How to Do Chemistry Labs Using Micro-Chemistry Techniques and Recycling

Barbara J. Schumann
http://www.scribd.com/doc/63579750

Barbara J. Schumann

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License—Attribution. You may copy, distribute, display, and use this copyrighted work — and derivative works based upon it — but only if you give credit to: Chemical Education Consultant Barbara J. Schumann 1405 Thaddeus Cove Austin, Texas 78746-6321 512-327-5449 Fax: 512-327-6207 E-mail: bjschumann2010@gmail.com This document is taken in part from The Dynamic Duo Share Ideas on How to Teach Chemistry by Eva Lou Apel & Barbara Schumann http://www.scribd.com/doc/32860373

Barbara J. Schumann

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Foreword
Eva Lou and Barbara taught together at Westlake High School in Austin from 1982 – 1993. They team taught chemistry. They developed many labs and teaching ideas. They gave many workshops together. They continue to give workshops together. Many of the labs included were written by Barbara Schumann and Eva Lou Apel. Barbara J. Schumann BS chemistry – University of Texas at Austin. Graduate Work – University of New York at New Paltz, University of California at Berkeley, and the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. Barbara taught algebra, physical science and chemistry for 20 years in the Houston, Austin and Eanes Public School Systems and in Wappingers Falls Central School District in New York. She substituted for 12 years in New York. She attended many NSF summer institutes including the Woodrow Wilson Institute at Princeton in 1989, the ICE Institute at Berkeley, the ICE Institute at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, Frontiers in Science at Tufts University, and was trained in Teaching Science with Toys at the University of Ohio at Miami of Ohio. She was trained by the American Chemical Society in Operation Chemistry at the University of Wisconsin and Purdue University. She was a member of the Central Texas Operation Chemistry team for several years. She was selected by the Central Texas Region of the American Chemical Society as the Chemistry Teacher of the year in Travis County in 1989, nominated for the Presidential Award in Teaching in 1989, selected at the Chemistry Teacher of the year in the state of Texas by the Associated Chemistry Teachers of the State of Texas in 1997 and received the Spirit of Education Award at Westlake High School in 1998. She was awarded an honorary membership in the Associated Chemistry Teachers of the State of Texas. She has served for several years as the historian of that organization. From 1998 to 2009 she worked as an independent representative for George Seidel and Associates representing Flinn Scientific. She has presented over 100 workshops.

Eva Lou

Barbara

Barbara J. Schumann

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The Advantages of Microscaling
Preparation and cleanup: Teachers, especially those in a self -contained situation, have great demands upon their time, and the time spent in setting up and cleaning up a lab activity can be a reason to avoid science activities. Microscale techniques are more time efficient, therefore the bulk of their time can be spent in an instructional setting. Waste disposal: The generation and proper disposal of waste is an overwhelming task facing many teachers. They often do not have the background and knowledge to comply with the many regulations set by the federal, state, and local governments. Since very small amounts of chemicals are used and waste products are minimal, many of the substances used can be safely disposed down the drain. Cost: The science budgets in many schools are quite small and getting smaller every year. Simply reducing the amount of material used in each lab can significantly decrease the cost of doing a lab activity. This does not mean you do not need some basic equipment. I strongly advise that you use electronic balances, digital thermometers and some good glassware in small sizes when it is needed. The electronic balances save valuable time. The students can share. Also the electronic balances and digital thermometers give you greater accuracy. You need this because you are using much smaller amounts. Also, you do need chemicals. You simply use them in smaller amounts. Availability: The equipment that is used on larger scale laboratory experiments is often not available to middle school teachers. Very often when the lab is scaled down to a micro sized activity, more common materials can be used. Safety: There are many lab activities that are very interesting to teachers, but since they utilize bulk quantities of hazardous materials, they are simply not appropriate. Since much smaller amounts are used when microscaling, the risk of spills and the hazards are reduced Even in microscaling, proper safety rules and procedures should be followed. Chemicals are still being used. Remember goggles and aprons.

Barbara J. Schumann

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Paper Chromatography*
Introduction Paper chromatography is a technique which permits one to separate the components present in a mixture. The factors that affect the separation are many; however, two basic concepts underlie this process: capillary action and solubility differences of the components. If the end of a strip of paper were to come in contact with a solvent, the solvent would move up the paper (capillary action) carrying with it any substances. The extent to which the components of a mixture would travel up the paper depends upon their solubility in the solvent and their attraction to the paper. In general, the more soluble the component is in the solvent, the higher it will travel up the strip of paper; in addition, the component wiIl travel even higher, the less attractive it is to the chromatography paper. In this experiment you will investigate various mixtures in order to separate their individual components through the process of paper chromatography. Materials Plastic cups (5 oz) Chromatography papers (0.5 x 15 cm) Cork stoppers (#00) Beral pipets (jumbo/modified) Beral pipets (thin-stem/long) 3 Marking pens (different colors) Chemicals 15 ml Water 15 ml Acetone (optional) 15 ml Methanol (optional) Procedure: 1. Preparation of the Chromatography Paper Strip Using a strip of chromatography paper 0.5 x 15 centimeters, place a small dot of the sample at one end of the strip of paper about 1 cm away from the end. 2. Separation of the Substances Insert a thin-stem beral pipet DOWN INTO THE BULB of a jumbo pipet and place 5-6 drops of solvent into a modified jumbo beral pipet. Now slip the prepared strip of chromatography paper into the jumbo pipet and stopper with a cork. The unit can be placed into a small plastic cup or a 24 well reaction plate for support of one or more units. Let the separation take place for several minutes. Repeat the above process for each sample given to be investigated. Data 1. Describe the appearance of each strip of paper. 2. Based upon your results, are the ink colors in pens such as black, green, orange, or violet made from one substance? What are your reasons for this conclusion? *Adapted from Micro Action Chemistry Vol. 1 Barbara J. Schumann

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Paper Chromatography
Teaching Tips 1. To prepare the modified jumbo beral pipet, use sharp scissors or a razor blade to cut the lower tapered end from the jumbo pipet just above the taper. 2. Have the student use only about 5 or 6 drops of solvent (media) in the thin-stem beral pipet. Too much media will "drown" the sample on the chromatography paper. 3. Remind the student to insert the thin-stem of the pipet containing the solvent DOWN INTO THE BULB of the jumbo pipet. This will help avoid getting any solvent on the walls of the pipet making it difficult to insert the snip of paper. 4. The solvents could be water, acetone, alcohols, etc., depending on the solubility of the substance to be separated. 5. Use a #00 cork (regular length) for the stopper. The stopper will help prevent the evaporation of the solvent as will as hold the chromatography paper stationary. 6. Substances that can be used for separation could be various colored inks from pens, M & M’s or Skittles moistened with water, pigments from plant leaves, pigments from various color flowers, or pigments from various color vegetables such as red cabbage, spinach, and beets. 7. In place of the small plastic cup for supporting the units, a 24 well plate works well. 8. Using regular chromatography paper or filter paper, cut snips of paper about 0.5 centimeters wide and 15 centimeters long. These strip fit nicely into the modified, widemouth beral pipet. 9. Be sure to place only a small amount of the sample onto the strip of chromatography paper.

Barbara J. Schumann

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Flame Test
Background Absorption and emission spectra are used to identify the elements. When elements are heated to high temperatures, they may be placed in an excited state. The electrons in the excited state emit light as the electrons move back to their ground state. The observed colors or spectrum of the element is the set of wavelengths of light given off as excited electrons move back to their original ground state. The light observed with the eye can be separated into the spectrum by using a prism or a diffraction grating in a spectroscope. Emission spectra can be used in the identification of elements because each element has its own set of wavelengths which act as a “fingerprint" for the element. Purpose In this experiment, you will identify selected metallic Ions with the use of a Bunsen burner and a spectroscope. Materials: Q-tips, sets of salt solutions, Bunsen burner, tin can Procedure 1. Describe the appearance of the overhead lights when viewed normally and when viewed through the spectroscope. 2. Light the Bunsen burner and adjust it so that you have a blue flame with an inner cone. The flame should be about 2-3 inches high. 3. Hold a Q-tip which has been soaked in one of the solutions listed in the data table in the flame. Observe the color of the flame and record in the data table. Also look at the flame through the spectroscope. To use the spectroscope, close one eye and look through the diffraction grating at the narrow end of the spectroscope while pointing the slit towards the light source. The spectrum will appear on the right side of the slit below the scale. Record in the data table a description of what you see through the spectroscope. 4. Repeat the procedure for each of the salts listed in the data table. For two of the salts, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate as well as the sodium-potassium mIxture, you need to look at the salts with and without two layers of cobalt glass over your eye as a filter for the light. Questions 1. LETTER OF UNKNOWN ___________ IDENTITY OF UNKNOWN ______________ 2. Describe the light viewed with the spectroscope compared to direct vision without the spectroscope. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 3. Why do chemists use flame tests? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Barbara J. Schumann

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Flame Test
_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 4. List at least two difficulties which may be found In using flame tests to identify elements. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 5. Why do sodium chloride and sodium nitrate Impart the same color to the flame? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 6. Assuming only the elements Involved In this lab: (a) If a flame test produces a red flame, what Ions are possibly present? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (b) How could you determine which of these was present? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (c) What Ions could be eliminated as possible Ions If the flame Is red? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 7. Describe how the test for potassium can be done when both sodium and potassium are present In the same sample? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 8. (a) Which has the longer wavelength, red or violet light? ______________________________________________________________________ (b) the greater frequency? _______________________________________________________________________ (c) the greater energy? _______________________________________________________________________ 9. Describe, In terms of electrons, how light Is produced In a flame test. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Barbara J. Schumann

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Flame Test
Data

METALLIC ION Sodium Na+ Barium Ba++ Strontium Sr++ Copper Cu++ Potassium K+ Lead Pb++ Calcium Ca++ Lithium Li+ Unknown Metal

FLAME COLOR yellowish orange pale yellowish orange redish pink bluish green pale violet pale violet pale brick red crimson varies with student

Source: Bro Carmen V. Ciardullo, Micro Action Chemistry, Vol. 2, Flinn Scientific, p 5

Barbara J. Schumann

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Flame Test
Teaching Tips 1. If you don't have the nitrate compounds, chlorides containing the same metallic ions can be used. Even a combination of nitrate and chloride compounds will produce good results. 2. Q-tips tend to provide a long period of time for the flame color. They are also cheaper than the platinum or nichrome wire loops suggested in many traditional experiments. 3. Placing the solutions in modified jumbo pipets simplifies distribution of the samples. This will al-low the students to use 24-well reaction plates as a "test tube rack." To modify the jumbo pipet. simply cut the stem of the pipet so that its length is only 2 cm long. The shortness of the modified stem will allow the one end of a Q-tip to rest in the bulb and the other end to extend out of the stem so that the Q-tip can easily be removed when needed. 4. To improve the flame color, add some methanol to the solution. An excellent ratio is 50:50, that is, 50 % solution and 50 % methanol. For example, mix 1 ml of solution with 1 ml of methanol. 5. Storing a solution in another container is not a problem; however, the use of a modified jumbo pipet simplifies things. To store the solution simply re-move the Q-tip and seal the pipet with a #00 cork stopper. 6. Do not store in pipets from year to year. 7. Use tin can on each lab station to dispose of used Q-tips. 8. Do sodium last. Wash down lab station and Bunsen burner with soapy water and clear water when finished.

Barbara J. Schumann

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Flame Test
Report Page Describe the appearance of the overhead lights observed normally and with the spectroscope> _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Data Table Salt Lithium nitrate Barium nitrate Calcium nitrate Strontium nitrate Copper nitrate Sodium chloride Sodium nitrate Potassium nitrate Sodium + potassium Sodium nitrate (with cobalt glass) Potassium nitrate (with cobalt glass) Sodium + potassium (with cobalt glass) Unknown Color of Flame Observation With Spectroscope

Barbara J. Schumann

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Micro-Titration Apparatus

Barbara J. Schumann

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Percentage of Acetic Acid in Vinegar
Introduction In this experiment, you will determine the percentage of acetic acid present in white vinegar by titrating it with a solution of sodium hydroxide. Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid (HC2H3O2) dissolved in water. To determine the percentage of acetic acid present in your sample of vinegar, you first need to calculate its molarity. Knowing the molarity will allow you to calculate the mass of acetic acid present in 1 liter (1000g) of the vinegar. This, in turn, will make it possible for you to calculate the percentage of acetic acid in the vinegar. Because acetic acid is a monoprotic acid, one mole of sodium hydroxide will neutralize one mole of acetic acid. This being true, it can be said that the product of the concentration (molarity) of the acid and its volume (ml) equals the product of the concentration of the base (molarity) and its volume (ml). (Ma) (ml a) = (Mb) (ml b) (Equation # 1)

This would be true for any unit of volume used in equation #1. Thus it can be said that the product of the concentration of the acid and its VOLUME IN LITERS equals the product of the concentration of the base and its VOLUME IN LITERS. Now with equation #1 the molarity of the acid can be calculated in this experiment. Molarity of vinegar (acetic acid) = volume NaOH (liters) X molarity NaOH ⁄ Volume vinegar (liters) (Equation # 2) Once the molarity of the acid is found (moles per liter), the mass of the acid (grams per mole) can be determined by calculating the product of the molarity and the gram-molecular‑weight (GMW) of the acid. Mass acetic acid = (Molarity acetic acid) (GMW) (Equation # 3)

Assuming that 1 liter of acid solution (vinegar) has almost the same mass a liter of water (1000 g), the percentage of acid per liter can be determined if the mass of the acid is known. % Acid = Mass (acetic acid) g/liter X 100 ⁄ 1000g/liter Safety Wear goggles at all times. NaOH is very corrosive to the eyes. If splashed into the eyes wash with running water for at least 20 minutes. For other parts of the body wash with running water for several minutes. If spilled neutralize with vinegar. (Equation # 4)

Barbara J. Schumann

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Percentage of Acetic Acid in Vinegar
Materials Reaction plates (96‑well) or ring stand, white papers (4" x 5"), Red dot one ml hypodermic syringe, blue dot one ml hypodermic syringe, miniature stopcock (Flinn catalogue number AP9159), funnel and tip made from micro tip Beral-type pipet, one 2 oz. plastic condiment cup (waste), water bottle, 50 ml Erlenmeyer flask, clothespin holder, ring stand, large Beral-type thin-stem pipet for NaOH, , Sodium Hydroxide (1.0M) in wide mouth plastic bottle, white vinegar in wide mouth plastic bottle (different brands with cost written on label), phenolphthalein in micro pipet Procedure: 1. Position a condiment cup or top of wide mouth plastic bottle on top of a white piece of paper. Fill the condiment cup or bottle top ¾ full of your vinegar. Fill NaOH condiment cup or wide mouth bottle cap ¾ full of 1.0 M NaOH. 2. Position syringe holder in 96-well plate or on ring stand. 3. Fill the red-coded syringe with vinegar from the vinegar condiment cup or lid by pulling vinegar to above the 1ml mark. Put a waste condiment cup underneath. Empty vinegar into waste condiment cup until the reading in .80 ml or slightly below. Record reading to .01 ml and record as initial volume acid. Now place the 50 ml Erlenmeyer flask under the vinegar syringe. Empty syringe until it reads near 0.0. Take reading to nearest .01 ml and record as final volume of acid. 4. Add about 20 drops of distilled or deionized water from a water bottle into the titration flask. Add 1 drop phenolphthalein to the Erlenmeyer flask. Swirl to mix. 5. Take blue-coded syringe. Remove the plunger and attach the small stopcock and tip of the micro-tip pipette to end of stopcock. Make sure the stopcock is closed. Put the assembled syringe buret into syringe holder. Put the waste condiment cup underneath. Make a funnel out of a micro-tip Beral pipet. Put funnel into top of syringe. This assembly may have been done for you. Refer to photographs in handout. Fill the syringe buret with 1M NaOH with a thin-stem pipette. Check to see that there are no bubbles. Allow some of the solution to drain into the waste container to fill the stopcock and the tip with solution. Refill the syringe buret until the NaOH level is at or just below the 1.00 ml mark. Record the initial reading of NaOH. 6. Place titration Erlenmeyer flask containing vinegar and phenolphthalein under NaOH syringe buret. Add one drop at a time to the vinegar solution, swirling constantly until sample turns pale pink. RECORD the reading of the NaOH in the syringe buret to the nearest .01 ml as final volume of base. 7. Determine the molarity using equation #2. 8. Determine the Mass of Acetic Acid in Grams. Use equation #3 to calculate the gram‑molecular‑weight (GMW) of acetic acid 9. Calculate the percentage of acetic acid. Make use of equation #4.

Barbara J. Schumann

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Percentage of Acetic Acid in Vinegar
Data Table Trial Initial volume of acid (ml) Final volume of acid (ml) Volume of acid reacted (ml) Volume of acid reacted (l) Initial volume of base (ml) Final volume of base (ml) Volume of base reacted (ml) Volume of base reacted (l) Molarity NaOH Cost of vinegar per gallon Calculation Summary Transfer answers from calculations on next page to this table. Trials Molarity of acetic acid Mass of acetic acid % acetic acid in vinegar Average % acetic acid in vinegar Cost of vinegar per liter Barbara J. Schumann #1 #2 #3 Average 1.00 M 1.00 M 1.00 M #1 #2 #3

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Percentage of Acetic Acid in Vinegar
Calculation Page Show all work. 1. Calculate the molarity of vinegar (acetic acid) Molarity of vinegar (acetic acid) = Volume NaOH (liters) X Molarity NaOH ⁄ Volume vinegar ( liter) (Eq. # 2) TRIAL 1 TRIAL 2 TRIAL 3

Average Molarity __________ 2. Calculate the mass of acetic acid. Mass = (Molarity acetic acid) x (Molecular Wt. Acetic acid) (Eq. # 3) TRIAL 1 TRIAL 2 TRIAL 3

Average Mass _______________ 3. Calculate the % vinegar. Assuming that one liter of vinegar has almost the same mass as one liter of water (1000.0 grams) % vinegar ( acetic acid) = mass acid g/l ⁄ 1000 g/l (Equation # 4) (4) TRIAL 1 TRIAL 2 TRIAL 3

Average % vinegar _________ 4. Calculate the cost of vinegar per liter. 1.06 qt. = 1 liter 4 qt. = 1 gallon Same for all trials. Show dimensional analysis.

CALCULATION SUMMARY: TRANSFER ANSWERS FROM ABOVE CALCULATIONS TO DATA TABLE. Barbara J. Schumann

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Percentage of Acetic Acid in Vinegar
Teaching Tips 1. Use only 1 drop of indicator, more than 1 drop may cause significant error. Be sure the thin‑stem pipets used to dispense the indicator have stems "drawn out" so that the diameter of the stems are reduced in size or use a small micro tip pipet. This will help avoid dispensing too much indicator. 2. Make enough of the 1.00 M NaOH solution for the ENTIRE set of experiments. This will ensure uniformity of the concentration of the titrating base 3. The following is a sample calculation: Molarity of vinegar (acetic acid) = volume NaOH (liters) X molarity NaOH ⁄ Volume vinegar ( liter) = .76M(moles/liter) Mass of Acetic Acid = (M)(GMW) = (0.76 mole/liter)(60 g/mole) = 45.6 g/liter Assuming 1 liter (1000 m1) equals 1000 g/liter % Acetic Acid = Mass of Acetic Acid / 1000 g per liter x 100 = (45.6 g/liter)/( 1000 g/liter) x 100 = 4.6%

Barbara J. Schumann

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Testing Antacid Tablets
Introduction Recently there have been numerous advertisements for antacids on television. These products are used to neutralize stomach acids. How do these antacids work? Most antacids usually contain carbonates, bicarbonates, or hydroxides. All act as bases and have a neutralizing effect on acids. The carbonates and bicarbonates also produce CO2 when they react with acids. This buildup of gas in the stomach causes the expulsion of the gas, the burp. This also provides relief. Many antacids contain calcium compounds are not very soluble in water. This increases the possibility of an antacid being absorbed into the bloodstream. If too much base is absorbed into the bloodstream a condition called alkalosis occurs. In this experiment, you will use HCl to neutralize the antacids. You will determine which antacid is most effective in neutralizing the acid. Real stomach acid is HCl with a pH range of 0.9 to 1.5. We will use 1.0 M HCl in this lab. The process of gradually adding an acid to a base or a base to an acid until neutralization occurs is called titration. The number of milliliters it takes to neutralize the acid or base is carefully measured. An indicator is used to show the endpoint, the point at which neutralization occurs. Indicators are organic compounds, which may be different colors at a different pH. The colors at a different pH vary according to the indicator. It is important that the color change in the indicator can be detected when the pH is changed. Crystal Violet has been chosen for this titration. Below pH 0.8 it is yellow. Between pH 0.8 and pH 1.1 it is green. Above pH of 1.1 it is blue. Since the pH range of the stomach is 0.9 to 1.5, this is a good indicator to use. What you are trying to do with the antacids is to get the pH of the stomach back to a normal pH range of 0.9 to 1.5. In this lab, the more milliliters of HCl it takes to neutralize the antacid, the more effective the antacid is in neutralizing the acid in the stomach. In a standard neutralization an acid + base → salt + water Example: NaOH + HCl → NaCl + HOH Carbonates + bicarbonates + acid → a salt + carbon dioxide + water This is also a type of neutralization. NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2CO3 ↓ H2O + CO2 Materials: 1.0 M HCl, water bottle filled with distilled water, 0.04 gram samples powdered antacids, 1 ml syringe, microstopcock (Flinn # AP9159), microtip Beral-type pipet, scissors, condiment cup for waste, 50 ml Erlenmeyer flask, crystal violet indicator in pipet, stirring rod, weighBarbara J. Schumann

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Testing Antacid Tablets
ing dish, balance accurate to .01or .001 gram, ring stand, clothespin holders or 96 well plate and microchem support stand (Flinn # AP9013) . Safety: Wear goggles at all times. HCl is corrosive. If spilled, neutralize with baking soda. Procedure 1. Mass 0.04 gram sample of powdered antacid in weighing dish or 1 oz condiment cup. 2. Transfer dry powder to a 50 ml Erlenmeyer flask or leave in condiment cup 3. Add a few ml of water from water bottle to rinse the weighing dish and add this to the Erlenmeyer flask. Repeat rinsing a second time. All of the solid may not dissolve. The antacid contains some “fillers” that may be insoluble. All of the active ingredients will dissolve as HCl is added. 4. Add 3 drops of crystal violet indicator. Note the color. This is a basic solution. 5. Cut off the tip and the top of the microtip Beral-type pipet to form a funnel. 6. Put tip of microtip Beral-type pipet on the end of the microstopcock and attach the stopcock to the bottom of the syringe. 7. Remove the plunger from the syringe and put the funnel you formed from the microtip pipet on top of syringe. 8. Steps 5 ,6,and 7 may have been done for you. Attach the syringe to ring stand with the clothespin holder. 9. Close stopcock. Place waste condiment cup underneath syringe. 10. Fill the red dot syringe buret with 1M HCl with a thin-stem pipette. Check to see that there are no bubbles. Allow some of the solution to drain into the waste container to fill the stopcock and the tip with solution. Refill the syringe buret until the HCl level is at or just below the 1.00ml mark. Record the initial reading of HCl . 11. Place the Erlenmeyer flask or condiment cup with the antacid and indicator beneath tip of stopcock. Open stopcock so that one drop of acid comes out at a time. Gently swirl Erlenmeyer flask. Add HCl until the color remains a definite blue with a tinge of green. Immediately close stopcock and take reading. Record as final reading of acid. 12. Empty contents of Erlenmeyer flask into waste container. Rinse several times with distilled water until clean. 13. Repeat procedure with another antacid.

Barbara J. Schumann

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Testing Antacid Tablets
Report Page Data Table Questions: What was the color of the indicator in the basic solution? __________________________ What was the color of the indicator at neutralization?______________________________ Which antacid was the best acid neutralizer and why? ____________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ What was the main ingredient of Tums? _______________________________________ Write and equation of the reaction of Tums with HCl.

Barbara J. Schumann

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Vitamin C Content of Fruit Juices
Introduction Vitamin C, ascorbic acid, is produced naturally by plants and animals except for humans. A deficiency in Vitamin C causes a disease known as scurvy, the symptoms of which are bleeding, spongy gums and a tendency to bruise easily. Because our body has a limited ability to store Vitamin C, it is necessary to eat foods, which contain Vitamin C as part of our daily diet. Foods that contain significant amounts of Vitamin C include citrus fruits and some green plants such as spinach and green peppers. The recommended Dietary Allowance of vitamin C is 60 mg per day. Fruit juices naturally contain other acids such as citric acid in addition to ascorbic acid; therefore, an acid-base titration cannot be used to determine the amount of ascorbic acid, Vitamin C. In this lab you will determine the amount of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in 1 serving (6 oz) of orange juice, apple juice or other Vitamin C containing juices by titration of the ascorbic acid in the juice with an iodine solution. The chemical reaction involved is the oxidation of ascorbic acid by iodine to dehydroascorbic acid. The end point of the titration will be determined by the formation of the starch-iodine blue-black complex when an excess of iodine becomes present. As long as ascorbic acid is present, the iodine is converted to the colorless iodide ion. Once the ascorbic acid has all reacted, the iodine forms the blue-black complex with the starch indicator. C6H8O6 + I2 → 2 H+ + 2I- + C6H6O6 Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Oxidized form of vitamin C (Dehydroascorbic acid)

The micro-scale titration will be done using 1 ml syringes as burets. The concentration of the iodine solution will be determined by titrating a standard solution of ascorbic acid, which contains 1 mg ascorbic acid per ml of solution. From this titration’s data, you will calculate the mg Vitamin C equivalent to one ml of the iodine solution. Calculations are simplified because iodine and ascorbic acid react in a 1:1 mole ratio. If 0.72 ml iodine were used to titrate 0.85 ml Vitamin C then: (equation 1) 1 mg Vitamin C 0.85 ml Vitamin C used = 1.2 mg Vitamin C/ml I2 solution

1 ml Vitamin C solution 0.72 ml Iodine solution used

This iodine solution will then be used to titrate the fruit juice. If 0. 50 ml of iodine solution was used to titrate 0.81 ml of orange juice (OJ), the mg Vitamin C per 6 oz. serving of juice will be calculated using the information that 1 oz equals 30 ml. (equation 2) 1.2 mg Vit C 1 ml I2 0.50 ml I2 0.81 ml OJ 30 ml OJ 1 oz OJ 6 oz 1 serving = 122 mg Vitamin C per serving

Barbara J. Schumann

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Vitamin C Content of Fruit Juices
Materials (Per Lab Group): 1 ml Syringes Standard ascorbic acid solution (1mg/ml) “Poor Man’s” buret micro stopcock Iodine solution 1 microtip Beral-type pipet Starch solution thin stem Beral-type pipets Fruit Juices: orange, apple, lemon, white, grape microchem support stand or ring stand 96 well Reaction Plate 1 25 ml Erlenmeyer Flask waste container or condiment cup Safety Precautions: Goggles and aprons must be worn. The iodine solution may stain hands or clothing and can irritate skin. Ascorbic acid is not considered hazardous, however, students should wash their hands thoroughly after handling. Food items, once brought into a lab, are considered chemicals and, as such, should not be ingested. Disposal: The small amounts of the solutions may be disposed of down the drain. Any left over iodine solution should be saved for use in future labs. Procedure 1. Fill the green dot syringe with the standard ascorbic solution. Set the waste container under the syringe and dispense the solution into the waste container until the liquid level is on or just below the 1.00 mark. Read the volume of ascorbic acid solution and record it in the data table as the initial volume of ascorbic acid. 2. Place the 25 ml flask under the ascorbic acid syringe. Allow about 0.70-0.80 ml of the solution to flow into the flask. Read the level of the solution in the syringe and record as the final volume of ascorbic acid. 3. Place the microchem support in a corner well of the 96 well reaction plate. Place the syringe buret (purple dot) in the support. Another option, attach clothespin microchem support to normal ringstand. Refer to photographs in handout. 4. Place the syringe buret (purple dot) in the microchem support. Fill the syringe with the iodine solution using a thin-stem pipet. Check to see that there are no bubbles. Allow some of the solution to drain into the waste container to fill the stopcock and tip with the solution. Refill the syringe with iodine so the level is on or just below the 1.00 mark. Read the volume of iodine and record in the data table as the initial volume of iodine. 5. Add 2 drops of starch to the ascorbic acid in the flask. Swirl to mix. 6. Place the flask under the iodine (purple dot) syringe buret. Add iodine drop by drop with swirling to mix until the solution turns blue-black and remains blue-black after mixing. Read the level of the solution to the nearest 0.01 ml and record as the final volume of iodine. Barbara J. Schumann

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Vitamin C Content of Fruit Juices
7. Empty the flask and rinse several times with distilled water. 8. Refill the syringes and repeat procedures # 2-7 for two more trials. 9. Fill the pink dot syringe with distilled water and allow it to flow out into the waste container several times. Then fill the syringe with the juice to be tested and allow the juice to flow into the waste container. 10. Fill the syringe with the juice. Set the waste container under the tip and allow enough juice to flow through so the level is on or just below the 1.00 ml mark. Read the volume of the juice and record in the data table as the initial volume of juice. 11. Place the 25ml flask under the juice syringe. Allow about 1.0 ml of the solution to flow into the flask. Read the level of the solution in the syringe and record as the final volume of juice. 12. Add 2 drops of starch and a few ml of distilled water to the juice in the flask. Swirl to mix. 13. Place the flask under the iodine buret. Add iodine drop by drop with swirling to mix until the solution turns blue-black and remains blue-black after mixing. Read the level of the solution to the nearest 0.01 ml and record as the final volume of iodine. 14. Refill the syringes, empty, rinse the flask, and repeat procedures # 12-14 for two more trials. 15. Empty the juice syringe into the waste container. Fill the syringe with distilled water and allow it to flow out into the waste container several times. Then fill the syringe with the another juice to be tested and allow the juice to flow into the waste container. 16. Repeat the titration as above with other juices. The standardization steps do not need to be repeated as long as you are using the same syringe buret.

Barbara J. Schumann

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Vitamin C Content of Fruit Juices
Report Page Data Table Standardization of Iodine
TRIAL # Initial volume Ascorbic acid Final volume Ascorbic acid Volume ascorbic Acid used Initial volume Iodine solution Final volume Iodine solution Volume iodine Solution used mg Vitamin C equivalent to 1 ml I2 Average mg Vitamin C equivalent to 1 ml I2 mg 1 ml ml ml ml ml ml 2 ml ml ml ml ml ml 3 ml ml ml ml ml ml

Calculations: 1. Calculate the mg Vitamin C equivalent to 1 ml of the Iodine solution. (See equation 1.) Show work below for each trial and place your answer in the data table above. Calculate the average for the 3 trials and place your answer in the data table above.

Barbara J. Schumann

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Vitamin C Content of Fruit Juices
Fruit Juice Data Table
Kind Of Juice Initial volume Juice Final volume Juice ml juice used initial volume iodine Final volume Iodine ml iodine used ml mg Vitamin C per 6 oz serving mg ml mg ml mg Orange Juice ml ml ml ml ml Apple Juice ml ml ml ml ml Lemon Juice ml ml ml ml ml

Calculations & Questions Continued: 2. Calculate the mg of Vitamin C found in a 6 oz. Serving of each juice. (See equation # 2) Show work below and place your answers in the data table above. 3. Which juice contains the most Vitamin C per serving? ___________________________ 4. Was this your expected result?______ Explain why this might be true. (Hint: Read the label on the juice container.)

Barbara J. Schumann

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Vitamin C Content of Fruit Juices
Preparation Of Solutions: Standard ascorbic acid solution: Dissolve 0.10 grams of ascorbic acid in enough distilled water to make 100 ml of solution. This solution should be made fresh each day. An alternative method is to make the ascorbic acid by crushing a 100 mg Vitamin C tablet and adding enough water to make 100 ml of solution. One ml of these solutions will contain one milligram of ascorbic acid. Iodine solution: Fill a 250 ml volumetric flask about ½ full with distilled water. Dissolve 0.10 g potassium chlorate and 10.00 g of potassium iodide in this water. Add 25 ml 1M sulfuric acid. Swirl to mix. Then add 0.10 g of iodine crystals and dissolve. Add enough distilled water to make 250 ml of solution. The iodine is slow to dissolve. Don’t plan to make it at the last minute. Starch solution: Place about 100 ml of distilled water in a beaker. Generously spray with spray starch (from the grocery store) for a minute or so. Stir and allow foam to disperse. The solution should be translucent or milky looking. If necessary spray a second time. (An alternative is to boil water, make a paste of powered starch and cold water and stir the paste into the boiling water.) Teaching Tips: 1. Remove the plunger from the syringe. Fit the stopcock on the bottom of the syringe. Cut the tip from a microtip pipet about 0.5 cm above the tapered end and fit the tip on the end of the stopcock. 2. The amounts of Vitamin C in different kinds of juice may prove to be the same because of the addition of ascorbic acid as an ingredient. Read the labels and chose those which do not have added Vitamin C. 3. The orange juice used should be low pulp or strained so that the pulp does not clog the stopcock. Baby food juices provide a convenient source of no pulp juice: however most have added ascorbic acid causing the various juices to have approximately the same amount of Vitamin C. 4. Juices other than apple, orange, or lemon can be used in this experiment provided they are light in color. Using darker colored juices, such as grape juice, will make it difficult to determine the end point of the titration. 5. The Vitamin C content of foods decreases if stored uncovered at room temperature or higher temperatures. Vegetables cooked in water lose much of their Vitamin C content. 6. An extension of this experiment could study and graph the decline in Vitamin C concentration left open in the classroom for a period of days. 7. Another extension could compare the Vitamin C content in canned, frozen, bottled and fresh squeezed orange juice. 8. The cost of Vitamin C from different sources could be studied. Adapted from a lab by Bro. Carmen V. Ciardullo in Microaction Chemistry V 2 published by Flinn Scientific Inc Barbara J. Schumann

27

Hydrogen, Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide: Generating, Collecting and Testing*
Purpose: To generate and test the properties of carbon dioxide, oxygen and hydrogen gases. Introduction Hydrogen is a clear, colorless gas, which is said to be “combustible”—meaning simply that it can burn. Oxygen is also a clear, colorless gas that is not combustible (will not burn) but supports combustion. “Supports combustion” means that it must be present for combustible materials to burn. Carbon dioxide is also a clear, colorless gas, which does not burn or support combustion. The usual test for the presence of carbon dioxide is the reaction of carbon dioxide with limewater to produce a white precipitate. Hydrogen is usually recognized by the “pop” sound it makes as it burns in air or oxygen. The usual test for oxygen is the “glowing splint test” in which a glowing splint bursts into flame in the presence of high concentrations of oxygen. In this lab, you will be generating, collecting, and testing hydrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide. Hydrochloric acid will be reacted with zinc to generate the hydrogen. Hydrogen peroxide will be decomposed to generate the oxygen using yeast as a catalyst. Carbon dioxide will be generated by reacting hydrochloric acid with marble chips. By collecting and igniting different hydrogen/oxygen mixtures, you will determine the best ratio of hydrogen to oxygen. Equipment: Water 3 plastic Petri dishes Permanent marker Clear tape Hydrogen generator Oxygen generator Carbon dioxide generator 4 gas collectors (Jumbo plastic pipets with stems cut off) Candle in candle holder Permanent marker 250 ml beaker or plastic cup 24 well reaction plate Toothpicks 3 M Hydrochloric acid (HCl) 3 % hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 (limewater) Marble chips (CaCO3) Yeast Zinc pieces OPTIONAL: Tesla Coil and/or modified bar-b-q fire starter “Rocket Launcher” * Adapted from a lab by Robert Becker and from work done by Glenn Crosby, John Mauch, Gail Thompson, Dana Beatty, Bill Soderholm and Tom Vertrees. Barbara J. Schumann

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Hydrogen, Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide
Hazards GOGGLES AND APRONS MUST BE WORN. Use care handling the hydrochloric acid. It is corrosive and will damage clothing and skin. Hold the gas filled pipette firmly when testing the gas. Be sure the pipette is not pointing at anyone. The plastic bulb must not touch the flame or it will burn. Only the teacher should handle the Tesla Coil. If the “Rocket Launcher” is used, be sure the “rockets” are aimed in a safe direction. Disposal Liquids can be washed down the drain with excess water. Left over zinc and marble chips should be collected in a container of water and then reclaimed to use when this lab is done in the future. General Preparation Read the report page NOW and Record All Observations on The Report Page As You Do Each Part Of This Lab. 1. Fill the beaker or plastic cup approximately ¾ full tape water. 2. Using the permanent marker, mark each cut-off pipette bulb to show six equal volumes intervals. 3. These cut-off pipettes will be referred to as the “collection bulb.” Generating, Collectin and Testing Carbon Dioxide 1. Fill the 4 collection bulbs completely full of water by putting them under water in the Beaker and squeezing to remove all bubbles. Set the bulbs, with the cut side up into the reaction plate. 2. Fill the “carbon dioxide generator” about 1/6 full of marble chips. 3. Add 3 M hydrochloric acid to within 1-2 cm of the top of the test tube. Replace the top of the generator and set the generator in a well of the open Petri dish. Fill one well of the reaction plate with limewater. Bubble carbon dioxide into the limewater by bending the stem of the generator and inserting it into the reaction plate of limewater. Observe and record what happens to the limewater. 4. Place the open end of one of the collection bulbs over the nozzle of the generator and let the gas replace the water in the bulb. Leave a small “plug” of water in the bulb and set the bulb in the reaction plate. Collect 3 more bulbs of carbon dioxide following the same instructions. 5. Using one of the bulbs of carbon dioxide, light the end of a toothpick; let it burn a few seconds; then blow it out making sure a glowing ember remains. Touch a paper towel to the end of one of the bulbs of carbon dioxide to absorb the water “plug”. Immediately put the glowing toothpick into the bulb. Record observations of this “GLOWING SPLINT TEST.” 6. Using another of the bulbs of carbon dioxide, light the end of a toothpick, do not blow it out. Touch a paper towel to the bulb to absorb the water. Immediately put the burning toothpick into the bulb. Record observations of this “BURNING SPLINT TEST.” 7. Using a third bulb, blot the water. Then hold the bulb on its side and place the cut end about 1 cm from the flame and gently squeeze the contents of the bulb into the flame. Barbara J. Schumann

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Hydrogen, Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide
Blot the water from the fourth bulb and “pour” the contents of the bulb over the candle flame by holding the bulb just above the flame and turning it cut-side down. Record observations of this “CANDLE TEST.” 8. Carefully pour the remaining contents of the test tube generator into the beaker of water. Dispose of the water and left over marble chips as your teacher instructs. Generating, Collecting and testing Oxygen: 1. Fill the beaker with tap water and fill the collection bulbs with water as instructed in the carbon dioxide generation instructions. 2. Remove the top of the “O2 generator.” Place a few grains of yeast in the test tube. Add 1 ml of water. Add hydrogen peroxide to the test tube to within 1-2 cm of the top. Replace the top on the tube, place the generator in the beaker of water and collect three bulbs of oxygen. Leave a “plug” of water in each and place them upside down in wells of the reaction plate. 3. Using one of the bulbs of oxygen, light the end of a toothpick; let it burn a few seconds; then blow it out making sure a glowing ember remains. Touch a paper towel to the end of one of the bulbs of oxygen to absorb the water “plug”. Immediately put the glowing toothpick into the bulb. Record observations of this “GLOWING SPLINT TEST.” 4. Using another of the bulbs of oxygen, light the end of a toothpick, do not blow it out. Touch a paper towel to the bulb of oxygen to absorb the water. Immediately put the burning toothpick into the bulb. Record observations of this “BURNING SPLINT TEST.” 5. Using a third bulb of oxygen, blot the water with a paper towel. Then hold the bulb so that it is horizontal and place the cut end about 1 cm from the flame and gently squeeze the contents of the bulb into the flame. Record observations of this “CANDLE TEST.” 6. Leave the oxygen generator going while you generate and collect hydrogen. Generating, Collecting and Testing Hydrogen 1. Fill the collection bulbs full of water and place them in the reaction plate. 2. Remove the top of the hydrogen generator and place a few pieces of zinc metal in the “H2 generator.” Add enough 3 M hydrochloric acid to fill the test tube to within 1 cm of the top. Replace the top of the generator and set the generator in the Petri dish. 3. Wait 5-10 seconds before beginning the next step. 4. Place a collection bulb over the tip of the generator and collect one tube of hydrogen. NOTE: Keep the bulbs of hydrogen with the open end down at all times or you will lose the hydrogen. It is lighter than air and diffuses out of the bulb very rapidly. Blot the plug of water at the end of the bulb; hold the bulb horizontal about one cm from the middle of the candle flame and squeeze the contents of the bulb into the flame. Record observations of “candle test.” 5. Collect another bulb of hydrogen. Hold it near the candle flame and gently squeeze part of the hydrogen into the flame and release pressure. Squeeze and release repeatedly; observe and record the results. 6. Collect a third bulb of hydrogen, light the end of a toothpick; let it burn a few seconds; then blow it out making sure a glowing ember remains. Touch a paper towel to the Barbara J. Schumann

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Hydrogen, Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide
end of one of the bulbs of hydrogen to absorb the water “plug”. Immediately put the glowing toothpick into the bulb. Record observations of this “GLOWING SPLINT TEST.” 7. Collect a fourth bulb of hydrogen, light the end of a toothpick, do not blow it out. Touch a paper towel to the bulb of hydrogen to absorb the water. Immediately put the burning toothpick into the bulb. Record observations of this “BURNING SPLINT TEST.” 8. Leave the hydrogen generator going to use in the next part of the lab. Collecting and Testing Different Mixtures: 1. Fill the collection bulbs with water. 2. With both hydrogen and oxygen gases being generated side by side, collect and test all different ratios of hydrogen and oxygen. To do this, let oxygen gas bubble into the bulb until the water level reaches a mark on the bulb. Immediately place the same bulb over the hydrogen generator and bubble the other gas into the bulb until it is full of gas. Repeat by letting the oxygen gas bubble until the water level reaches the second mark on the bulb. Place the same bulb over the hydrogen generator and bubble the hydrogen gas into the bulb until it is full. Repeat using the oxygen to the third mark, then to the fourth mark, then to the fifth mark. In each repetition, finish filling the bulb with the hydrogen gas. 3. As each mixture bulb is generated, blot the bulb and squeeze the contents of the bulb into the candle flame. Repeat with the different ratios of hydrogen to oxygen. 4. If production of gas in either the hydrogen generator or the oxygen generator slows too much, remove the top; carefully pour off the remaining liquid and refill it with either hydrochloric acid or hydrogen peroxide. Replace the top of the generator and wait 510 seconds before collecting the gas. 5. Record which ratio of hydrogen to oxygen was the best ratio (produced loudest pop). Optional Collect the best ratio of hydrogen and oxygen in a collection bulb. This time, instead of pop-testing it with the candle, take it to the “launch pad” and have the teacher use a Tesla coil or “Rocket Launcher” to supply the activation energy. Cleanup and Disposal To stop the reaction when you are done, remove the top from each generator. Pour the remaining liquid into a beaker and refill the generator 2/3 full of water to rinse the left over solid. Empty the generator into the container provided by your teacher. Empty the beaker into the sink and wash it down with additional water. Make sure no solids are poured down the drain. Clean the beaker and test tubes from the generator. Rinse the tops of the generator with tap water.

Barbara J. Schumann

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Hydrogen, Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide
Teacher’s Guide Scope and Sequence This experiment has a wide variety of applications from upper elementary school to college graduate study chemistry. Energy relationships, elements & compounds, combustion, catalysis, and stoichiometry are all illustrated by this experiment. Although this is essentially a micro-scale ‘version of the traditional carbon dioxide, oxygen and hydrogen generation experiments, it has some major advantages over the macro scale. (1) It is much safer, there exists virtually no risk of an explosion or burning or breaking of glass. Even the generator is safe to have near a flame. In fact if the reaction is occurring at a great enough rate, one can light the tip and maintain a small flame there. (This is not recommended.) If a student makes a mistake or wants to redo a given step, he/she can fill a collection bulb with water, then with hydrogen and then flame test it in well under a minute. Obviously, being able to have the generator and candle going simultaneously is a great time-saver. Gas Generator Construction Bulbs for Gas Collecting Cut 4 pipets (Preferably jumbo bulbs) Cut at indicated points. The bulb portions serve as the micro gas collecting bottles. About 1 cm of the stem should be left. For Mixture of Hydrogen an Oxygen

Barbara J. Schumann

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Hydrogen, Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide
Launch Pad Cut out a piece of plywood approximately 20cm x 8cm x .5cm. Drive a nail completely through about 5 cm from one end ( the nail must be small enough in diameter to fit easily inside the cut-off pipet), and drill a small hole about 1 cm from the same end. Using a pa-

per clip, make an S-hook through the hole. Attach a ring to a ring stand at a height of approximately 15 cm, hang the hook on the ring, and the launch pad is set. The angle is adjustable, The student simply places a bulb containing the optimum H2/O2 mixture, over the nail, and the teacher brings a Tesla coil along-side it to create a spark gap between the coil and the nail through the side of the collection bulb. An alternative method uses a modified butane flame starter. Place the bulb over the two wires coming from the modified butane starter and click. The spark generated at the tip of the wires will ignite the mixture.. It will act as a portable launch pad. See next page for instructions on how to modify the butane flame starter. Suggestions: 1. Place the launch pads on one lab bench and aim at a large target on the wall or a box on the floor 5-6 meters away. Students may adjust the angle before the launch. 2. Leaving a small amount of water in the collection bulb causes the rocket’ to fly considerably farther: (There is a toy water rocket based on this principle.) 3. If arcing is failing to occur, ground the nail by wrapping one end of a wire around the nail head from below, and the other end around a grounded metal pipe or sink faucet. 4. Collecting the gas is best done by water displacement (this is easier at a micro-level that at the standard macro-level. Fill the bulb completely with water, and place it mouth-downward over the nozzle. The displaced water will simply trickle back down Into the reserve beaker. 5. For testing different mixtures, the mixtures are collected by simply one part oxygen, then transferring the bulb to the other generator to collect the remaining 5 parts hydrogen--then pop testing with the flame. 6. The saturated Ca(OH)2 solution must be filtered before use. Barbara J. Schumann

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Hydrogen, Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide
For Mixture of Hydrogen and Oxygen – Another Way to Launch Rockets MODIFICATION OF “AIM & FLAMETM” TO MAKE A “ROCKET Launcher” Materials Solid strand bare copper wire (1/16 “ diameter), rosin core solder, soldering gun, glue gun, hair dryer, 3/32” heat shrink tubing, black electrical tape, needle point pliers, wire cutters, ruler, Aim n Flame butane igniter, small flat head screw driver, small file or sandpaper Process: 1. Drain butane from the fire starter. 2. Cut two pieces of the bare copper wire, 1 3/4” each. Make thme as straight as you can. 3. Cut one piece of the 3/32” heat shrink tubing 1 1/2” 4. Find the ground connection for the spark. It’s a small tab in the metal housing pushed into the spark chamber. With a small screw driver, gently push the tab away from the spark electrode. 5. Remove the paint from about 1/4 to 1/2” area at the tip of the metal housing with the file or sandpaper. 6. With the soldering gun very hot, apply a thin coat of solder to the housing area you just cleaned, and to about 1/4 to 1/2” of the end of one of the bare copper wires. Hold the wire with the pliers as it will become hot quickly. 7. Place the wire over the soldered area of the housing, and keeping the wire as straight as possible,, solder it to the housing by applying the solder gun and more solder. Hold still and let cool. 8. Place the second piece of bare copper wire into the heat shrink tube, flush on one end. 9. Place the flush end of the tube and wire into the center of the chamber of the igniter and push the combination over the igniter’s electrode. Make sure that the wire inside the tube is in contact with the electrode. 10. Holding the wire and sleeve near the center of the opening, use the glue gun to affix it to the end of the igniter. Mound the glue up around the circumference of the wire and tubing. Allow the glue to set. 11. When the glue has set, use the hair dryer to shrink the tubing around the wire, being careful not to re-melt the glue. 12. Allow the assembly to cool. 13. Trim the ends of the wires to be the same if necessary. 14. Position the two wires about 1/4” apart at the ends. 15. Wrap black electrical ape around the end of the igniter metal chamber. 16. Test. A spark should be visible between the wire ends. If not, adjust the spacing between the wires. Note: the spark may not be visible in bright light.

Barbara J. Schumann

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Hydrogen, Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide

Modified Aim n Flame Igniter

Barbara J. Schumann

35

Boyle’s Law
Purpose: In this lab you will measure the volume of a confined gas in a closed syringe inside a 0.5 liter plastic soft drink bottle. Pressure will be increased by using a Fizz-Keeper©. . Materials: 1 Disposable 3 ml syringe, modified 1 Syringe Tip Cap Small amount silicone lubricant (Stopcock Grease) 1 Fizz-Keeper ©. 1 plastic soft drink bottle, 0.5 liter Directions: 1. Remove the plunger from the syringe and apply a thin application of silicone lubricant to the black part of the plunger. Reinsert the plunger into the syringe. 2. Adjust the position of the plunger to the 3.0 ml mark. 3. Place the syringe cap on the syringe trapping 3.0 ml of air in the syringe. 4. Place the syringe in the soft drink bottle and screw the Fizz-Keeper © on the bottle. Record the beginning volume as 3.0 ml. 5. Increase the pressure in the bottle by pumping the Fizz-Keeper © 10 times. Read the volume of the air in the syringe. 6. Pump 10 more times and record the volume. Continue pumping 10 time and reading the volume for a total of 10 volume readings. 7. Plot a graph of pressure (# of strokes) vs. volume. Data Table: PRESSURE (#STROKES) VOLUME OF AIR 0 3.0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Teachers Guide
Purpose: To give students a first-hand experience with Boyle’s Law Scope & Sequence: Can be used to 1ntroduce Boyle’s Law in the unit on gas laws or to follow - up shortly after the textbook introduction. Preparation & Tips: Cut off the “wings” at the top of each syringe. Fizz-Keepers may be purchased at discount stores. They are also available from Flinn. Hazards: Release pressure by twisting the cap slowly at end of the measurements. Disposal: None. Keep syringes & syringe caps for next year. Reference: Rohrig, Brian. 39 FANTASTIC EXPERIMENTS WITH THE FIZZ-KEEPER Barbara J. Schumann

36

Molar Mass of Butane
Purpose: To determine the molar mass, simplest formula and molecular formula of butane Suggested Topics For This Activity: Avogadro’s Hypothesis, Simplest & Molecular Formulas, Ideal Gas Law Background Information: Avogadro’s Hypothesis states that equal volumes of 2 gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules. For example: The molar mass of hydrogen is 2.0 g. If a sample of hydrogen gas has a mass of 4.00 g and a same volume of gas X has a mass of 60 g, then by a simple ratio we can find the molar mass of gas X. In this lab, the same idea is used where you will find the masses of 2 equal volumes of 2 different gases, air (molar mass = 28.9 g) and butane (molar mass to be found.) Using a syringe, one can measure the volume of a gas very accurately. In this lab we will use a can of butane used to refill lighters as the source of butane. We used Ronson brand from WalMart. You may have to ask for it. By measuring the temperature, the pressure of the butane and the mass of the butane, the Molar Mass of the Butane can be calculated using the Ideal Gas Law. PV = nRT. Precautions: Dispense and dispose of butane under hood. Wear goggles and apron. No open flames. Use the same syringe and Luer cap Materials: Refill can of butane, 60 ml syringe lubricated with silicone lubricant, analytical balance accurate at least to .01 of gram, piece of plastic or rubber tubing 1/8 ID 2 cm long icemaker tubing), thermometer, barometer Procedure: Find the mass of the empty syringe with Luer cap on.- Zero volume Using the same syringe, take the cap off and fill the syringe with 60 ml of air. Put on cap. Find the mass. Record. Empty the syringe of air. Working in the hood, fill the same syringe with 60ml butane by attaching the piece of tubing to the end of the butane can. Place the other end of the tubing on the tip of the syringe. Push down on the syringe until you have 60ml of butane in the syringe. Recap the syringe. Find the mass of the capped syringe which is filled with butane and record. Barbara J. Schumann

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Molar Mass of Butane
Take the barometric reading. Take the temperature of the air. Calculations:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

From your data find the mass of air and the mass of butane. If the molar mass of air is 28.9 g, find the molar mass of butane. If butane is 82.8 % carbon and 17.2 % hydrogen, find the simplest formula of butane. Find the molecular formula of butane. Using the mass of the butane, the barometric reading, volume of butane and the temperature and the Ideal Gas Law, calculate the Molecular Mass of the butane. Use the Molar Mass calculated from atomic weights to determine the % error in the molar mass of butane calculated in calculation # 4 and Calculation # 5. Questions:

1. What are we assuming about the butane in the can? 2. Compare the Molar Mass of butane calculated by the two methods.
Reference: Alan Slater, Chem Ed, 2001

Barbara J. Schumann

38

The Viscosity and Density of Liquids*
Background Viscosity is defined as the resistance to flow of a fluid, either liquid or gas. It is often thought of “thickness” of a .liquid. A liquid, which is viscous, does not flow easily. A less viscous liquid will flow easily. Viscosity is a physical property of a liquid or a solution. Viscosity is primarily due to intermolecular forces that result from asymmetrical distribution of electrons around molecules. The density of a substance is also an indication of the number of intermolecular forces. Materials • Liquid samples (glycerol, water, corn syrup, solutions of 75%, 50%, 33% and 20% corn syrup in water. Use a 200ml -300 ml beaker to make glycerol solutions. Measure and mix in beaker. • 7 plastic weighing cups (condiment cups) • 1 3-ml syringe or 7 3-ml syringes Color code the syringes barrel and plunger with colored nail polish. I used as follows: glycerol–green,water-blue,75%-red, 50%-aqua, 33%-pink,20%-lavender • 1 syringe tip cap • Balance Procedure: 1. Fill the 3 ml syringe with one of the liquids. Adjust the level of the liquid in the syringe so that the liquid is exactly at the 3 ml mark. 2. Place the syringe tip cap firmly on the syringe. 3. Remove the plunger from the syringe. 4. Weigh the cup. Record this mass in your data table as the BEGINNING MASS in the data table. 5. Hold the syringe in a vertical position above the weighing cup. 6. Using a clock with a second hand or a stop watch, note the time (to the nearest second) when the liquid starts to flow out of the syringe or count “one thousand one, one thousand two, etc”. 7. Remove the syringe tip cap from the syringe allowing the liquid to flow into the weighing cup and measure the time in seconds that it takes for the liquid level to reach the 0.5 ml mark on the syringe. 8. Record the elapsed time in your data table. 9. Weigh the cup with the liquid and record its mass as FINAL MASS in your data table. 10. Clean the syringe with warm water or use new marked syringes and repeat steps 1 through 10 for each liquid or use new marked syringes. * Adapted by Eva Lou Apel from a lab by Roger D. Ford and Michael R. Mayfield in the 1987 Curriculum Module of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation Chemistry institute, MICROSCALE CHEMISTRY

Barbara J. Schumann

39

The Viscosity and Density of Liquids
Report Page Data Table Sample Glycerol Water 20% Corn Syrup 33% Corn Syrup 50% Corn Syrup 75% Corn Syrup 100% Corn Syrup Time (sec) Volume (ml) Mass Begin (g) Mass Final (g) Density (g/ml)

Calculations: 1. Calculate the mass of your sample by subtracting the initial mass from the final mass. 2. Calculate the density of your sample by dividing its mass by its volume (Mass/volume). 3. Plot a graph with time as the vertical dimension and density as the horizontal dimension. 4. Plot a graph with time as the vertical dimension and the % concentration of the corn syrup on the horizontal axis. (water = 0% and pure corn syrup as 100%)

Barbara J. Schumann

40

The Viscosity and Density of Liquids
Questions: 1. What is the apparent relationship between viscosity of your sample, as indicated by flow time, and its density? 2. How does the time of flow relate to the concentration of a solution? 3. Which material do you think would flow the fastest (a) water or (b) alcohol (density = .79 g/ml)? Why? Teacher’s Notes Viscosity is defined as the resistance to flow of a fluid, either a liquid or gas. In the minds of many students it is often thought of “thickness”. Viscosity is primarily due to intermolecular forces that result from asymmetrical distribution of electrons around molecules. The density of a substance is an indication of the number of intermolecular forces, while the dielectric constant is an indication the strength of these forces. The graphs that are produced from these data should indicate a relationship between viscosity (as indicated by flow time) and density and between viscosity (as indicated by flow time) and solution concentration. There appears to be little effect between molecular weight and viscosity for these small molecules. This exercise is intended to be multi-leveled; that is, it has applications appropriate for both beginning and advanced classes. At the most elementary level, student objectives include manipulation apparatus, skills in calculation, and graphing. At the advanced 1evel topics for discussion can also include the nature of intermolecular forces, polarity of bonds, structure of molecules and functional groups. For advanced students, an additional consideration can be the effect temperature on viscosity; this can be measured by cooling the samples an ice water bath before conducting the measurements. Extensions Engine oils are often classified by their viscosity. The Society of American Engineers (SAE) has devised a system for classifying oils according to their viscosity. Repeat this experiment with several grades of SAE rated oils. What is the relationship between SAE grade and viscosity? An alternative method for determining the viscosity of a liquid would be to determine the time it takes a BB or other metal sphere to fall through equal depths of each liquid. This lab could be introduced by a demonstration of “The Great Ketchup Race.”

Barbara J. Schumann

41

Conservation of Mass
Introduction Combustion and many other chemical reactions produce invisible gases and seem to make solids and liquids disappear. Here we describe a simple setup for demonstrating conservation of mass in gas forming reactions and for correcting this common misunderstanding. The setup uses a hook to separate reactants in a closed soda bottle and can be made in less than ten minutes for virtually no cost. Also, the setup does not require the buoyancy correction needed when a balloon is used to close the system' nor a high precision balance to show that a significant mass of gas has been formed. Multiple runs can be carried out with a single setup to show the reproducibility and generality of conservation of mass for these reactions. Assembly of setup The materials needed are: a one-, two- or three-liter soda bottle with a cap that has an easily removed soft plastic seal (a wide mouth bottle is best); needle and thread; and a paperclip. The hook setup is sketched in Fig. 1 and is made by removing the plastic seal from the cap, passing the thread up and down through the seal, and then tying the ends of the thread in a knot to form a loop about 3-5 cm (1-1 /2 to 2 inches) long. A hook is made by bending the outer arm of the paper clip out. The setup is completed by putting the seal back in the cap and hanging the paper clip from the loop. Demonstration procedure 1. To carry out a reaction under closed conditions, the liquid component of the reaction mixture is poured into the bottle 2. A package (the package can be made from a piece of tissue and tape) containing solid state reactants and/or catalyst you choose is suspended from the hook and inserted into the bottle., 3. The system is closed by turning the cap tight. Mass by putting on balance very carefully. 4. Invert the Bottle. After the reaction has stopped, mass the bottle.. 5. To show that a significant quantity of gas has been produced, open the bottle and mass the system-bottle + cap. 6. Some examples of reactions that can be used are in table 1. All of the reactions are nontoxic and can be flushed down the drain.. Safety Running a gas producing reaction in a capped soda bottle requires that the pressure increase from the reaction not burst the bottle. The pressure increase is controlled by the limiting reagent, and Table 1 identifies and gives quantities of limiting reagents that yield a pressure increase of one atm. (15 pounds per square inch) for a one-liter bottle at a temperature of 25 degrees C (a warm room). With this pressure increase, a mass difference of one gram or more has been observed between the opened and closed bottle. To check the margin of safety, a soda bottle was fitted with Definer's valve cap3 and the pressure in the soda bottle was increased by pumping to 6.5 atm (100 pounds per square inch) without bursting the bottle. This result indicates that the margin of safety for a one atm pres * Adapted from Chem 13 News ( Pat Ruff and Charles Malerich) Barbara J. Schumann

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Conservation of Mass
sure increase is a minimum of a factor of six and that the capped soda bottle setup will work. Materials: 1, 2 or 3 liter plastic soda bottle, bottle cap, plastic seal, thread, paper clip hook, Kleenex and tape

Fig. 1. Sketch of cap and hook setup. Reaction and chemical equation Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by yeast catalyst 2H2O2 → 2H2O + O2 Baking soda and vinegar NaHCO3 + HC2H3O2 → CO2 + H2O + NaC2H3O2 Washing soda and citric acid 3Na2CO3 + 2H3C6H507 → 3CO2 + 3H20 + 2Na3(C6H5O7) Alka-seltzer or baking soda and citric acid 3NaHCO3 + H3C6H5O7 → Na3(C6H5O7) + 3H2O + 3CO2 Quantity of limiting reagent 100 ml 3% peroxide

50 ml vinegar or 3.4 grams

5.2 grams of citric acid or 4.4 grams washing soda 3 Alka-seltzer tables or 2.62 grams citric acid and 3.5 grams baking soda

Table 1. Quantities of limiting reagents for producing one liter of gas at one atm and 250C Barbara J. Schumann

43

Conservation of Mass
Baking soda or vinegar may be used as the limiting reagent for this reaction. The calculation assumes a 5% acidity vinegar. The other reactant can be used in greater quantity safely. Citric acid should be the limiting reagent for these reactions. The quantity of washing soda or baking soda is the minimum that should be used with the given quantity of citric acid. Also, 100-200 ml of water was used as solvent in testing these reactions.

Barbara J. Schumann

44

Electroplating Copper
Materials: 1 film canister 3 slits in top 1 plastic strip 2 cm by 7 cm. 1 copper strip 1.5 cm by 6 cm. copper plating solution 9 volt battery 1 red and 1 black connectors, insulated wire with small alligator clips at each end 1 iron nail or other metal object Buret clamp ring stand Acetone (optional) Copper Plating Solution: 200g of CuSO4. 5H2O, 17.2 ml of conc. H2SO4, 8.25 ml of 0.1M HCI. Dilute to 1 liter. Safety: Wear safety goggles and aprons. The plating solution is very acidic. Neutralize with baking soda if spilled. Stabilize the film canister by using Buret clamp to attach to ring stand. Use acetone to clean nail in well -ventilated area, under hood if possible. Reuse acetone. Procedure: 1. Clean object to be plated with acetone under the hood. This can be a nail or another metal object. 2. Assemble lid of cell. Plastic strip is in middle and copper strip to one side and nail or object in the other. 3. Attach bottom of film canister to ring stand with Buret clamp. 4. Fill canister 3/4 full of copper sulfate solution and tightly seal with assembled lid. 5. Connect battery to cell with leads. Connect the object to be plated to the positive terminal of the battery and the copper strip to the positive terminal of the battery. 6. Wait 1 minute. Carefully disconnect battery and remove lid of cell. Observe object (nail) plated. Record Observations: Remove plated object. Rinse lid with distilled water in water bottle. Pour back copper plating solution into original container for recycling.

Barbara J. Schumann

45

Acid Deposition Simulation
Background: This lab provides students the opportunity to observe noxious oxides that are a major factor in pollution that otherwise could not be observed in a high school laboratory. Optional exercises permit the student to design his ova environment and to be able to observe factors that effect pollution. The atmosphere is a warm blanket that helps to maintain conditions suitable for life as we know it. Oxygen is one of the most important elements in the atmosphere because organisms need oxygen to stay alive. Oxides are binary (two elements) compounds containing oxygen and one other element. They are abundant in the earth's crust. Three major categories of oxides that are also air pollutants are: 1. Carbon oxides (CO2 and CO)

Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are produced by the combustion of organic materials, primarily gasoline and other fossil fuels. 2. Oxides of sulfur (SO2 and SO3)

Sulfur compounds, mostly S02, are among the most unpleasant and harmful of the common pollutant gases. About 80 % of all the S02 generated comes from the combustion of fossil fuels. They are also produced by burning coal and from oil refineries. These compounds form acids in moist air. S (s) + O2 (g) → SO2 (g) Sulfur dioxide may be oxidized to S03 by any of several pathways. 2 SO2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2 SO3 (g) Once SO3 is formed it dissolves in water droplets, forming sulfuric acid. SO3 (g) + H2O (l) → H2SO4 This what happens when fuel containing sulfur is burned. 3. Oxides of nitrogen (NO2, etc.) come from fuel burning (power plants and automobiles). In all combustion reactions in the air, nitrogen combines with the oxygen. N2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2 NO (g) Nitric oxide (NO) reacts readily with O2 to form NO2 when exposed to the air. 2NO (g) + O2 (g) → 2NO2 (g) Barbara J. Schumann

46

Acid Deposition Simulation
When dissolved in water, N02 forms nitric acid. 3 NO 2(g) + H2O (l) → 2 HN)3 (aq) + NO (g) The combustion in the automobile is the worst offender. At the high temperatures of the automobile engine NO is formed. NO acts as a catalyst for ozone destruction and is involved in the production of smog in addition to the acid rain production. The amounts of nitrous oxides can range from 1 gram per km (kilometer driven) for a new passenger car to over 20 grams per km (kilometer driven) for an old diesel truck. The anthropegenic (man-made) nitrous oxides are large amounts compared with the natural emissions such as those from forest fires. Amounts are increasing as the global consumption of fossil fuels and the number of cars, trucks and SUVs increase. The geographic distribution of nitrous oxide emissions reflects large power plants and population density in the northeastern United States and California. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the brownish-yellow gas in polluted air, causes respiratory distress and reacts with substances in the atmosphere to form toxic compounds. Purpose: Using methods of small -scale chemistry demonstrated by Dr. Steven Thompson of the Department of Chemistry of Colorado State University, noxious oxides of sulfur and nitrogen will be generated and their contribution to acid rain will be observed. Materials: ( Per two students) Chemicals: Reagents needed in disposable Beral pipets. 0.5 M Potassium nitrite (KNO2) 2.0 M Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) 0.5 M Sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) Distilled water colored with 0.03% Bromcresol green 2.0 M NH3 (aq). Or Household Ammonia

Equipment: Two polystyrene Petri dishes with access port sealed with scotch tape, white grid paper Precautions/Hazards: Goggles and aprons should be worn when using chemicals. Since trace amounts of SOx and NOx gases will be generated Petri dishes should be opened and closed only according to directions. Be sure to terminate the NOx and SOx gases, as directed with ammonia when finished. Care should be taken when using solutions of acids and ammonia.

Barbara J. Schumann

47

Acid Deposition Simulation
Procedure: 1. Prepare each Petri dish by heating the tip of a triangular file, glass rod or nail, or heat an old soldering iron. Use to melt a hole (access port) about 1 cm from the outside rim of the Petri dish. THIS MAY BE DONE BY THE TEACHER. Seal the port with scotch tape. Place two clean dry Petri dishes with sealed access ports on the grids. At the positions indicated drop the following solutions: Dish 1 (control) 1 drop 0.5 M KNO2 2 drops 0.5 M Na2SO3 2 drops distilled water with 1 drop acidity probe (0.03% bromcresol green sol) 1 drop 0.5 M KNO2 2 drops 0.5 M Na2SO3 2 drops distilled water with 1 drop acidity probe (bromcresol green) Wear goggles and aprons.

Dish 2

Hazards: CAUTION:

2. In dish 1 and dish 2 add drops of Na2SO3, KNO2 and bromcresol where indicated. 3. In dish 2 generate SOx and NOx by adding 2 drops of 2M H2SO4 first to Na2SO3 and then to KNO2 by rotating hole in top of petri dish and removing tape and replacing tape first over Na2SO3, and then KNO2. 4. Observe the acidity probe. What color does bromcresol green turn in the presence of an acid? Compare with Control. What acids do you think were formed? 5. Stop the reaction by lifting the portal tape and adding 1 drops of ammonia. Disposal: Use a wash bottle to flood the system with water at the sink. Rinse Petri dish with distilled water and dry with paper towel. Long Term Project: You are a research scientist preparing studies of acid rain. In Petri dishes prepared like the ones above, design experiments using what you have learned from this lab and using chemicals from this lab to (1) compare the rates of transport of SO2 compared to NOx <Hint: use a succession of acidity probes radiating out from the source noxious gases to determine the rate of transport (how fast it moves). (2) Prepare a graph to show the average of several experiments (3) Set up sinks, chemical barriers that might affect the movement. This could include sandy areas, grasslands, golf courses, styrofoam or different rock like limestone or quartz, lakes. Keep the area under the port in the Petri dish clear so you can add more acidity probes to monitor acidity over a period of time. Record your data and compare with other microenvironments to draw conclusions. Write a short abBarbara J. Schumann

48

Acid Deposition Simulation
stract and summary for your project. Write a short hypothesis for each attempt and a conclusion based on your experimentation. Include what areas are in most danger by acid deposition. Report on the Properties of Oxides (Enrichment) 1. 2. Write the equations for the oxidization of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide and for the formation of the acid when the sulfur trioxide comes in contact with water. From the results of the acidity probe after the addition of aqueous ammonia to the above reaction, explain why aqueous ammonia can terminate the production of sulfuric acid. Why does unpolluted rain have a pH of about 5.5? Acid deposition is primarily caused by the oxidation of what substances? Why is the atmosphere very sensitive to anthropogenic (man made as opposed to natural) pollution? Which gaseous air pollutants are the precursors to acid deposition? What are natural buffers present in lakes that can neutralize acid deposition? In North America acid deposition appears to be a more serious environmental problem in northeastern USA and northeastern Canada than elsewhere. What factors are responsible for this regional imbalance?

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9. How much nitrous oxide per km does a new car exhaust into the atmosphere Answers to Report on the Properties of Oxides: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 2 SO2 + O2 → 2 SO3 SO3 + H2O → H2SO4 Aqueous ammonia is basic. Unpolluted rain is saturated with atmospheric carbon dioxide and thus has a pH of 5.6. Oxidation of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur causes acid reposition. Anthropogenic pollution is of a much greater magnitude and is increasing. Also, the atmosphere is more sensitive because it is a much smaller reservoir than the lithosphere or hydrosphere. Key atmospheric pollutants are sulfur and nitrous oxides. Buffers in lakes are calcium and magnesium bicarbonate and organic acids entering from the watershed. Highest emissions of nitrous oxides occur in northeastern. US population density is greater as is use of the automobile. 1 gram nitrous oxide per km (kilometer) driven. Barbara J. Schumann

49

Acid Deposition Simulation
References: Thompson, Steven (1989) Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship) Foundation Chemistry in the Environment, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey. Wagner, Maxine (1983) "Laboratory Manual for Chemistry" I ). 87-89. Cebco, Newton, Massachusetts.

Barbara J. Schumann

50

Electrolysis
Introduction: Some oxidation—reduction reactions do not occur spontaneously. They can be driven by electric energy. An electrolytic cell changes electrical energy into chemical energy by forcing a reaction to take place which would not take place otherwise. This process where an electric current is used to drive a chemical reaction is called electrolysis. The electrolytic cell is made‑up of a pair of electrodes, an electrolytic solution, a container and a battery or power supply connected to the electrodes. In the electrolytic cell the reduction occurs at the negative electrode which is called the cathode. Oxidation occurs at the positive electrode which is called the anode. These reactions at the electrodes complete the electric circuit and allows electric energy to be transferred from the battery to the electrolytic cell. During the electrolysis of H2O, the following reactions occur. 2 H2O (1) + 2 e- → H2 (g) + 2 OH- (aq) 2H2O (1) → O2 (g) + 4 H+ (aq) + 4 eMaterials: Battery, 0.1M Na2SO4 with Bromothymol Blue indicator to produce a green color, phenophthalein, 600 ml beaker or cut off 2 or 3 liter bottle with flat bottom, 2 small test tubes(75 x 100 mm), 9 V battery. Procedure: Fill the 600 ml beaker about 3/4 full with Na2SO4. Take 2 small test tubes and fill with solution in beaker allowing them to stay under solution. Set the wax coated 9 V battery on bottom of the beaker of Na2SO4 with bromothymol blue indicator. The solution should b green in color. Carefully move the test tubes into an upside down vertical position over battery terminals without losing liquid. Note which test tube is over which terminal. Allow some metal of each terminal to be exposed. As soon as you can see a difference in color and water level in test tubes, put a finger over the end of each tube and lift each out. Record color of tubes and ratio of gas in tubes. Remove battery and rinse with water. Return Na2SO4 to the wand Na2SO4 container to be recycled. Questions: 1. Compare the volume of gas collected at the (+) electrode to the volume of gas collected at the (-) electrode. 2. What color is the solution at (-) electrode? What does this indicate about the pH of the solution is this test tube? Is this the anode or the cathode? 3. What color is the solution at (+) electrode? What does this indicate about the pH of the solution in this test tube? Is this the anode or the cathode? 4. Write balanced equations for the two half reactions and the overall equation for the electrolysis of water. Barbara J. Schumann

51

Rainbow Tube
Background: This activity can be used to introduce the concept of pH indicators. Vinegar is a dilute solution of acetic acid (HC2H3O2). Sodium Carbonate (washing soda) has a pH greater than 7. The indicator used is a universal indicator. It is which is a mixture of indicators and has a distinctive color at each pH. The sodium carbonate is more dense than the vinegar. It sinks and neutralizes the vinegar as it moves down the column. The indicator in the vinegar indicates how the pH is changing. Materials: Clear plastic straw glued at one end with hot glue gun, dilute vinegar + indicator solution, sodium carbonate (washing soda solution), 96-well plate Safety: Wear Goggles. Sodium carbonate has a pH greater than 7. Keep away from eyes and skin. Tube can be discarded in regular trash after a few days. Directions: 1. Write initials on prepared straw (glued shut on one end) with permanent pen. Set upright in 96-well plate. 2. Fill the straw nearly full of the vinegar-indicator solution with thin-stem Beral Pipette. Vinegar is dilute acetic acid (HC2H3O2). 3. Deliver the solution down the side of the straw so that no air bubbles form.

Add 2 to 3 drops of the Na2CO3 solution to the straw with thin-stem Beral pipette. Wait 10 to 15 seconds for this dense solution to sink, then add 2 to 3 drops more. Then add 3 more drops. Na2CO3 has a pH > 7. It is more dense than the vinegar solution, so it sinks to the bottom of the tube. 5. Hold the straw vertically to watch the colors.

6. The indicator used is a mixture of many indicators. The color change is indicated as follows: We will use Yamada's Universal Indicator It exhibits the ROY G BIV color sequence in the pH range 4-10 Color: red pH: 4 7. orange yellow green blue 5 6 7 8 indigo violet 9 10

Have the teacher glue the other end. Store upright and observe over a week. Barbara J. Schumann

52

Rainbow Tube
Questions: 1. Describe what you see.

2. What caused this reaction?

3. After the prepared straw sits for awhile, how does it look?

Directions for Teacher Materials: 1. Transparent plastic straws – Sam’s is a good source. Glue at one end with hot glue gun. Let it sit for a few days. 2. A saturated solution of Na2CO3 (washing soda). WARNING: THIS IS A STRONG BASE. 3. A dilute vinegar solution - 100 ml per liter of distilled water.

4. Prepare the vinegar-indicator solution by adding 50ml indicator to 250ml of prepared vinegar solution. 5. You may purchase universal indicator or prepare Yamada indicator.

To prepare 200 ml Yamada Indicator: Dissolve 0.005 g thymol blue, 0.012g methyl red, 0.060g bromthymol blue, and 0.10g phenolphthalein in 100 ml ethyl alcohol. Add 0.01M sodium hydroxide until the solution is green and dilute to 200 ml with distilled water.

Barbara J. Schumann

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