# Cartography: The Art & Science of Maps “It is often said that a picture is worth thousand words, but a map

can be worth a million.” H.J. de Blij Cartography is about depicting geographic knowledge graphically on maps. It is an intimate part of geography. It is the best way to learn about a region’s fundamental dynamics. A map is a form of communication, a report. Basic Cartography (D.O.G.)Latitudes are East-West, Equator = 0 (D.O.G.)Longitude is North-South. (D.O.G.)The Prime Meridian or Greenwich Line is 0. (D.O.G.)The International Date Line is halfway at 180. (D.O.G.)A Projection is a mathematical way of putting the earth on paper. (This is a relief map, because of the way it shows elevation changes on the land.) Cartography—the art and science of making maps GIS—Geographic Information Systems—using a computer program to analyze the varying layers of a spatial perspective
Projections are mathematical ways of putting the earth on paper. The earth is NOT a flat piece of paper. In the attempts to “flatten” our sphere, distortions will happen. GIS is also used for composing and printing maps. This is a relief map, because it shows elevation changes on the land.

(D.O.G.)Scale—The ratio between map distance and real-world distance (D.O.G.)Mercator Projection – It distorts the poles so that Greenland is the size of South America. (D.O.G.)A Robinson projection – it tries to preserve the sphere by removing the poles. (D.O.G.)Goode’s projection which preserves the sphere by cutting it up like an orange peel. This does leave large “inconsistencies” (e.g. gaps) in the map. Why Assign Maps? 1. It is the best way to learn regional geography 2. This is a practice for the real working world  Sloppy work means demotion or lack of employment  Good work equals proof of following instructions and being responsible  Extra credit shows management that you are a hard worker. You are willing to give that extra bit to make a project not good—but great Learn now and profit later. Goof off now and you may will not be going

what is the purpose of this map? For this map.g. Rivers should not be brown. It also has both an author and a sponsor. Title North Arrow Scale Legend/Key Sources Author/Sponsor Date This map is a good map because it has all of the map requirements. it is a teaching tool. like art. 3.g. that is a matter of opinion. If there is an imperfection it is in not showing the parts of Asia that neighbor it. Asia Minor is not in China) Crayon is not professional No scale or date If I had assigned this as his boss. 5. Bad Example 1 Water is blue (e. scale and sources are aligned symmetrically  Arrow to location only used where the space is too small for text Is this the perfect map? Well. he would definitely be headed down to the mailroom—no promotion Bad Example 2 Oceans are blue (If you must color.anywhere. it is a complete map of the country of Japan.) . 6. 4.g. or orange) Draw and Identify the entire river (e. However. pink. (Often maps produced commercially only have the name of the company that produced it. 2. and for this function it is a good map. red. To discuss the potential military threats to Japan or its land cover.) Cartographic Techniques  Lettering neatly placed  Lettering fits within the lines of both the map and the islands  Size of water bodies reflected in the size of the text  Arrow. Region Map Requirements 1. The Nile does not end in Sudan. do it correctly. Sometimes that will include a separate sponsor as well.) Label neatly Label accurately (e. The individual cartographer usually does not have his/her name attached to the map in these cases. 7. it would be grossly inadequate. Which brings up. In this case it has both a legend and a vegetation key.

T. so probably no promotion. Date Line = 180 Latitudes: Equator = 0 Summation 2 Region Map Requirements • Title • North Arrow • Scale • Legend/Key • Sources • Author/Sponsor • Date Common Sense • Neat • Accurate • Organized • Appropriate colors • Appropriate symbols • Thorough • Professional . Follow instructions! Good example Lettering neat Colors appropriate Use of symbols appropriate Region map requirements obvious All C.A. this person would have to re-do the project. Summation 1 Longitudes: Prime Meridian = 0.g.s are on the map Very well organized This person would probably get a raise.Using number or letters as label keys is only accepted if the map’s location is too small Symbol use inappropriate (e. the use of the star symbol is for capitals. and of triangles are for mountains not rivers) No scale or date If I was the boss. and may not get a raise. However this person did not do the extra credit.

England) FYI: Spelling counts! .A.Homework on the next page Homework: World Map assignment in the Homework folder World Map C.s Continents: North America South America Europe Asia Africa Australia Antarctica Oceans: Atlantic Pacific Indian Arctic Equator Prime Meridian (Remember that it goes through Greenwich.T.