Advertising is simply - telling and selling the product. Advertising Management is a complex

process of employing various media to sell a product or service. This process begins quite early from the marketing research and encompasses the media campaigns that help sell the product. Without an effective advertising management process in place, the media campaigns are not that fruitful and the whole marketing process goes for a toss. Hence, companies that believe in an effective advertising management process are always a step ahead in terms of selling their goods and services. As mentioned above, advertising management begins from the market research phase. At this point, the data produced by marketing research is used to identify what types of advertising would be adequate for the specific product. Gone are the days when there was only print and television advertising was available to the manufacturers. These days apart from print and television, radio, mobile, and Internet are also available as advertising media. Advertising management process in fact helps in defining the outline of the media campaign and in deciding which type of advertising would be used before the launch of the product. If you wish to make the advertising effective, always remember to include it from the market research time. Market research will help to identify the niche segment of the population to which the product or service has to be targeted from a large population. It will also identify why the niche segment would opt for the product or service. This information will serve as a guideline for the preparation of advertising campaigns. Once the niche segments are identified and the determination of what types of advertising will be used is done, then the advertising management focuses on creating the specifics for the overall advertising campaign. If it is a radio campaign, which type of ads would be used, if it is a print campaign, what write ups and ads will be used, and if it is a television campaign, what type of commercials will be used. There might also be a mix and match advertising in which radio might supplement television advertising and so on. It is important that through advertising management the image is conveyed that all the strategies complement each other. It should not look to public that the radio advertising is focusing on something else while television on something else. The whole process in the end should benefit the product or service. The role of people designing the advertising campaign is crucial to its success. They have been trained by seasoned professionals who provide the training in the specific field. Designing an advertising campaign is no small a task and to understand the consumer behavior from the data collected from market research is a very important aspect of the campaign. A whole lot of creativity and inspiration is required to launch an adequate advertising campaign. In addition, the management skills come into play when the work has to be done keeping the big picture in mind. It would be fruitful for the company if the advertising campaign lasts well over the lifetime of a product or service, reach the right customers, and generate the desired revenue.
Classification of Advertising

Advertising is the promotion of a company‟s products and services though different mediums to

increase the sales of the product and services. It works by making the customer aware of the product and by focusing on customer‟s need to buy the product. Globally, advertising has become an essential part of the corporate world. Therefore, companies allot a huge part of their revenues to the advertising budget. Advertising also serves to build a brand of the product which goes a long way to make effective sales. There are several branches or types of advertising which can be used by the companies. Let us discuss them in detail.

Classification of Advertising 1. Print Advertising - The print media has been used for advertising since long. The newspapers and magazines are quite popular modes of advertising for different companies all over the world. Using the print media, the companies can also promote their products through brochures and fliers. The newspaper and magazines sell the advertising space and the cost depends on several factors. The quantity of space, the page of the publication, and the type of paper decide the cost of the advertisement. So an ad on the front page would be costlier than on inside pages. Similarly an ad in the glossy supplement of the paper would be more expensive than in a mediocre quality paper. 2. Broadcast Advertising - This type of advertising is very popular all around the world. It consists of television, radio, or Internet advertising. The ads on the television have a large audience and are very popular. The cost of the advertisement depends on the length of the ad and the time at which the ad would be appearing. For example, the prime time ads would be more costly than the regular ones. Radio advertising is not what it used to be after the advent of television and Internet, but still there is specific audience for the radio ads too. The radio jingles are quite popular in sections of society and help to sell the products. 3. Outdoor Advertising - Outdoor advertising makes use of different tools to gain customer‟s attention. The billboards, kiosks, and events and tradeshows are an effective way to convey the message of the company. The billboards are present all around the city but the content should be such that it attracts the attention of the customer. The kiosks are an easy outlet of the products and serve as information outlets for the people too. Organizing events such as trade fairs and exhibitions for promotion of the product or service also in a way advertises the product. Therefore, outdoor advertising is an effective advertising tool. 4. Covert Advertising - This is a unique way of advertising in which the product or the message is subtly included in a movie or TV serial. There is no actual ad, just the

mention of the product in the movie. For example, Tom Cruise used the Nokia phone in the movie Minority Report. 5. Public Service Advertising - As evident from the title itself, such advertising is for the public causes. There are a host of important matters such as AIDS, political integrity, energy conservation, illiteracy, poverty and so on all of which need more awareness as far as general public is concerned. This type of advertising has gained much importance in recent times and is an effective tool to convey the message.
Print Advertising

Print advertising is a widely used form of advertising. These advertisements appear in newspapers or magazines and are sometimes included as brochures or fliers. Anything written in the print media to grab the attention of the specific target audience comes under the purview of print advertising. People who read newspapers or other publications have a tendency to browse the print ads that they come across. The decision to buy the product might not be instantaneous, but it does settle down in their subconscious mind. Next time they see the product in the market, they are tempted to buy it. Print advertisements are only effective when people see them. When people browse through newspapers and publications, these advertisements should grab the attention of the potential customer. Therefore, these advertisements should be created in such a manner that they can hold the attention of the customer to some extent. Usually a team of individuals is required in order to design the advertisements.

The newspaper or magazine ad should be such that it should compel people to spend money on the products. This is just what the advertising team does. To create such an ad, the team members work on a concept and develop the wordings and images of the ad. These wordings and images are then brought together to form the final ad. Then there are people who deal with the placement of the ad. They have to make sure that if the client has paid for premium

it can be said that print advertising is here to stay. It is considered as a very effective medium of advertising. For example. they did not resort to print ads. an ad which occupies greater space is likely to get more attention. Mailers are another type of print ads. Though print advertising is still very popular. The sales team does just that. Broadcast Advertising Generally speaking. In addition. it does take a hit from time to time. The commercials aired on radio and televisions are an essential part of broadcast advertising. advertisers keep on developing strategies which benefit the business of print publications. The broadcast media like radio and television reaches a wider audience as opposed to the print media. television. Likewise. and Internet advertising. when people‟s budgets were tight. the print ads in the publications have gone down because Internet has a wider reach online. The problem with these mailers is that they get least attention and are usually considered as junk and thrown away even without reading. The radio and television commercials fall under the category of mass marketing as the national as well as global audience can be reached through it. the cost of an ad in the premium slot will be greater than in any other slot. For example. In fact. These can range from well-designed postcards to simple paper leaflets. The sales team of the publication makes sure that it gets ads regularly. with the advent of they get the desired exposure. new strategies have to be developed by advertisers and the print media. Therefore. an ad on the first page will get instant attention of the reader than the ad on the subsequent pages. To reduce this occurrence. during the recession phase. To overcome this scenario. The cost of advertising on this channel depends on the time of the commercial and the specific time at which it is aired. All these factors have to be looked into while designing the ad. These are paper ads which are handed over to individuals in person. broadcast advertising is radio. For example. these ads are a major source of income for the publication and hence it is expected that there should be a constant flow of the ads. The logic is that if the ad is given to people personally. which is actually true to some extent. The role of broadcast advertising is to persuade consumers about the benefits of the product. Globally. These are usually delivered by the postal workers in people‟s mailboxes. companies sometimes make use of fliers. 5 . they will pay more attention to it.

But it is also important that the audio and video should function well without each other. Sometimes the marketing consultants of these businesses run sample ads to judge its popularity among the viewers. In rare cases. These days radio and television ads are prepared by advertising agencies for their clients. Therefore. if a person is not viewing the TV but just listening to it. The type of your target audience is also important. Broadcast advertising has become a very essential part of marketing in recent times. Most of the radio and television advertisements are paid though there are some public service ads which can be aired for free. The television advertising is usually considered the advertising for the corporate giant. Thus the frequency of the ad is important. For example. But along with the 6 . Internet or online advertising uses the Internet or the World Wide Web for the purpose of attracting consumers to buy their product and services. The advertisers usually have to pay for the spot which lasts for 30 seconds. For this reason. Companies allocate specific budget for radio and television ads and make an estimate of how much revenue they can earn through broadcast advertising. banner ads. this spot can increase to 60 seconds too. They understand the need of the client and make the commercial keeping in mind the current state of affairs. one of them being immediate publishing of the commercial and the availability of the commercial to a global audience. organizations such as Federal Trade Commission (FTC) are there to monitor the commercials on television and radio. marketing consultants are hired to determine the return on investment (ROI) for spending on radio and television ads. one must do a research on which type of audience listens to which channels if they want the ads to be successful. rich media ads. For example. A strong audio and video combination is a must for the success of the commercial. and email marketing and so on. This ensures that the advertisers are not making any false claims to lure consumers to buy their products. social network advertising. Online advertising has its benefits. The voice talent in the commercial should be taken keeping in mind the type of audience and the type of commercial. Examples of such advertising include ads on search engine result pages. It is extremely important that whatever has been advertised in the commercial is true. s/he should get the idea and vice versa. though even the small businesses can benefit from it.A radio ad must be aired several times before it actually sinks in the minds of the consumers.

but they cannot be used in excess. eating joints and eateries on the highway make use of highway billboards to draw the customer to have a bite and rest a little at their joint. This is due to the fact that outdoor traffic keeps on growing every year and hence the target audience for outdoor advertising is ever increasing. For example. Different industries make use of outdoor advertising in their own different way. beverage companies make use of sporting events and arenas to showcase their products. All you need to do is to design a billboard and get it printed as compared to the television advertising where an entire 30 second commercial has to be designed. These are way too successful because of the fact that people on the highway are on the lookout for such information. Outdoor Advertising Outdoor advertising communicates the message to the general public through highway billboards. The important part of the advertising is that the message to be delivered should be crisp and to the point. Outdoor advertising is a very important form of advertising as the ads are huge and are visible to one and all. It is an extremely cost-effective method of advertising. If the outdoor ads are strategically placed. ethics in advertising is very important for it to be successful. That is why outdoor advertising is very costeffective. Whatever the mode of advertising. The automobile and tourism industries make use of the billboards to advertise their products and tourism plans.benefits come the disadvantages too. advertisers put distracting flashing banners or send across email spam messages to the people on a mass scale. The message to be delivered can be an ad to buy a product. vote for a politician. Therefore. This can annoy the consumers and even the real ads might get ignored in the process. Mac Donalds and Subway are the excellent examples. Apart from the billboards. These days. Everything should be presented to the viewer in such a format so that the viewers make up their mind to buy the product or service. or give to a charity. The print and newspaper advertising takes up a huge part of advertising but outdoor advertising is unique in its own way. For example. broadcast advertising is an inherent part of any advertising campaign these days. take a trip. For example. millions of dollars are being spent on outdoor advertising each year and the figures are expected to grow. there are several other forms in which outdoor advertising can take place. Coca Cola was one of the FIFA World Cup sponsors. Though images can be used. it can guarantee substantial exposure for very little cost. transit posters and so on. According to Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA). Other places where you can see outdoor advertising are:    taxicabs buses railways 7 .

Or a character in the film may mention the name of the brand again and again. For example. However. For example. Maybe contributing an article in local daily will work well for you. You can blog about the product or ask a well-known blogger to write about your product or service. the cars featured in several action flicks. if used wisely is very powerful and costeffective way of advertising. Then there is transit system and mobile advertising which also takes up a major pie of outdoor advertising. this should be done inconspicuously. Advertising on public furniture is also used comprehensively these days globally. covert advertising is a hot trend. Such advertising can be in the form of Corporate blogging which is an important form of advertising these days. It is a fact that these tactics seem to be high profile and also seem to require a lot of bucks. This practice is most-commonly found in films. billboards of the products may be shown in the film for a prolonged period of time. this type of advertising aims to integrate the advertising with the non-promotional mediums. subways and walls on which murals are painted All these forms of outdoor advertising are very popular and extremely cost effective. Last but not the least is alternative advertising. Not everyone has the financial prowess to use this form of advertising. However. Only established brand names have used such form of advertising. Remember the Cadillac in Matrix Reloaded and BMWs in James Bond movies. You can mention your brand quite subtly there. there are ways through which you can also promote your product or service. Covert and Public Service Advertising As evident from the word “covert”.These usually account for almost half of the revenue of outdoor advertising. To conclude. The OAAA has divided the Outdoor Advertising into four major categories: Billboards . one can say that outdoor advertising. On the Internet too. At other times the director may present the product as an integral part of the film. 8 .

safety. Similarly. In recent years.Meaning and its Process Marketing communications is essentially a part of the marketing mix. it should be given due importance. domestic violence. television and company websites have become the trendy way of conveying the organization‟s message to the consumers. blogs. such type of advertising is now widely used. though they can also appear in newspapers and magazines. For the above reason. HIV. Others focus their ads on the risks that can come to men. Marketing Communications . They provide information such as the toll free help lines. websites and addresses. The marketing mix defines the 4Ps of marketing and Promotion is what marketing communications is all about. it has become quite common in US to broadcast the public service ads just after or in between the programs that relate to public service in any way. a philosophy. your television messages should convey the same message as your blogs and websites. child abuse. It is the message your organization is going to convey to your market. and civil rights. emails. in recent times. women. the advertisements have to be amply clear and the message should prompt the people to take a step forward. then the ad is not conveying the message properly. 9 . You need to be very particular about different messages you are going to convey through different mediums. In general. It is important though that the message you give in one medium should tally with the message provided in other medium. cancer. people controlling the marketing communication process are very important for the company. and conservation. All across the world. While public service advertising is not as popular as paid advertising. Such humanitarian ads are usually broadcasted on the radio or television. Such ads may quote a political viewpoint. public service advertising was once a requirement if the radio and television stations were to get their licenses from Federal Communications Commission (FCC). the public service ads are about rape. and children. public service advertising aims at spreading awareness about issues that are relevant to public interest. The reason is that the messages to be conveyed through different mediums should be the same. Public Service Advertising should carry a short and to the point message. In fact.As opposed to covert advertising. A PSA or Public Service Announcement is aimed to alter public attitudes on issues ranging from health. For example. the PSA‟s are often dramatic and expressive. The advertisement should be made keeping the target audience in mind. in US. Most of the PSA ads use celebrities in order to gain attention. However. These executives make it an integrated marketing communication process. As it is not about buying a product but a change in the attitude altogether. You would now understand why it has to be „integrated‟. sms. For this reason. you should use the same logo in on your website as the one you use in your email messages. If the shift in the mindsets of people does not happen. Traditionally printed marketing was the whole sole method of conveying the messages to the consumers. or a religious concept.

The integrated marketing communications is a data-driven approach which identifies the consumer insights and develops a strategy with the right combination of offline and online channels which should result in a stronger brand-consumer relationship. So you can 10 . These responses are then recorded and maintained as advertising data. Your marketing communication process would look like: The marketing communication process identifies where the investments are being done and what is bringing more return on investment. The executives then analyze and evaluate the collected data. These days. At the next stage. you capture responses of your consumers. you decide what all will fall in your advertising bracket.Let us now look at the marketing communication process. They generate the all important reports which will help to allocate the integrated marketing and communications budget. There is an old advertising joke “I know my advertising works. Some examples of shifts are from media advertising to the multiple forms of communication. Selecting the most important communications elements is crucial for the success of company‟s business. I don‟t know which half. The advertising campaign should be effective across all platforms. you can alter the advertising campaign to reap maximum benefits. It is very important to have a process in place because then your advertising will reap proper benefits. Once the integrated marketing process is set. This is the reason why it has developed into a primary strategy for the developers. Things have to be well-defined and integrated to get maximum revenues. The process begins at the strategic development stage. from general focus advertising to data based marketing and so on.” That‟s why if the marketing communication process puts a tab on advertising because companies cannot bear to lose dollars on wrong type of advertising. the company can reap rich dividends from it. At this point. Therefore. there are companies that specialize in creating the marketing communications process for you. It has grown manifolds in recent years due to several shifts in the advertising and media industry. You start by creating a marketing communications program.

it is the starting point of all improvement as consumer voices provide companies with the data such as where they are lacking and what all they could do to improve the product or service. Are you one of them? Let us take a look at the consumer communication process at Suntory to understand the Consumer Communication Process. After doing so. This company has set up a Customer Centre which takes up all inquiries. Let us look at few ways which will help you market effectively even in a downturn. the customer voices are sent across to related departments of the company. and proposals from customers. Do all companies listen to the consumer voices? Not really. 11 . Though most of the queries are answered. the quality improvements are suggested and the product development takes place in keeping with the customer demands. It is only the ones which have an effective consumer communication process in place. These departments analyze the gap between the customer needs and the products and services. In fact. that are really able to focus on consumer needs. complaints. You must be thinking how. But an effective marketing communication process is the order of the day! Consumer Communication and Persuasion Consumer communication and persuasion is an essential part of any Marketing Strategy.either do it on your own or take their services. Consumer communication should be used effectively to drive maximum benefits to the company.

Consumers are becoming more and more environmentally aware these days. How many people see or hear or read all the advertisements or promotional offers and buy the product or service? The basic intention of media strategy is not only procuring customers for their product but also placing a right message to the right people on the right time and of course that message should be persuasive and relevant. Media Strategy plays a very important role in Advertising. Having a dialogue with them from time to time is also important. try your level best to portray the positive image of your product in a positive fashion. processes and so on to deliver the product that your consumers are aiming for. Face-to-face meetings are more effective in persuading people to buy your stuff. Anything against the environment would put you in a bad light. 3. People can judge easily whether what you are saying has substance or not. showing your consumers that you care is also very important. here the planners of the organization decide the Media Strategy to be used but keeping the budget always in mind. This is a kind of customer relationship building activity where you interact face-to-face with the consumer and show him your expertise. In short it means the geographical area from where it should be visible to the customers who use or are most likely to use the product or services offered. The Media Strategy process has three “W”s to be decided. you would never have to look back. The above points can also be used for consumer persuasion too. it is all the more important to get the customer feedback. You can then make changes in your strategies. you can use online surveys to understand how they are thinking and what they want. Apart from understanding their concerns. You can also show your concern by teaming up with local charity and involving your consumers in the event too. Try and co-host an event with another local business. 4.1. So focus that your product or service is following all the environment friendly standards. This will highlight your product‟s image in a positive manner. You can use the email marketing newsletters to invite them for such conversations. This will have far-reaching consequence and will benefit your company‟s image. It is not a good idea to fill their inboxes and mobiles with promotional messages. So. More so. Therefore. When economy is changing. The place does not mean only TV or radio but it can also be 12 . 2. They are    Where to advertise ? When to advertise ? What media type to use ? Where is the place for showing or delivering advertisement. It is just not important to feed information to your consumers. Once you learn the essence of consumer communication. Media Strategy in Advertising Every work to be done needs a plan of action so that the work is done in a desired and correct manner. The role of Media Strategy is to find out the right path to transfer or say deliver the message to the targeted customers.

children health drinks and major regular used products such as soap. cold creams. 13 . internet. small things like biscuits. etc.g. For e. They don‟t want anyone to get confused with there brand name so this is the safest approach as the message reaches the target consumers. The best examples for this type are detergent ads. In media dispersion approach. There are basically two media approaches to choose from. the number of categories of media is less. distributing pamphlets. pens. state basis and for local brands it can be on city basis. sending messages to mobiles. refrigerators. This helps the company to explain their point to the buyers and convince the buyers to go for their product. there are more number of categories of media used to advertise. umbrellas. When is the timing to show or run advertisement. What is what type of media is to be used for delivering the message. If the planners want to change the mind of people doing window shopping or just doing shopping for sake of name. they should select a proper media to convey their message. toothpastes etc. They place their product ads in many categories like TV. E. you cannot show a raincoat ad in the winter season but you need to telecast ad as soon as the summer season is coming to an end and rainy season is just about to begin. radio. shampoo. ads in the movie break in theatres.   Media Concentration approach Media Dispersion Approach In media concentration approach. The planners need to plan it keeping the budget in mind as the maximum of 20% of revenues of the company can be used in the advertisement section. sponsorships. etc and big services like vehicle insurance. The money is spent on concentrating on only few media types say two or three. etc. Some products need year long ads as they have nothing to do with seasonal variations e. So the planners have to plan the budget according to the time length so that there is no short of money at any time in this process.g. etc. hoardings on roads. radio or newspaper. blogs. This approach is considered and practiced by only those people who know that a single or two types of media will not reach their target. This approach is generally used for those companies who are not very confident and have to share the place with the other competitors. etc. Different products have different time length for advertisements. If the product is for a big amount of customers then a mass media option can be selected like TV. The area varies from place to place like it can be on national basis. soaps. The ad should be delivered with perfect timing when most customers are like to buy the product.g.newspapers. Some products need for three or four months. Selection of Media Category Whichever category is selected by the planners of the organization. then point of purchase type can be opted by the company.

4. 1. 3. There are basically 5 types of advertising agencies. plans how. Advertising agencies are mostly not dependent on any organizations. find matching threads. The best example of this type of media is the Life cell Cord Blood Banking. The first Advertising Agency was William Taylor in 1786 followed by James “Jem” White in 1800 in London and Reynell & Son in 1812. its Role and Types of Agencies The work of a tailor is to collect the raw material.Meaning. this process of media strategy plays an important and vital role in the field of Advertising. Role of Advertising Agencies 1. Full service Agencies 14 . when and where to be used. They work with an objective and are very professionals. phone calls or meeting for giving demos. print or advertise them on televisions or other media places. explain them what it is all about and try to convince them. etc. Planning for type of media to be used. when and where it should be delivered and hands it over to the client. cut the cloth in desired shape. finally stitch the cloth and deliver it to the customer. They can make ads. Advertising Agencies . they can manage the accounts also. art directors. These agencies take all the efforts for selling the product of the clients. their experience and their knowledge. Hiring them leads in saving the costs up to some extent. They have a team of different people for different functions like copywriters. then the third option is direct response type. the company people directly contact the customers via emails. Taking the feedbacks from the clients as well as the customers and then deciding the further line of action All companies can do this work by themselves. and for how much time to be used. thus helping the companies or organizations to reach their target customer in an easy and simple way. Then why do they need advertising agencies? The reasons behind hiring the advertising agencies by the companies are:     The agencies are expert in this field. text messages.” Advertising Agency is just like a tailor. The agencies make optimum use of these people. They have a group of people expert in their particular fields. Here. Creating an advertise on the basis of information gathered about product 2. They go to their customers. Doing research on the company and the product and reactions of the customers. Thus. planners.If the planners want to sell their product on one to one basis. It creates the ads.

As the President of American Association of Advertising Agencies. etc. Interactive Agencies  Modernized modes of communication are used. There are some specialized agencies which work for some special advertisements. John O‟ Toole has described advertise is something else. but it educates. and creative people. These agencies work as per the requirements of the organizations.  Big organization prefers these type of agencies which are in built and work only  for them. Social and Economical Aspects of Advertising Every coin has two sides” Advertising is praised but also criticized by critics in their own ways. Starts work from gathering data and analyzing and ends on payment of bills to the media people. medicine related ads.  Finally supervises or checks whether the ad has been telecasted at opted time and 4. It is not related to studies. 5. Large size agencies. having very new concepts. There are some 15 . It is not a journalist but gives all information. sending personal messages on mobile phones. finance advertisements. And it is not an entertaining device but entertains everyone. Advertising has many positive impacts along with its negative pictures.  Sells time in which advertisement will be placed.  The ads produced are very interactive. For example. Media Buying Agencies  Buys place for advertise and sells it to the advertisers. 3.  Uses online advertisements. These types of agencies need people of special knowledge in that field. and very innovative. etc. Different expert people for different departments. Creative Boutiques  Very creative and innovative ads.  Small sized agencies with their own copywriters. directors. Deals with all stages of advertisement. Now let‟s go through the economic and social aspects of advertising. place or not.  No other function is performed other than creating actual ads. In-House Agencies  As good as the full service agencies.    2. Economic role of Advertising Value of Products: The advertised products are not always the best products in the market.  Schedules slots at different television channels and radio stations. advertisements showing social messages.

For e. Kellogg‟s cornflakes have variety of flavors with different ranges to offer for different age groups and now also for people who want to loose weight thus giving consumers different choices to select from. for e.g.unadvertised products also present which are good enough. Effect on Prices: Some advertised products do cost more than unadvertised products but the vice versa is also true. If seller shows a false or 16 . Sometimes. canned juices from various brands. But some products do not advertise much. They are as follows. Advertising educates consumers about the uses of the products hence increasing its value in minds of the consumers. For E. But if there is more competition in the market for those products. This will definitely effect the production which may in turn affect the GDP of the country. But advertising helps increase value for the products by showing the positive image of the product which in turn helps convincing customers to buy it. the prices have to come down. Deception in Advertising: The relation between the buyers and sellers is maintained if the buyers are satisfied with what they saw in advertise and what they got after buying that product. It helps collecting more revenues for sellers which they use for betterment of product and services.g. Thus some professional like chartered accountants and doctors are not allowed to advertise. Social role of Advertising: There are some positive and some negative aspects of advertising on the social ground. The product has to be different with better quality. Effect on business cycle: Advertising no doubt helps in employing more number of people.. it does not mean that the demand or say consumption rates will also increase..g. But there are some bad effects of advertisements on business cycle also. It increases the pay rolls of people working in this field. and more variety than others. and they don‟t need much of it and even their prices are high but they are still the leaders in market as they have their brand name. mobile phones were first considered as necessity but nowadays the cell phones come with number of features which makes them mode of convenience for consumers. Porsche cars Effect on consumer demand and choices: Even if the product is heavily advertised. The economic aspects are supported by the Abundance Principle which says producing more products and services than the consumption rate which helps firstly keeping consumers informed about the options they have and secondly helps sellers for playing in healthy and competitive atmosphere with their self interest.g. e.. consumer may find the foreign product better than going for the national brand.

The Subliminal Advertising: Capturing the Minds of the consumers is the main intention of these ads. economical and health issues. These ads make poor people buy products which they can‟t afford. there are some great positive aspects which help       Development of society and growth of technologies Employment Gives choices to buyers with self interest Welcomes healthy competition Improving standard of living. because majority of consumers buy products on basis of the price and needs. The ads are made in such a way that the consumers don‟t even realizes that the ad has made an impact on their minds and this results in buying the product which they don‟t even need. But at the last. But “All ads don‟t impress all consumers at all times”. the ads of denim jeans showed girls wearing very less clothes and making a sex appeal. Give information on social. These kinds of ads are irrelevant to the actual product. Btu then there is some ads which are educative also and now accepted by people. For the development of advertising and to get best results one need to follow the advertising 17 . These problems can be overcome if the seller keep their ads clean and displays right image of the product. This affects in increased the cost of whole society and loss of values of our own selves. Effect on Our Value System: The advertisers use puffing tactics. Offensiveness: Some ads are so offensive that they are not acceptable by the buyers. Steps in Advertising Process Mass demand has been created almost entirely through the development of Advertising” Calvin Coolidge in the New York Public Library. which makes ads so powerful that the consumers like helpless preys buy those products. and play emotionally. then the relation between the seller and buyers can‟t be healthy. and buy products just because their favorite actor endorsed that product. Earlier ads giving information about birth control pills was considered offensive but now the same ads are considered educative and important. people picking up bad habits like smoking and drinking. endorsements from celebrities.deceptive image and an exaggerated image of the product in the advertisement. For example.

g.process step by step. 5. 6.Target Audience: the next step is to identify the target consumers most likely to buy the product.Place and Time of Ad: the next step is to decide where and when the ad will be shown. Step 7 . etc. if the product is a health drink for growing kids.Designing and Creating the Ad: first the design that is the outline of ad on papers is made by the copywriters of the agency. Step 11 .Setting the Budget: then the advertising budget has to be planned so that there is no short of funds or excess of funds during the process of advertising and also there are no losses to the company. availability of the resources needed in the process. what message is to be delivered to the audience? 3. Step 1 .Knowing the Objective: one should first know the objective or the purpose of advertising. Step 9 . knowing the competitors.Media Selection: now that the target audience is identified. The finalization of time on which the ad will be telecasted or shown on the selected media will be done by the traffic department of the agency. The following are the steps involved in the process of advertising: 1. 4. etc.Research: this step involves finding out the market behavior.Execution: finally the advertise is released with perfect creation. did the ad reached all the targeted people. 7. Step 6 . was the advertise capable enough to compete with the other players. what type of advertising they are using. perfect placement and perfect timing in the market. what is the response of the consumers.e. If these steps are followed properly then there has to be a successful beginning for the product in the market. Step 8 . if any. then the target customers will be the parents who are going to buy it and not the kids who are going to drink it. Every point is studied properly and changes are made. 11. Advertising Budget and Factors Affecting it 18 . 8. The place will be decided according to the target customers where the ad is most visible clearly to them. then the actual creation of ad is done with help of the art directors and the creative personnel of the agency.Perfection: then the created ad is re-examined and the ad is redefined to make it perfect to enter the market. Step 3 . Step 10 . Step 5 .Performance: the last step is to judge the performance of the ad in terms of the response from the customers. one should select an appropriate media for advertising so that the customers who are to be informed about the product and are willing to buy are successfully reached. Step 2 . For e. 9. Step 4 . 10. whether they are satisfied with the ad and the product. i.Briefing: the advertiser needs to brief about the product or the service which has to be advertised and doing the SWOT analysis of the company and the product. The target should be appropriately identified without any confusion. 2.

the company should have a better product in terms of quality. Before finalizing the advertising budget of an organization or a company. As the time goes on and product becomes older. there are four methods: 19 . Market Share To get a good market share in comparison to their competitors. reach the target consumers and make the sales chart go on the upper side and give reasonable profits to the company. then the company has to set up its advertising budget accordingly. For setting advertising budget. one has to take a look on the favorable and unfavorable market conditions which will have an impact on the advertising budget. then the company will have to increase its advertising budget. The market conditions to watch out for are as follows:     Frequency of the advertisement Competition and Clutter Market Share of the Product Product Life Cycle Stage 1.Money does matter a lot. uniqueness. Frequency of the Advertisement This means the number of times advertise has been shown with the description of the product or service.” Advertising Budget is the amount of money which can be or has to be spent on advertising of the product to promote it. demand and catchy advertisements with resultant response of the customers. the advertising budget can come down as then the product doesn‟t need frequent advertising. Product Life Cycle Stage If the company is a newcomer or if the product is on its introduction stage. then the company has to keep the budget high to make place in the market with the existing players and to have frequent advertisements. if any company needs more advertising frequency for its product. 2. 3. So here. Competition and Clutter The companies may have many competitors for its product. When the market conditions are studied thoroughly. All this is possible if the advertisement budget is high. The company has to then increase their advertising budget. 4. And also there are plenty of advertisements shown which is called clutter. in the granted time slots.

doing the homework and then moving forward. this method is applied by the higher level executives of the company as they are the only experienced people. searching for best market conditions and setting the best advertising budget will have a great impact on improvement and development of the company. 20 . Only the companies which have funds and can afford advertising opt for this method.e. This is a pure prediction based method and best applicable to the companies which have fixed annual sales. The time frames of advertising campaigns are fixed and specifically defined. Advertising Campaigns . competitors. They share same messages and themes placed in different types of medias at some fixed times. i. But if in case there is a requirement for more promotional activities then this method has a disadvantage because there will be decrease in advertisements as the budget is fixed.Meaning and its Process Advertising campaigns are the groups of advertising messages which are similar in nature. One needs to find out the product demand. The companies can go for advertising at any time in whole year whenever they have money to spend. etc. the budget is decided on the basis of the sales of the product from previous year records or from the predicted future sales. The amount spent also varies from time to time as per the advertisements takes place. Affordability: this method is generally used by the small companies. Best guess: This method is basically for newcomers who have just entered the market and they have no knowledge or say they are not aware of how the market is and how much to spend on advertising. Research: first step is to do a market research for the product to be advertised. Know the target audience: one need to know who are going to buy the product and who should be targeted. The very prime thing before making an ad campaign is to knowWhy you are advertising and what are you advertising ? Why refers to the objective of advertising campaign. The objective of an advertising campaign is to    Inform people about your product Convince them to buy the product Make your product available to the customers The process of making an advertising campaign is as follows: 1. Thus.They are as follows. 2.    Percentage Of Sales: In this method. Thus.

Setting the budget: the next step is to set the budget keeping in mind all the factors like media. 6. 5. the designing of the ads. The advertisements under this type run at regular and fixed intervals. paper works. etc. then the theory is redone. All campaigns do not have fix duration. emails. They run ads whole year round. the language to be used. pamphlets. etc which have a role in the process of advertising and the places where there is a need of funds. sending message on mobiles. the way the message will be delivered. Some advertising campaigns are media based. required changes are made using the experience. and telephonic advertising. There are basically three models of advertising scheduling as follows: 1. and hoardings. This model helps maintain a 21 . 7. and the remaining campaign is carried forward. Some campaigns are seasonal and some run all year round. magazines. Executing the campaign: finally the campaign has to be executed and then the feedback has to be noted. Mostly used media tools are print media and electronic media. Media scheduling: the scheduling has to be done accurately so that the ad will be visible or be read or be audible to the targeted customers at the right time. presentations. and some are objective based. Selection of media: the media or number of Medias selected should be the one which will reach the target customers. Models of Advertising Scheduling Scheduling directly refers to the patterns of time in which the advertisement is going to run. The main advantage here is reminding about your products to the customers continuously. 4. but in case if the purpose is not solved in any case. Print media includes newspaper. Deciding a proper theme: the theme for the campaign has to be decided as in the colors to be used. Electronic media includes radio. the music and the voices to be used. the graphics should be similar or almost similar in all ads. It is seen that generally advertising campaigns run successfully. jingles. banners. The only point to remember is getting a proper frequency for the ad campaign so that the ad is visible and grasping time for customers is good enough.3. Continuity: This model is very good option for the products or services which don‟t depend on season for advertisements. It helps fixing up the time slots according to the advertiser so that the message to be delivered will reach target audience in a proper way with proper timings. some are area based. All campaigns differ in timings. some are product based. television.

So the advertisers who cannot afford the year long ads.  Steady pulse has fixed schedule for 12 months. ads run whole year round but at a lower sidxe that means less ads.  Start up pulse is used for new product with heavy advertisements. So this model has advantages of both the other models. Here.continuous and complete purchase cycle.g. E. Then click OK button. Using this interface. and heavy advertisements are preferred at the peak time. The ads are in concentrated forms. the biggest advantage here is there is very less waste of funds as the ads run only at the peak time when the product demand is on high. 2. points to remember while scheduling an advertisement are:    Selecting a proper media type for running ads Selecting a correct time for running ads so that the purpose is solved. Pulsing: This model is the combination of both continuity and flighting scheduling. 22 . There can be a Rising Continuity in which some specific products are been advertised in the peak seasons for e. this an absolute season based products model. this is a best option. you can set the time periods in which you want to run your campaign. There are six types of scheduling method here. As the name suggests.g. a kid‟s health drink is recently changed. 3. The ads here run at very irregular intervals. E.  Seasonal pulse has bunches of ads season wise. Advertisements are for very shorter periods and sometimes no ads at all.  Erratic pulse refers to irregular ads normally used for changing old patterns. Generally scheduling is fixed for a month. Television and radio are the most used media types in this method.  Period pulse regular basis ads. floaters are advertised more in rainy season while some products fall under a Falling Continuity in which either ads for new products are run or if there is any other change in the existing product.g. packaging of Pediasure. ads for warm clothes in Indian Market. Thus. So. Advertisements should be sufficient enough (in number) to deliver the message to the target.  Promotional pulse refers to short period single use ads used basically for promoting products or events. This is a best model for the products having continuous demand all the year round. Flighting: This model is also called bursting.

The sales representatives should be aware of their roles and responsibilities in the organization. i. Organizations depend on KPI also called Key Performance Indicator or simply Performance Indicator to measure the effectiveness of implemented strategies. Know your product well. Initial Contact/Lead 23 . It pays to adopt a step by step approach. controlling.An Overview The art of meeting and exceeding the sales goals of an organization through effective planning. systematic approach results in error free work. It is essential to have      concrete plans. Sales professionals must know the USPs and benefits of the product for the consumers to believe them. budgeting and leadership refers to sales management. Sales Planning helps the marketers to analyze the customer demands and respond efficiently to fluctuations in the market. A  desired results or not. It is essential for the organization to evaluate the outcome of proposed strategies for any particular department. Mere guess works do not help in business. Identify your target market. Sales Reporting  Sales strategies are implemented in this stage. Sales Planning makes the products available to the end users at the right time and at the right place.Sales Management helps the organization to achieve the sales targets efficiently. Ask the sales team to submit reports of what all they have done throughout the week.  Check the effectiveness of the various strategies. Process of Sales Management 1. 2.SALES MANAGEMENT Sales Management . The management must sit with the sales team frequently to assess their performance and chalk out future course of actions. Devise appropriate strategies to increase the sales of the products. Mapping individual performance over time is essential. The management must make sure sales managers follow a proper channel to reach out to the customers.  Sales Process  Sales representatives should work as a single unit for maximum productivity. Do not ignore any step. Find out whether they are bringing the    3. Sales Planning  Marketers must plan things well in advance for the best results. Sales professionals should follow the below mentioned steps for maximum sales and better output.

Lead Generation  Make a list of the people who show inclination towards purchasing your organization’s products or services. Such a document is often called a proposal. Make sure the targets are realistic and achievable. vi. Also assign a fixed timeline to achieve the targets. ix. Information Exchange  Inform the customers about various product offerings. v.  Collect necessary data of potential customers once the target market is decided.ii.  Suggest them various options which would fulfill their demands. Closing of Deal  This is the stage where the transaction between the seller and buyer takes place.  The information exchange can be either: Over the telephone or Face to face interaction with the potential customer. vii. Know your product well. Be clear on your sales targets. viii. Understand what benefits end-users would get from your 24 . Negotiation  Negotiation is a stage where two parties (buyer and seller) discuss and negotiate for the best deal beneficial to all. the seller presents a written proposal to him quoting the rates as well as other necessary terms and conditions. iv.  Make the customers aware of your brand and its benefits. Let us go through some sales management strategies:   Identify goals and objectives of the sales team. Sit with the client and try to find out more about his needs and expectations. Sales Management helps to extract the best out of employees and achieve the sales goals of the organization in the most effective ways. Sales Management Strategies The art of meeting the sales targets effectively through meticulous planning and budgeting refers to sales management. After Sales Service  Keep in touch with the customers even after the purchase for higher customer retention. Proposal  Once the buyer agrees to purchase particular products. Need Identification  Fix a meeting with the prospective buyers.  The sales representatives must identify those who have the potential to buy their products. The selling happens in this stage. iii. Qualified Prospect  Identify individuals who are keen on purchasing your company’s products or services.

Devise strategies as per the target audience. Sales representatives must do their homework before going for a sales call. Know your market well. Once you are through with your sales presentation. Communicate what all your product actually offers. Don‟t oversell. The sales team must prepare Daily Sales Reports (DSR) for the superiors to know what they are up to. The management must conduct frequent meetings with the sales team to review their performances. Selling techniques and strategies can‟t be same for all individuals. Make the sales representatives very clear about their roles and responsibilities in the team. Each audience has different needs. The marketers must interact with customers to find out more about their expectations from the product as well as the organization. Identify your target market. Give him time to think and decide. Be ready with alternate plans if one plan fails. out of the box thinkers and nurture the dream of making it big in the corporate world. Each one should have a say in the same. Don’t lie to your customers. threats and opportunities. It is essential to do a SWOT analysis of your organization to know its strengths. Treat your customers well for higher customer satisfaction and retention. don‟t be after your client‟s life. It is unethical to make false promises. The individuals must be able to relate to your products. It is important to maintain transparency. A marketer must know how his product is better than his competitors. Only commit to what you actually can deliver to customers. Incentives and monetary benefits go a long way in motivating the sales team. Recruit individuals who are aggressive. Keep a track on their daily activities. The strategies must be formulated in the presence of all. Know what your competitors are offering. Sales Operation includes various strategies and techniques employed by an individual to achieve 25 .           Sales Operation Sales Operation refers to various activities which help in the timely achievement of sales targets for the successful functioning of an organization. Develop a lucrative incentive plan for them. Recall your interactions with the clients and analyze where you went wrong and where things could have been a little better. The management must promote training sessions at the workplace to upgrade the skills of the sales professionals and expect them to deliver their level best. Hire the right individual for the sales team. Remember the sales professionals have a major role in the success and failure of organizations. One should never go unprepared. The sales pitch must be impressive for the desired impact. weaknesses. One would not be able to convince the customers unless and until he himself is clear with the benefits of the products. One must assess his own performance. interests and requirements.brand. Let everyone come out with his suggestions. Remember the customer can ask you anything and you have to be ready with your answers.

Give the best deal to the customers for them to come back again to your organization.sales goals within the stipulated time frame. Fix up a time as per their convenience. date of purchase. 5. warranty details and other necessary terms and conditions. One should never call a customer more than twice in a single day. Make sure you know everything about the product and its offerings. income and so on. make sure you reach the venue on time. Give him time to think and decide. Similar products would not excite a youngster and an individual who is 50 years old. The promotional plans must excite the customers and attract them towards the organization. Make sure you have a long list of potential customers. Once you get an appointment. Classify the data under various sub heads like working/non working. Such classifications help you to understand the customers better and identify your target audience. Sign a written agreement with the buyer. Create relevant strategies for different segments as per their needs. In simpler words sales operation activities help in generating revenues for the organization through meticulous planning. Don‟t expect the customer to wait for you. interests and demands. Bills are required when the customer comes for an exchange. meet people and gather as much information as you can. Try to make him understand how your product would benefit him? Make him realize how your product is better than the competitor‟s. Attend sales deal with an open mind. Don‟t be too rigid on price and other terms and conditions. Go out in the field. 2. model no. The agreement should have the description of the product. middle class/upper class. Speak to the customers and seek for appointment. It irritates him and he tends to avoid you in future. Some organizations also give bills to the customers. Understand the needs and expectations of the customers. 8. better budgeting and adopting a methodical approach. Remember the customer can ask you anything related to the product. Let us go through the various steps in sales operation: 1. 4. 7. Avoid being pushy. 3. The needs and interests of a female would be different as compared to a male. Don‟t oversell. sex. employed/unemployed etc. The next step is to segregate the data according to age. Networking helps in sales. One can also send a soft reminder through email to the customer. Mere sitting at office doesn‟t help in sales. Put canopies at strategic locations. 6. Sales Operation activities help to devise relevant strategies and plans (both long term as well as short term) to achieve the sales goals. 26 . Sales representatives should prepare their own database. Sales strategies ought to be different for every segment. Why Sales Operation ?    Sales Operation activities help the sales professionals to meet the sales targets in a systematic and the best possible way.

Call them and seek an appointment. Marketers also depend on cold calls to inform the customers about their products and services. 4. A sales professional should ideally spend his maximum time outside office meeting people. Don‟t be after the individual‟s life to fix an appointment. twitter and so on. Ask your team members to visit markets. linked in.  Try to gain some information about him from social networking sites like  facebook. 3. Understand the customer‟s needs and expectations from the product.9.   2. Do take care of your pitch while speaking over the phone. It is the duty of the sales representatives to assist the customers in installing. Determine Client’s Solution 27 . 10.  Take his address and courier relevant information brochures beforehand for him   shopping malls. Managing the Sales Cycle What is a Sales Cycle ? Sales cycle refers to the various processes which help the products reach the end users. to know more about your product and its benefits. higher customer retention and eventually higher revenues. Make sure you are in touch with the clients even after the deal for higher customer satisfaction. orkut. These networking sites do give some information about the client which definitely helps in preparing the sales pitch. Don‟t drag conversations. Interact with as many individuals as you can. using or maintaining the products.  Try to get in touch with the people. Customers go through a sequence of activities before the product finally reaches them.Find out more about the background of the customer.  Try to gather as much data as you can. Know Your Customer Well  It really helps if you know something about your client before meeting him. A sales cycle has the following steps: 1.  Don‟t arrange meetings at your convenience. Check whether the customer has the potential to purchase a particular product or not. Distribute questionnaires amongst the potential customers to know them better. Such activities are a part of the sales cycle. Make your speech interesting. Identifying Prospects  The first step in the sales cycle is to make a list of potential customers.  Setting Appointments  The next step is to make the people aware of your product and its offerings. Make sure products are delivered in good and working condition to the customers. There is no point selling an air-conditioner to someone whose monthly income is Rs 10000/-. restaurants to map potential customers and collect information about them Placing canopies at strategic locations also invite potential customers.

outings or dinners. The customers should be aware of even the minutest details. sales representatives are the true face of an organization. A sales representative must never lie to the customers. 7. The sales representatives must have an easy access to the boss‟s cabin at the times of queries. Transparency is essential at all levels. The individuals representing the sales and marketing vertical must be satisfied with their organization. 5. Written Proposal/Document  Once the customer decides on the product.  Be in touch with him even after the deal is over. proposed rates and other necessary terms and conditions.  Suggest the right option for the customers. For higher customer satisfaction. It is unprofessional to make false commitments. Motivating the Sales Team Sales Professionals play a pivotal role in generating revenues for the organization. Sit with the customer and help him with the best solutions. A sales professional should always aim to close the deal as soon as both the parties accept the terms and conditions. give him the best deal. Take them out once in a while for picnics. They are the ones who are responsible for product promotion and making a particular brand popular amongst the end users. A sense of belonging at the workplace is important. Negotiate with an open mind. No issue should be left unattended. present a proposal to him with the Negotiation Round  There should always be room for negotiation in deals. Think from the customer‟s perspective as well. 28 . Don‟t always think about your own targets and incentives. In simpler words.   6. Regular Interaction  The management must interact with the sales team more often to understand their     needs and expectations from the organization. Healthy communication between the management and sales team is a good way to motivate the individuals. Don‟t be too rigid. After Sales Service  Make sure customers are satisfied with your service. Superiors must motivate the sales team from time to time to extract the best out of them.  Find out whether all his demands are fulfilled or not. The sales manager must sit with his team once in a week to address their grievances. Such activities bind the team members together and motivate them to work as a single unit. Don‟t prompt him to buy something which you yourself feel is not right for him. Say what your product actually offers. The sales executives must be aware of the latest developments at the workplace. Let us go through various ways to motivate the sales team: 1.

Don‟t ask for anything  Incentives and Monetary benefits  Handsome incentive plans go a long way in motivating the sales professionals. A sales professional must be aggressive. It leads to problems and confusions later on. Job mismatch leads to demotivated employees. Acknowledge the hard work of employees. Give them badges to flaunt. Don‟t expect miracles overnight. Realistic Targets  Targets for the sales team must be realistic and achievable. Involvement  Involve the team members in the company‟s strategies. 29 . Let them feel special and indispensable for the team as well as the organization. A sales manager must be very clear about his role in the organization. They should be aware of their KRAs from the very beginning. Let them   accept responsibilities on their own. 4. Give them their due credit. The management should make it very clear that a sales representative is expected to go out and meet clients. They must be excellent in follow ups. No individual should have unrealistic demands. It is for the superiors to understand which employee can perform which function in the best possible way.2. Impatient individuals find it difficult to do well in sales. A pat on their back can actually do wonders. which you yourself know is not possible. cash prizes or certificates for them to feel motivated and deliver the same performance every time.  6. Don‟t criticize their ideas or views. coupons. important discussions. Display their names on the notice boards for everyone to get a glimpse. Roles and responsibilities  Roles and responsibilities must not be imposed on any of the members. Praise the ones Nothing works better than money. Performers must be rewarded with attractive gifts.  5. He should know what he is supposed to do at the workplace. Let them participate in Roles and Responsibilities of a Sales Manager A sales manager plays a key role in the success and failure of an organization. Attractive incentive schemes prompt the employees to work hard and make the maximum use of their ability. smart and a little diplomatic. who perform exceptionally well. He is the one who plays a pivotal role in achieving the sales targets and eventually generates revenue for the organization. 3.  Appreciation  Appreciation plays an important role in motivating the employees.

It is his role to extract the best out of each employee. Supervision is essential. A sales manager is also responsible for brand promotion.Let us understand the roles and responsibilities of a sales manager:   A sales manager is responsible for meeting the sales targets of the organization through effective planning and budgeting. Make sure each one is living up to the expectations of the organization. A sales manager is responsible for not only selling but also maintaining and improving relationships with the client. Motivating team members is one of the most important duties of a sales manager. Appreciate whenever they do good work. Track their performances. He is the one who takes major decisions for his team. It is the sales manager‟s duty to map potential customers and generate leads for the organization. A banner at a wrong place is of no use. Ask them to submit a report of what all they have done through out the week or month. He should look forward to generating new opportunities for the organization. They have the responsibility of making the brand 30 . instead should be delegated as per interests and specializations of the individuals. A sales manager should set an example for his team members. Develop lucrative incentive schemes and introduce monetary benefits to encourage them to deliver their level best.           The duties must not be imposed on anyone. It is the sales manager‟s duty to ensure his team is delivering desired results. hoardings should be installed at important places for the best results. He needs the support of his sales team where each one contributes in his best possible way and works towards the goals and objectives of the organization. The performers must be encouraged while the non performers must be dealt with utmost patience and care. He must ensure team members don‟t fight amongst themselves and share cordial relationship with each other. A sales manager must ensure the targets are realistic and achievable. He needs to make his team work as a single unit working towards a common objective. A sales manager devises strategies and techniques necessary for achieving the sales targets. As a sales manager. He should act as a pillar of support for them and stand by their side at the hours of crisis. one should maintain necessary data and records for future reference. He is the one who sets the targets for the sales executives and other sales representatives. A sales manager can‟t work alone. He is the one who decides the future course of action for his team members. A sales manager must understand who can perform a particular task in the most effective way. Qualities of a Sales Professional Professionals are the face of an organization. He must make the product popular amongst the consumers. He should be a source of inspiration for his team members. Client relationship management is also his KRA. Canopies must be placed at strategic locations.

They help in the successful running of organization by generating revenues and earning profits. Lazy individuals don‟t Go-Getter Attitude  It pays to be optimistic in sales. Don‟t only think about your own targets and selfish interest‟s. Be honest with them. Don‟t simply impose things on him. Aggressive  A sales professional needs to be aggressive and energetic. make great sales professionals. Don‟t expect results every time. Value Time  People in sales must value time. impression in the minds of customers. Individuals representing the sales vertical need to be caring and kind towards customers. Reliable 31 .popular and promoting the products amongst the end users. Remember failures are the stepping stones to success. Don‟t take failures to heart. Avoid telling lies and creating fake stories. Being late for meetings create a wrong  6. 2. 3. 5. It is a sin to make customers waiting unless and until there is an emergency. One must learn from his previous mistakes and move on. You just can‟t afford to be rude to  your customers. Let us go through some qualities which a sales professional must have: 1. Sense of Commitment  A sales representative who is committed towards his work manages to do well  7. Sales professionals need to have a go-getter  4. attitude for the best results. make sure you are there at the desired venue at 4.45 pm sharp. Understand customer‟s   needs and expectations. One should never misguide the customers. Trust is lost when commitments are taken back. There should be no turning back. and make his mark as compared to others. Start a little early and make sure you reach meetings on time. Commitment in fact is essential in all areas of work. It is really not necessary that all customers would like or need your product. People Oriented  It is essential for a sales manager to be customer centric. Don‟t make silly excuses. If you have promised someone to meet at 5pm. Clients do need time to believe in you and trust your products. Patience  A sales manager needs to be extremely patient. Give him time to think and decide. Don‟t get hyper and make the client‟s life hell.

Don‟t just stick to one plan or one idea. 8. A sense of trust is important. The customers must be able to depend on the sales professionals. later on. The Rejection Dreader  Such sales professionals fear rejections and failures at work.  Take care of your pitch and tone. have an easy going attitude and are never under pressure. Diligent  Mere sitting at office does not help in sales. Convey only what your product offers. 11.  9. Following are the types of sales people in organizations: 1. Flexible  A sales professional must know how to change his sales pitch as per the client. he would never try to do it again. 2. a diplomat is one who always tries to play a safe game. He    hates taking risks in life and accepts things as they come. Such kinds of people fail to motivate themselves and tend to develop a laidback and negative attitude after a single failure. They depend more on cribbing and complaining rather than working and getting results. Different Types of Sales Professionals A sales professional in a workplace is responsible for meeting the sales targets of the organization and maintaining relationship with the existing and potential clients. Transparency is essential to avoid problems  10. A diplomat never believes in putting pressure on the customers. One needs to go out. They find it very   difficult to accept failures at the workplace. Be Transparent  Don‟t hide things from the customers. Be adaptable to changes. If he fails to convince the client in the first attempt. Good Communicator  A sales professional must be a good communicator for the desired impact. People in sales should not be too rigid and demanding. He plays a central role in generating revenues for the organization. The Diplomat  As the name suggests. meet people and  make prospective clients. These people tend to have a casual approach towards work. Learn to take quick decisions as per the situation. He would simply ignore and try with the next client. 32 . Don‟t complain if it is too hot or cold outside. A sales professional ideally should spend his maximum time in field to achieve targets in the best possible way. Such sale professionals are calm.

They spend their maximum time browsing internet. They enjoy interacting with people and suggest only what is right and best for them. The Professional  As the name suggests the professionals are the ones who look forward towards    Role of Communication in Sales Management Sales Management refers to the art of achieving the sales targets within the stipulated time frame through effective budgeting and meticulous planning.3. providing the right solution to the clients.  The Overcooked Casualty  This category involves people who do sales just to earn their bread and butter. The Militant Closer  As the name suggests such sales professionals are extremely aggressive and can   4. Professionals ensure clients are satisfied with their service. The Sales Scholar  Such sales professionals believe in lots of research and planning before going for   5. Their main motive is to close deals and earn incentives. Such people fall in this category. 7. friend. 33 . go to any extent to get results. Sales scholars put more emphasis on theoretical knowledge as compared to practical exposure. Sales management enables the sales representatives to close sales deals in favour of the organization and eventually earn revenues for the same. They always speak good and appear to be sugar coated.  The Phony  There are certain sales representatives who simply pretend to be client‟s best 6. They have an eye on even the minutest details. a sales call. They hardly bother whether a customer requires a particular product or not In most cases they make the client‟s life hell just to sell their products and earn revenues. They never get impatient or hyper while attending customers instead suggest them the best available options. They are only concerned about their targets and results and hardly think about the needs and expectations of the clients. For them the only thing which matters is closing the deal. checking various articles on sales rather than going out in the field and meeting people. They do not care much for the customers. Such people chose sales as a profession because they feel it is an easy way to earn money as there are huge incentives involved. reading books and newspapers. not   as a passion. For them client relationship is of utmost importance.

It is important for the customers to understand your products for them to believe in them and eventually purchase the same. Never avoid customer‟s calls unless and until there is an emergency. Avoid telling lies to them. Sales professionals need to be good communicators for the desired impact. One should never interfere when the second party is speaking. Sales professionals must be very careful about their tone of voice. There must be healthy communication between the sales professionals and the customers as well as amongst the sales representatives. While addressing a group of customers make sure even the individuals sitting on the last bench can hear you properly. make sure you are not chewing or eating something. Be polite. Wait for your turn to speak. Don‟t ever be rude to them. The sales professionals must be well aware of the benefits of the products. communication is the backbone of sales management. Convey exactly what your product offers. Make sure you are audible to the customers. Don‟t play with words. Make sure you are well prepared. Transparency is essential for a long term relationship with the customers. 34 . Fake promises and wrong commitments lead to problems and confusions later on. Make sure your sales presentation is interesting. Communication between sales professionals and external clients Keep your sales pitch simple and precise. Understand the needs and expectations of the customers and suggest them the best solution. One should never lose his temper while interacting with the customers. It is absolutely not possible to close a sales deal without effective communication. Include warm greetings in your conversation for a personal touch. Don‟t just speak for the front benchers. Never be too loud or too soft. Don’t put the customers on long holds. While speaking to the customers over the phone. In simpler words.Communication plays an important role in sales management. Complicated sales terminologies and jargons confuse the customers. The customer can ask you any question under the sun and it is your duty to clarify his doubts.

The sales representatives should be aware of their targets and incentives from the very beginning to avoid confusions later on. A cheerful individual spreads happiness all around and leads to a positive ambience at the workplace. The related members should be kept in loop for everyone to get the same information. Effective communication is instrumental in closing sales deals and maintaining healthy relationship with the existing as well as potential clients. Sales professionals in simpler words are the face of any organization and have the responsibility of making a particular brand popular amongst the end-users. Effective sales management ensures timely generation of revenue and profitability of the organization. Make sure the targets are realistic and achievable.  Don’t go for meetings with a negative mind. It always pays to be optimistic in sales. They must know what is expected out of them. It gives a wrong message Each one should have the liberty to express his/her views and participate in decision making process of the organization The roles and responsibilities of sales representatives must be communicated to them well in advance. If one puts his heart and soul in work. Attitude and personality play an important role in sales management. the outcome will definitely be in his favour. Remember a negative mind leads to wrong thoughts and negativity all around.Communication amongst the sales team The sales manager must communicate with his sales team on an open platform for everyone to participate and give their valuable inputs and suggestions. Don’t go for meetings with a negative mind. Do not communicate with individuals separately in closed cabins. They are the ones who directly interact with the customers. understand their needs and expectations and try to provide them the best solution. Role of Attitude and Personality in Sales Management The art of achieving the sales targets within the desired time frame through effective planning and budgeting refers to sales management. All important information should be circulated through emails. Transparency must be maintained at all levels for healthy relationship amongst the sales professionals. Remember a negative mind leads to wrong thoughts and negativity all around. A cheerful individual spreads happiness all 35  .

It helps in sales. It is important for the sales representatives to break the ice and gel with the customers. Develop a strong network. Negativity is all in the minds of individuals. Avoid wearing casuals as customers would never take you seriously. Remember failure is just the opposite of success. Ensure you smell good. It is important to be polite and kind to them. Customers would find it difficult to believe you unless and until you yourself are convinced with the product. Make sure your nails are short and clean. Avoid complaining or cribbing over petty issues. Understand what they expect from you and your organization and give them the right suggestion. Never show your desperation to the customers. It is absolutely okay if one customer does not agree to your presentation and prefers your competitor‟s offerings. Don‟t tell them how badly you need to sell the product to meet your targets. Sales representatives should look confident and sound intelligent. The customer might not think along the same lines as you. One can’t achieve results everytime. Do shave before you go for sales deals. the outcome will definitely be in his favour. Make them feel comfortable. Tips for Successful Sales Professionals Sales professionals play an essential role in the success or failure of an organization. It always pays to be optimistic in sales. Don‟t take failures to heart.   Individuals willing to make a career in sales should be extroverts. Their key responsibility areas include promoting a product and making a brand popular amongst the endusers. It is essential for sales professionals to look good and clean for the desired impact. If one puts his heart and soul in work. meet people and increase your list of potential customers. but that does not mean you can be rude to him. Be your own critic. Foul smell irritates the customer. Sales professionals should never be shabbily dressed as they directly interact with the clients. Follow the professional dress code but make sure you don‟t feel uncomfortable. Let us go through some tips for successful sales professional:  Understand your product well. Sales representatives earn profits and generate revenues for the organization. analyze the things and find out what went wrong. Go out. There is no point crying over spilt milk. Don‟t wear loud clothes to work or for meetings.    around and leads to a positive ambience at the workplace. One should always look at the brighter sides of life. instead find out the causes of failure and move on. Know the benefits of your product 36 . Incorporate the necessary changes in your sales pitch for better results next time. Sales representatives ought to be aggressive and have a pleasing personality Individuals with a laidback attitude should not take sales and marketing as profession. Never lose hope. They should love interacting with people. People in sales should have a charismatic personality to attract and influence the customers.

Lies and fake stories cost later. Avoid adopting a casual attitude. Accept them only when they are realistic and achievable. If he really needs the product. Exchange contact details and visiting cards to reach a wider audience. Understand where you went wrong and how things could have been a little better. Through effective sales management. Convey what your product actually offers. Be honest with people. or service. rather it leaves the customers‟ irritated. It is a sin to shout or ill treat customers. Give your heart and soul in each deal. energy and talent. Don‟t try to sell a flat screen television or air conditioner to someone whose monthly income is rupees ten thousand only. Interact with the customers more often and try to find out their needs and expectations. Enjoy your work to the fullest for the best results. Don’t oversell. Understand the purchasing power of the customers. Be a good communicator. Set a goal for yourself and try to achieve the same in the best possible way. Individuals should have a passion for sales. Clients will never take you seriously. Don‟t make their lives hell. Customers would definitely take some time to believe in you and your product but that‟s absolutely okay.              Time Management and Planning in Sales Management Sales management helps in the achievement of sales targets within defined deadlines through effective planning and budgeting. It is good to be aggressive but never cross that fine line. Sitting in the office doesn‟t help in sales. Don‟t feel bad if you are unable to close a deal. Make sure you are audible and the customers understand you. Never treat your job as a burden. Sales representatives must go out and meet people. Be kind to the customers. He has nothing to do with it. Be a self motivator. A sales representative must never show his desperation in front of the customers. Avoid being too loud or too soft. It would be a sheer wastage of time. Take care of your pitch while speaking to the customers. Suggest them only what is right for them. One should never irritate the customers. Sales professionals must be very clear with the USPs of the products for the customers to believe them. Being pushy never leads to closure of deals. he would definitely buy it. Be your own critic. Don‟t show him how badly you need to sell the products to achieve your targets. Give them time to think and decide. Don’t be afraid of the targets. Create a target market for your products. Make a list of prospective customers. Sales representatives can’t afford to be impatient. An individual should not choose sales as a profession just because it is a quick source of earning money in the form of incentives. Be a good listener. Take pride in your profession. They must be dealt with utmost patience and care. Don‟t go casually dressed for sales meetings. Listen to what the second party has to say. individuals generate revenues and earn profits for the 37 .

Everyone needs time to rejuvenate. Jot down important things against the time assigned for each activity. Plan your day well in advance. Human beings are not machines who can work at a stretch.organization. One must fulfill commitments and there should be no turn backs in the same. Do keep in mind the budgets allocated to each task. Time management ensures the completion of tasks at a much faster rate and more effectively. Avoid distractions while working. Surf internet. One must not do any work halfheartedly. Sales professionals must discuss various options and ideas amongst themselves and devise strategies and techniques to accomplish tasks in the best possible way. Keep your desk clean and organized. One of the best ways to manage time is to be organized. List out things that are important and need to be done on a priority basis. Time management and Planning play an important role in Sales Management:    Managing time well increases productivity of an individual and also avoids forgetting important things. chat with your friends or do anything you like. Try to finish the work within the stipulated time frame. the more quickly you finish off tasks. Do take a break for half an hour anytime during the day. Avoid keeping stacks of files and heaps of paper at your workstation. 38 . Make sure you are there at the venue before the customer reaches. This would help you to concentrate better on work and eventually complete assignments on time. Evaluate whether you have finished your work on time or not? Sales professionals should never be late to meetings. Put a label on top of each file. Don‟t think about work during this time. Keep the important documents handy.            Prepare a task plan or a TO DO list. It is essential for the sales professionals to understand the value of time. It is important to first finish one task before starting the next. Make sure you put your heart and soul in work to avoid delays. Review your own performance regularly. Prepare an action plan as to how a particular task can be accomplished. Throw away what you don‟t need. Adopt a step by step approach. logon to facebook. It is always better to start a little early to reach the venue on or before time. A cluttered desk leads to negativity all around and one tends to waste his maximum time in searching documents and files. Tick the activities already done and concentrate on the remaining. The more you are organized. Don‟t interfere in your colleague‟s work or roam around at the workplace. Don‟t make the customers waiting. Develop the habit of using a planner. organizer or desk calendar to avoid forgetting important tasks.

After sales service plays a pivotal role in strengthening the bond between the organization and customers. Planning in most cases makes the future secure. After Sales Service / Customer Service Customers are the assets of every business. Never ignore their calls. They speak good about the organization and its products. After Sales Service Techniques   Sales Professionals need to stay in touch with the customers even after the deal. Customers start believing in the brand and get associated with the organization for a longer duration. What is After Sales Service ? After sales service refers to various processes which make sure customers are satisfied with the products and services of the organization. Make sure the business plan is concrete and reflects every individual‟s future course of action. Sales professionals must try their level best to satisfy customers for them to come back again to their organization. positive word of mouth plays an important role in promoting brands and products.  Analyze the results and outcomes of previous year’s activities and prepare a business plan. After sales service includes various activities to find out whether the customer is happy with the products or not? After sales service is a crucial aspect of sales management and must not be ignored. Why After Sales Service ? After sales service plays an important role in customer satisfaction and customer retention. Call them once in a while to exchange pleasantries. It generates loyal customers. After sales service makes sure products and services meet or surpass the expectations of the customers. A satisfied and happy customer brings more individuals and eventually more revenues for the organization. Sales representatives can focus more and concentrate better as a result of effective planning. In the current scenario. 39 . The needs and demands of the customers must be fulfilled for them to spread a positive word of mouth.

The exchange policies must be transparent and in favour of the customer. Need for Customer Relationship Management 40 . AMC is an agreement signed between the organization and the customer where the organization promises to provide after sales services to the second party for a certain duration at nominal costs. Speak to him properly and suggest him the best alternative. customer relationship management refers to the study of needs and expectations of the customers and providing them the right solution. The problems must be resolved immediately. They are the ones who interact with the customers. Need and Steps in CRM In an organization. Customer relationship management includes various strategies and techniques to maintain healthy relationship with the organization‟s existing as well as potential customers. In simpler words. Don‟t harass the customers. Orgnaizations must ensure customers are satisfied with their products and services for higher customer retention. Sales professionals selling laptops must ensure windows are configured in the system and customers are able to use net without any difficulty. Feedback helps the organization to know the customers better and incorporate the necessary changes for better customer satisfaction. Help them install. sales representatives have the responsibility of creating brand awareness and making products popular among the end users. Customer Relationship Management . Any product found broken or in a damaged condition must be exchanged immediately by the sales professional. The customer service officers should take a prompt action on the customer‟s queries. Similarly organizations selling mobile sim cards must ensure the number is activated immediately once the customer submits his necessary documents. Every organization should have a toll free number where the customers can call and discuss their queries. The customer who comes for an exchange should be given the same treatment as was given to him when he came for the first time. Ask the customers to sign Annual Maintenance Contract (AMC) with your organization. Remember one satisfied customer brings ten new customers with him where as one dissatisfied customer takes away ten customers along with him. Take feedback of the products and services from the customers. maintain or operate a particular product. understand their requirements and fulfill their needs and expectations.Meaning. Listen to their grievances and make them feel comfortable. What is Customer Relationship Management ? The art of managing the organization’s relationship with the customers and prospective clients refer to customer relationship management.      Give them the necessary support. Create a section in your organization’s website where the customers can register their complaints.

Never be rude to customers. Don‟t cook fake stories or ever try to fool them. Customer relationship management improves the relationship between the organization and customers. Don‟t only think about your own targets and incentives. Greet the customers with a smile and try to solve their queries at the earliest. Give them bonus points or gifts on every second purchase. Attend sales meeting with a cool mind. Suggest only what is right for the customer. It a customer needs something. One should never ever get hyper with the customers. Keep in touch with the customers even after the deal. Remember customers are the assets of every business and it is important to keep them happy and satisfied for successful functioning of organization 41 . Make sure you are there at the venue before the customer reaches. Handle the customers with patience and care. Don’t oversell. interest as well as budget of the customers. Devise customer loyalty programs for them to return to your organization. Sales professionals should reach meetings on or before time. Don‟t call him more than twice in a single day. he would definitely purchase the same. Give him time to think and decide. A sales professional should think from the customer’s perspective.Customer Relationship Management leads to satisfied customers and eventually higher business everytime. Don‟t suggest anything which would burn a hole in their pockets. Never irritate the customer or make his life hell. He would never come back to you and your organization would lose one of its esteemed customers. Don‟t sell an expensive mobile to a customer who earns rupees five thousand per month. Being pushy does not work in sales. An individual needs time to develop trust in you and your product. It is a sin to make customers waiting. Never tell lies to the customers. Such activities strengthen the bond between the sales representatives and customers. The sales manger must provide necessary training to the sales team to teach them how to interact with the customers. Customer Relationship Management goes a long way in retaining existing customers. Customer relationship management ensures customers return back home with a smile. Steps to Customer Relationship Management           It is essential for the sales representatives to understand the needs. Convey them only what your product offers.

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