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(Redirected from Mariology (Roman Catholic)) Roman Catholic Mariology is theology concerned with the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ and developed by the Catholic Church. "The Blessed Virgin, because she is the Mother of God, is believed to hold a certain infinite dignity from the infinite good which is God." Theologically, Roman Catholic Mariology deals with not only her life but also with veneration of her in daily life, prayer, hymns, art (where she has been a favorite topic), music, and architecture; in modern and ancient Christianity throughout the ages.
A series of articles on
Roman Catholic Mariology
The development of Roman Catholic Mariology is ongoing. It continues to be shaped not only by papal encyclicals but also by the interplay of forces ranging from sensus fidelium, to the writings of the saints, to the construction of major Marian churches at the sites of Marian apparitions. In some cases, sensus fidelium has influenced Marian papal decisions, providing Mariology with a "theology of the people" component that distinguishes it from other parts of formal theology. In terms of popular following, membership in Roman Catholic Marian Movements and Societies has grown significantly in the 20th century. This has continued to be matched by support from the Holy See, with Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) stating: "It is necessary to go back to Mary, if we want to return to the truth about Jesus Christ". The ongoing development of Mariology continued in the 20th century, e.g. in his Angelus address in September 1985 Pope John Paul II coined the term The Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary, and in 1986 addressed the international conference on that topic held at Fátima, Portugal. In parallel to the traditional views, since the late 19th century, a number of progressive and liberal perspectives have been presented as a challenge to Roman Catholic Mariology. These have ranged from feminist criticisms that consider the image of Mary a construct of the patriarchal mindset which limits equal opportunity for women, to other Christian views that see Mariology as a distraction from Christ to the modern psychological interpretation of Mary as the equivalent of mythical Goddesses ranging from Diana to Kwan Yin.
General articles Mariology • Veneration of the Blessed Virgin • History of Mariology • Mariology of the saints • Mariology of the popes • Marian Societies
Devotions Rosary • Scapular • Immaculate Heart • Seven Joys • Seven Sorrows • First Saturdays • Acts of Reparation • Hearts of Jesus & Mary • Consecration to Mary Dogmas and Doctrines Mother of God • Perpetual virginity • Immaculate Conception • Assumption • Mother of the Church • Mediatrix • Co-Redemptrix
1 Mariology and Christology 2 History and development 3 Papal teachings on the Blessed Virgin Mary 4 Dogmatic teachings 4.1 Perpetual virginity of Mary
Expressions of devotion Art • Hymns • Music • Architecture
Key Marian apparitions
(approved or worthy of belief)
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Roman Catholic Mariology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
4.2 Mother of God 4.3 Immaculate Conception of Mary 4.4 Assumption of Mary 5 Other Marian doctrines 5.1 Mary is Mother of all Christians 5.2 Mary as Mediatrix 5.3 Co-Redemptrix 5.4 Queen of Heaven 5.5 Reparations to the Virgin Mary 6 Mariology as theology of the people 6.1 Influence of visions 6.2 Impact on the Catholic Church 7 The multitude of perspectives 7.1 Traditional views 7.2 Liberal perspectives 8 Eastern Catholic differences 8.1 Assumption of Mary 8.2 Immaculate Conception 9 Centers for Mariological studies 10 Further reading 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References
Guadalupe • Miraculous Medal • La Salette • Lourdes • Pontmain • Laus • Banneux • Beauraing • Fátima • Akita
Papal Bulls Ineffabilis Deus • Munificentissimus Deus • Bis Saeculari
Papal encyclicals Redemptoris Mater • Ad Caeli Reginam • Fulgens Corona • Deiparae Virginis Mariae • Ingruentium Malorum • Ad Diem Illum
Papal Apostolic Letters and other teachings Rosarium Virginis Mariae • Marialis Cultus
Key Marian Feast Days Dec 8 Immaculate Conception • Jan 1 Mother of God • Mar 25 Annunciation • Aug 15 Assumption
In Roman Catholicism, Mariology is a logical and necessary consequence of Christology: Jesus and Mary are son and mother, redeemer and redeemed. Mariology is Christology developed to its full potential. In Catholic theology, Mary and her son Jesus are very close but not identical. Therefore, Marian teaching, while contributing to the teaching of Christ, is also a separate discipline, called Mariology. The figure of Mary contributes to a fuller understanding of who Christ is and what he did. In the Roman Catholic view, a Christology without Mary is incomplete because it is not based on the total revelation of the Bible.
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which is the subject of Catholic Mariology. Christ and Mary. including the four dogmas mentioned below. the controversies and the cultural aspects of Marian devotion. taught by St. As discussed below. includes a permanent spiritual unity with Christ. Marian apparitions. Mariology is both part of abstract doctrine and an important part of church life: Marian prayers. traditions. respected Mariologist Gabriel Roschini explained that Mary did not only participate in the birth of the physical Jesus but also." In his 1946 publication Compendium Mariologiae. Mother of the Church. Popes highlighted the inner link between Marian dogmas and the full acceptance of christological dogma. She is seen as the original image of the Church. Chora Church. being not only material. she entered with him into a spiritual union. with conception. 16th century. Being the Body of Christ.Wikipedia. The Church is the people of God as she is the Body of Christ.Roman Catholic Mariology . but excluding the overall perspectives. or. which have then influenced the higher levels of the Holy See in Rome via sensus fidei. but a devotional concept embraced by millions of Catholics who venerate the Blessed Virgin Mary. confirmed and hypothetical theological positions on Mary. and at times from religious experiences of young and simple children on remote hilltops. Marian titles. mosaic. contemporary as well as historical. all mankind in Christ. from the masses of believers. developments and controversies of the ecclesiogical movement. and Marian Feast days are detailed in Blessed Virgin Mary. as Vatican II states. this article on Roman Catholic Mariology presents an overview of the major issues. the Church has also a relation to his mother. are the central part of Mariology consisting of confirmed teachings and doctrines regarding Mary's life and role. it differs from other parts of theology in that its progress has quite often been driven from the ground up. Louis de Montfort. Mariology is not simply a theological field studied by a few scholars. the free encyclopedia http://en. Most Mariologists agree with this position. is a key theme in Roman Catholic Mariology.wikipedia. Marian devotions during the months of May and October.org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) Early Christians and numerous saints focused on this parallel interpretation. Therefore. This echoed the sentiments of Pope Saint Pius X who in Ad Diem Illum stated: "there is no more direct road than by Mary for uniting Mariology is ongoing. Main article: History of Roman Catholic Mariology 3 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM . The divine salvation plan. It includes dogmas. The Church lives in its relation to Christ. Marian doctrines of the Catholic Church. pilgrimages to Marian shrines. "To Christ through Mary".
Churches dedicated to Mary were constructed across the Christian world. the sub tuum praesidium. Early Christians focused their piety at first more upon the martyrs around them. the encyclicals Mystici Corporis. initiatives. The Renaissance period witnessed a dramatic growth in Marian art and masterpieces by Boticelli. John Damascene and Bernard of Clairvaux. seat of Pope John VII. Pope Pius IX proclaimed it a dogma. Teaching of the Assumption of Mary became widespread across the Christian world. Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael were produced. for instance in the 16th century." The baroque literature on Mary experienced unforeseen growth. Crowned Madonna Della Strada in the Church of the Gesu in Rome. Pope Clement VIII started the venerative practice of crowning Marian images. In the fifth century. Mariology in the 20th century was dominated by a genuine Marian enthusiasm. 4 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM . is dated in its earliest form to around the year 250. feast days. More than 500 pages of Mariological writings were published during the 17th century alone. Mariology in the 19th century was dominated by discussions about the Immaculate Conception and in 1854. Main article: Mariology of the popes Popes have been an important element in shaping both the theological and the devotional aspects of the Roman Catholic perspective on the Blessed Virgin. Lumen Gentium and Redemptoris Mater being examples. in the Forum Romanum.Roman Catholic Mariology . the Third Ecumenical Council declared Mary as Theotokos (God-bearer). The Middle Ages saw growth and development for Mariology and brought major champions of Marian devotion to the fore. the formal recognition of Marian apparitions such as in Lourdes and Fátima. In the 16th century. Santa Maria Antiqua. This resulted in a great development of Marian art and Mariology during the Baroque Period. The earliest recorded prayer to Mary. the Catholic Church defended its Mariology against Protestant views. they saw in Mary a bridge between the old and the new. among the most famous being Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. and. prayers.Wikipedia.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) The history of Mariology goes back to the first century. popes have fostered the veneration of the Blessed Virgin through the promotion of Marian devotions. Prayers to Mary included the Ave Maria. Following that. the Council of Trent confirmed the Catholic tradition of paintings and artworks in churches. During the Reformation. including Ephraim the Syrian. Theologically. and chants such as Ave Maris Stella and the Salve Regina emerged and became staples of monastic plainsong. Furthermore. as he declared the Queenship of Mary. popes have highlighted the inner link between Virgin Mary and the full acceptance of Jesus Christ as son of God. Devotional practices grew in number. Popes have at times followed on devotions initiated by previous popes. it "signified the beginning of a strong resurgence of Marian devotions. the acceptance and support of Marian congregations. 5th century. Pope Pius XII issued the Dogma of the Assumption and the Second Vatican Council declared Mary to be the Mother of the Church. a practice that was followed by pope Pius XII in the 20th century via the crowning of the Salus Populi Romani icon. the free encyclopedia http://en. With the victory at Battle of Lepanto (1571) accredited to her.
was preserved immaculate from Original Sin 5 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM .org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) Similarly. means that Mary was a virgin before. or those teachings infallibly taught to be Revealed by the ordinary universal Magisterium. In his 2002 Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae. In 1904 at the 50th anniversary of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception. popes have emphasized the role of Maryas the Mother of the Church and the Marian elements of Christology. and said: Since Mary is of all creatures the one most conformed to Jesus Christ. As in the case of the Immaculate Conception or the Assumption. through Mary. and that the more a soul is consecrated to her the more will it be consecrated to Jesus  Christ. Pope John Paul II quoted Saint Louis de Montfort. These doctrines come in several forms.Wikipedia. these doctrines were held by the Church prior to the date of official definition. popes Alexander VII and Clement X both promulgated the veneration of the Heart of Jesus and the Heart of Mary. The date of definition must be accepted by all faithful members of the Catholic Church as contained specifically in the Deposit of Faith and owed supernatural faith in itself (de fide credenda) There are four Marian dogmas among a large number of other teachings about the Blessed Virgin: Name Perpetual virginity Mother of God Immaculate Conception First Magisterial Definition Baptismal symbols since Third Century Council of Ephesus (431) Pope Pius IX (1854) Dogma content 'Perpetual virginity of Mary'. the free encyclopedia http://en. God's deed on Mary." Main article: Roman Catholic dogma Marian Roman Catholic dogmas have two functions: they present infallible Church teachings about Mary and her relation to Jesus Christ.wikipedia.Roman Catholic Mariology . Saint Pope Pius X with the encyclical Ad diem illum encouraged the entire Church to honor the Virgin Mary. Pope Leo XIII issued 11 encyclicals just on the Rosary. In recent years. it follows that among all devotions that which most consecrates and conforms a soul to our Lord is devotion to Mary." These papal documents reflect the support of the popes for both Marian devotions and Marian doctrines. because of her unity with Christ. The two Marian dogmas of Assumption and Immaculate Conception were established by popes in the 20th century. the Son of God Mary. A number of Marian papal encyclicals and Apostolic Letters have been issued since the 16th century. at her conception. All Marian dogmas teach about her divine son and highlight the divine nature of Jesus Christ. namely teachings which have been specifically defined as Revealed by an extraordinary definition by a Pope or Ecumenical council. his Holy Mother. In Ecclesiam Suam Pope Paul VI called Mary the "ideal of Christian perfection". De Fide Definita or De Fide Credenda doctrines have the highest degree of dogmatic certainty. during and after giving birth Mary is truly the mother of God. and they praise Mary and. a concept which was embraced by pope John Paul II in the 20th century as the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary. but open for discussion.
Hilary argued in favor of the doctrine in his Commentary on Matthew and to this may be added Didymus (The Trinity) Ambrose of Milan.. the Protoevangelium of James (c."The affirmation of the doctrine of Mary's virginity before. Ignatius of Antioch described the virginity of Mary as "hidden from the prince of this world . (De fide). that Mary bore her son Jesus while still a virgin. Non-Christians questioned this belief of the early Church  Jews and Christians differed on the prediction in Isaiah 7. Thomas Aquinas's teaching (Summa Theologiae III. where he cites the Protoevangelium in support.2) that Mary gave birth painlessly in miraculous fashion without opening of the womb and without injury to the hymen. the text does not explicitly assert the doctrine of perpetual virginity. as did Epiphanius in his Medicine Chest Against All Heresies. and Pope Paul IV's Cum quorundam of 7 August 1555 at the Council of Trent. loudly proclaimed. by the teaching of this dogma. Athanasius described Mary as "Ever-Virgin".  Virginity during birth Mary gave birth without losing her corporal virginity (De fide). see the section on Mediatrix and Co-Redemptrix below. Further important statements of the belief include the Lateran Synod of 649. Before this last extraordinary papal/concilliar definition. during and after the birth of Jesus was the principal aim of the early second century work. during and after giving birth. the doctrine was generally accepted. By the fourth century. was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory For a discussion of a proposed fifth Marian dogma. Her corporal integrity was not affected by giving birth. Catechism of the Catholic Church. Mariology . whose conception and birth are miraculous.14  Along with other Christian groups the Catholic Church continues to teach today. 120-150). Orations against the Arians. Perpetual virginity of Mary Main article: Perpetual virginity of Mary .Roman Catholic Mariology . having completed the course of her earthly life. The earliest such surviving reference is Origen's Commentary on Matthew. really an afterthought. making Jesus her only biological son. the free encyclopedia http://en. sign that it truly was the Son of God who came in a humanity like our own. the teaching can be considered to have been always taught infallibly by the ordinary and universal magisterium as a truth contained in the deposit of faith. but insists that virginity during child birth 6 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM . the Church has confessed that Jesus was conceived solely by the power of the Holy Spirit in the womb of the Virgin Mary. Eastern Orthodox.Wikipedia. as opposed to by any specific extraordinary definition.. The Church does not teach how this occurred physically. concerned with the character and purity of Mary. Jerome. and Virgin birth of Jesus 'Perpetual virginity of Mary'.wikipedia. However. Virginity before birth Mary conceived by the Holy Spirit without participation of any man." Thus. Siricius' and others. and Oriental Orthodox doctrine affirms Mary's "real and perpetual virginity even in the act of giving birth to the Son of God made Man. In the year 107. means that Mary was a virgin before. (De fide) This oldest Marian Roman Catholic. the faithful believe that Mary was ever-Virgin (Greek ἀειπάρθενος) for the remainder of her life. The work. affirming also the corporeal aspect of this event: Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit without human seed" The Fathers see in the virginal conception the " . From the first formulations of her faith. claims that Joseph had children from a marriage previous to Mary.org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) Assumption into heaven Pope Pius XII (1950) Mary.28. but wrought in the silence of God. in Against Helvetius.
have ventured to call the holy Virgin [T]heotokos. then. c.. Virginity after birth Mary remained a virgin after giving birth (De fide)." suggesting to the patristical writers a broader family relationship. with which [body] the [W]ord was united according to the hypostasis. 600 Explaining his rejection of Nestorius' preferred title for Mary (Christotokos. the Word from God the Father with his own flesh.) was formally affirmed at the Third Ecumenical Council held at Ephesus in 431. The definition Mother of God (in Greek:Theotokos. meaning "Birth-giver of Christ. Numerous early Church writers used analogies to explain this mystery..) Cyril wrote: "Confessing the Word to be united with the flesh according to the hypostasis.. Mother of God Main articles: Theotokos and First Council of Ephesus Mary is truly the mother of God (De fide).org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) is different from virginity of conception. and in similar fashion. but he was united by nature and not turned into flesh. but we know only one Christ. But we do not say that the Word from God dwelt as in an ordinary human born of the holy virgin. but because from her was born his holy body. Cyril explained his doctrine. We do not divide him into parts and separate man and God as though they were united with each other [only] through a unity of dignity and authority. advocated by Patriarch Nestorius of Constantinople. This belief of the Church was questioned in its early years  Today most Protestants disagree with this teaching. we worship one Son and Lord. He noted that "the holy fathers. it sabotaged the fullness of the Incarnation and. After Church fathers found common ground on Mary's virginity before.wikipedia. rationally endowed with a soul. was that Mary should be called Christotokos. mentioning the brothers of Jesus. the human who was Son of Mary. like Christ leaving the sealed tomb on Easter Sunday.. led by Cyril of Alexandria.. The council accepted Cyril's reasoning. Mother of Christ. Nestorius' opponents. the free encyclopedia http://en. but never "sons of Mary.Roman Catholic Mariology .. and is said to have been begotten according to the flesh" (Cyril's second letter to Nestorius)... by extension. not with the sort of conjunction that a human being might have with God as in a unity of dignity or authority. nor do we name separately Christ the Word from God. For Peter 7 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM . although Martin Luther and his contemporaries believed in the ever Virgin Mary  The scriptures say little about this." to restrict her role to the mother of Christ's humanity only and not his divine nature. this was the first specifically Marian doctrine to be formally defined by the Church. viewed this as dividing Jesus into two distinct persons. light and sun penetrating through glass windows.. the salvation of humanity. and anathematised Nestorius' view as heresy. for equality of honor does not unite natures. this was unacceptable since by destroying the perfect union of the divine and human natures in Christ. and the divine who was not. another Christ from the woman. not as though the nature of the [W]ord or his divinity received the beginning of their existence from the holy Virgin. affirmed the title Theotokos for Mary. or."  indicating the miraculous nature of the Virgin birth. There is. To them. or.Wikipedia. The competing view.. separately. during and after giving birth. we understand that. Jesus Christ. Madonna and Child from Saint Catherine's Monastery. one Christ and Son and Lord. (See Nestorianism) In letters to Nestorius which were afterwards included among the council documents. Pope Pius XII in Mystici Corporis "Within her virginal womb she brought into life Christ our Lord in a marvellous birth. when he became flesh. not in the same way as he is said to dwell among the saints do we distinguish the manner of the indwelling. Christ walking through closed doors.
. §3. but this does not mean Catholics were free to believe in it or not.. was established in 1476 by Pope Sixtus IV. but as specifically and explicitly contained as an object of supernatural faith in the Public Revelation of the Deposit of Faith (de fide credenda). 1854 as a truth not merely implied by the deposit of faith and discerned by the Church under the infallible guidance of the Holy Spirit (de fide tenenda).org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) and John were equal to each other in honor.. covered with a white mantle and girded with a hanging blue cord. for this is insufficient in regard to natural union. because. and often calls Mary the Blessed Virgin (Luke 1:48 (http://drbo. according to Roman Catholic dogma. and therefore that the holy virgin is Theotokos (for she bore in a fleshly manner the Word from God become flesh). And to this same girl. God. not to maintain it as such. in a French town The Virgin Mother.Roman Catholic Mariology . less than four years later. and that she was instead filled with divine grace. In Lourdes a 14-year-old girl. Ch.e)." (Cyril's third letter to Nestorius) Immaculate Conception of Mary Mary was conceived without original sin (De fide). Catholic theology maintains that. Rather we reject the term 'conjunction' as being inadequate to express the union. in her mother's womb: the dogma thus says that. In the Philippines. If anyone does not confess that Emmanuel is. The Immaculate Conception is.g. with whose vision she was favoured. in truth. who earnestly inquired the name of her. clothed in a shining white garment.. except where conferences of bishops have decided. 3. for that reason we call her Theotokos. It is further believed that she lived a life completely free from sin. Her immaculate conception in the womb of her mother. on December 8.Wikipedia. the conception of Mary. Joachim and Anne).. showed herself to a simple and innocent girl at the grotto of Massabielle. but the two were not one. with the approval of the Holy See. the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia. The Catholic Church believes the dogma is supported by Scripture (e. youthful and benign in appearance. she replied with her eyes raised to heaven and sweetly: "I am the Immaculate Conception. Bernadette Soubirous In the Roman Catholic Church. Bk 3. let him be anathema. It seemed to Pius XII that the Blessed Virgin Mary herself wished to confirm by some special sign the definition... It is a public holiday in some countries where Roman Catholicism is predominant e. she was preserved by God from the lack of sanctifying grace that afflicts mankind. Pt. by normal sexual intercourse (Christian tradition identifies her parents as Sts..g. The Immaculate Conception was solemnly defined as a dogma by Pope Pius IX in his constitution Ineffabilis Deus. should not be confused with the doctrine of the virginal conception of her son Jesus. although this is not a public holiday. celebrated on December 8. since Jesus became incarnate of the Virgin Mary. from the first moment of her existence. Mary's being greeted by Angel Gabriel as "full of grace" or "highly favoured"). it was fitting that she be completely free of sin for expressing her fiat. [T]he holy virgin gave birth in the flesh to God united with the flesh according to hypostasis. (Ott. as well as either directly or indirectly by the writings of many of the Church Fathers.1. the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception is a Holy Day of Obligation. Nor do we understand the manner of conjunction to be one of juxtaposition. He did not extraordinarily define it as a dogma at this time. 2. the predominance of Catholic Schools make it almost a holiday. the mother of Jesus without any stain of original sin. The feast of the Immaculate Conception. Italy."  For the whole Roman Catholic Church the dogma of the Immaculate Conception gained additional significance from these apparitions of Our Lady of Lourdes in 1858.org/cgi-bin/d?b=drb&bk=49& ch=001&l=48) ). Fund. both of them being apostles and holy disciples. 8 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM .
Probably composed by the 4th century.htm) . 9 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM .htm) . the more common teaching of the early Fathers is that she did. under the infallible guidance of the Holy Spirit. which. Also quite early are the very different traditions of the " ix Books"Dormition narratives (http://www. St John Damascene. Munificentissimus Deus. 2002.pdf) .edu/~sshoemak/texts/dormitionL/dormitionL1. Some flow logically from the formal dogmas of virginity. attributed to St. Dominae (http://www.uoregon. and St Modestus of Jerusalem. Mary.Roman Catholic Mariology . the free encyclopedia http://en. accounts of the bodily assumption of Mary into heaven have circulated since at least the 5th century. having completed the course of her earthly life. which Pope Pius XII referred to in Deiparae Virginis Mariae and reported in Munificentissimus Deus. although the text itself probably belongs to the 4th century. and Mariology Mary was assumed into heaven with body and soul (de fide). Although the Assumption was only recently defined as dogma. The Immaculate Conception is one basis for the 1950 dogma. The story also appears in De Transitu Virginis (http://www. Melito of Sardis that presents a theologically redacted summary of the traditions in the Liber Requiei Mariae. are an integral part of the deposit of Faith handed down by the Church. Others are century old teachings. Ancient Traditions of the Virgin Mary's Dormition and Assumption] Oxford University Press. An Armenian letter attributed to Dionysus the Areopagite also mentions the event. it was defined as definitive doctrine by Pope Pius XII: We pronounce. Other saints also describe it. The Transitus Mariae tells the story of the apostles being transported by white clouds to the death-bed of Mary. was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory. (Stephen J.Wikipedia. The earliest versions of this apocryphon are preserved by several Syriac manuscripts of the 5th and 6th centuries. written sometime after the 6th century. The Catholic Church holds many other teachings about the Virgin Mary. and immaculate conception. in the Catholic view. many of which are just as relevant as the defined teachings above. the ever Virgin Mary. The earliest assumption narrative is the so-called Liber Requiei Mariae (The Book of Mary's Repose). Later apocrypha based on these earlier texts include the De Obitu S. mother of God was free of original sin. notably St Gregory of Tours." Since the 1870 solemn declaration of Papal Infallibility by Vatican I in 1870. sinlessness. While Pope Pius XII deliberately left open the question of whether Mary died before her Assumption. The Decretum Gelasianum in the 490s declared some transitus Mariae literature as apocryphal. John. in the Apostolic Constitution Munificentissimus Deus. Shoemaker.edu/~sshoemak/texts S /Syriac/Six%20Books%20Wright. The Catholic Church itself interprets chapter 12 of the Book of Revelation as referring to it. this early Christian apocryphal narrative may be as early as the 3rd century. cults and celebrations. this declaration by Pius XII has been the only ex cathedra use of Papal Infallibility. and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma: that the Immaculate Mother of God.uoregon. although this is a much later work.uoregon. the ever virgin. Another was the century old Church-wide veneration of the Virgin Mary as being assumed into heaven.edu/~sshoemak /texts/dormitionG2/dormitionG2. a narrative which survives intact only in an Ethiopic translation. 2006). declare.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) Assumption of Mary Main articles: Assumption of Mary. a work probably from around the turn of the 6th century that is a summary of the "Six Books" narrative. each from the town where he was preaching at the hour. Theological debate about the Assumption continued until 1950 when. a late 5th century work ascribed to St.
the free encyclopedia http://en. In 10 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM . . Christians are adopted by Jesus as his "brothers"." In a separate address to the Montfortian Fathers. it follows that among all devotions that which most consecrates and conforms a soul to our Lord is devotion to Mary. since Mary is of all creatures the one most conformed to Jesus Christ. The teaching that Mary intercedes for all believers and especially those who request her intercession through prayer has been held in the Church since early times. Pope John Paul II stated that reading Saint Louis de Montfort's work on Devotion to Mary had been a "decisive turning point" in his life Mary as Mediatrix Main article: Mediatrix In Catholic teachings. Again. and gives Mary to John as his mother."" ary. But this does not exclude a secondary mediating role for Mary.. written in Greek .org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) Mary is Mother of all Christians The Catholic Church teaches that the Virgin Mary is mother of the Church and of all its members. Madonna del Popolo (Madonna of the people) 1579 The devotion to the Virgin Mary thus continues to be emphasized in Roman Catholic teachings. Mother of Christ. . . in his encyclical Rosarium Virginis Mariae. John here. For instance. from the cross gives the Apostle John to Mary as her son. in the New Testament book of John  Jesus. for example by Ephraim. They therefore share with Him the Fatherhood of God and also the motherhood of Mary. since she has by her charity joined in bringing about the birth of believers in the Church. The earliest surviving recorded prayer to Mary is the Sub tuum praesidium. in the view of several prominent.Wikipedia.. namely all Christians. She is 'clearly the mother of the members of Christ' .. Federico Barocci." In addition. but Mary is seen as having the greatest intercessionary power. is acknowledged and honoured as being truly the Mother of God and of the redeemer. preparatory. Jesus Christ is the only mediator between God and man. which he quoted:. as the sole remaining Apostle remaining steadfast with Jesus is taken to represent all loyal followers of Jesus from that time on.Roman Catholic Mariology . who are members of its head. Mother of the M  Church. the Syrian “after the mediater a mediatrix for the whole world  Intercession is something that may be done by all the heavenly saints. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: T " he Virgin Mary . Now. Mary is seen as mother of Christians because Christians are said in scripture to become spiritually part of the body of Christ. Pope John Paul II discussed how his own motto "Totus Tuus" was inspired by the writings of Saint Louis de Montfort on total consecration to the Virgin Mary. Mary has increasingly been seen as a principal dispenser of God's graces and Advocate for the people of God and is mentioned as such in several official Church documents. supportive. his Holy Mother.wikipedia. He alone reconciled through his death on the Cross creator and creation. and that the more a soul is consecrated to her the more will it be consecrated to Jesus Christ. Pope Pius IX used the title in Ineffabilis Deus. but not all Catholics. .
1310 participation by Mary in the redemption process. the Church Father (Died 200). Pope Pius XII calls Mary the Mediatrix of peace. his encyclical Superiore Anno speaks of the prayers presented to God through her whom He has chosen to be the dispenser of all heavenly graces. the free encyclopedia http://en. Pope Pius XII repeated this argument with slightly different accents in his encyclical Mystici Corporis. immaculate in her conception. neither Pius XII nor his successors moved to a closure of this issue.Wikipedia. to suffer with him under the cross and to sacrifice him for the sake of the redemption of mankind. Pope Pius X employed this title in Ad Diem Illud in 1904. Pope Benedict XV introduced it into the Marian liturgy when he created the Marian feast of The Mary. The following year. referred to Mary as "causa salutis" [cause of our salvation] given her "fiat It is teaching. Irenaeus. She gave free consent to give life to the redeemer. Pope Pius declares that “the revered Mother of God. implies that she cannot be his equal part in the redemption process. from all eternity joined in a hidden way with Jesus Christ in one and the same decree of predestination.org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) the first of his so called Rosary encyclicals. as the noble associate of the divine Redeemer  Queen of Heaven Main articles: Ad Caeli Reginam and Queen of Heaven 11 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM . Co-redemptrix refers to an indirect or unequal but important Pietro Lorenzetti. The theological discussion ongoing. issued March 22. 1884. Co-Redemptrix Main article: Co-Redemptrix Co-Redemptrix refers to the participation of Mary in the salvation process. to share his life. Already. Being redeemed by Christ. In the Papal bull Munificentissimus Deus on dogma of the assumption. a most perfect virgin in her divine motherhood.wikipedia. In his 1954 encyclical Ad caeli reginam.Roman Catholic Mariology . Mediatrix of all Graces in 1921. Inter Soldalica. The Roman Catholic view of Co-Redemptrix does not imply that Mary participates as equal part in the redemption of the human race. Co-redemption is not something new. 1918. Supremi Apostolatus (1883). Papal teaching begin to mention this aspect in official Church documents during the pontificate of Pope Pius X  Pius X referred to it in his encyclical Ad Diem Illum. which has been considered since the 15th century  but never declared a dogma. since Christ is the only redeemer  Mary herself needed redemption and was redeemed by Jesus Christ her son. Pope Leo XIII calls Our Lady the guardian of our peace and the dispensatrix of heavenly graces. Pope Benedict XV first described the term in his own right in his Apostolic Letter.
Roman Catholic Mariology . as Mother of the divine Christ. but aim to repair the sins of others against the Virgin Mary." and the "Virgin Mother who brought forth the King of the whole world. These devotions and prayers do not involve a petition for a living or deceased beneficiary. Their recounting of their experiences in time created strong emotions among numerous Roman Catholics. just as she is crowned in heavenly blessedness with the glory of a Queen: Certainly. Gregory Nazianzen "the Mother of the King of the universe. and published by the Holy See in 1898) includes a number of such prayers. who independently adopted practices and devotions. The Catholic faith teaches that Mary. As mother of God. though in a limited and analogous way."  and. Ephrem. from her union with Christ finally is derived the inexhaustible efficacy of her maternal intercession before the Son and His Father. bearing a crown of twelve stars in Revelation Many Popes have given tribute to it. Their faith and beliefs influenced priests and the higher levels of the Roman Catholic hierarchy. these devotions have not been started with decrees issued in Rome. the God-Man. too. in the full and strict meaning of the term. is King. A good example is the case of Saint Juan Diego. The Raccolta Catholic prayer book (approved by a Decree of 1854. For heaven was not Thy mother. Mariology has often developed from the ground up by the tens of millions of Catholics with a special devotion to the Blessed Virgin. has a share. but Mary."  Prudentius. Malta The doctrine that the Virgin Mary has been crowned Queen of Heaven goes back to the early patristic writers of the Church such as] St. in his struggle with His enemies and His final victory over them. The local prelate did not believe his account and asked for a miraculous sign. Unlike Roman Catholic theology which originates from the upper levels of the Church in the writings of scholars and theologians. but by religious experiences (and visions) of simple and modest individuals (in many cases children). in His royal dignity. Queen and Ruler of the Universe (Leo XIII) and Queen of the World (Pius XII)  The theological and logical foundation of these titles rests in the dogma of Mary as the Mother of God. but Thou hast made it Thy throne."  The Catholic Church often sees Mary as queen in heaven. and even as Supreme King. reigns with a mother's solicitude over the entire world. How much more honorable and venerable than the throne of a king is her mother. from her union with Christ she receives the royal right to dispose of the treasures of the Divine Redeemer's Kingdom. she participates in his salvation plan. This was provided by an icon of Our Lady of 12 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM . In several crucial cases. Reparations to the Virgin Mary Roman Catholic teachings and traditions includes specific devotions as Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary for insults that she suffers. As a young man in 1531. Mary is the Queen of Heaven and Earth. For from her union with Christ she attains a radiant eminence transcending that of any other creature. St.org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) Statue (detail) of the Assumption of Mary in Attard. "Let Heaven sustain me in its embrace.wikipedia.Wikipedia. only Jesus Christ. the free encyclopedia http://en. as His associate in the redemption. (Pius IX). the Mother marvels "that she has brought forth God as man. because I am honored above it. the Virgin Mother of God. he reported an early morning vision of the Virgin Mary in which he was instructed to build an abbey on the Hill of Tepeyac in Mexico.
wikipedia.000 people). John XXIII. has also influenced Mariology. Jacinta Marto. Pius X can accommodate 25. Paul VI 13 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM . Both saints reported a miraculous Lady on a hill who asked them to request that the local priests build a chapel at the site of the vision. beatified in 1990. The local administrator initially jailed the children and threatened that he would boil them one by one in a pot of oil. 1917. At first ridiculed. the free encyclopedia http://en. 14 year old peasant girl of no significant education. Eventually the Church believed her and she was canonized by Pope Pius XI in 1933. Influence of visions Main article: Marian apparitions Saint Juan Diego was not the only young person to report an early morning vision on a hilltop where a Lady appears and asks for a Church to be built on that hill. Within France. In 1858. the reported visions at Fatima gathered respect. Both visions included a reference to roses. and was eventually declared venerable in 1987. and canonized in 2002. Popes Pius XII. Que soy L’Immaculado concepciou.org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) Guadalupe permanently imprinted on the saint's cloak where he had gathered roses. The 20th century witnessed significant growth in the number of volunteer-based lay Marian devotional organizations. only Paris has more hotels than Lourdes. The spread of Marian devotions. Juan Diego's reported vision of the Virgin Mary was considered instrumental in the attraction of almost 8 million people to the ranks of Catholics in the Americas between 1532 and 1538. Juan Diego impacted Mariology in the Americas and beyond. Bernadette Soubirous reported her vision of a woman in white. Yet. Juan Diego did not receive a lot of attention in Rome during the 1530s. Large churches were built at the sites: Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico. The children were consoled by the other inmates in the jail. many churches were built on that hilltop (one of them. and Our Lady of Lourdes in France. who said. By all accounts. which in time influences the direction of Mariology as a whole. Saint Bernadette Soubirous's reported vision of Our Lady of Lourdes was similar.Wikipedia. In time. Lúcia Santos (middle) with her cousins Francisco and Jacinta Marto. such as the Holy Rosary via lay Catholic organizations. the Basilica of St.Roman Catholic Mariology . It now has thousands of volunteers who have distributed hundreds of millions of free rosaries to Catholic missions worldwide. questioned. With tens of millions of followers. and then led the inmates in praying the Rosary. Bernadette firmly but modestly Bernadette of Lourdes insisted on her vision. Lourdes is now a major Marian pilgrimage site. since the Church was busy with the challenges of the Protestant Reformation of 1521 to 1579. I am the Immaculate Conception and asked that a church be built there. Lucia dos Santos. and belittled by Church officials and other contemporaries. An example is Our Lady's Rosary Makers. which was formed with a $25 donation for a typewriter in 1949. With millions of followers and Roman Catholic believers. were equally young and without much education when they reported the apparition of Our Lady of Fatima in 1917. and Francisco Marto. After a canonical enquiry. such as free rosary distribution groups. A simple. Three Portuguese children. the visions of Fatima were officially declared "worthy of belief" in October 1930 by the Bishop of Leiria-Fatima. The growth of Marian devotions builds sensus fidelium.
She was initially rebuffed by her mother superior and was unable to convince theologians of the validity of her visions. Pope Pius XI stated that Jesus Christ had "manifested Himself" to Saint Margaret and referred to the conversation between Jesus and Saint Margaret several times." In 1942. and the Magisterium". who supported her. the "theology of the people".Roman Catholic Mariology . Mariologists refer to Saint Marguerite Marie Alacoque. such as the Immaculate Conception. the free encyclopedia http://en. where Pius XII supported such a faith: If the popular praises "of the Blessed Virgin Mary be given the careful consideration they deserve. who will dare to doubt that she. Catholics have viewed the Virgin Mary from a multitude of perspectives. In his encyclical Miserentissimus Redemptor. He donated the bullet that wounded him to the Roman Catholic sanctuary at Fátima. as "living proof how Marian devotion is linked to 'Christology'" and the adoration of Jesus Christ. and at times based on cultural 14 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM . John Paul II credited Our Lady of Fatima with saving his life following an assassination attempt on the Feast of Our Lady of Fatima. the 1950 declaration by Pius XII has been the first and only ex cathedra use of papal infallibility. who was purer than the angels and at all times pure. To some non-Catholics and even to some theologically oriented Catholics. a century-old sense of the faithful. The devotion to the Sacred Heart was officially recognized 75 years after Alacoque's death. Thus while the dogmatic definitions of the Assumption. Throughout the centuries. In this case. at times derived from specific Marian attributes ranging from queenship to humility. she was subjected to many trials to prove the genuineness of her vocation and her visions of Jesus and Mary relating to the Sacred Heart. Antonio da Correggio had completed his contract for the elaborate scene of the Assumption in the Cathedral of Palermo. with some delay. A noted exception was Saint Claude de la Colombière. Since the 1870 solemn declaration of Papal Infallibility by Vatican I. Thus. The Vatican quotes in this context Fulgens Corona. the Lady in White reportedly declared she was the Virgin of the Poor and said: "Believe in me and I will believe in you. the Holy See permitted the local bishop to allow the veneration of the Virgin of the Poor. Nevertheless. popular Mariology has been a major driving force in the past 150 years. Mariette Beco was twelve years old when she reported Marian apparitions in 1933 in Banneux. even for the briefest instant. the Church. Belgium. the profound and century-old sense of the faithful took precedence over academic theology. the sensus fidelium was already being shaped in the Middle Ages. like Karl Rahner. 1981. this sensus fidei has some problems. Portugal. but due to a profound sensus fidelium. as an official Vatican website admitted in 2004.org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) and John Paul II voiced their acceptance of the supernatural origin of the Fatima events. and by 1530. not free from every stain of sin?" In several Marian teachings.wikipedia. listened to the Mariological faith. took place only in the 20th century. ex cathedra dogmas: Immaculate Conception (1854) and Assumption (1950). Impact on the Catholic Church While these and many other persons all faced problems for an initial period.Wikipedia. She made a vow at age 14 to dedicate her life to the Virgin Mary. It led to the two infallible. As a simple Marian nun. was at any moment. Identical arguments were made for the dogma of the Assumption by Pope Pius XII. "The dogma of the Immaculate Conception was defined by Pius IX not so much because of proofs in Scripture or ancient tradition.
Roman Catholic Mariology . psychologists and liberal Catholics.  However. opposing views based on progressive interpretations of have been presented by feminists. and not in Spanish. The concept of the Virgin of humility was developed in the 14th century in order to accommodate Franciscan piety.Wikipedia. by depicting the Madonna sitting on the ground. accompanied by devotions and venerations. merciful figure of Kuanyin. An example of the changing perspectives on the Virgin Mary based on specific spiritual views. The image of the Virgin of Guadalupe that is highly venerated in Mexico has the appearance of a South American. While depictions of the Virgin Mary as the Queen of Heaven or Coronation of the Virgin by artists such as Paolo Veneziano or Giuliano da Rimini were common in the early part of the 14th century. rather than a European woman. Yet these views have changed and been transformed over time. partly due to the cultural acceptance of humility as a virtue in China. and is the primary view of Mary among millions of Catholics in Mexico in the 21st century. signify the regal status of the Virgin. Italy go back to the Renaissance. rather than a throne. In parallel with the traditional approaches to Mariology. It offered a view of the Virgin Mary (often barefoot) as a mother nursing a child. and partly due to its similarity to the motherly. The legends of the miracles of the Maddona of Orsanmichele in Florence. Traditional views Traditional views on May have emphasized the Marian dogmas and doctrines. but as a tanned Aztec princess who spoke in his local Nahuatl language. a dual view had emerged in Europe. Pope John Paul II reinforced the localization of this view by permitting local Aztec dances during the ceremony in which he declared Juan Diego a saint. the free encyclopedia http://en. and the clothing of the Virgin of Guadalupe has been identified as that of an Aztec princess. the depiction of star and the gems. called Juan Diego "the talking eagle" and asked him to show "the way that leads to the Dark Virgin of Tepeyac". spoke in Nahuatl as part of the ceremony.  The view of the Virgin Mary as a "miracle worker" has existed for centuries and is still held by many Catholics in the 21st century. Juan Diego did not describe the Virgin Mary as either European or Middle Eastern. as represented by Domenico di Bartolo's 1433 Madonna of humility which expressed the symbolic duality of her nature: an earthly barefoot woman. 12/8/2010 6:32 PM . as well as a heavenly queen. The Virgin of Guadalupe was a turning point in the conversion of South America to Catholicism. and its adoption within a culture a world away is the transformation of the image of Mary from a Heavenly Queen to a mother of humility. as well as a halo. made entirely with keys donated by Mexicans. rather than a Queen in a coronation scene. and it continues to be venerated today as the Patron of Poland. as she is being attended to while she holds the Child Jesus.wikipedia. they did not fit with the virtue of humility which was a key tenet of the spirituality of Saint Francis of Assisi. the notion of the Virgin of humility resonated well with the Chinese. which was much admired in south China. Despite her low. Saint Juan Diego's account of the appearance of the Virgin of Guadalupe to him in 1531 on Tepeyac Hill in Mexico provides another example of the cultural adaptation of the view of the Virgin Mary.org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) preferences of events taking place at specific points in history. by the middle of the 15th century. The legends of miracles performed by the image of the Black Madonna of Częstochowa also go back for centuries. 15 of 23 A statute of John Paul II with Our Lady of Guadalupe. As the Franciscans began to preach in China. and the construction of views to accommodate both perspectives. sitting position.
To that end books on "feminist Mariology" have been published to present opposing interpretations and perspectives.org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) Every year. Feminists contend that as with other women saints such as Joan of Arc the image of Mary is a construct of the patriarchal mind. a number of progressive and liberal perspectives of Mariology have been presented. millions of Catholic pilgrims visit the Basilica at Our Lady of Lourdes in search of miraculous cures. and as a symbol of the systemic patriarchal oppression of women within the Church.  Groups of liberal Catholics view the traditional image of the Virgin Mary as presented by the Catholic Church as an obstacle towards realization of the goal of womanhood. shown in this statue at the Louvre. Other liberal Christians argue that the modern concepts of equal opportunity for men and women does not resonate well with the humble image of Mary. unless they have been subject to extensive analysis.Wikipedia. ranging from the study of the similarities of the Virgin Mary and the Buddhist Goddess Tara. old gender stereotypes persist within traditional Marian teachings and theological doctrines. These views are generally critical of the Roman Catholic approach to Mariology as well as the Eastern Orthodox church which has even more Marian emphasis within its official liturgy. A large number of other psychological interpretations have been presented through the years. the Vatican has generally been reluctant to approve of modern miracles. Freud argued that the image of Mary was a reconstruction of the worship paid to the mythical Goddess Diana. some liberal Catholics view the cultivation of the traditional image of Mary as a method of manipulation of Catholics at large by the Church hierarchy. In the feminist view. Freud argued that Marian venerations were a surrogate for the worship of the Goddess Diana. While Eastern Catholics respect papal authority. ranging from feminist criticisms to interpretations based on modern psychology and liberal Catholic viewpoints. Since the Reformation many Christians have opposed Marian venerations and that trend has continued into the 21st century among progressive and liberal Christians who see the high level of attention paid to the Virgin Mary both as being without sufficient grounding in Scripture and as distraction from the worship due to Christ. They argue that Marian dogmas and doctrines and the typical forms of Marian devotion reinforce patriarchy by offering women temporary comfort from the ongoing opperession inflicted on them by male dominated churches and societies. Liberal perspectives Since the end of the 19th century. on the other hand. Moreover. The psychological analysis of Marian teachings dates back to Sigmond Freud who used the title of a poem by Goethe in his 1911 paper Great is Diana of the Ephesians. Eastern theology differs on specific Marian Roman Catholic Mariology 16 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM . and largely hold the same theological beliefs as Roman Catholics. Although millions of Catholics hope for miracles on their pilgrimages.Roman Catholic Mariology .wikipedia. Carl Jung. viewed the Virgin Mary as a spiritual version of the more loving Goddess Eros. or the humble and loving figure presented by the East Asian Goddess Kwan Yin. obediently and subserviently kneeling before Christ. the free encyclopedia  http://en.
wikipedia. Original Sin as defined by St. Since 1976.He granted the foundation of the Academia Mariana Salesiana. Furthermore. Eastern Catholics recognized from ancient times that Mary was preserved by God from sin. who was earlier canonized by Pius XII. Pontifical Marian International Academy (http://accademiamariana. However. The Academy supports Salesian studies to further the veneration of the Blessed Virgin in the tradition of Saint John Bosco. much of the literature and publications on Mariology and centers for its study have been related to the Church of Rome.org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) beliefs.Wikipedia. Marian Prayers Immaculate Conception The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception is a teaching of Eastern origin but expressed in the terminology of the Western Church. It is authorized to grant all academic degrees. which is a part of a papal university. the Centro Mariano Montfortano was moved from Bergamo to Rome. It coordinates activities of Marian centres in Italy.Also in 1950. The PAMI has the task of coordinating the other Marian Academies and Societies that exist all over the world and to exercise vigilance against any Marian excess or minimalism. and organizes Marian pilgrimages and Marian study weeks for priests. Academia Mariana Salesiana . Marianum was created in 1950 and entrusted to the Order of Servites. which promulgates the Marian orientation of Montfort. so its absence is not an Eastern expression. However. A series of articles on Assumption of Mary The traditional Eastern expression of this doctrine is the Dormition of the Theotokos which emphasises her falling asleep to be later assumed into heaven. The formal study of Mariology within the circles associated with the Holy See took a major step forward between the Holy Year 1950 and 1958 based on the actions of Pope Pius XII. Collegamento Mariano Nazionale (1958). It publishes the monthly Madre e Regina.the last Marian initiative of Pope Pius XII. Augustine of Hippo is a Western concept. The Centro promulgates the teachings of Saint Louis de Montfort. the free encyclopedia http://en. who authorized institutions for increased academic research into the veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary. John XXIII with the Apostolic Letter Maiora in Dies defined the purpose of the PAMI: to promote and animate studies of Mariology through International Mariological Marian Congresses and other academic meetings and to see to the publication of their studies. every two years the Marianum organizes international conferences to find modern formulations which approximate the mystery of Mary.org/) The PAMI is an international pontifical organization connecting all Promoters of Mariology. including a doctorate in theology. For this reason the Pope determined that in the Academy there be a Council that assures the organization of Congresses and the coordination of the Mariological Societies. Alma Redemptoris Mater Angelus As a Child I Loved You Ave Maris Stella Ave Regina Caelorum Fatima Prayer Flos Carmeli Hail Mary Hail Mary of Gold Immaculata prayer Immaculate Mary Magnificat Mary Our Queen Memorare Regina Coeli Rosary Salve Regina Stabat Mater Sub Tuum Praesidum Three Hail Marys 17 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM . Promoters and Teachers of Mariology. have no difficulty affirming it or even dedicating their churches to the Virgin Mary under this title. Protestants and Muslim. Centro Mariano Montfortano. Orthodox. Eastern Catholics while not observing the Western feast.Roman Catholic Mariology . Catholics. The differences in these observances is for some Eastern Catholics superficial. Roman Catholics in general object to this doctrine.
 This Pontifical Catholic institute was founded by Father Gabriel Roschini (who directed it for several years) under the direction of Pope Pius XII in 1950.org/oclc/58964281) .org/oclc/225875371) .worldcat.org/details /mariologydogmati00pohluoft. John (2006). Everything profiles series. OCLC 1453529 (http://www.Wikipedia. I.google. Seminarians. California: Queenship Pub.archive. Of these organizations.L. the Marianum is the most active marilogical centre in Rome. ^ (Cf. 1999 ISBN 0877790442 page 696  (http://books. (2008). Mass: Adams Media. At the Marianum. California: Queenship Pub. Mother of God (http://www.. founded by Father Roschini in 1939. Joseph (1948) . Santa Barbara. This mariological facility has a library with more than 85. et al. Co. OCLC 58964281 (http://www. Louis. Art 6 as 4um). Mariology: A Guide for Priests. Q. Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary Anglican Marian theology Anglican Roman Catholic International Commission Islamic view of Virgin Mary Marian devotions Protestant views of Mary Josephology 1. Burke. Mariology. 2009. The Everything Mary Book.org/oclc/1453529) . St. ISBN 9781882972067. ISBN 0852446500. Introduction to Mary: The Heart of Marian Doctrine and Devotion.) and a licentiate in sacred theology (S. ^ Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions by Wendy Doniger. Haffner. the University of Dayton in Ohio formed the International Marian Research Institute in affiliation with the Marianum to offer a doctorate in sacred theology (S. Goleta. Jenny.).org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) In addition it started Marian youth gatherings and publishes the journal Madonna. Raymond L. http://www. Pohle. Co. ^ Msgr Joseph Pohle.com /books?id=ZP_f9icf2roC&pg=PA696& dq=art+veneration+virgin+mary&hl=en& ei=112ZTJyCE8rLswbk2aWsDA& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2& ved=0CCkQ6AEwATg8#v=onepage& q=art%20veneration%20virgin%20mary&f=false) 4. Marianum is also the name of the prestigious journal of Marian theology. ISBN 1593377134. 2.T.org/oclc/70167611) . Hillenbrand Books studies series. OCLC 70167611 (http://www. Schroedel. Avon. The Mystery of Mary.worldcat. Mark I.000 volumes on Mariology and a number of magazines and journals of theological and Mariological concern.org/details/mariologydogmati00pohluoft) . one can get a Master's degree in Mariology (2-year academic program) and one can also get a doctorate in Mariology. Arthur. A Dogmatic Treatise on the Blessed Virgin Mary. (1993). OCLC 28849399 (http://www. ISBN 9781579183554. the free encyclopedia http://en.T. Paul (2004). Mariology Bibiolife ISBN 1110507682 page 3 3.org/oclc/28849399) .worldcat.D. Schroedel.worldcat. Summa Theologiae.archive.worldcat. ed. Leominster.wikipedia. Deacons.Roman Catholic Mariology . Preuss. and Consecrated Persons. ^ Symbolic scores: studies in the music of the Renaissance by Willem Elders 1997 ISBN 18 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM . In 1975. Herefordshire: Gracewing Press. Mo: Herder Book. OCLC 225875371 (http://www. 25. Miravalle.
^ Vatican website (http://www. she was the first to 29." (Paul VI. Part 2. James Faiths of the World. 2003 experience it: "To the wonderment of nature you bore ISBN 076614304X page 615 your Creator"! Pope John Paul II.com that the conciliar text places this truth about the /books?id=PE6MlDNijNAC&pg=PR4& Church as the Body of Christ (according to the dq=Maiden+and+Mother+mary+%22+Margaret+M. page 174 /2hearts&consec. in 32. ^ Leo Cardinal Scheffczyk. 13. 12. Hymns.google.vatican. 9. 2004 The mystery of Mary /hf_jp-ii_spe_19860922_simposio-mariaGracewing Press ISBN 0852446500 page 17 gesu_en. As the loving Burke et al. ^ Schmaus. ^ Gardner. 2008 ISBN 9781579183554 pages xiii–x Mother of the Redeemer. in Vittorio Messori. ^ "If we look at the Church. in Marienkunde.va. The Alliance of the Two Hearts 20. in Ad Diem Illum. ^ At the center of this mystery. 2008 Mariology: A Guide for mystery of the Church-the Body of Christ. Deacons. Vitz 1993 ISBN 0802806902 page 191 26.org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) 5. 11. Mary. ^ Mariology: A Guide for Priests. 33. ^ Schmaus. http://www. Maria Mayo Robbins 2005 ISBN 25. Mariologie. 1993. 1967 ^ Proceedings of the International Theological 566 Symposium on the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus 24. 2006 The Everything Mary Book 12/8/2010 6:32 PM . 6. the free encyclopedia http://en. Devotions.org/pages/calkins 22."11 It is significant 0860123057 page vii  (http://books.htm) 23. Barock. September 1986. Mariologie. 1955 page 233 Mater. John Mary's Immaculate Heart 2007 Michael Testa.va/holy_father 19. by ved=0CCQQ6AEwADhQ#v=onepage& presenting Mary in the mystery of Christ. ^ see Pius XII. Introduction to Mary. Vaticanum II. the Church. ^ Otto Stegmüller. "which the the Year by Margaret M. 51 31. ^ a b A feminist companion to Mariology by Budapest: 1873 Amy-Jill Levine.vatican. stands Mary. pages 164–168 page 900 28. 16.html) 1964) ^ Arthur Calkins.com 17. Rome: 2005 /john_paul_ii/speeches/1986/september/documents ^ Paul Haffner. in Redemptoris 30. 19 of 23 ISBN 1593377134 page 219 9004099700 page 151  (http://books. November 21. ^ Murphy. Miles Immaculatae XXXI 21. in ^ See Pius XII Mystici corporis Christi. Vatican.Roman Catholic Mariology . 567 Newman: Mariology is always christocentric. München: 1955. ei=tGKZTIvnB8yOswangKWsDA& 18. ^ Bäumer 534 ^ a b Encyclopedia of psychology and religion: L . ISBN by David Adams Leeming 2009 ISBN 038771801X 9781882972067. 7. gesu_en. we have to have to /john_paul_ii/speeches/1986/september/documents consider the miraculous deeds which God performed /hf_jp-ii_spe_19860922_simposio-mariawith his mother. 15. the Mother of the Incarnate Word. The Website" (http://www. John Henry Marienlexikon. ^ Pope Saint Pius X.  1904 (http://www.+Miles%22& teaching of the Pauline Letters) in close proximity to hl=en&ei=W5-ZTJisEsHLswaMgaWjDA& the truth that the Son of God "through the power of sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1& the Holy Spirit was born of the Virgin Mary. Lumen Gentium and /books?id=UFFJb3uNxdUC&pg=PA151& Redemptoris Mater provide a modern Catholic dq=art+veneration+virgin+mary&hl=en& understanding of this link. (July/December 1995) 389-407. 14. also finds q=art%20veneration%20virgin%20mary&f=false) the path to a deeper understanding of the mystery of ^ Maiden and Mother: Prayers.html) Paul C. Mystici corporis. Miles 2001 ISBN Lord established as his own body.Wikipedia." The ved=0CCUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false) reality of the Incarnation finds an extension in the ^ Raymond Burke.vatican.va/holy_father 0826466613 page 147 abc /john_paul_ii/audiences/alpha ^ Sigmund Freud's Christian unconscious by /data/aud19930324en. ^ "Pope John Paul II 1986 Speech at the Vatican "Mariology Is Christology".vatican. ^ Pope John Paul II 1986 Speech at the Vatican Redemptoris Mater 44 Website (http://www. And one Priests. Vatican II. Portugal monumentis omnium seculrorum demonstrate III. in the midst of this Seminarians.html) . and Consecrated cannot think of the reality of the Incarnation without Persons ISBN 1579183557 page xxi referring to Mary. 328 and Consecration. conceptu immacolata ex and Mary. ^ A Roskovany.va/holy_father Mary Hypothesis. as the Mother of Christ. 10.va ^ Jenny Schroede. 8. ^ Theological Studies Volume 16. ^ Mark Miravalle. also John Paul II in sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1& Redemptoris Mater: The Second Vatican Council. seminarians. Fátima.Z 27. Deacons. and Consecrated Persons by Raymond wonderment of faith. section 5.google. Mary: The Virgin Mary in the Life ISBN 1-4067-3409-8 page 37 and pages 59–60 and Writings of John Henry Newman 2001.christendom-awake.wikipedia. is in a and Songs to the Beloved Virgin Mary Throughout particular way united with the Church. ^ Mystici Corporis.
Miles Immaculatae XXXI (July/December 1995) 389–407. 60.org/content /view/1402/857/ ^ 1 Tim. 41. pointing to Mary’s role in the history of salvation ^ Para? 146 ^ Para 496. Finally its credenda status was solemnized by an extraordinary papal definition.93. 52. 61.htm Nicea II Session 6 Decree ^ http://www. ^ morando partu edidit Encyclical Mystici Corporis 110 ^ Hieronymus. Clement of Alexandria. at least since the time Scotus had formulated his answer to the last remaining objection (that it would imply Mary needed no saviour) it had been infallibly taught by the ordinary and universal magisterium as at least implied by the deposit of faith (de fide tenenda). 37. 63. 68. However.htm) ^ Ecclesiam Suam 58 ^ Ad diem illum items 16–20 ^ Pope John Paul II. 64.  (http://www.22 Augustine. 38. ^ Mark Miravalle. 45. The Alliance of the Two Hearts and Consecration. 53. 40. and even sometimes extraordinarily by popes. ^ Fulgens corona 3 ^ In the encclical Deiparae Virginis Mariae Pope Pius canvased Catholic bishops before making a final decicion on the dogma ^ Apostolic Constitution Munificentissimus Deus. Rosarium Virginis Mariae. even before its 19th century extraordinary papal definition as a dogma.5 ^ Oratio IV ad Deiparem ^ and dating from approximately AD 250 ^ Ad Caeli Reginam. Julian apostate. Salamanca. 48. 71. 1993. Lev hom 8.Origin.org/article-5650?l=english ^ Ott 256 ^ 1Tim 2. 55.Wikipedia. 181 ^ Mystici Corporis 110 20 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM . 34 ^ Tertullian.2 Ambrose of Milan epistulae. Section 963 ^ Chapter 19. 72. 59.html ^ Pope John Paul II on Saint Louis de Montfort http://www. ^ As the Virgin Mary remained an ever-virgin and sinless. which is chiefly Death. ^ This is a teaching taught infallibly as de fide credenda by the ordinary and universal magisterium of the Church. La vergenidad in partu en la exegesis patristica. Vatican.wikipedia. 21. and other theological reasons. Ignatius of Antioch. longstanding teaching on this issue. Epistulae 49. 36. 19. 1962. 42.5 ^ Ott Dogmatics 256 ^ Ott 256. 49.org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) 34. ^ Arthur Calkins.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii /apost_letters/documents/hf_jpii_apl_20021016_rosarium-virginis-mariae_en.org/pages/calkins /2hearts&consec.vatican. 50. too. Retrieved 04 Oct 2010.4 ^ J D Aldama. ^ Ad diem Illum 14 ^ a b AAS.ewtn. 49. Eph. of faith (de fide credenda).christendom-awake. Bonosus of Sardica Ott. 39.catholicregister. Articuli smalcaldi I. 46.vatican. Retrieved 2010-11-20. Cerinth and the Ebonites ^ which Christians believe is messianic. 70.com/library/COUNCILS /NICAEA2. 43. 51 ^ . by the ordinary and universal magisterium. Introduction to Mary. no 44."http://www.1. 66. 2. 44. 249 ^ ex maria pura sancta simper virgine. is a good example of the development of doctrine in Catholic thought. 62.org/fathers /3819. but de fide credenda. http://www. 56. in the centuries before the papal definition the consensus had grown to the point where it was infallibly taught as not merely de fide tenenda. 26-27. 54. http://www. And consensus since then had been growing that it was not merely implied by the deposit 51. Eunomius. Queenship Publishing ISBN 9781882972067 page 51 ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §499 ^ Celsus. It is important to note that the Catholic Church does not base its teaching about the Assumption on any apocryphal account. ^ This dogma. Srom VII. Iriniaeus Epid 54.html. but specifically and explicitly revealed (de fide credenda).zenit.HTM#2 Nicaea II Definition. "without blemish" ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church Part 1. The existence of the feast was a strong indication of the Church's belief in the Immaculate Conception.html. 47.newadvent.Roman Catholic Mariology . "Apostolic Letter of the Supreme Pontiff on the Most Holy Rosary" (http://www. Enchidrion. 67. ^ Pope John Paul II's encyclical Rosarium Virginis Mariae http://www.va/holy_father /john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jpii_apl_20021016_rosarium-virginis-mariae_en. the free encyclopedia http://en. Helvisius. /holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/1986/september /documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_19860922_simposio-mariagesu_en. 35. 58.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii /apost_letters/documents/hf_jpii_apl_20021016_rosarium-virginis-mariae_en. 1918.vatican. but rather on discernment of the Tradition of the Church. 65. it is viewed that the Virgin Mary could not thus suffer the consequences of Original Sin.html) . 113 ^ Though questions and ambiguities remained. 69. It is a truth infallibly taught since long ago as at least implied by the deposit of faith (de fide tenenda) by the ordinary and universal magisterium. 16. 57.
^ Ad Caeli reginam 39 81. ^ R Lauretin.fides. ^ Mujer del maiz by Angel Vigil 1994 ISBN 1563081946 pages 16–19 108. 10 93. 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X 82. 1947 91. 1951. ^ 12. Maria. ^ Lourdes: A History of Its Apparitions and Cures by Georges Bertrin 2004 ISBN 1417981237 page 21 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM .. humbly invoking the Divine Spirit and placing ourselves under the protection of the most Holy Virgin. Banneux. Gregorius Naz. XXVII: PL LX. Lamy. Regensburg. ^ Lauren Arnold in Atlantic Monthly. 2) Permit officially the cult of Our Lady of Fatima. Paris: 1957 85. ^ Our Lady of Guadalupe by Jeanette Rodríguez 1994 ISBN 0292770626 pages 44–46 110.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii /homilies/2002/documents/hf_jpii_hom_20020731_canonization-mexico_en. 2003 The Raccolta St Athanasius Press ISBN 978-0-9706526-6-9 84.vatican. 2010. 220-247 94. ^ Ad Caeli reginam 39 80. 76. v.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii /homilies/2002/documents/hf_jpii_hom_20020731_canonization-mexico_en. ^ Art and music in the early modern period by Franca Trinchieri Camiz. McIver ISBN 0754606899 page 15 107. and after hearing the opinions of our Rev.1 ". ^ Piety and charity in late medieval Florence by John Henderson 1997 ISBN 0226326888 page 196 115. 485. Advisors in this diocese. (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3) 89.M. 1886. ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. 58. Retrieved November 18. Swinton Blandpages 2004 ISBN 1419173081 pages 4–6 114. p.org /cathen/12620a.org /eng/approfondire/totustuus/immacolata02. parish of Fatima. 111. Marguerite Marie Alacoque. ^ John De Marchi. ^ The image of Guadalupe by Jody Brant Smith 1995 ISBN 0865544212 pages 1–2 112. 75. 1930. 2008 95. p. ^ Maximilian Kolbe: Saint of Auschwitz by Elaine Murray Stone 1997 ISBN 0809166372 pages 7–8 117. Dittochaeum. the free encyclopedia http://en. Christopher et al. Katherine A. O'Grady 2002 ISBN 0809140470 page 183 98.org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) 73. PG XXXVII. 102 A. ^ J. Straus and Young 86. 87. ^ Joseph P. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia http://www. 77. hymn.vatican. La Vierge des Pauvres. the visions of the shepherd children in the Cova da Iria. ^ The great encounter of China and the West by David E. ^ Iconography of Christian Art by Gertrud Schiller 1971 ASIN: B0023VMZMA page 112 102. Encyclical of Pope Pius XI  (http://www. October 13. verses 1-5.html) . ^ Pilgrimage to images in the fifteenth century by Robert Maniura 2004 ISBN 1843830558 page 104 116. ^ Catholic beliefs and traditions: ancient and ever new by John F. ^ Ann Ball. ^ van Houtryve. ^ a b Encyclopedia of feminist literature by Mary Ellen Snodgrass 2006 ISBN 0816060401 page 547 99. Dossier des documents authentiques.Wikipedia.newadvent. Th. ed. Bernard Samuel Myers. ^ in:enyclical Ad caeli reginam 79. J. ^ Munificentissimus Deus 40 74. ^ Fulgens Corona. ^ Art treasures in Italy by Giulio Carlo Argan. 101 88. 78. ^ Prudentius. Mechliniae. XIX. 1999 Princely Gifts & Papal Treasures: The Franciscan Mission to China by ISBN 0967062802 page 151 104. ^ S. ^ Renaissance art: a topical dictionary by Irene Earls 1987 ISBN 0313246580 page 174 103. http://www. New York: Farrar. ^ Lauren Arnold.vatican. II. Annette Grant Cash 1997 ISBN 0813120195 page 6–7 113. 624. t. September 2007 105. ^ "Canonization of Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin" (http://www. ^ a b Empire of the Aztecs by Barbara A. Somervill 2009 ISBN 1604131497 page 132 109.html) 90.html.html) 92.wikipedia.va/holy_father /pius_xi/encyclicals/documents/hf_pxi_enc_08051928_miserentissimusredemptor_en. ^ a b c The thousand faces of the Virgin Mary by George Henry Tavard 1996 ISBN 0814659144 page 253 100. and others which for reason of brevity we omit.Congregazione per l'Evangelizzazione dei Popoli (http://www. Lourdes. C.htm 83. Bishope of Lire-Fatima. Richard Terry Mount. Hans Küng. ^ S.Roman Catholic Mariology . Mungello 1999 ISBN 0847694399 page 27 106. Ephraem. Hymni de B. XVIII. Trewin Copplestone 1969 ASIN: B001KV9P90 page 167 96. ^ Miracles of the Blessed Virgin Mary by Johannes Herolt. from 13 May to 13 October 1917. The Immaculate Heart. in this diocese. ^ Miserentissimus Redemptor. ^ Karl Rahner. we hereby: 1) Declare worthy of belief. ^ a b Agenzia Fides . Poemata dogmatica. ^ The thousand faces of the Virgin Mary by George Henry Tavard 1996 ISBN 0814659144 pages vii–viii and 81 97. C. ^ "In virtue of considerations made known. ^ Schmaus Mariologie. ^ Miracles of Our Lady by Gonzalo de Berceo. ^ A history of ideas and images in Italian art by James Hall 1983 ISBN 0064333175 page 223 101..Böhr. Das neue Dogma.
Wikipedia.982807. ISBN 3-88096-891-8 (cit. Pope Pius IX.udayton.edu/mary/) Saint Louis de Montfort True Devotion to Mary ISBN 1593304706. Storia culturale di mariologia.time. encyclical.6. ^ Progressive Christianity by William A.newadvent.html) Apostolic Constitution Munificentissimus Deus on the Vatican Website (http://www. ^ University of Dayton Marian Institute (http://campus. ^ http://www. München Vol V. (Marianum) Maria. ^ Mary is for Everyone by William McLoughlin. Apostolic Constitution Apostolic Constitution Ineffabilis Deus (http://www.net/ Many Eastern Catholic churches bear the titles of Latin Rite doctrines such as the Assumption of Mary.org/doctrine. Geoffrey William Bromiley 2003 ISBN 9004126546 page 339 119.org/library/docs_pi09id.va/holy_father/pius_xii /encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xii_enc_11101954_ad-caeli-reginam_en. ^ http://www. 130. 1967 Remigius Bäumer.00. Leo Scheffczyk (Hrsg.html) Pope John Paul II. 534 131.html. Jill Pinnock 1998 ISBN 085244429X page 183 121. Feckes.com/time/magazine/article /0.wikipedia.htm) Luigi Gambero. Cynthia L.html) Encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam on the Vatican website (http://www. Verlag Friedrich Pustet.east2west.org/doctrine. Cinisello Balsamo 2005.assumptioncatholicchurch.htm#IC Explanation of the Immaculate Conception from an Easern Catholic perspective 129. Boes. Nuovissimo dizionario. Ignatius Press ISBN 0898706866 Michael Schmaus. ^ "Modern Miracles Have Strict Rules (David van Biega. 1999. Mariology Society of America  (http://mariologicalsociety. ^ The encyclopedia of Christianity. Rome 133. ^ Blessed one: Protestant perspectives on Mary by Beverly Roberts Gaventa. Mary and the Fathers of the Church. Saints. ^ http://www. 2010. 18. 1994. Feasts and Prayer by George Dion Dragas 2005 ISBN 0974561800 page 178 128.982807. ^ a b c Bäumer. (Marianum).00. 120. http://www. Rigby 2002 ISBN 0664224385 page 102 126. Stefano de Fiores. ^ a b Bäumer.html) .) Marienlexikon Gesamtausgabe. referenced as AAS by year.html) Encyclical Mystici Corporis Christi on the Vatican website (http://www. Volume 3 by Erwin Fahlbusch.va/holy_father/pius_xii /encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xii_enc_08091953_fulgens-corona_en. Bologna 2006. Vrooman 2005 ISBN 1417998296 page 150 123. sintesi di valori. Egelhard. ^ Christianity: the first two thousand years by David Lawrence Edwards 2001 ISBN 0304701270 pages 438-439 124.org/wiki/Mariology_(Roman_Catholic) 181 118. Katholische Dogmatik. Institutum Marianum Regensburg.com) Acta Apostolicae Sedis. apostolic letters and addresses 22 of 23 12/8/2010 6:32 PM .Roman Catholic Mariology . Maria.vatican.9171. Bäumer) Stefano De Fiores.htm#dormition Comparison of the Assumption and the Dormition of Mary 127.9171. Time Magazine April 10 1995" (http://www.com /time/magazine/article/0. 535 132. Regensburg. Marienlexikon. ^ Carl Jung by Claire Dunne 2002 ISBN 082646307X page 84 122. Michael Schmaus.htm) Pope Pius XII. the free encyclopedia http://en. also available as online text  (http://www.info/TrueDevotion/Default. Lexikon der Marienkunde. 2 Vols. encyclicals and bulls Encyclical Fulgens Corona on the Vatican website (http://www. ^ Ecclesiasticus II: Orthodox Icons.va/holy_father /pius_xii/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xii_enc_29061943_mystici-corporis-christi_en.vatican. ^ at Viale 30 Aprile.va /holy_father/pius_xii/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_p-xii_apc_19501101_munificentissimusdeus_en.time.vatican.vatican. Mariologie. ^ Hail Mary?: the struggle for ultimate womanhood in Catholicism by Maurice Hamington 1995 ISBN 0415913047 pages 2 and 36 125. Retrieved November. 1955 K Algermissen.east2west. 00153.catholictreasury. Marienlexikon.