de Gouden Eeuw is wereldberoemd. dat is waar. het is een waar wonder te zien hoe die mensen die al lang dood zijn toch weer tot leven komen.won .verweet . Een jongeman spreekt haar aan in een van de achterste zalen van het museum. An adjective generally occurs in two forms.verweten vliegen .this house is gorgeous attributive: dit prachtige huis .vergeten to keep an eye on recently to adopt to comprehend to win to suffer to blame to fly to forget 73 Dutch/Lesson 13 Les 13 ~ Lesson 13 << Les 12 | Les 13 | Les 14 >> Gesprek 13 Nathalie is een Franse toeriste die korte tijd op bezoek is in de Nederlandse hoofdstad Amsterdam. Goedemiddag. the declined form if the adjective is used as an attribute: predicative: dit huis is prachtig . ending in -e. Ja. Which one is used depends on a number of factors. Is het niet fantastisch hoe enorm Rembrandt je blik weet vast te houden? Ja. Predicative versus attributive In general the undeclined form is used for a predicate.doorzag .vergat . heeft U dat prachtige doek van Rembrandt gezien? Goedemiddag.nam aan . geloof ik? More about adjectives Dutch adjectives are only a little more complicated than their English counterparts. an undeclined one and a declined one.aangenomen doorzien .leed . Zij heeft veel goeds gehoord over de plaatselijke musea en besluit het bekende Rijksmuseum te gaan bekijken.Dutch/Lesson 12 in de gaten houden onlangs aannemen .gewonnen lijden .geleden verwijten .gevlogen vergeten . Het is prachtig. welk doek bedoel je? Het linkse of het rechtse? Ik bedoel dat linkse daar. lichte deel in het midden.vloog . waarvan de donkere delen zo sterk afsteken tegen dat gouden. Je blijft kijken en hoe langer je kijkt des te meer het beeld gaat leven.this beautiful house . Je houdt erg van deze bijzondere stijl.doorzien winnen .

higher .helderder .hoogst high . Adverbial use Dutch adjectives can be used as adverbs without further ado.meest fantastisch Comparatives and superlative receive the ending -e as all adjectives: de mooiste bloemen . fantastisch . e. Compare: attributive een langzame afdaling .Dutch/Lesson 13 74 Gender and indefiniteness There is an important exception to the above main rule.fantastischer . The same holds for possessive pronouns. it remains undeclined: het mooie huis (definite) een mooi huis (indefinite) mooi werk ! (indefinite uncountable) The 'indefinite' case includes words like geen.g.that's mine. in contrast to English this pattern is used for almost all Dutch adjectives.hoger .a slow descent predicative de afdaling is langzaam . welk?.most interesting After "-r" often a dental is inserted: helder . Dutch follows the same pattern.the descent is slow adverbial hij daalde langzaam af . Comparatives and superlatives In English a few adjectives form comparatives and superlatives by adding "-er" and "-(e)st". interessant .he descended slowly Substantives The adjective can be made independent as a substantive. If an adjective is used attributively before a singular neuter word in the indefinite case.interessanter .highest However.: dat is de mijne .: dit is geen mooi huis. in which case it does carry an -e in the predicate: dat is een mooie .more interesting .helderst For a few words ending in "-s" or "-isch" Dutch resorts to paraphrase as English does far more often. ieder etc. even for long ones and when formidable consonant clusters form.interessantst interesting . hoog .that is a nice one (Notice that Dutch does not add 'one' in this case). this contrasts with English where the ending "-ly" is usually required.

the preposition van is used: de muts is van wol. Past participles are occasionally found in such a construction.less/ fewer . particularly if other attributes are already prefixed: Het uitgestrekte gebied verloren bij het verdrag van XXX werd heroverd.woolen They are indeclinable and are only used attributively: de wollen muts To express the predicate.minder . a 'caughtee') In contrast to English the present participle is seldom used to initiate a clause: The train departing from platform 6 is delayed De van perron 6 vertrekkende trein is vertraagd De trein die van perron 6 vertrekt is vertraagd. Materials As in English adjectives that indicate a material end in "-en": wollen .minst little/few .Dutch/Lesson 13 de meest fantastische webstek As in English a few adjectives have irregular forms: goed . it remains undeclined: gebakken aardappels Only as a substantive does it receive "-e": dit is een gevangene . The vast territory lost at the treaty of XXX was regained by conquest.most 75 Participles As in English a participle behaves as an adjective and in most cases it receives the suffix "-e" as described above: gekookte aardappels kokende olie An exception is the past participle of a strong verb that ends in "-en".better .this is a prisoner (lit.more .beter .meer .meest much/many .best weinig .least/ fewest veel . Vertrekkende would not be used after trein. .best good .

sg.) -.good evening! van ganser harte (dat. Although Dutch also has an ending -ing it does not correspond to the English one in most situations: 1.) a convenient time The latter contrasts with ten tijde van where tijd in shown as a masculine dative. fem.) -.a lot of love iets wikibooksachtigs . Partitive -s One form of case ending is still productive. he is singing hij is aan het zingen 2. wat. veel an adjective gets a genitive (partitive) "-s": iets moois .in cold blood goedenavond! (acc masc.. in frozen expressions: te goeder trouw (dat.) -. De behoefte aan hulp van allerlei aard is enorm maar het uitvallen van vrijwel alle verbindingen is een grote hindernis voor een toereikende hulpverlening. sg.. The -ing problem In English the -ing form is used extensively for a number of rather different functions. he walked out of the room singing hij liep zingend de kamer uit 3. vooral de sterfte onder good faith in koelen bloede (dat neut.with all my heart te gelegener tijd (dat fem. After words that indicate a quantity such as iets.. singing is her profession zang is haar beroep In the above examples singing is used as: 1.something like wikibooks Dutch/Lesson 14 Les 14 ~ Lesson 14 Naamwoorden van handeling ~ Verbal nouns << Les 13 | Les 14 | Les 15 >> Verbal nouns Na de zware aardbeving in de Indische Oceaan en de erdoor veroorzaakte vloedgolf op de kust van Atjeh is zoals gevreesd het dodental nog steeds stijgend.something beautiful veel liefs . part of the present continuous tense . niets.Dutch/Lesson 13 76 Other endings Dutch lost its case endings more recently than English did and it is not uncommon to encounter endings like "-er". De verwoesting en het verlies aan mensenlevens is uitzonderlijk groot. Clearly the case system was getting pretty corrupt before most of it got abolished in official spelling (1947). despite hart being neuter) -. fem. sg. sg. "-en" etc. sg.

was jij schrijvende? roughly: Wow. as a participle 3. In Dutch different nouns are used in these three cases none of which ends in -ing Properly rendering -ing forms in Dutch may therefore present a bit of a problem for an English speaker. lopen de voetballer liep op de scheidsrechter te schelden. liggen etc are used more or less interchangeably as auxiliaries of the continuous aspect.staan. ik zat te denken I was just thinking (on my chair) The "on my chair" or "on my feet" distinction is often of negligible importance and the verbs zitten.Dutch/Lesson 14 2. 77 Continuous tenses In the strict sense Dutch does not have continuous times and in many cases where English uses them Dutch will use a simple present or past. Present participles The present participle in Dutch is formed by adding -d(e) (not: -ing) to the infinitive: lopen – lopend(e) staan – staand As in English it can be used as adjective: flying saucer vliegende schotel But it is rarely used as a (static) predicate: kinine is koortswerend quinine has the property of abating fever Using it in a continuous tense construction as in English sounds odd and rather ironic. the soccer player walked around fuming at the umpire.liggen. did I catch you in writing mode? Present participles are seldom used to initiate a clause as is common in English: The second car moving at greater speed could not stop De tweede auto die sneller reed kon niet stoppen . ach. he was walking to school when he saw the UFO hij liep naar school toen hij de vliegende schotel zag hij was onderweg naar school toen hij de vliegende schotel zag To emphasize continuity Dutch can use the infinitive as a neutral noun preceded by the preposition aan: hij was aan het wandelen he was going for a walk zij waren aan het verhuizen they were busy moving Another common construction is to use an auxiliary verb like zitten. as a verbal noun (gerund).

be-. It is also a productive suffix. The -ing verbal noun is feminine and occurs frequently with "ter" (te + the old feminine dative der).Deliberately. This process is still productive: ter wikifiëring -. particularly for verbs with prefixes like ver-. Suffix -ing Many Dutch verbs do form a (feminine) verbal noun in -ing. but the same holds in English: singing is healthy – zingen is gezond the singing finally ended – het zingen hield eindelijk op There is typically no plural. although most of them are no longer productive. this means that even north of the Great Rivers feminine gender is not quite dead yet.: Tot ziens! .See you! Willens en wetens . Not all Dutch verbs have an -ing form as there is a number of older ways to form verbal nouns. 78 Gerunds The term gerund is seldom used in Dutch grammar. e.etc. which means that newly formed verbs tend to form their verbal noun this way. Hij besprak maatregelen ter verbetering daarvan . . In times past the word did get inflected -as Latin gerunds do-. the -ing form is certainly not as ubiquitous as in English where only a few verbs like can or must do not possess one. af. First of all. The -s ending is an old genitive. It has a plural in -en: zegening – zegeningen blessing – blessings However.He discussed methods that could be used to improve that. sneller rijdende auto kon niet stoppen Either the participle rijdend is used as a preceding adjective or it is avoided by paraphrase. despite the presence of a rich variety of verbal nouns. in many cases Dutch uses the infinitive as a neutral noun where English uses a gerund in -ing and one could argue that this is the Dutch gerund: addition and subtraction are the basis of arithmetic optellen en aftrekken vormen de grondslag van het rekenen There are subtle differences associated with the use or omission of the neutral article het..Dutch/Lesson 14 De tweede.g. which translates roughly into "in order to".to be wikified Interestingly. but it usually corresponds more to an English noun with (latinate) ending -ion than to a gerund with -ing: deze aftrekking is niet juist this subtraction is incorrect Note that de aftrekking denotes a particular case of subtraction.. where het aftrekken denotes the general process of subtracting The formation of a verbal noun is -ing is quite common. One could argue that Dutch does not have one in the English sense of the word.

Dutch/Lesson 14 79 Verbal stems Many strong verbs have a verbal noun based on the stem of the verb with ablaut (vowel change) and lack an -ing form: helpen – de hulp na drie dagen kwam er eindelijk hulp after three days help finally arrived wreken – de wraak: wraak is zoet revenge is sweet zingen – de zang hij studeert zang he is studying voice Notice that in these cases forms in -ing like *helping. Sometimes the vowel does not change: lopen – de loop in de loop van het proces in the course of the process These nouns are typically common gender and often lack a plural. there is more than one verbal noun: graven – graf – gracht (<graft 1600's) to dig – grave – canal Plurals: graf – graven gracht – grachten After nasals -st is more common: dienen – de dienst – plural: de diensten to serve – service komen – de komst – no plural come – advent. but this does not always hold. *zinging do not exist in Dutch. a process not entirely unfamiliar in English: vliegen – de vlucht – plural: de vluchten to fly – the flight telen – teelt (no plural) cultivate – cultivation At times. arrival vangen – de vangst catch – catch de vangst van kabeljauw bij de Canadese kust is gestaakt . For example a weak verb like werken has het werk and a plural de werken Other endings Some verbs add -t or -st to the stem.

-enis or -tenis kennen – kennis to know – knowledge / acquaintance gebeuren – gebeurtenis to happen – event bekennen – bekentenis to confess – confession hinderen – to obstruct. good(ness).Dutch/Lesson 14 cod fishing has been suspended off the coast of Canada A few verbs have -te: behoeven – de behoefte need – need baren – geboorte give birth – birth Plurals have -s: behoeftes. In Dutch this is rare: sad – sadness droef – droefenis Usually Dutch has -heid in such cases: droefheid Dutch also has latinate endings—as English does—that sometimes compete with the germanic ones: The latin -tio(n) ending is -tie in Dutch and usually pronounced as [tsi] or [si] ('see') communiceren – communicatie communicate – communication but: achiveren – archivering to archive – archiving 80 . geboortes. bekentenissen In English this ending is more common after adjectives like bald(ness). to bother hindernis – obstacle Plurals get -sen: kennissen (acquaintances). sometimes also -n: denken – gedachten. gedachtes think – thought(s) Other verbs have -nis.

) zwam – fungus Subjects and objects As in English the -er suffix denotes the subject of the verb: geven – gever to give – giver As in English the plural is in -s: gevers.Dutch/Lesson 14 81 Prefix geAnother way to form a verbal noun is to add ge. geëtter. -eres: (plural -eressen) zingen – zanger – zangeres . There are other feminine endings. regardless the gender of the chairperson. at least for verbs that do not carry prefixes. he fell on stage: laughter and boos in the audience.tend to have a dysphemic connotation and some are better avoided by a non-native speaker: gezeur. e... missing spreken – het gesprek – de gesprekken to speak – the conversation voelen – het gevoel – de gevoelens to feel – the feeling This type is still productive. vallen – het geval – de gevallen to fall – the case missen – het gemis .g. Newly formed nouns carry the connotation of annoying repetition and they usually have no plural: dat onophoudelijk geblaf moet afgelopen zijn! enough of that incessant barking! hij viel op het toneel: gelach en boegeroep in het publiek. gezeik. It forms a neuter noun from verbs without prefixes. although under feminist influence it is under considerable pressure especially for functions in society: voorzitten – voorzitter – voorzitster to chair a meeting – chairman – chairwoman Voorzitter is increasingly used.(no plural) to miss – the lack. wat een gedoe! what a hassle! Notice the difference with the past participle: gelach – gelachen a stem.laughter – laughed Verbal nouns with ge. There usually is a feminine version in -ster as well. gezwam (all ~ bull s#$t) zeuren – to nag etter – puss zeik – urine (four letters...

sterfelijkheid to die – mortal .g. e. bergen .geborgen – geborgenheid to secure – secured.mortality Exercise In the above text identify all verbal nouns and adjectives and the verbs they derive from. The number and type of available verbal nouns differs from verb to verb.schepsel to create – creation . cognate with -ly.creator – creature Note that in this case English has completely shifted to latin roots and endings where Dutch has remained faithful to its germanic roots altogether. at least in religious context. English -hood) can be added to turn the adjective into a (feminine) noun: danken – dankbaar – dankbaarheid to thank – grateful – gratitude The -heid suffix (plural -heden) can also be used behind participles. 82 Verbal adjectives Apart from the two participles the verb can form various adjectives as it can in English. (The 'ij' is usually pronounced as a schwa.Dutch/Lesson 14 to sing – singer (m) – singer (f) There is also an infrequent -sel suffix indicating an object. Dutch/Lesson 14/answer .: scheppen – schepping . Otherwise creation is often creatie. safe – feeling at ease opletten – oplettend – oplettendheid to wacht out – attentive – attention There is also a suffix -elijk . One suffix that corresponds to the English latinate ending -able is -baar: verstaan – verstaanbaar understand – understandable Another suffix -heid (cf.) bewerken – bewerkelijk to process -requiring much work sterven – sterfelijk .schepper .

wij hebben hier zojuist wat gegeten en mijn vriendin hier is haar portemonnee kwijt.. Wat moet ik anders. Ober: Wat is uw naam precies. They do not have so much a clear 'meaning'.. . De ober verdwijnt naar achteren. Ik heb hem namelijk afgelost.Dus. . Marjan? Marjan: Nou. maar die is net vertrokken. but add a certain flavor to the phrase they are in. . Dan weet ik wel wie u bedoelt . Er zit weinig anders op dan om het winkelen voorlopig maar te vergeten en op zoek te gaan naar Jessicas geld en haar pinpas. Dan heb ik hier inderdaad uw portemonnee.. Ik heet Jessica van den Heuvel. heeft u het gevonden? Ober: Ja we hebben wat gevonden. Ze hadden zojuist een broodje gegeten in een restaurantje.. Ober: Dan weet ik wel wie u bedoelt. Grammatica 15 Modal particles Recall: . mevrouwtje? Jessica: Hoezo.. De ober keert terug met een grijns op zijn gezicht..Ik weet de naam niet. de vriendinnen nerveus achterlatend.. Heeft u die hier soms gevonden? Ober: Het spijt me dames. Ik zal wel even vragen of hij iets afgegeven heeft. . daar heeft u wel gelijk in.. Dat is Pim. Jessica: Ik hoop nu maar dat het gevonden is. . maar ik weet wel dat het een jongeman was met hoogblond kort haar.. Ik zal wel even vragen of . Weet u nog wie u bediend heeft? Jessica: Ik weet de naam niet. maak je nu maar geen zorgen. he? Dus hoe heet u? Jessica: O ja natuurlijk. maar ik ben nog maar net begonnen met mijn werk .. Er zit weinig anders op om het winkelen voorlopig maar te vergeten . Een ogenblik alstublieft. They are often hard to translate exactly. Dutch has a variety of adverbs that function as modal particles. Marjan: Ober. maar ik ben nog maar net begonnen met mijn werk. wel . vrees ik.. Zij haasten zich terug naar de mogelijke plek des onheils. maar ik weet wel . Het komt allemaal best wel goed. zegt u mij uw naam eens?..Dutch/Lesson 15 83 Dutch/Lesson 15 Les 15 ~ Lesson 15 << Les 14 | Les 15 | Les 16 >> Gesprek 15 Marjan en Jessica zijn gezellig aan het winkelen maar Jessica merkt tot haar grote schrik dat ze haar portemonee verloren heeft. maar ik weet natuurlijk niet of dat wel van u is. dan heeft u geluk gehad. nou. Ober: Mooi zo. Het ligt dus voor de hand dat ze het daar heeft laten liggen.

(I volunteer) Another use is to indicate that something is exceptional: er waren wel dertig tornado's! there were thirty tornadoes (no less!) even even indicates that the action will not cost much time or effort.... maar ik weet wel . but it is often added to add a flavor of an exceptional occasion.. but I do know.. Ik zal wel even vragen of . I do not know the name. ? zal ik eens koffie zetten? .. One meaning it has is to negate the words niet (not) and geen (not a.? ... It is often added to a sentence to indicate that he speaker is making an admission or is volunteering something: Ik zal wel vragen.) the shopping spree temporarily 84 . Let me go ask. It is often used to introduce but: ik heb wel gezegd dat ... because I did not know what else to say . let me go ask. heb je wel eens.... lit : there is little else on (the list of options) than to forget (sigh.. no problem..(for a change) would you like me to make coffee? maar The word maar can be used as a (nevenschikkend) conjunction and is usually translated by but. maar.. just as English well and good. Adding it to a sentence adds an implicit no problem to the utterance: ..Dutch/Lesson 15 The adverb wel is strictly speaking the adverbial form of the adjective goed. I did say that .Ik weet de naam niet.. Nevertheless it is used rather differently in Dutch.. it is! .did you ever... just: ik heb maar zeven euro op zak I only have seven euro on me Geeft u mij maar een biertje Just give me a beer However it can also be a modal adverb that indicates a certain measure of resignation or lack of choice of the speaker: ik heb maar gezegd dat . no): dit is niet uw portemonnee this is not your wallet Wel! Dit is wel mijn portemonnee yes. It is also an abverb with the meaning of only. I said that ..... but.. Er zit weinig anders op dan om het winkelen voorlopig maar te vergeten . will take just a moment eens literally eens means once.

Dutch however a bit later than English. The dative only occurred when indirect objects were used without a preposition. Nevertheless. Both languages have lost this system. Indo-European languages. it was: ik vereer de deugd (f) ik haat den leugen (m) Most people above the Rhine had to use a dictionary to do the latter right. The leftovers are idiom more than grammar.Dutch/Lesson 15 Adding maar can also 'soften' the sentence and indicate that the speaker is trying to be polite or friendly. All prepositions had come to use the accusative which was now identical to the nominative for anything but personal pronouns. but prior to the second world war the educational and political establishment tenaciously tried to preserve the case system. To understand the remnants it is useful to have a peek at the definite article as it was before 1947: case masculine feminine de der de(r) de neuter het des den het plural de der den de nominative de genitive dative accusative des de(n) den The above implies that prior to 1947 one had to write: ik zien den man ik zie de vrouw Worse than that. The genitive was still a bit . In the spoken language the case endings and the masculine-feminine distinction had been gone for much longer. geef hier! .or else!) geef maar hier! . there is a fair bit of remnants left in the modern language even though case endings have definitely ceased to be part of a system. e.he was going to show off how strong he was (but . They are often seen as oldfashioned.(you're busted) combinations In Dutch modal particle can be heaped up into interesting combinations of flavors. even tried to introduce forms that never existed in the language artificially.g. This change obliterated both the accusative-nominative distinction and the masculine-feminine one.. because the m-f contrast was no longer alive in their spoken mother tongue and neither were the -n and -r endings.why don't you give it to me (Don't worry: I'll take care of it) With a more ironic intonation it could also mean: just give it up . The discrepancy between written standard and spoken language led to serious educational problems with equally serious social consequences.give it (. In 1947 a small (but sweeping) change was allowed in the spelling: the n in the masculine accusative was made optional.. Since then case endings are a bit of an unpopular subject.: hij zou wel eens even laten zien hoe sterk hij was . After the destruction by the second world war spelling modernization was imperative and a lot of old baggage was thrown overboard..) 85 Grammatica 15-2 The old cases Recall : de plek des onheils – an old genitive. even harmful to 'progress'. three genders and usually four or five declensions. In fact in the written standard language Dutch retained four cases and three genders up to the spelling reform of 1947. With a sigh of relief everybody promptly stopped using the infamous buigings-n and it has has not been used since.. to which both English and Dutch belong were originally highly inflectional with eight cases.

iets.each went in his own direction Notice the vowel change in dag – daags and weg . 86 Genitives As in English.twice a day barrevoets . de morning 's middags – in the afternoon 's avonds – in the evening 's nachts – in the night 's winters – during the winter tweemaal daags .weegs The form 's is a clitic form of des. Notice the -n of grotendeels. The adjective had had both strong and weak endings (as it still does in German) and the -n is weak ending.Dutch/Lesson 15 more common although it was always possible to use a construction with van to avoid it: de vloek der mensheid –> de vloek van de mensheid Thus the change of 1947 basically put an end to the case endings as a system. the masc/neuter genitive article. let alone use properly. genitives are regularly used to indicate possession with proper names: Jans auto John's car There is a growing tendency to extend this usage to female proper names (in defiance of the old case endings) in stead of a construction using the clitic form of the possessive pronoun. there are numerous relics that are difficult to understand. without some knowledge of the old 's ochtends – in the morning. veel etc. although the plural can occasionally still be seen: het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden de prins der dieven het periodiek systeem der elementen – the periodic system of the elements Occasionally people deliberately opt to use the odd archaic expression like plek des onheils as a stylistic gadget. . Annies auto .barefoot blootshoofds – with bare head grotendeels – for the most part een ieder ging zijns weegs . The adjective still has a productive partitive genitive in -s that occurs after words like wat.: iets lekkers – something yummy The genitive occurs in various fossilized forms -usually functioning as adverbs. at day break 's morgens .Annie d'r auto For inanimate nouns the genitive is clearly on its way out.

The feminine is probably a German influence (die Zeit is feminine).of (royal) blood van harte! . te also occurs without articles: te allen tijde – at all times te zijner tijd – in due course te gelegener tijd – at a convenient moment Notice that tijd is feminine in the latter two.firstly terdege . a good example of how corrupt the case/gender had become in the end.Dutch/Lesson 15 87 Datives One preposition had stubbornly retained the dative and it still occurs mostly in petrified dative forms. There are more oddities: het hart – ter harte (neuter -feminine) Te also has a few non-archaic usages. to. ten hoogste . the most ten dele – partly ten eerste . as English at or in : te A'dam – in Amsterdam A few other prepositions had taken the dative in a previous phase of the language and some forms remain: van den bloede .. masculine in the be wikified This also holds for words in -heid ter gelegenheid This is one reason why words ending in -ing. Or with locations.) te + der -> ter (fem sg. It is used in combination with infinitives as to does in English: Dat is goed om te weten – that is good to know Hij begon af te vallen – he began to lose weight It is also used to indicate excess. -tie. bury Interestingly the old feminine dative ter still enjoys a measure of productivity in combinations with verbal nouns in -ing: ter wikifiëring . as English too: Dit is te veel – This is too much. and plural) ten tijde van . -heid are recognized as feminine proper and Dutch does not have a common gender like a number of Scandinavian laguages. It is the word te – the days of. The noun originally received an -e in this case. The proposition often occurs fused with the old dative articles: te + den -> ten (masc and neut. sg.thoroughly ter gelegenheid – on the occasion of ter aarde bestellen – commit to earth.from all my heart met verve – with passion in den beginne – in the beginning (Genesis) in koelen bloede ..

Wat er ook gebeurd mocht zijn. als het maar even kon. 2. Daarvoor herinnerde hij zich te veel goede tijden met haar. De kamer waar ze lag was niet groot en had een echte ziekenhuislucht. transitive verbs . de oostenwind gierde over de vlakte en sneed door alle kleding.onpersoonlijke werkwoorden copulas . Dit was en bleef zijn moeder tenslotte. hij moest er niet aan denken dat zij zou kunnen sterven zonder haar nog een laatste keer te zien.wederkerende werkwoorden auxiliary verbs ..overgankelijke werkwoorden intransitive verbs . Ma? Jongen. maar hij vermande zich en trok zijn muts wat verder over zijn oren. Heeft de dokter nog wat gezegd? De dokter? Ja. ben je toch gekomen? Ja natuurlijk. Ze zorgen goed voor me hier. had hij gezegd dat hij. the werkwoorden.modale werkwoorden impersonal verbs .. The types that are important in Dutch are basically the same ones as in English: 1. but a greeting like: goedenavond has an extra -n. komen zou. 3. Ze zuchtte. 4. ik mag weer naar huis.. 6.Dutch/Lesson 15 Accusative relics are rare because the case resembled the nominative.hulpwerkwoorden modal verbs . 5. 88 Dutch/Lesson 16 Les 16 ~ Lesson 16 << Les 15 | Les 16 | Les 17 >> Les 16 Verhaal: Zijn zieke moeder Het sneeuwde hard. Was het niet veel te koud? Je bent helemaal nat.onovergankelijke werkwoorden reflexive verbs ..koppelwerkwoorden . Hij gaf zijn Harley wat meer gas. Jan rilde. Introduction to werkwoorden The second large family of words besides the naamwoorden is that of the verbs. geloof ik. 7. Toen het bericht hem bereikte dat er naar hem gevraagd was.because it was an accusative ending of the adjective goed. Hoe is het nou? Ach. Haar ogen sloten zich en gingen niet meer open. Mag je weer naar huis? Zo! Wanneer? Vrijdag. gaat wel. Plichtmatig groette hij zijn zus en die zwager waar hij nooit mee op had kunnen schieten. Ja het sneeuwt een beetje.

Er werd door hem naar mij gevraagd Notice that the object does not become subject. Often the locative adverb er is used to open the sentence. In English these can be transposed into a passive construction where the indirect object becomes the subject He gives me . Ik zie het paard → Het paard wordt door mij gezien Ditransitive verbs The verb can have other objects. There are some verbs where it can become the subject but in Dutch. Intransitive verbs – Onovergankelijke werkwoorden An intransitive verb does not have a direct object Hij gaat naar Amerika .An oven dish was served .you get well Such phrases cannot be transposed into a passive voice construction Sometimes the same verb can be used as a heal him Hij werd door jou genezen .Dutch/Lesson 16 Transitive verbs – Overgankelijke werkwoorden A transitive verb has a direct object which can be converted into an object in the passive voice. 89 . Door de kok werd aan de man een ovenschotel voorgeschoteld .The man got served .he goes to America Jij geneest . However. De man kreeg een ovenschotel voorgeschoteld .I examine the drawing In Dutch there are really two types of intransitives: ergatives and inergatives.I was sent for by him Notice that me is transposed into I in English. They are the only ones that can undergo this transition (overgang). that does have a passive: Jij genas hem ... Hij geeft mij . this is done not with worden but with krijgen (to get) as auxiliary: De kok schotelde de man een ovenschotel voor .he is healed by you.. like indirect ones or prepositional ones.The cook served the man an oven dish.Mij wordt door hem gegeven / Er wordt door hem aan mij gegeven Hij vroeg naar mij ..I look at the drawing Ik bekijk de tekening . Another way of making a verb transitive is to prefix be-: Ik kijk naar de tekening .I am given by him He sent for me . In such cases it is possible to construct an impersonal passive without a subject in Dutch.

Thus I wash myself can be expressed with four subtle degrees of emphasis: ik was me -.There is have healed.this reminds me of.You don't wash me ik was mijzelf pull oneself together (lit. but they can have a second direct object besides the reflexive pronoun: hij herinnerde zich dat. .. Vice versa the auxiliary raken can be used to create an ergative sentence from an adjective or participle: Hij raakte verwond. The causative auxiliaries doen en laten are used to transform ergatives into transitives: Ik doe het vet stollen.g.g.I'm washing not dressing e. Inergatives Inergatives take the auxiliary hebben in the perfect. That darned dog is the culprit! These verbs are not entirely intransitive.I remember dat herinnert me aan.. It is possible to add -zelf to a reflexive pronoun to make the reflexive relationship more emphatic. albeit with a different meaning: ik herinner me .He got wounded. The other reflexives are identical to the object forms of the personal pronouns. Zich is a relatively recent loan from German -Afrikaans does not have it e. Reflexive verbs – Wederkerende werkwoorden In a sense. reflexive verbs are intermediary between active and passive.the grease solidifies het vet is gestold. to make oneself a man) Reflexive verbs do not have a passive voice. but some verbs are only ergatives: het vet stolt . Verbs can occur both as reflexive and as an ordinary transitive verb. Their subjects equal their direct objects. Others occur only in reflexive form: zich gedragen .to behave hij wist zich niet te gedragen .. Ergatives typically express autonomous processes that happen and the typically do not have a clear agent.he did not know how to behave zich vermannen . . There is a clear agent: De hond blaft De hond heeft geblaft. ik was mij -.and only used for the third person and occasionally together with u.Dutch/Lesson 16 Ergatives Ergatives take the auxiliary zijn in the perfect: Jij geneest. Jij bent genezen. In Dutch they are accompanied by the reflexive pronoun zich in its various forms.I neither wash you nor do you touch me: buzz off! 90 . but form an impersonal passive with er: Er wordt geblaft .I don't wash you ik was mezelf -. Genezen kan also be transitive. .

.Hulpwerkwoorden Auxiliary verbs are used to form the various compound tenses and voices of the verb.I can come..this makes one suspect that. If the reflexiveness is mandatory forms with -zelf are not possible.I would be able to come In the latter case the word order is a bit more restricted in dependent clauses: ik wist dat ik komen kon ik zei dat ik kon komen are both is thawing het waait . although there are expressions like: hoop doet leven .it is snowing het dooit . Auxiliary verbs . 91 .the wind blows Impersonal verbs are not limited to the weather: het spijt me . rains het sneeuwt . you can also wash someone else. moeten and mogen ik kan komen . In Dutch they are: hebben: forms active perfect tenses zijn: forms active perfect tenses of some verbs and passive perfect tenses of transitive verbs worden: forms passive imperfect tenses zullen: forms the future tenses Occasionally gaan is used for immediate future constructions. Modal verbs – Modale werkwoorden Modal verbs are closely related to auxiliary verbs.I'm sorry Impersonals always take hebben: het heeft gewaaid het heeft me gespeten. They are verbs like kunnen. I am able to come ik zou kunnen komen .where there is hope there is life dit doet vermoeden dat. but: ik zei dat ik zou kunnen komen In this case it is unusual to put zou at the end Impersonal verbs – Onpersoonlijke werkwoorden Some verbs only occur in the third person singular with the neuter personal pronoun het. In contrast to English to do the verb doen is not used as an auxiliary.g. Weather phenomena are a good example: het regent . .lit. 'hope makes one to live' .Dutch/Lesson 16 The addition of -zelf is only possible if the verb is optionally reflexive..

ik zou gezien zijn is de voltooid verleden toekomende tijd van de lijdende vorm. 2.g. 4. 2. is the action now or in the past (tegenwoordig . the subject and what in Dutch is known as het naamwoordelijk deel van het gezegde. The most common copula is zijn (to be): Jan is piloot Jan is sterk Worden can be used as a copula in Dutch. corrsponding to to become: Jan wordt piloot There is a few more copulas such as: blijven: dit blijft moeilijk – this remains difficult lijken: dit lijkt mooi .toekomend) is the action performed by or applied to the subject (bedrijvend . the other three require auxiliary verbs: 1. The naamwoordelijk deel can be either zelfstandig or bijvoeglijk. 4.this seems beautiful blijken: dit bleek onmogelijk – this proved impossible schijnen: het scheen eenvoudig – it appeared easy 92 The four contrasts of the verb Indicative mood The forms of the Dutch verb in the indicative mood are determined by the four contrasts: 1. In Dutch the tenses are indicated by their contrasts. This leads to 2x2x2x2 = 16 forms for a transitive verb. In the passive voice construction its past participle geworden is typically omitted.verleden) is the action finished or not (onvoltooid . e. (niet toekomend) tegenwoordig bedrijvend onvoltooid ik zie voltooid lijdend ik heb gezien verleden ik zag ik had gezien toekomend tegenwoordig ik zal zien verleden ik zou zien ik zal gezien hebben ik zou gezien hebben onvoltooid ik word gezien ik werd gezien ik zal gezien worden ik zou gezien worden voltooid ik ben gezien ik was gezien ik zal gezien zijn ik zou gezien zijn Note that in the prefect passive tenses worden takes zijn as its auxiliary. for an intransitive one the passive voice (contrast 4) does not apply and there are 8 forms. the nominal part of the compound verb. hebben or zijn zullen worden The contrasts can be combined freely.lijdend) The first contrast is rendered synthetically.voltooid) is the action real or predicted / hypothetical (niet toekomend . As this nomenclature leads to rather lengthy names it is usual to use an acronym: vvtt van de lijdende vorm . rendering zijn the auxiliary of the perfect passive by default. 3.Dutch/Lesson 16 Copulas – Koppelwerkwoorden Copulas couple two concepts. 3.

They allow their action to be encapsulated inside another sentence without putting the action in a separate clause starting with a relative pronoun (that. who etc. For the imperative that is the second person singular. using the preposition na. Ik zou eerder zijn gekomen. je moet je huiswerk afhebben. especially in combination with the particle te: Hij was bang door de wachters gezien te zullen worden He was afraid that he would be seen by the guards Na hem gezien te hebben sloegen zij alarm After they had spotted him they sounded the alarm Notice that in the latter example the infinitive is part of an adverbial expression of time. Only a few fossiled expressions might still contain a trace of what used to be the subjunctive. but that it still carries a direct object: hem. . There is usually only one form in the active present. Whatever the reason be. I would have come earlier. because etc.) Subjunctive and imperative moods The other two moods are far more limited. Wat de reden dan ook zij. The subjunctive has now rather more disappeared over time.Dutch/Lesson 16 Notice that in Dutch grammar the past future tenses replace what is known in other grammars as the conditional (mood). and isn't practiced any longer. Long live the king! May he live long. For the subjunctive tense. Leve de koning! Opdat hij lang moge leven. ware het niet voor het slechte verkeer. you must have your homework done. In the first example the compound infinitive is accompanied by a prepositional object door de wachters.subjunctive the third person singular. had it not been for the bad traffic.) or a conjunction (after. for the -all but extinct. Infinitives thus do function as verbs in Dutch. only a few forms have managed to stay alive in our modern world. which is now practically forgotten about. It is thought of as a future tense uttered in the past: Yesterday I said: "he will come" => yesterday I said that he would come. 93 Infinitive mood In the infinitive mood the present-past contrast is missing: (niet toekomend) bedrijvend onvoltooid zien voltooid lijdend gezien hebben toekomend zullen zien gezien zullen hebben gezien zullen worden gezien zullen zijn onvoltooid gezien worden voltooid gezien zijn Compound infinitives are rather more prominent in Dutch than in English.

toe. In Dutch many propositions have an—often identical—adverbial form. adverbs. waar interjections. 4.Dutch/Lesson 17 94 Dutch/Lesson 17 Les 17 ~ Lesson 17 Bijwoorden en Voorzetsels ~ Adverbs and Prepositions << Les 16 | Les 17 | Les 18 >> Bijwoorden We have seen two major groups of words in the Dutch language: naamwoorden (nouns. a kind garbage can into which anything is flung that does not fit in the other two. Thus the separation between prepositions and adverbs is not as sharp in Dutch as it is in some other languages. maar. over. 2. copula's. prepositional adverbs. bij. The third group that comprises all the rest is known as bijwoorden (adverbs) and again they occur in a number of forms.binnen uit . prepositions like in. like oh. dag. . We have already seen a few groups of words that fall under the denominator bijwoord in the more extensive sense of the word and we will examine a few more 1. auxiliaries). beside. Later they supplanted the use of the case endings completely. op. dan or daar. tot conjunctions (including subjunctions) modal adverbs (particles) like wel. cf. af etc. adverbs of place and time. nou Prepositions and prepositional adverbs Prepositions are often hard to translate exactly because which one is used in which case often differs between the languages. In fact it is a bit of a miscellaneous rest group.. heen.beneden English has a few comparable forms like before. There is a number of forms that were formed by prefixing be. 6. Unfortunately it is not possible to classify them quite as thoroughly as the other two groups. the prepositional adverb. intransitives. like in. voor. that occurs either as the separable part of verbs or as the prepositional part of the pronominal adverb.) and werkwoorden (transitive verbs.boven (neder) .and often end in -(e)n. hoi. As we have seen the latter plays a considerable role in Dutch grammar. prepositions developed from adverbs that were put before an object to clarify the meaning of a case ending. met. pronouns etc. like nu. mee. 5. between. eens. ach. in . toen. below and behind . Historically. 3.buiten over ..

Dutch/Lesson 17 95 IN. Hij loopt het huis in. He has been dyed by the wool. daarin (in it. He stuck the needle (all the way) through the skin.’’ binnen twee minuten .within two minutes To emphasize movement naar can be added: hij liep naar binnen .g. ‘’He entered the house. . lit. Hij liep het huis binnen.. as well as in separable verbs as will be shown below.he entered it Notice that Dutch has no hangups about ending sentences in 'prepositions'. Inseparable verbs None.he walked in hij liep er naar binnen .g..g.he is inside binnenlopen: e. (He is a veteran. old hand. A word like binnen is not considered a preposition unless it actually precedes a noun. Ik adem in. The light shines through the window.) Together with heen the meaning is through and through or passage through: Hij stak de naald door het vel heen.he believes in ghosts Its identical adverb in often occurs pronominal replacement: erin. BINNEN In translates mostly as its cognate in hij woont in dat huis . in there) etc. In many cases the correct translation is by particularly when it is used with the passive voice: Hij is door de wol geverfd. He walks into the house. DOOR door is a cognate of through and often corresponds to it: Het licht valt door het raam. An alternative is to use binnen which often translates into inside hij is binnen . Separable verbs inademen e. Notice that Dutch does not have an equivalent of into but uses in as prepositional adverb to express the concept of movement 'into' something. Otherwise it is an adverb and there is no law against ending a sentence in an adverb.he lives in that house hij gelooft in spoken . inlopen e. I breathe in.

Hij nam op. He cut the knot through. he recorded. . Hij kwam eindelijk bij. Inseparable verbs bijwerken: e. It indicates a location slightly to the side of something. Hij doorzag de list.stay with the lesson bij slecht weer . Schiphol ligt bij Amsterdam .. hoepel toch op! Ow. answered (the phone). to hoop up.Dutch/Lesson 17 Separable verbs doorhakken: e.the book lies on the table. I have updated it.g. Ik heb het bijgewerkt. to get lost Inseparable verbs None. he absorbed.he stuck to it Separable verbs bijkomen: e. He picked up.a toast to you health (not : up your .g. Inseparable verbs doorzien: the case of bad weather het is bij vijven .it is around five o'clock hij bleef erbij . get lost!.) Separable verbs opnemen: e. He finally regained consciousness.g. OP Although cognate of up it usually translates as on or upon hij is op vakantie .g. etc. He saw through the ruse. lit.he is on vacation het boek ligt op de tafel . ophoepelen: Ach . 96 BIJ Although the word is cognate of by it often is used rather differently.g.Schiphol is near Amsterdam bij de les blijven . op je gezondheid . Hij hakte de knoop door.

g. Zij wonen ernaast.he flew over the cuckoo's nest (The latter is an unlikely occurrence given the fact that this bird does not build nests). Its identical adverb usually means up.g. The bathtub overflowed. TEGEN tegen usually translates as against hij was tegen dit wetsvoorstel . Jan and Elly are the neighbors of John and Heleen. boven translates as its cognate above hij zette er een punt boven: he put a dot above it.the bike stood against the wall but: hij zei tegen haar . Inseparable verbs overzien e. There are both separable and inseparable verbs (see below). Inseparable verbs None. Separable verbs None. BOVEN over translates mostly as it identical cognate: hij vloog over het koekoeksnest . Separable verbs overlopen: e. beside Jan en Elly wonen naast John en Heleen. I oversaw the battlefield.he went upstairs. Ik overzag het slagveld. he went up the hill etc. upstairs hij is boven : he is upstairs To indicate movement Dutch uses naar hij liep naar boven .he opposed this proposition de fiets stond tegen de muur .he said to her .Dutch/Lesson 17 97 NAAST naast translates mostly into next to. Het bad liep over. OVER.

g.put against.g. ACHTER Some dialects. He always blocked me. Separable verbs achterstellen .to discriminate. Inseparable verbs None.g. This group has been marginalized for centuries. The hotel is opposite the conference center. add an objection Inseparable verbs None. to run into Inseparable verbs encounter. balance. Hij werkte me altijd tegen. Separable verbs tegenoverstellen . e. to work against e. in Zeeland and West Flanders have a form bachten in the meaning of behind but it is not considered part of standard Dutch. Separable verbs None. 98 ZONDER zonder means without hij drinkt koffie zonder suiker It did not have an adverbial form but increasingly pronominal adverbs like waarzonder are used.Dutch/Lesson 17 Separable verbs tegenwerken: to thwart. to marginalize e. TEGENOVER tegenover means on the opposite side of. tegenkomen . Het hotel staat tegenover het conferentiecentrum. Deze groep is eeuwen lang achtergesteld. .

I retraced the truth.g. Inseparable verbs None.e. BENEDEN The form beneden can be used as preposition in the meaning of below. NE(D)ER.with his girl on the back Separable verbs None. Ik achterhaalde de waarheid.south of the rivers (i. under underneath. 99 ACHTERIN achterin translate mostly into in the back of achterin de auto liggen nog wat boodschappen .he fell down The form neer (<neder) is not used as a preposition but occurs as an adverb with the meaning of down in separable verbs.Dutch/Lesson 17 Inseparable verbs achterhalen e. Meuse etc. . Inseparable verbs None. ACHTEROP achterop is mostly used to indicate the passenger seat of a bike and is used more as an adverb than as a preposition met z'n meisie achterop .in the trunk of the car there a still a few groceries It is often used as an adverb together with in: Het lag achterin in de auto Separable verbs None. Rhine. south of beneden de rivieren .below the Iridium layer you find dinosaur bones With naar it indicates downward movement: hij viel naar beneden .) beneden de Iridiumlaag vind je dinosaurusbotten .

e.) Inseparable verbs None. Hij zag neer op die mensen.he went ouside' Both uit and buiten have separable verbs.g. Inseparable verbs Buiten often means out in verbs: buitensluiten . bezijden de waarheid . He turned the radio off.g. Zij deed het licht uit.outside the city hij is buiten . not true) Separable verbs None.he is from Utrecht buiten usually means outside buiten de stad .to lock out BEZIJDEN bezijden is comparable to besides but occurs mostly in the expression. Uit often means off in these. Separable verbs uitdraaien: e.g. He surrendered to resignation.aside of the truth (i. BUITEN uit is represented by out of or from uit dit erts wordt goud gewonnen . 100 UIT.Dutch/Lesson 17 Separable verbs neerzien op: e.g. . e. She took her coat off.g. Hij zat bij de pakken neer. (He gave up. neerzitten bij: e.out of this ore gold is produced hij komt uit Utrecht . Zij deed haar jas uit.he is outside hij ging naar buiten . uitdoen: e. He looked down upon these people. She switched off the light. Hij draaide de radio uit.

besides the stocks is there the real estate Separable verbs None.he looks at it.he goes to Canada with his wife Its adverbial form is mee (from: mede). TOE. hij ging mee met haar. He accompanied her. HEEN. Inseparable verbs None. MET met usually means with. He joined. Hij ging mee. WEER naar translates mostly as to or at: hij kijkt naar het schilderij . NAAR.g. benevens de aandelen is er het huizenbezit . He undergoes surgery. hij gaat met zijn vrouw naar Canada . The sun sets. 101 BENEVENS benevens is a rather formal alternative to naast (besides. Inseparable verbs None.g. De zon gaat onder. next to). Separable verbs meegaan: e. .het dog lies under the table It can also be used in the meaning of among: onder professoren . TOT. ONDER onder is the cognate of under and has similar applications: de hond ligt onder de tafel .g.he looks at the painting hij kijkt ernaar .Dutch/Lesson 17 Inseparable verbs the circle of professors Separable verbs ondergaan: e. Inseparable verbs ondergaan: e. Hij ondergaat een operatie.

this serves to reinforce the dyke dit is waartoe het dient .back and forth It occurs in separables like: weerkeren hij keerde weer .please would you close that af en toe .occasionally.that means back or again) heen en weer .he is going to Cape Town In the sense of to rather than at naar is often reinforced by adding the adverb toe: hij gaat naar Kaapstad toe In pronominal replacement the addition is mandatory: hij gaat ernaartoe Alternatively.he is going there heen is an adverb that indicates movement.Dutch/Lesson 17 hij gaat naar Kaapstad . now and then but it occurs in a separable verb like: zich toespitsen .to leave (usually permanently) hij ging heen . 102 .he came back de wederkomst .withstand toe is the adverbial form of the preposition tot that mostly means until or to: dit is geldig tot het eind van de maand . The violence is exacerbating.become more acute . narrowing.the second coming It is related to with as in withstand and forms inseparable verbs as in English: weerstaan . however. It does not occur as preposition but there are separable verbs: heengaan .g.this is the purpose it serves Another meaning of toe is closing.he left Its opposite is weer (from: we(d)er. Het geweld spitst zich toe.this is valid until the end of the month dit dient tot versterking van de dijk .coming to climax e. one can say: hij gaat erheen . Somewhat archaic is: doe dat eens toe .

the adverb af (cognate of off) can be added: hij viel van de trap .they gave money to this organization hier komt deze laag aan de oppervlakte .to and on But uit can also be the opposite: Is het licht aan of uit? Is the light on or off? . Inseparable verbs None.he is touching the painting hij zit eraan .the water comes from that mountain het komt er vanaf .a delicious soup can be made of fresh tomatoes het westen van het land .there is little we can do about it wat is er aan de hand? .he comes from far hij viel van zijn stoel . AAN aan has various translations such as comes off of it af does not occur as proposition.hands off! af is the opposite of aan in: af en aan . VAN. AF van translates mostly into of and from: van verse tomaten is een heerlijke soep te bereiden .he fell off het water komt van die berg af .here this layer reaches the surface aan deze feiten valt niet te twijfelen .what is at hand? what is happening? hij zit aan het schilderij . zij gaven geld aan deze organisatie . fall off (sailing) van does not occur in verbs.the west of the country hij komt van ver . It typically implies a touching or reaching until contact is made.Dutch/Lesson 17 103 TUSSEN tussen means mostly between tussen Maryland en Noord-Carolina ligt Virginia Separable verbs Tussenvoegen . at.he fell off the stairs hij viel eraf .lose weight.these facts can not be doubted er valt weinig aan te doen . on or is implied in an English verb.he fell off his chair When a downwards motion or fall is implied as in the latter case. but is part of separable verbs: afvallen .he is touching it nergens aan zitten! .

In het Oude Egypte werd de god Horus aanbeden.there is a moat around the castle In this meaning it is often reinforced with heen: er ligt een gracht om de stad heen er ligt een gracht omheen It can also have less literal meaning of about.g. Hij is tien kilo aangekomen.wrap around e. He arrived yesterday. Under German influence om can also imply arrive. Hij is gisteren aangekomen.drop by Inseparable verbs None. She put a shawl around her neck.he passed by it Separable verbs langskomen . . for: dit werd om onduidelijke redenen afgelast . Zij deed een sjaal om.he allowed himself to be persuaded to change his mind wegomlegging .Dutch/Lesson 17 Separable verbs aankomen . Inseparable verbs aanbidden . because of. e. In Ancient Egypt the god Horus was worshipped.there is a road along the river hij liep erlangs . gain weight e. hij liet zich ompraten . inversion.detour LANGS langs evokes a parallel position or motion and is mostly translated by along.he put a new tire around the rim om de burcht ligt een gracht . langs de rivier loopt een weg . He gained 10 worship e. 104 OM om can mean around: hij deed een nieuwe band om de velg .this was cancelled for unclear reasons There are separable verbs: omdoen .g.

If we use the future tense the situation is somewhat different: Inseparable vertrekken Direct: Hij zal morgen vertrekken Indirect: . for emphasis 2. separation 1. of pronominal adverbs 3.Dutch/Lesson 18 105 Dutch/Lesson 18 Les 18 ~ Lesson 18 Scheidbare werkwoorden in bijzinnen~ Separation and Subordination << Les 17 | Les 18 More word order We have seen that word order depends on quite a few factors in Dutch: 1. inversion 1. of compound verbs 1. auxiliary 2. rest of the verbal cluster 2. At least this is true for the present and simple past tense. of prefixed verbs 3. subordination Separation and subordination What happens when the above factors are combined. for example if a separable verb is put in a subordinate clause? Notice what happens to the persoonvorm: that part of the verb that carries the ending: Inseparable vertrekken Direct: Hij vertrekt morgen naar Berlijn Indirect: Ik zeg dat hij morgen naar Berlijn vertrekt Separable aankomen Direct: Hij komt morgen in Berlijn aan Hij komt morgen aan in Berlijn Indirect: Ik geloof dat hij morgen in Berlijn aankomt As you see in the subordinate clause the verb is put at the end and is no longer separated. in questions 2.

e.takes a number of years . the third is not acceptable. In general we can say that all parts of the verb like to be at the end of the sentence.takes five years and ends in graduation In a dependent clause the only difference between the two is in the stress pattern. 106 Separable versus inseparable in dependent clauses Recall that some verbs occur in both a separable and an inseparable form.takes five minutes Ik geloof dat hij de school doorlóópt . When there are many bits and pieces at the end they tends compete for last place. but if we add another auxilliary: ik denk dat hij nog zal moeten komen ik denk dat hij nog komen moeten zal ik denk dat hij nog moeten komen zal The first is fine.Dutch/Lesson 18 Ik betwijfel of hij morgen vertrekken zal Ik betwijfel of hij morgen zal vertrekken Separable aankomen Direct: Hij zal morgen aankomen Indirect: Ik zeg dat hij morgen aan zal komen Ik zeg dat hij morgen aankomen zal Ik zeg dat hij morgen zal aankomen There is considerable variation in word order possible.g. doorlopen. some with separation. There are a few restrictions to the latter in the case of modal verbs: ik weet dat hij nog komen moet ik weet dat hij nog moet komen Both are fine in Dutch. so that in written language the following sentence can have two pronunciations and two meanings: Ik geloof dat hij de school doorloopt In such cases of ambiguity Dutch spelling allows the addition of stress marks: Ik geloof dat hij de school dóórloopt . some without and usage varies from region to region and person to person. the second rather awkward. Ik loop de school door . except the persoonsvorm of a direct phrase.takes five minutes to walk through the school physically Ik doorloop de school .

The discrepancies between the single written standard and what people actually spoke were so large that they created serious educational problems and formed an impediment to social progress both in Africa and in Europe. The inflectional system was already gradually becoming disused in the Middle Ages. it no longer used the simple past tense. Er is een eigen wikiboek voor Afrikaans. There were also numerous differences in pronunciation and semantics. sometimes in Indonesia and some neighbouring parts of Germany and France. e. For example the standard still had case endings and three genders (masculine. hierdie is net 'n vergelyking van die twee tale. Some Dutch dialects and Afrikaans are still very close to each other and the differences between Dutch dialects are at least as big as between Dutch and Afrikaans. each of which would be unable to compete in the modern world. his ideas were implemented in the 1920's with considerable vigor.that is hard to read In such cases separable verbs do separate: Dat is onmogelijk op te schrijven Such infinitives can express an action that must be performed (as in English something to do). It is also known as "Schrijf zoals je praat / Skryf hoe jy praat-spelling" (Write-as-you-talk spelling). In South Africa. gradually spreading over much of Southern Africa.g. Unfortunately. But if you speak Standard Dutch you can also hold conversations very easily in Southern Africa. Only certain dialects of Flanders and the southern part of the Netherlands still had at least three genders in the spoken language. This page discusses the relationship between the two sister languages. dit is slechts een vergelijking van de twee talen. this written standard was rather artificial and archaic and did not reflect what people actually spoke. Since the founding of Kaapstad (Capetown) in 1652 a variety of Dutch was spoken at the Cape. They can even used in an adjectival construction: De onmogelijk op te schrijven tekst werd ter zijde geschoven The text that was impossible to write down. and French did in Quebec. in South Africa and Namibia. much like in English they are with to: Dat is moeilijk te lezen . where the discrepancies were the most conspicuous. Afrikaans has its own wikibook. Suriname.S. This was why the Kollewijn spelling (1891) proposed radical changes for the spelling of the language. much as English did in the U. Afrikaans & Nederlands Dutch is used in the countries The Netherlands. It was also feared that what had been one language would splinter into many. until 1925 there was only one written standard legally recognized both in South Africa and in Belgium and the Netherlands.Dutch/Lesson 18 107 Separable infinitives and te Infinitives are at times used with te. The northern Netherlands only had two genders and South Africa only one. feminine and neuter). Dutch/Lesson Afrikaans Welkom by die Afrikaans les Daar is 'n eie wikiboek vir Afrikaans. In the Netherlands and Belgium (and their colonies) his ideas were dismissed as outrageous and iconoclastic. . but later grammarians decided that it had to be preserved— even brought back— at all costs. On top of that the spoken language of South Africa had a much simplified verbal system. Since 1806 the political ties were severed and the spoken languages evolved in their own directions. Netherlands Antilles & Aruba. Belgium. was pushed aside. In fact.

In Europe it was only after the Second World War that the educational and political establishment finally threw in the towel and followed the Afrikaans example. vaak naas Engels. toe die Boere en nou die Afrikaners. e. much closer to what people actually spoke. Similarly. maar in 1961 het Afrikaans Nederlands offisieel vervang. Die taal is die meest verspreide taal in Suidelike Afrika en meer as 60% van die Namibiërs kan 'n proffesionele gesprek in Afrikaans voer. In part the reluctance to reform had to do with the fact that earlier ideas in Flanders to create a separate standard closer to what was spoken there had largely been abandoned. The Netherlands and Belgium increasingly joined the boycott against apartheid. Despite considerable variety in the spoken language there was clearly a desire to keep the written umbrella unified.: de menschen wenschen → die mense wens de boeken van dien aardigen kleinen jongen → die boeke van die aardige klein jong The reform of 1947 was not quite as sweeping as the one in 1925. but as tuis in Afrikaans.g. 108 Inleiding Afrikaans: Afrikaans is een van die elf amptelike tale in Suid-Afrika en is ook die grootste. Afrikaans.emphasized the uniqueness of the Afrikaans language. In 1947 the spelling was revised in such a way that case endings (notably the -n in the masculine singular accusative: den) were made optional. Deesdae word die taal deur mense van alle kleure gepraat. Xhosa of Zoeloe Let op: Hierdie mense wat Afrikaans praat is nie alleenlik blanke Suid-Afrikaners van Nederlandse afkoms nie maar word ook gepraat deur die sogenaamde kleurlinge en swarte Suid-Afrikaners.Dutch/Lesson Afrikaans In 1925 Afrikaans was officially recognized as a separate language with its own spelling and grammar. 'n betwiste kreool van Nederlands. The ties with South Africa in the mean time become all but severed because the Apartheid government there amongst other things . word gepraat deur 6 miljoen mense in Suid-Afrika as huistaal. . Na 1961 heet die taal Afrikaans. maar nie amptelike taal nie van Namibië. For example the word for at home is still written as thuis (from: te huis) in Dutch. Rapidly it disappeared from use. Nederlands is oorspronklik die taal van die Nederlandse koloniste. Tot 1925 het Afrikaans as Nederlands gereken. Tot dié tyd het die mense Afrikaans en Nederlands beskou as sinonieme. Since 1994 there is a slow process of renewal of ties but the languages have continued to evolve in different directions in the meantime. Naas die 6 miljoen is daar ook 10 miljoen wat Afrikaans praat as tweede taal. In Belgium the language was under considerable pressure from a French speaking elite and could ill afford further fragmentation. thans (from te hands: now) is written as it is pronounced in Afrikaans: tans. In fact in 1961 all linguistic ties were broken. Many silent and superfluous letters were omitted. This led to increased linguistic cooperation between Flanders and the Netherlands and the creation of the Taalunie.

zij leren In Afrikaans there is only one: leer . jullie. The language is the most spread out language in Southern Africa and more than 60% of the Namibians can have a professional conversation in Afrikaans. but not an official language of Namibia. is spoken by 6 million people in South Africa as a mother tongue. After 1961 the language is called Afrikaans.Dutch/Lesson Afrikaans 109 Introduction English: Afrikaans is one of the eleven official languages in South Africa and also the biggest. a creole of Dutch.. Note: This is not only the white South Africans of Dutch descent but also the "coloureds" and also many black South Africans.... Beside those 6 million there are also 10 million people that speak Afrikaans as a secondary language. till those times it was Standard Dutch and Afrikaans considered as synonyms. often next to English. Afrikaans.. It was in 1925 that Afrikaans was recognized as Dutch in South Africa...ik leerde ...ik heb geleerd ek leer . Xhosa or Zulu. .I have learned ik leer . hij leert wij. Dutch was originally the language of the Dutch colonists. But these days the language is used by people of all colours.... but in 1961 Afrikaans replaced Dutch officially.I learned . Afrikaans does not: I learn . Differences between Dutch and Afrikaans Grammar Verbs One major difference between the two languages is that Dutch retains the simple past tense. later Boers and now Afrikaners.ek het geleer In the present tense Dutch typically has three forms: ik leer jij.

Dutch/Lesson Afrikaans 110 Examples of Afrikaans (on left) and Dutch (on right) .

3. short 'o' as 'aw' in British English 'law' (/O/) No aspiration Usually voiced. 1. letter sounds can differ depending upon where within a word the letter occurs. However. In the sentences below chose the right form. short 'e' as 'e' in 'pet' (/E/) . The first pronunciation given below (second column) is that in English of the letter (or combination) itself. short 'i' as 'i' in 'pit' (/I/) Pronounced like 'y' as in 'yes' No aspiration Thinner than in English Long 'a' in French 'bateau'. Dit huis is groot/grote. but pronunciation is not for many of the letters. Dutch adjectives have two main forms. an uninflected one and an inflected one in -e. there are also a number of letter combinations. Deze auto is rood/rode. 4.Dutch/Lesson 2A 111 Dutch/Lesson 2A back to lesson 2 Exercise 2A-1 Inflection As you have seen in lesson two. Dutch/Alfabet ^ Les 1 ^ Appendix 1 ~ Alphabet and Pronunciation Guide Het alfabet ~ The alphabet The Dutch alphabet. SAMPA-orthography: see SAMPA A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q (ah) (bay) (say) (day) (ay) (ef) (khay) 'g' as 'ch' in Scottish 'loch'. Long 'i' as 'e' in 'seen' (ee) (/i:/). consists of 26 basic letters. e and y. Note that letter order is exactly the same as in English. Het is een rood/rode auto. Reading down this column and pronouncing the "English" words will recite the alphabet in het Nederlands (in Dutch). The following table includes a listing of all these letters and a guide to their pronunciation. 5. Is de weg erg lang/lange? Is het een lang/lange of een kort/korte? Is het huis mooi/mooie? Ja het is een prachtig/prachtige huis! Hij heeft een beter/betere manier gevonden. short 'a' as in 'arm' (/A/) Pronounced like 'p' when at the end of a word Like 's' preceding i. but voiced (/G/) (hah) (ee) (yay) (kah) (el) (em) (en) (oh) (pay) (kuuh) Long 'o' as 'o' in 'open' (oh. Ik heb een groot/groot huis. /o:/). 2. but longer (SAMPA /a:/). o. u and consonants Pronounced like 't' when at the end of a word Long 'e' as 'a' in 'late' (/e:/). like 'k' preceding a. As in English. like English.

tense). One general observation is that they are always pronounced as pure (or only slightly diphthongized) vowels as in French. short 'u' somewhat like 'i' in 'bird' (/Y/) trilled (see below) 112 Y or IJ (eh-ee). Z (zet) combined letters aa ee oo uu au ei eu ie ij oe ou ui ch ng << Contents Page Nederlandse uitspraak ~ Dutch Pronunciation Guide Klinkers Dutch has quite a few vowels (13). Unfortunately. IJ is a diphthong and considered two letters. which can be quite challenge for native speakers of languages that rely more on their many consonants such as Russian. . but rather a difference in the position of the tongue root (lax vs.Dutch/Alfabet R S T U V W X (err) (ess) (tay) (uuh) (vay) (way) (iks) for Holland: between upper teeth and lower lip (not between lips) / for Flanders (Belgium): between the lips No aspiration Long 'u' as 'u' in French 'du' (/y:/). Y only in loans. To be well understood by a native speaker it is imperative to master them. never drawled or 'chewed upon' as in many varieties of English. this nomenclature is rather misleading because the difference is not a matter of length. Most vowels occur in pairs that are traditionally indicated by the terms short and long.

There is an exception.biet o .bed .zaken both have /a/ (business . (American 'oo' sounds tend to be intermediary between /u/ and /y/ ) There is a systematic way in the spelling to indicate which of the two varieties is intended. The case of the letter i is a bit special. Notice the value of the letter 'u' in Dutch.. An open syllable has the 'long' one. As in French it denotes the /y/ sound.. The Dutch /u/ sound is strongly rounded and dark with the tongue pretty far retracted back in the mouth. stuur. bâteau /e/ as in bait /i/ as in beet /o/ as in boat a . (French uses 'ou'. but rounded /ø/ as German Möwe In addition there is a neutral vowel that occurs in almost all unstressed syllables. The trick is to have the tongue far in the front of the mouth and the lips rounded. a closed one -ending in one or more consonants.kluut /ɵ/ more rounded than subtle /y/ as in French tu oe ... It is relatively rare in Dutch because most words that used to have it have shifted it to the diphthong ui./kɪːr/ keus . although it does have words like shoe). It occurs mostly at the end of words like u.. na /na/ nat /nɑt/ If a conflict . nu or in front of a w or r: ruw. the distinction 'short'-'long' has little to do with pure length. The vowels oe and eu do not exhibit the dual quality of the other vowels. To write the long /i/ sound Dutch mostly uses -ie. so that this letter has three meanings: the above two in stressed syllables./kœːr/ .beet i . The spelling 'oe' for /u/ is a real Dutch oddity. in German it corresponds to ü.. Afterwards the long /i:/ sound it represented became a diphthong /ɛi/ (although many dialects retain /i/).. English often used 'oo'.stal .bags) Notice how the formation of the plural necessitates a good mastery of this principle. There has been a double ii in the past but to avoid confusion with a hand-written u it was replaced by -ij.deuk /u/ as oo. It is spelled with an 'e'.bit .zakken both have /ɑ/ (bag.boot /ɛ/ as in bell /ɪ/ as in bit /ɔ/ as in paw or UK Potter u ./køs/ keur . You'll produce a /y/-sound. As said above.Dutch/Alfabet 113 vowel 'short' (lax) 'long' (tense) /a/ as in broad US 'my God!' (Gaad) or Fr.put . In front of -r the long vowel may indeed just be the same vowel held a bit longer: bord : /bɔrt/ boord: /bɔːrt/ In front of -r there are a few other oddities: keel .has the 'short' one.staal /ɑ/ as in squat. the schwa in unstressed ones.businesses) zak . father e . the schwa /ə/ as is does more or less in English as well.koet eu . Thus. Trick: If you can whistle: whistle a high note. freeze your mouth in the position it is in and sing. either the vowel or the consonant is doubled: zaak . Most languages use 'u' as German and Latin. because the change from open to closed is much more important./kel/ keer .

The guttural ch at the end had gone mute. /g/ : g as in good (!!) /ʃ/ : sh as in ship (!!) Please avoid these sounds when speaking Dutch. The g.sound as it still does in some dialects and in Frisian). (not: /ʃɛr'togənboʃ/ ) In principle Dutch has both a voiceless and a voiced velar fricative and the letter 'g' represents the voiced one and the combination 'ch' the voiceless one. the number of words where this creates a phonemic distinction is very small: logen /'loɣən/ contrasts with: loochen /'loxən/ .Dutch/Alfabet 114 Diphthongs ei and ij are both /ɛi/ compare English feisty au and ou are both /au/ as in English now ui is /ʌy/ needs to be learned by ear. In Dutch the sch. The final -sch spelling is still used for one rather common ending: -isch and also in numerous geographical names as they have never been altered in spelling: chaotisch: /xa'otis/ (not: /xa'otiʃ/ 's-Hertogenbosch : /sɛrtoɣən'bɔs/ . Medeklinkers Most consonants in Dutch are pronounced more or less the same way as in English but there are a number of notable exceptions. In German it is used to write the /ʃ/ sound. Phonemes are sounds that suffice in marking one word as different from the other. (Originally it represented a k.combination also occurs quite frequently but is pronounced rather differently. aai is /ai/ ooi is /oi/ ieu is /iu/ or /iy/ eeu is /eu/ uw is /yu/ Diphthongs like /ɔi/ (as in English toy) or /ɑi/ (as in English my) are not used in the standard language.can be rather confusing for people familiar with some German. In unstressed syllables like the suffix -lijk the ij represents a schwa. schip : /sxɪp/ In older versions of the orthography (prior to 1947) the combination -sch represented a simple /s/ sound in final position. ch and sch problem The spelling sch. where English uses sh-. However. They are considered 'lower class' in many circles. First of all a number of phonemes that English has are simply missing in Dutch. In various dialects they do occur and producing them is often frowned upon. Missing phonemes /θ/ : th as in thing /ð/ : th as in that. In most cases it presents a combination of s+ch where the latter is the voiceless velar fricative /x/ as heard in German Bach or Scottish loch. it is a bit like in French l'oeil.

schaaf /sxaf/ t represents /t/ a true dental. which is also used in many dialects of German.a voiced velar fricative. kraak /krak/ In contrast to English it is not silent in combinations like kn-: knie' /kni/ ch represents /x/ as discussed above. kaap /kap/ f represents /f/ as in English fuut /fyt/. without trilling or friction. but unlike in English it is never aspirated. The first. it is also similar to the French "r". except in recent English loans. This sound was standard only a few decades ago and is still used by some speakers. in few case it can be a /z/ sound but much less frequently so than in German: samen: /'samən/ but: organisatie: /ɔrɣani'zatsi/ The latter word also contains an exception on the rule that t represents /t/. This phoneme is quite common. Worldwide. A third type of /r/ currently making inroads into Dutch is Gooise R. The first two sounds tend to blend to one lengthy velar/uvular /x:ot/ or /ɣ:ot/. In the ending -tie (corresponding to -tion) it is pronounced as a quick /ts/ combination. while the uvular [R] can turn into a fricative or approximant. Starting from the Dutch "g" (/ɣ/) described above . not unlike American /r/ in words such as bar. Essentially there are two. Both the alveolar and the uvular /r/ sounds are often not trilled when spoken by native speakers. kop /kɔp/ . It only occurs in a few languages like Arabic and Gaelic. is the trilled "r" also used in Spanish. produced with the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge. but is voiced and articulated somewhat further forward (it is less "throaty"). where Dutch television is produced (Hilversum) and this speech feature is popularly thought to have originated. the alveolar [r] is more often a light tap. k represents /k/. . thereby allowing the back of the tongue to trill against the soft palate (the velum) or of the uvula against the back of the tongue. it is recommended not to bother about it and use the voiceless /x/ for both. Voiceless consonants p represents /p/. Unlike UK-English it is not aspirated and unlike US-English it does not become a /d/ in the middle of a word. the voiced /ɣ/ sound is pretty rare. so that the difference becomes more pronounced. beter /'betər/ s represents /s/. again it is never aspirated as often happens in English or German. both of which were historically trilled. further south the phoneme 'g' is often pronounced as a voiced palatal fricative. unless your mother tongue happens to have the difference. the tongue is lowered and relaxed. This also presents a considerable challenge for those unaccustomed to the sound when they are confronted with words like groot ("big"). problem for English-speaking learners is the Dutch "r". toe /tu/. As many native speakers do not use it either. However it is gradually replaced by a voiced velar or uvular trill [R]. named after the Gooi area in the Netherlands. similar. 115 The Dutch "r" Another. Around Amsterdam it would not be. poot /pot/.Dutch/Alfabet It depends on the region whether this distinction is actually made in the spoken language. alveaolar [r]. which may cause confusion with words like rood (red) and goot (gutter). This concerns an approximant sound.

It is not silent as in English. People use /f/.de graven /də ɣraf . nasals etc. schichtig /sxɪxtəx/ 116 Devoicing and assimilation As in German. Notice however that both the /z/ and the /d/ reappear in the plural: de zaden: /də 'zadən/ Contrary to d. zaad: /zat/ Assimilation with the previous word often devoices the consonant in initial position as well: het zaad: /tsat/ The neutral article het is often reduced to a prefixed t-sound in the spoken language and occasionally rendered as such in the written language as: 't. /x/ and /s/ instead...(wraak /vrak/ or /ʋrak/) w tends to sound more like /v/. Speakers from e. Liquids.. In erwt /ɛrt/ (pea) the w is silent for most speakers n represents /n/ as in English . the letters v and z are not used in the final position in such cases: de vaas .). Het zaad -> 't the ents off worts are devoist. water /ʋatər/ In initial wr.g. although its voicing is less emphatic bevel /bə'vɛl/ d represents /d/ as in English dader /'dadər/ z represents /z/ as in English ziezo! /'zizo/ g represents /ɣ/ not /g/ as in English (see above) gegraven /ɣəɣravən/. Surinam often do use the bilabial vazen: /də vas . not a bilabial one. it is a labiodental approximant.də 'vazən/ de graaf . You may hear that phenomenon when people speak English with a strong Dutch accent.Dutch/Alfabet schraag /sxrax/. gracht /ɣrɑxt/ Around Amsterdam the tendency to devoice is so strong that /v/ /ɣ/ and /z/ are seldom heard. but unlike English all consonants at the ends of words are devoiced (. Put otherwise: produce a v-sound without breath. m represents /m/ as in English mooi /moi/ w represents /ʋ/ much like in German.də 'ɣravən/ Voiced consonants Apart from the devoicing effects Dutch has the following voiced consonants: b represents /b/ as in English baas /bas/ v represents /v/ as in English. Bring your upper teeth close to your lower lip and produce sound without breath.

behang /bə'ɦɑŋ/. borrowed into English as: yacht.g. 117 Syllable Stress Stress is not represented in the spelling as such but often an educated guess can be made. but is heard less and less. herfst /ɦɛrfst/ the glottal stop ` is not rendered in the ortography. In combination with i it forms a diphthong: ij. lila /'lila/ r can represent a variety of sounds. French (or Irish). blaadje /'blatjə/ (/'blacə/ y is not a native Dutch letter but it occurs in loans where it is pronounced /i/ or /j/. vinger /vɪŋər/ Even in loans the /ŋg/ tends to be avoided: tango : /'tɑnɣo/ or /'tɑŋɣo/ nk /ŋk/ as in English sink (This involves a /k/ sound that Dutch does have) j represents a /j/ sound. Unfortunately for the non-native speaker the letter e is also used for other purposes. e. It depends strongly on the region of the speech area you are in. Unstressed syllables tend to be short. Dutch is like English and German (and unlike French) a typical stress language. although there are exceptions. But with a bit of knowledge of grammar it will be clear that /led/ is the root of a verb (lijden actually) and that ver. to make it any more difficult for the non-native speaker: december : /de'sɛmbər/ It's a word which has three e's. e. all different pronounced. Instead it has a full vowel or a diphthong. It only occurs in initial position of a syllable. jacht: /jɑxt/. It is neutral and in between. unless by a trema. but in Groningen or in West-Flanders it is a syllabic /-n/ instead. low. Around Amsterdam it is certainly /-ə/. Although this is a two letter combination. One syllable tends to get all the attention. For many speakers this is pronounced as /-ə/ and the final n is dropped. never /ŋg/ as in finger (the latter uses a /g/ that Dutch does not have).g. h represents /ɦ/ a voiced version of the h-sound commonly heard in English and German. The middle -e represent a full /e/ sound (as the ai in bait). much like in English. . in naäpen /na`apən/. It is much less used than in German.Dutch/Alfabet nonnetje /'nɔnətjə/ (/'nɔnəcə/) Many plurals (including the plural forms of the verb) have an ending -en. which in English usually written as y. the root of a verb (or noun) will get the stress in Dutch. It does not occur in initial position. soft and usually have a schwa. l represents an /l/ that is neither velarized (dark) as most English l's are. both letters get capitalized at the beginning of a sentence: ijs -> IJs (ice). nor is it the slender variety as in German. The English j as in Jack is virtually unknown. verleden : /vər'ledən/ And. theater: /te'jatər/ rather than /te`atər/. A variety of uvular forms is taking its place. In general. A rolled 'r' /r/ was more or less the norm. ng /ŋ/ as in English sing. Because the schwa is written as a e in the orthography it is often quite clear where the stress falls in a word: verlaten : /vər'latən/ has only one non-schwa syllable la and sure enough that is where the stress goes. It is at the same time loud. Retroflex ones (as in US English) sound distinctly foreign. /ɛis/. but that is only clear for a native speaker. The suffix -je that forms the rather ubiquitous diminutives tends to palatellize the previous consonants or even fuse to a palatal stop all together in rapid a prefix and -en the suffix. but this is not true for all. long and high in pitch and it never has a schwa ə.

.] Hoe laat is het? Ik wil dat.... << Contents Page Dutch/Appendix 2 Translation Hello I am [. alstublieft How are you? (To someone you do not know) Hoe gaat het met u? How are you? (To someone you know) Good morning Good day Good evening Good night Good-bye Please You are welcome Thank you That How much? Yes No Where is the toilet? Generic toast Do you speak English? I don't understand I don't speak Dutch Hoe gaat het met je? Goedemorgen Goedendag Goedenavond Goedenacht Dag / Tot ziens Alstublieft Graag gedaan Dank u wel Dat Hoeveel? Ja / Jawel Nee / Neen Waar is het toilet? Proost Spreekt u Engels? Dat begrijp ik niet Ik spreek geen Nederlands . Some words and names can have rather surprising stress patterns: Veluwe is /'velyə/ for example. 118 Capitalization The rules for capitalization in Dutch are similar to the ones in English. My name is [.. Capitalization occurs at the beginning of a sentence.. Eigennamen (names of persons. both letters become capitals. IJsselmeer..] What is your name? Where is. Ik heet [.] Hoe heet je? / Hoe heet u? Waar is.g. soortnamen (names of species) are not.] What time is it? I want that... institutions.. countries etc.) are capitalized. As mentioned above..]/ Mijn naam is[.. please Phrase Hoi / Hallo Ik ben [. e. when a word beginning with ij has to be capitalized.Dutch/Alfabet Of course there are exceptions. a good example are the separable and non-separable verbs...

Dutch/Appendix 2 119 I'm sorry Pardon me I don't know Best regards Het spijt me Neem me niet kwalijk Dat weet ik niet Met vriendelijke groet Translation Dutch hello Good morning Good afternoon Good evening good-bye please thank you I'm sorry I don’t understand Phrase Nederlands hallo goedemorgen goedemiddag goedenavond tot ziens alstublieft dank u wel het spijt me ik begrijp het niet IPA /'neːdərlɑns/ /hɑ'loː/ /'ɣudəˌmɔrɣɛn/ /ˈɣudəˌmɪdɑx/ /ˈɣudənˌɑʋɔnt/ /tɔt 'ziːns/ /ɑlsty'blift/ /dɑŋky'ʋɛl/ pronunciation (NAY-der-lahnds) (hah-LO) (tott-ZEENS) (AHL-stu-BLEEFT) (DAHNK-u-WELL) /ɪk bə'ɣrɛip ət nit/ (Ick beyGRAYP hett neat) that one how much? English do you speak English? die hoeveel? Engels spreek je Engels? /diː/ /huː'veːl/ /'ɛŋəls/ /sprek jə 'ɛŋəls/ (dee) (who-VEIL) (ENGels) (Spray-k ya ENGels) yes no I don’t know ja nee ik weet het niet /jaː/ /neː/ /ɪk ʋet ət nit/ (ya) (nei) (Ick WAY-T hett neat) Where is the bathroom? waar is het toilet? I don't feel well That's okay generic toast ik voel me niet lekker dat is goed proost /proːst/ (proh-st) .

These cases signify the role the pronouns have in the sentence. number person nom. Persoonlijke voornaamwoorden ~ Personal pronouns In this table personal pronouns are given in nominative. ik jij/je acc. After a preposition hen should be used. In the spoken language hen is seldom heard. • For inanimate objects personal and possesive pronouns are often replaced by demonstrative pronouns. It adds a -t both in the present and the past: komen ./dat. case.). Dutch singular 1st 2nd fam. "I" is nominative (subject) and "you" is accusative (object). In the North its use is limited to Biblical . Dutch has pronouns.gij kwaamt. There is also a number of related adverbs that will be treated here. but they deserve mention when discussing the Dutch language because pronouns are often replaced by pronominal adverbs. as "me" in "He gave me that" or "He built me a snowman" or.Voornaamwoorden ~ pronouns Like English. Also words with a preposition are in accusative case ("you" in "I am looking at you").Dutch/Appendix 3 120 Dutch/Appendix 3 ^ Les 1 ^ Appendix 3 . hij zij/ze het wij/we we jullie you you you they polite u South gij 3rd zij/ze hen/hun* them ze Remarks: • Sometimes there are two forms (jij/je etc. Hun is (officially) only used as a dative without preposition: "We hebben het hun verteld" ("We told them about it"). Pronouns can function either as substantives (nouns) or as adjectives. Dative case is special and tells us something is indirect object.politeness and emphasis. replacement by a pronominal adverb being preferred (See 8). gender. This refers almost entirely to the written standard language and was artificially constructed by the grammarians of the past. English Dutch I you you you he she it mij/me jou/je u u hem haar het ons jullie u u English me you you you him her it us you you you polite u South gij 3rd m f n plural 1st 2nd fam. which can be interchanged most of the time. It has its own verb endings. In the inanimate case the use of preposition+pronoun is rare. These can mark number.gij komt . For example: In "I am hitting you". Adverbs are typically not considered pronouns in grammatical analysis. (See 5) • Officially the plural 3rd person accusative form is hen. • In the South -mostly Flanders.the gij-form is in regular use for the second person. Even hun is increasingly replaced by ze as people tire of being told their use of hun is wrong by the schoolmasters. "He gave it to me". accusative and dative case. with a preposition.

Jullie is never inflected." Dutch has a somewhat curious personal locative adverb er that replaces het and ze particularly in inanimate cases (i. erdoor. number person singular 1st 2nd fam. without implying politeness. (see 8). ervan etc. Hare Hoogheid: Her Highness. It occurs as the locative part of many pronominal adverbs. 3. zijn*3 haar*3 (zijn)*3 onze/ons our jullie your your their polite uw 3rd hun Remarks: 1. such as :erin. Personal Adverb . Notice that u is used as object.. instead die van jullie is used. Other possessives are seldom inflected in the modern language: Mijne Heren!: Gentlemen!. More regularly inflected forms are used when the pronoun is used as an independent noun: Met welke auto gaan we? De mijne of de jouwe?.Dutch/Appendix 3 quotes like: gij zult niet stelen ." vs. Ons has an inflected form onze as most adjectives do (See . for things more so than for persons).thou shalt not steal./Lesson 2).there is coffee. Bezittelijke voornaamwoorden ~ Possessive pronouns Pssessive pronouns are essentially the adjectival forms of the personal pronouns. but it can also be used independently: er is koffie .there are people that like that Notice that er is not considered the subject of these sentences (koffie and mensen are the subject resp.) . as in English) in other cases pronominal replacement is more and more the norm. Dutch mijn jouw/je English my your your his her its 121 polite uw 3rd m f n plural 1st 2nd fam. The difference between jouw and je is matter of emphasis or the lack thereof: "Dat is jouw huis.e. The masculine and feminine forms are increasingly reserved for natural gender (persons. er zijn mensen die dat lusten . "Dat is je huis. The neuter possessive pronoun zijn is very rare as Dutch usually opts for a construction involving a pronominal adverb like ervan.

he bought a house then 2. A third adverb is less common: 1.) Demonstrative pronouns are typically used as adjectives: Dit huis Deze auto they can also be used independently: dit is een huis Zijn auto? Die heb ik gezien They are more and more used to replace inanimate personal pronouns. Deze is used in the plural but it also used in the singular for m/f words.then hij het dan verkopen .now he lves there 3.Dutch/Appendix 3 122 Aanwijzende voornaamwoorden -. (It replaces de. remote: ginds. present: nu .there Both of them are used as the locative part of demonstrative pronominal adverbs like: hierdoor. Notice that the distinction dit-deze does not correspond to the distinction this-these. daarvan etc.then he'll sell it modal One modal demonstrative adverb is common: zo .here 2.demonstrative adverbs temporal Dutch has three demonstrative adverbs of time: 1. close by: hier . locative Two locative adverbs are in common use: 1. future/conditional: dan . Aanwijzende bijwoorden . these that.those 1. close far dit dat all other deze die English nu woont hij er .so Occasionally a more proximate one zus is used for contrast Dat doe je zus en zo .Demonstrative pronouns location neuter sg. ginder.You do that this way and that. far off: daar . past: toen -then hij heeft toen een huis gekocht . daarginds -yonder .

Wie mij steunt zal ik belonen .the is the woman whom I love With inclusion of antecedent.substantive antecedent neuter sg.I met the man whose wife works for us. hetgene.Dutch/Appendix 3 123 Betrekkelijke voornaamwoorden -. after included dat wat all other die wie English that/who the one that/who whoever/that which Without antecedent: Dit is het huis dat ik koop -this is the house that I buy Dit is de auto die ik koop . . that frequently replace relative pronouns.I do not know in which cities streetcars are operated Bijwoordelijk . There are a number of archaic forms that can be used with prepostitions: neuter:hetwelk./plur wier English whose genitive wiens In inanimate cases the relative pronominal adverb waarvan is virtually mandatory.whoever supports me I shall reward Ik verkocht wat ik eerder gekocht had . case masc sg.this is the car that I buy Dit is de vrouw die ik lief heb .Relative pronouns Zelfstandig. datgene : that which other: dewelke persons degene die: he who. waarvoor etc. fem sg.where Waar can be used to initiate a dependent clause: dit is de stad waar ik geboren ben . welk all other welke English which ik weet welk boek hij gebruikt .adjective neuter sg. diegenen die: those who As in English the genitives wiens and wier (whose) can be used in relative clauses referring to persons: ik ontmoette de man wiens vrouw voor ons werkt .this is the town where I was born Waar is also used to form the relative pronominal adverbs like waarvan.I know which book he uses ik weet niet in welke steden trams rijden . Bijvoeglijk .adverbial locative waar .I sold that which I had bought earlier. hetgeen.

this page has been protected. com/ dutch.. com/ DutchEnglish/ http:/ / www.19 over 8 . internetpolyglot.. we use times from 8 to 9 o'clock. dutchgrammar. ielanguages. html http:/ / dictionaries. com http:/ / www. You do not use the same rules for saying 8:10 and 8:50. freetranslations. • • • • • Free Online Dutch Tutorial [1] Dutch To English Dictionary [2] Language translation.2 over 8 . com/ en/ http:/ / www. 8:19 . travlang.Dutch/Websites 124 Dutch/Websites Due to recent spam and vandalism. In the following examples. com/ lessons-nl-en Dutch/What time is it? Hoe laat is het? Saying what time it is is quite different from in English.1 over 8 8:02 . __:00 / __:15 / __:30 / __:45 Examples: 8:00 8:15 8:30 8:45 8 uur kwart over 8 half 9 kwart voor 9 __:01 to __:19 Examples: 8:01 .a. Please suggest links to resources on the talk page. Dutch to English and English to Dutch [3] Online Dutch Grammar Tutorial [4] Online Dutch Lessons [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. o. for example.

. 8:29 .19 voor 9 8:42 ..9 voor half 9 8:22 . or 10 voor half 9 __:21 to __:29 Examples: 8:21 .8 voor half 9 . 8:59 .half 9 __:31 to __:39 Examples: 8:31 .10 over half 9 __:41 to __:59 Examples: 8:41 .9 over half 9 __:40 Example: 8:40 .. 8:39 .2 over half 9 .1 voor 9 __:00 Example: 9:00 .20 over 8 (not used everywhere).Dutch/What time is it? 125 __:20 Example: 8:20 .9 uur .18 voor 9 ..1 voor half 9 __:30 Example: 8:30 ...1 over half 9 8:32 .

vier 5. vijf 6. drie 4. 11. 0 to 10 0. vijftien 16.Dutch/The numbers 126 Dutch/The numbers Counting is often the first thing one wants to learn when visiting another country. However stress marking is an optional thing in Dutch and the marks are not always written. they betray an ancient suffix -lif as in English. zestien 17. zeven 8. nul 1. 11 to 20 As in English the first two are irregular. zeventien 18. acht 9. Zeven is sometimes pronounced as "zeuven" [zøvə(n)] to distinguish it better from "negen". tien Notice that the cardinal 1 (one) is usually written using stress marks as één to distinguish it from the unstressed indefinite article een (English a or an). veertien 15. zes 7. negen 10. negentien . achttien 19. twee 3. elf 12. twaalf The rest has -tien as a suffix with a few irregularities 13. één 2. dertien 14.

tweehonderd-en-één 300.Dutch/The numbers 127 20 to 100 The equivalent of -ty in English is -tig. driehonderd 400. veertig 50. negenhonderd . vierhonderd 500. tachtig 90. not [z]. twintig 30. Dutch just uses "hundred". vijftig 60. honderd-en-één 200. zeventig 80. 20. 200 In contrast to English. dertig 40. negentig The "z" of zestig and zeventig are usually pronounced as [s]. zestig 70. honderd 101. not "one hunderd" 100. 66 etc. In contrast to English the units come first 21 eenentwintig ("oneandtwenty") If the unit ends in a vowel and this collides with the vowel of "en" a diaeresis (trema) is used: 22 tweeëntwintig 100. zeshonderd 700. achthonderd 900. 21. tweehonderd 201. vijfhonderd 600. zevenhonderd 800.

vijfduizend 10. duizend 1001.000.000.500. 6. There are two suffixes -joen and -jard that alternate.000.Dutch/The numbers 128 1000 to 100. 1. biljard 1.000. Notice that Dutch uses periods as separators for factors of one thousand rather than commas. twintigduizend 50. één miljoen vijfhonderdduizend 2.000.000. triljard Decimals Remember that Dutch uses a decimal comma rather than a decimal point.000.000. één miljoen 1. duizend-en-één 2000. This notation is the reverse of the English one.000.000.000. Large numbers 1.000.7%: zes komma zeven procent.000. tienduizend 20. vijftigduizend 100.000. which is currently used in all English-speaking countries. twee miljoen For larger numbers Dutch uses the long scale rather than the short scale.000. 1000. not a decimal point. Dutch/The numbers/Hover test . biljoen 1.000. similar to English: In 1355: in dertien vijfenvijftig.000. miljard 1.000.000 This basically goes the same. honderdduizend For years the 'honderd' is often dropped.000. Dutch has a decimal comma. tweeduizend 5000.000.000.000. triljoen 1.

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