ASME-PTC10 ADOPTION NOTICE ASME-PTC10, "Compressors and Exhausters,'' was adopted on October 3 , 1994 for use

by the Department of Defense (DoD). Proposed changes by DoD activities must be submitted to the DoD Adopting Activity: Director, US Army Mobility Technology Center/Belvoir, ATTN: AMSTA-RBES, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5606. DoD activities may obtain copies of this standard from the Standardization Document Order Desk, 700 Robbins Avenue, Building 4D, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094. The private sector and other Government agencies may purchase copies from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017. Custodians: Army - ME Navy - YD-1 Air Force - 99 Adopting Activity Army - ME

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DISTRIBUTION STATEMENTA. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

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COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services

ASME PTC 10-1997

Performance Test Code on Lompressors and Exhausters

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services

is entirely their own responsibility. There will be no addenda issued to ASME PTC 10-1997. New York. academia. The proposed code or standard was made available for public review and comment which provides an opportunityfor additional publicinput from industry. ASME is the registered trademark of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. and the public-at-large. COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . or activity. construction. regulatory agencies.A. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers Three Park Avenue. ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any items mentionedin this document. ASME accepts responsibilityfor only those interpretations issued in accordancewith governing ASME procedures and po\icies which preclude the issuance of interpretations by individual volunteers. and the risk of infringement of such rights." or "endorse" any item. Users of a code or standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights. 1998 This document will be revised when the Society approves the issuance edition. of a n e w Please Note: ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning interpretation of technical aspects of this document. The interpretations are not part of the document. NY 10016-5990 Copyright 6 1998 by 3 THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS All Rights Reserved Printed in U. This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American National Standards.A S M E PTC LU-ENGL 1977 D 0757b70 Oh05923 158 m Date of Issuance: September 30. No part of this document may be reproduced i n any form. proprietary device. The Standards Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced to assure that individuals from competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to participate. PTC 10-1997 is being issued with an automatic subscription service to the interpretations that will be issued to it up to the publicationof the next edition." "rate. in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise. without the prior written permission of the publisher.S T D . Participation by federal agency representative(s) or personb) affiliated with industry is not to be interpreted as government or industry endorsement of this code or standard.S. ASME does not "approve. and does not undertake to insure anyone utilizing a standard against liability forinfringement of any applicable Letters Patent. nor assume any such liability.

FOREWORD (This Foreword is not a part of ASME PTC 10-1997. Uncertainty analysis can play a very important role in compressortesting. and with the specified or a substitute gas. Many more complex arrangementsexist with multiple inlets. intercoolers and side seams. Tests are commonly run in the shop or in the field. The performance testing of compressors is complicated by the need in virtually every case to consider and make correction for the differences between the test and specified conditions.e. in simple equation form. The PTC 1O Committee has been in various states of activity for approximately the past 20 years. for overall uncertainty computation is formidable. In order to handle this vast array ofpossibilities PTC 10 reduces the problem to the simplest element. and single inlet and outlet flanges. It was also approved as an American National Standard by the ANSI Board of Standards Review on April 22. This Codewas approved by the PTC 1O Committee on January18. 1996. at speeds equal to or different from the specified speed.impellers.sections. from the design of the test to interpretation of the test results. the section. 1997. Compressors and exhausters come in all sorts of configurations. The modern personal computer is readily capable of completing the calculations required. and provides the instructions for combining multiple sections to compute the overall results. The Committee developed software and used it to perform both the basic code calculations and uncertainty analysis computationsfor a wide range of possible compressor configurations. Some familiarity with this fundamental technique will be a significant aid to the users of PTC IO. The test uncertainty will always be increasingly more complex to evaluate with the complexity of the compressor configuration. Thetechniques used to do so arebased upon therules of fluid-dynamic similarity. Typical gases handled areair.. A very simple case is a single section compressor with one impeller. its constituents.1991. In all but the very simplest of cases the development of an analytic formulation. It was approved and adopted by the Council as a standard practice of the Society by action of the Board on Performance Test Codes on October 14. During that time the Code has been completely rewritten to be far more explanatory in nature.outlets. ¡.andvarious hydrocarbons. iii COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . and by the very nature of the test will be a function of the performance curves.) PTC 10 was last revised in 1965 andit has been reaffirmed many times the intervening in period.

Approved by Letter Ballot W5-1 and B E C Administrative Meeting of March 13-14. ASME Performance Test Codes provide test procedures which yield results of the highest level of accuracy consistent with the best engineering knowledge and practice currently available. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS. the test results themselves. The following information is based on that document and is included here for emphasis and for the convenience of the user of this Code. When tests are run in accordance with thisCode.~ STD-ASME P T C LO-ENGL L997 D 0759b70 Ob05925 T20 NOTICE All PerformanceTestCodesMUSTadheretotherequirements ofPTC 1.calculation methods. 1995 IV COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .instrumentation. It is expected that the Code user is fully cognizant of Parts I and III of PTC I and has read them prior to applying this Code. and uncertainty analysis. Therefore. yield the best available indication of the actual performance of the tested equipment. ASME Performance Test Codes do not specify means to compare those results to contractual guarantees.equipmentoperatingrequirements. without adjustment for uncertainty. It is beyond the scope of any code to determine or interpret how such comparisons shall be made. They were developed balanced committees representing all concerned interests. by Theyspecifyprocedures. it is recommended that the aparties to commercial test agree before starting the test and preferably before signing the contract onthe method to be used for comparing the test results to the contractual guarantees.

PERSONNEL PERFORMANCE OF

TEST CODECOMMITTEE NO. 10

ON COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS
(The following is the roster of the Committee at the time of approval of this Code.)

OFFICERS
Gordon J. Gerber, Chair Richard J. Gross, ViceChair jack H. Karian, Secretary

COMMITTEE PERSONNEL
Helmut B. Baranek, Public ServiceElectric & Gas Company John J. Dwyer, Consultant Gordon J. Gerber, Praxair Richard J. Gross, The University of Akron Jack H. Karian, ASME Robert E Lawrence, Consultant . Jack A. Lock, LockEngineering Vincent J.Polignano, IMO Delaval Frank H. Rassmann, Elliott Company Norman A. Samurin, DresserRandCompany Joseph A. Silvaggio,Jr., Alternate to Polignano, IMO Delaval

V

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S T D - A S M E P T C L O - E N G L L777 m 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 Ob05427 A T 3 m

BOARD ON PERFORMANCE TEST CODES
OFFICERS

D R. Keyser, Chair .
P. M. Cerhart, Vice Chair W. O. Hays, Secretary

C O M M l l T E E PERSONNEL
R. P. Allen R. L. Bannister B. Bornstein J.M. Burns
J. R. Friedman G. J. Gerber

R. W. Henry
D. R. Keyser S. Korellis

J.

J. W. Milton G. H. Mittendorf, ]r.
S. P. Nuspl

P. M. Gerhart

R. S. Hecklinger

R. P. Perkins A. L. Plumley

S. B. Scharp J. Siegmund J. A. Silvaggio, Jr. R. E. Sommerlad W. G. Steele, Jr. J. C. Westcott J. G. Yost

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CONTENTS

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CommitteeRoster ................................................ Board Roster ....................................................

... III
V

vi

Section 1 2 3 4

5
6

Objectandscope ........................................ Definitions and Description of Terms .......................... Guiding Principles........................................ Instruments and Methods of Measurement ...................... Computation of Results .................................... ReportofTest ...........................................

1 3
11 23 39 55

Figures 3.1 3.2

3.3
3.4

3.5
3.6 3.7
4.1 4.2

4.3
4.4

4.5
4.6 4.7

4.8
4.9 4.1 O 4.1 1 4.1 2 5.1

Section Control Volumes ................................... Typical Sideload Sectional Compressors ........................ Allowable Machine Mach Number Departures. Centrifugal Compressors .......................................... Allowable Machine Mach Number Departures. Axial Compressors . . . . Allowable Machine Reynolds Number Departures. Centrifugal Compressors .......................................... Schultz Compressibility Factor - Function Y versus Reduced Pressure Schultz Compressibility Factor - Function X versus Reduced Pressure Inlet and Discharge Configuration ............................ OpenInlet .............................................. Vortex Producing Axial Inlet ................................ OpenDischarge ......................................... Diffusing Volute Discharge With Nonsymmetric Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . TypicalClosedLoop ...................................... Typical Closed Loop With Sidestream Straighteners and Equalizers................................. Inlet Nozzle on an Open Loop .............................. Discharge Nozzle on an Open Loop, Subcritical Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . Discharge Nozzle on an Open Loop, Critical Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical Sidestream Inlet Area ................................ Specified Condition Capacity Coefficient for Specified Condition Capacity of Interest .....................................

14 16
18 19

20

21
22 24

24 25 25 26

.........................

26
27 29

32 33 33
35

49

Tables
3.1 Permissible Deviation From Specified Operating Conditions for Type1 Tests........................................... 12

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.............................1 Ideal Gas Dimensionless Parameters ..... viii COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services ........5Selection of a TestGas for a Type 2 Test Using Ideal and RealCas Equations.............................. 5......4 Permissible FluctuationsReadings Test of ........... C Sample Calculations C.........................3 Ideal Gas Application to Selectionof Test Speed and TestGasand MethodsofPowerEvaluation C......3 Limits of Departure Ideal Laws From Gas of Specified and TestGases 3........ C.2 Real Gas Dimensionless Parameters ................................... 13 14 40 41 48 50 ..................4 Treatment Bracketed Points of Test ................6 Type 2 Test Using Real Gas Equations Data for Reduction ... All Gases ........... Condensate Removal ................................. .............. 12 ...............3 Total Work Input Coefficient.8 ApplicationUncertainty of Analysis ................ Nonmandatory Appendices A Use of Total Pressure and Total Temperature to Define Compressor Performance B Properties of Gas Mixtures ........ 123 139 151 159 165 .............. 167 183 185 187 .............................. 59 61 63 65 85 109 119 ........... ........................... C...........................S T D * A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L797 D759b70 0 b 0 5 4 2 9 b7b W 3....7Treatment of a Two SectionCompressor With Externally Piped Intercoolers... 5.... C............. C............................ G Refined Methods for Calculating Total Conditions H SIUnits .2 Permissible Deviation From Specified Operating Parameters for Type1 and2Tests 3..................... 5..................2 Type 2 Test for a Centrifugal Compressor Using an Ideal Gas ... .............. D References E Rationale for Calculation Methods ..l Type 1 Test for a Centrifugal Compressor Using an Ideal Gas C.................................................. 5...........4 Typical Conversion of Dimensionless Parameters ............................................... C............................................. F Reynolds Correction Number ...........

either PTC 10 or PTC 11 may be used for machines falling into the approximate pressure ratio range of 1.A S M E P T C 10-ENGL COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS 1777 W 0759b70 O b 0 5 4 3 1 378 = ASME PTC 10-1 997 SECTION 1 1.2 CompressorArrangements.~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ S T D .2.05 to 1. Rules are provided to estimate the uncertainty for individual tests. For example. when liquid could be formed in thecompression process. Compressors. test procedure. This Code is written to provide explicit test procedures which will yield the highest level of accuracy consistent with the best engineering knowledge and practice currently available. Themethods of PTC 10. which provide for the pronounced effectsofdensitychange during compression.OBJECT SCOPE AND nally piped intercoolers and for compressors with interstage side load inletsoroutlets. Rulesare provided for establishing the following quantities. OBJECT The object of this Code is to provide a test procedure to determine the thermodynamic performance of an axial or centrifugal compressororexhauster doing work on a gas of known or measurable properties under specified conditions. Internally cooled compressorsare included provided that test conditions are held nearly identical to specified conditions. The scope of this Code includes instructions on test arrangement and instrumentation. COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . are usually intended to produce considerable density change as a result of the compression process.Proceduresarealso included for exter1 The calculation procedures provided in this Code are based on the compression of a single phase gas. Refer to PTC 11 on Fans for further information. are Fans normally considered to be air or gas moving devices and are characterized by minimal density change. A distinction between the two at times be may unclear. this Code does not cover rotor dynamics or other mechanical performance parameters.2 SCOPE 1.2. They should not be used for a gas containing suspendedsolids or any liquid. ThisCode is designed to allowthe testing single or multiple casing of axial or centrifugal compressors or combinations thereof. as the name implies. or should be. no single universal value of the uncertainty is. Fans also may require traversing techniques for flow and gas state measurementsdue to the inlet and discharge ducting systems employed. As a very rough guide. 1. Thisdoes not preclude the use of this Code on a gas where condensation occurs in a cooler providing the dropletsare removed prior to the gas entering the next stage of compression. uncertainty associated with any individual PTC 10 test will depend upon practical choices made in terms of instrumentation and methodology.1 . methods and for evaluation and reporting of final results. expected to apply to every The test.1 General. Nonetheless. or when a chemical reaction takes place in the compression process. with one or more stages ofcompression percasing.3 EQUIPMENT COVERED NOT CODE BY THIS 1. practical considerations regarding achievable accuracy become important in attempting to apply PTC 10 to devices commonly classified as fans.corrected as necessary to representexpected performance under specified operating condiwith the specified gas: quantity of gas delivered pressure rise produced head shaft power required efficiency (0 surge point fg) choke point Other than providing methods for calculating mechanical power losses. 1.the low temperatureriseassociated with fans may lead to large uncertainty in power requirement if theheatbalance method i s chosen.2. However.have no theoretical lower limit.

2 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . shall be studied and followed where applicable. this shall be agreed upon in writing prior to the test by the participating parties.4 TYPES OF TESTS This Code contains provisions for two different types of tests.8 REFERENCES 1.S T D ." If a statement is of an advisory nature it is indicated by the use of the word "should" or is stated as a recommendation. no deviations may be made that will violate anymandatoryrequirements of this Code when the tests are designated as tests conducted in accordance with ASME PTC 10. configuration is used. If any other procedure or test Unless otherwise specified.7 INSTRUCTIONS The Code on GeneralInstructions. 1. 1. A Type 1 test must be conducted on the specified gas with a limited deviation between test and specified operating conditions. 1. However. It also provides a method for estimating the uncertainty of the results.5 PERFORMANCE RELATION TO GUARANTEE This Code provides a means for determining the performance of a compressor at specified operating conditions. PTC 1. A Type 2 test permits the use of a substitute test gas and extends the permissible deviations between test and specified operating conditions. Literature referencesare shown in Appendix D. The interpretation of the results relative to any contractual guarantees is beyond the scope of this Code and should be agreed upon i n writing prior to the test by the participating parties. The mandatory rules this Code arecharacterized of by the use of the word "shall.6 ALTERNATE PROCEDURES Definitive procedures for testing compressors are described herein.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL 1997 ASME PTC 10-1 997 = 0759b70 ObO5Lf3L 2 2 q D COMPRESSORS A N D EXHAUSTERS 1. references to other Codes refer to ASME PerformanceTest Codes. The instructions in PTC 10 shall prevail over other ASME Performance Test Codes where there is any conflict.

1 7 Flow coefficient Ratio of specific heats.DEFINITIONSANDDESCRIPTION OF TERMS 2. dimensionless dimensionless Ibm ft/lbf sec2 Btu/lbm-mole Ibm HlO/lbm dry air Btu/lbm Btu/hr f t 2 "R D d e f gc H HR h h.~~ S T D . P P Pv Qext Om hP PSi Btu/min Btu/min COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . Specific heat at constant pressure Specific heat at constant volume Diameter Diameter of fluid meter Relative error Polytropic work factor Dimensional constant. 778.1 BASIC SYMBOLS AND UNITS Symbol A a Description Flow channel cross sectional area Acoustic velocity Tip width Coefficient of discharge Molal specific heat (Appendix B only) Specific heat . j K ft Ibf/Btu dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless Ibm/lbmole dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless Ibm k log In MW Mm M m m N n n ns rPm dimensionless Ib mole dimensionless psia . 32.1 74 Molal enthalpy Humidity ratio Enthalpy Coefficient of heat transfer for casing and adjoining pipe Mechanical equivalent of heat.A S M E P T C 10-ENGL L777 m 0 7 5 9 6 7 0 Ob05q32 1bO COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS m ASME PTC 10-1997 SECTION 2 . in. cp/cv Common logarithm (Base 10) Naperian (natural) logarithm Molecular weight Machine Mach number Fluid Mach number Polytropic exponent for a path on the P-T diagram Mass (Appendix B only) Rotative speed Polytropic exponent for a path on the p-v diagram Number of moles (Appendix B only) Isentropic exponent for a path on the p-v diagram Power Pressure Velocity pressure Other external heat losses Total mechanical losses (equivalent) 3 Units ft2 ftlsec b C C C CP C V ft dimensionless Btu/lbm mole "R Btu/lbm "R Btu/lbm "R Btu/lbm "R in.

RB. S Sc s T t U U V V W W X X Z ß Y Y Y Heat transfer from the section boundaries External seal loss equivalent Rate of flow Gas constant Machine Reynolds number correction constants Fluid Reynolds number Machine Reynolds number Relative humidity Reduced pressure Reduced temperature Pressure ratio across fluid meter Recovery factor Pressure ratio Flow rate ratio Temperature ratio Ratio of specific volumes Molar entropy Heat transfer surface area of exposed compressor casing and adjoining pipe Entropy Absolute temperature Temperature Internal energy Blade tip speed Velocity Specific volume Work per unit mass Mass rate of flow Compressibility function Mole fraction Compressibility function Elevation head or potential energy Compressibility factor as used in gas law. dimensionless dimensionless 4 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . d/D1 Isentropic exponent Partial derivative Efficiency Absolute viscosity Work input coefficient Polytropic work coefficient Isentropic work coefficient Kinematic viscosity Density Summation Torque Surface roughness Total work input coefficient Flow coefficient Ibf-ft in. R C Re Rem RH RP Rt r rf P ' '9 rt r.~~~ S T D D A S M E PTC LO-ENGL L997 ASME PTC 10-1997 U 7 5 9 b 7 U Ob05433 U T 7 W COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS Qr QSl 9 R RA. "R dimensionless - dimensionless dimensionless percentage dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless Btullbm . mole "R - fi2 Btu/lbm "R - "R "F Btu/lbm ftlsec ftlsec ft3/lbm ft Ibfllbm Ibm/m in dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless ft Ibf/lbm dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless Ibm/ft sec dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless ft2Isec Ibm/ft3 dimensionless - 144 pv = ZRT a 77 P P in PP P S Y P x 7 n (P B Diameter ratio of fluid meter. Btu/min Btulmin ft3/min ft Ibf/lbm .

2.2.8). 2n a Y static meas.3.7 Inlet Total Pressure. this is the compressordischargepressure as used in this Code.8 Inlet StaticPressure. 2.7). 2.1 Absolute Pressure.2 PRESSURES 2.2.7).. Shaft Specified conditions sidestream upstream sidestream downstream Saturated vapor Test conditions Wet-bulb Upstream of fluid meter Downstream or at throat of fluid meter Compressor inlet conditions (static.2. The inlet static pressure is the absolute static pressure that exists at the inlet measuringstation (seepara.4.Unless specifically statedotherwise. 2.6.b. The absolute pressure is the pressuremeasuredaboveaperfectvacuum.6. Unless specifically stated otherwise.1 5. 2. Static The pressure static i s the pressuremeasured in such a manner that no effect is produced by the velocity of the flowing fluid. The velocity (kinetic) pressure is the difference between the total pressure andthestatic pressure at the same point in a fluid.2.1 O Discharge Static Pressure.2.6. 2. 4.3 TEMPERATURES 2. It is stated in degreesRankineor Kelvin. In a stationary body of fluid thestaticand total pressuresare equal.4 Pressure. l n 2. The Rankinetemperature i s the Fahrenheittemperature plus 459.c. 2.STD-ASME PTC LO-ENGL COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS L997 D 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 Ob05434 T33 ASME PTC 10-1997 Subscripts a Ambient only) Average Casing Correction Fluid’s critical point value Compressor discharge conditions Dry air a.6.j Component of gas mixture (Appendix B av C 2. d da db des dg g hb i lu Dry-bulb Design Dry gas Gas Heat balance Compressor inlet conditions Leakage upstream Leakage downstream Gas mixture Polytropic Flow location reference Isentropic Id m P rotor s sh SP su sd SV t Wb 1.9). The inlet total pressure is the absolute total pressure that exists at the inlet measuringstation (seepara. 4. Appendix A only) Static Measured Superscripts ( )’ () Condition at discharge pressure with entropy equal to inlet entropy Determined at static conditions 2. the difference between two absolute pressures). 2.2.2. The differential pressure is the difference between any two pressures measured with respect to a common reference (e.67 and the Kelvin temperature is the Celsius temperature plus 273. Gage The pressure gage i s that pressure which i s measured directly with the existing barometric pressure as the zero basereference.2.1Absolute Temperature.5 Total (Stagnation) Pressure. 2. 5 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . The discharge total pressure is the absolute total pressure that exists at the discharge measuring station (see para.2 Pressure.g. this i s the compressor inlet pressure as used in this Code. 2. corr crit. The discharge static pressure is the absolutestatic pressure that exists at the discharge measuring station (see para. The absolute temperature is thetemperaturemeasuredaboveabsolute zero. Appendix A only) Compressor discharge conditions (static.2.9 Discharge Total Pressure. The total (stagnation) pressure is an absolute or gagepressure that would exist when a moving fluid is brought to rest andits kinetic energy is converted to an enthalpy rise by an isentropic process from the flow condition to the stagnation condition.4.6 Velocity(Kinetic) Pressure.3 Differential Pressure.

5.4.2 Static Temperature.6 Inlet Static Temperature.4 Velocity (Kinetic) Temperature.3 Total (Stagnation) Temperature.6 Specific Heat at ConstantPressure.2SpecificVolume. 2.8 Discharge Static Temperature. Density is the mass ofthe gas per unit volume.7. Thespecific heat at constant volume.4. this i s the compressor inlet temperatureused in this Code.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL 1777 9 0759b70 Ob05435 77T 9 ASME PTC 10-1997 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS 2.5 MACHINE CHARACTERISTICS 2. 6 2.Unless specifically stated otherwise.S T D . ( 3 = (au/aT).5 Inlet Total Temperature. 2./cv. 2. 2. 2.9 2. In a stationary body of fluid the static and the total temperatures are equal. Acoustic Velocity (Sonic Velocity). The specific heat at constant pressure.4. 4. 2.1 Capacity.7Specific Heat at ConstantVolume. is the change in internal energy with respect to temperature at a constant specific volume.7).5 KinematicViscosity.5.1 The capacity of a compressor is 2. Unless specifically stated otherwise. COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .4.4. The flow coefficient is a dimensionless parameter defined as the compressed product of inlet mass flow rate divided by the density. The inlet total temperature is the absolute total temperature that exists at theinlet measuring station(see para. The total (stagnation) temperature is the temperature that would exist when a moving fluid is brought to rest and its kinetic energy is convertedto an enthalpy rise by an isentropic process from the flow condition to the stagnation condition. The ratio of specific heats. rotational speed. a2 = ($) 5 2. 2.10 Fluid Mach Number.5.3.3..4.. Absolute viscosity is that property ofany fluid which tends to resist a shearing force. The corresponding acoustic velocity for suchwaves in any medium is given by: 2. 2.3. therate of flow which is determined by delivered mass flow rate dividedby inlet total density.3PressureRatio.7. 2. 2.4. Molecularweight is the weight of a molecule of a substance referred to that of anatom of carbon-1 2 at 12.8). 4.7Discharge TotalTemperature. 2. It is a thermodynamic property and is determined at a point once the total pressureand temperatureare known atthe point. It is a thermodynamicpropertyand is determined at a point once the total pressure and temperature are known at the point. = (dh/aT).3 Molecular Weight.4. 2.4AbsoluteViscosity.2 Flow Coefficient.Forsidestream machines.3. (.3. Specific volume i s the volume occupied by a unit mass of gas. The inlet static temperature is the absolute static temperature that exists at the inlet measuring station. 2.3. 2. Pressure ratio i s theratio of the absolute discharge total pressure to the absolute inlet total pressure. and the cube of the blade tip diameter.3. Compressed mass flow rate is the net mass flow rate through the rotor. this definition must be applied to individualsections. The Fluid Mach number is the ratio of fluid velocity to acoustic velocity. 2.4. The discharge static temperature i s the absolute static temperature that exists at the discharge measuring station.For an exhauster it is determined by the inlet mass flow rate divided by inlet total density. k. Thedischarge total temperature is the absolute total temperature that exists at the dischargemeasuringstation (see para. The kinematicviscosity of a fluid is theabsoluteviscosity divided by the fluid density. A pressure wave or acoustic wave of infinitesimal amplitude is described by an adiabatic reversible and (isentropic) process. this i s the compressor discharge temperatureas used in this Code. is equal to c.4 OTHER GAS (FLUID) PROPERTIES Density.000.4. The velocity (kinetic) temperature is thedifferencebetweenthe total temperature and the static temperature at the measuringstation. The static temperature is the temperature determined in such a way that no of effect is produced by the velocity the flowing fluid. is the c) change in enthalpy with respect to temperature at a constantpressure.8 Ratio of Specific Heats.

A stage for a centrifugal compressor is comprised of a single impeller and itsassociated stationary flow passages. Y is the total kinematic viscosity of the gas at the compressor inlet. The choke point is the point where the machine is run at a given speed and the flow is increased until maximum capacity is attained. The volume flow ratio is the ratio of volume flow rates at two points in the flow path. 2.10 Machine Mach Number. 2. Such a region can be considered to be in equilibrium for both a mass and energybalance. The total pressures and temperatures are used to account for the compression of the gas and the change in the kinetic energy of the gas. 2. 7 2. 2.9 Machine Reynolds Number.4 Polytropic Work (Head). Isentropiccompression as used in this Code refers to a reversible.5.11 Stage. For axial compressors. streams enteringandleavingcan be quantitatively defined as well as the power input and heat exchange by conduction and radiation. These variablesmustbe expressed in consistent units to yield a dimensionless ratio. Polytropic compression is a reversiblecompressionprocessbetween the inlet total pressure and temperature and the discharge total pressure and temperature.6.6. 2. Section is defined as one or more stages having the samemass flow without external heat transfer other than natural casing heat transfer. For centrifugal compressors.5. b shall be taken as the chord length at the tip of the first stage rotor blade.13 Control Volume.2 Isentropic Work (Head). b shall be taken as the exit width at the outer blade diameter of the first stage impeller. The change in the gravitational potential energy of the gas is assumed negligible. Thechange in the gravitational potential energy is assumed negligible. The polytropic process follows a path such that the polytropic exponent is constant during the process.5. POWER.S T D .5. 2.5.8Specific Volume Ratio. 2.E N G L 1997 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS m 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 Ob05V3b AOb m ASME PTC 10-1 997 2.3PolytropicCompression. and b is a characteristic length.This immediately causes a reversal in the flow direction and reduces the compressor back pressure. 2. Polytropic work (head) is thereversible work required to compress a unit mass of gas by a polytropic process from the inlet total pressure and temperature to the discharge total pressureandtemperature.5. AND EFFICIENCY These definitions apply to a section. The Machine Mach number is defined as the ratio of the blade velocity at the largest blade tip diameter of the first impeller for centrifugal machinesoratthe tip diameter of the leading edge of the first stage rotor blade for axial flow machines to the acousticvelocity of the gas at the total inlet conditions.Thisoccurs when flow is reduced and thecompressorbackpressure exceeds the pressure developed by the compressor and a breakdown in flow results.6 WORK.14 Compressor Surge Point. NOTE: This is not to be confused with local Fluid Mach number. The Machine Reynolds number is defined by the equation Rem = Ub/v.6 Volume Flow Rate.5.5 Temperature Rise. The specific volume ratio is the ratio of inlet specific volume to discharge specific volume. adiabaticcompressionprocess.15ChokePoint.7Volume Flow Ratio.5. Isentropic work (head) is the work required to isentropically compress a unit mass of gas from the inlet total pressure and total temperature to the discharge total pressure.5. The compressor surge point is the capacitybelow whichthe compressor operation becomesunstable. The moment this happens regular compression i s resumed and the cycle is repeated. where U is the velocity at theouter blade tip diameter of the first impeller or of the first stage rotor tip diameter of the leading edge.1 Isentropic Compression.6.A S M E P T C 1 0 .6. The total pressure and temperature are used to account for thecompression of the gas and the change in the kinetic energy of the gas.5. A stage for an axial compressor i s comprised of a single row of rotating blades and its associated stationary blades and flow passages. 2.5. Temperature rise is the difference between the discharge total temperature andthe inlet total temperature. 2. The volume flow rate as used in this Code is the local mass flow rate divided by local total density. It is used to determine volume flow ratio.12Section. 2. 2. Pressurerise is the difference between the discharge total pressure andthe inlet total pressure.4 Pressure Rise. The control volume is a region of space selected for analysis where the flow COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . 2. 2. 2.5.

2.6.6.6Raw Data. 6.7 Reading. Y is that which existsforthe static temperature and pressure at the measuring station.8. 2. and Machine Reynolds number) fall within the limits prescribed in Table 3. The specifiedoperating conditions and the test operating conditions.. . 2. pressure temperature The and measuring stations for flow metering calculations shall specibe fied as in Section 4 and the accompanying illustrations.7.8 Point. 2.Thevariables in theReynoldsnumbermust beexpressed in consistent units to yield a dimensionless ratio.6. and force.9ShaftPower(BrakePower). The isentropic efficiency is the ratio of the isentropic work to the gas work.7.7 and 6. for the purpose of this Code.7.8 Polytropic Efficiency.10Isentropic Work Coefficient.8 INTERPRETATION OF SUBSCRIPTS 2. and a.2. Gas work is theenthalpyriseof a unit mass ofthe gas compressedanddelivered by the compressor the from inlet total pressure and temperature to the discharge total pressure and temperature. 6.The polytropic work coefficient is thedimensionless ratio of the polytropic work to the sum ofthe squares of the blade tip speeds of all stages in a givensection. r.6.2. gc.1 Certainvaluesforthermodynamicstateand mass flow rateareused in the computation of the dimensionless performance parameters M. The isentropic workcoefficient is thedimensionless ratio of the isentropicwork to the sum of thesquares ofthe blade tip speeds of all stages in a givensection. 2. 2. is required to account the for units of length. It i s the gas powerplusthemechanical losses in thecompressor. A reading i s the averagethe of corrected individual observations (raw data)at any givenmeasurementstation. time.174 ft-lbm/ Ibf sec2. 2.7. The work input coefficient is the dimensionless ratio of the enthalpy rise to the sum of the squares of the tip speeds of all stages in a givensection. Raw data is the recorded observation of an instrument taken during the testrun.14 Total Work Input Coefficient. 2.5 2.2. It is equal to theproductofthe mass flow ratecompressedand the gas work plus the heat loss fromthecompressedgas.3 Specified Operating Conditions.7.aresaid to demonstrate equivalence when. 2. 2.6. 4.7 MISCELLANEOUS 2.2.andseals. The dimensional constant. 2. The shaft power (brake power) is the power delivered the compresto sor shaft. The test operating conditions are theoperatingconditions prevailing during the test. The polytropic efficiency is the ratio of the polytropic work to the gas work.4 Test Operating Conditions.2. the characteristic length D is the inside pipe diameter at the pressuremeasuringstationandthe kinematicviscosity. 2. The specified operatingconditions are those conditionsfor which the compressor performance is to be determined. Gas power is the power transmitted to the gas. The Fluid Reynolds number is the Reynolds number for the gas flow in a pipe.6.8. Mechanical losses are the total power consumed by frictional losses in integral gearing.Refer to paras.7. and static kinematic viscosity are to be used as follows: velocity V is the average velocity at the pressure measuring 2. characteristic length.7.3 and 6. Test The test point consists of three or more readings that have been averaged and fall within the permissible specified fluctuation. p p . 2. It is definedbytheequation Re = VD/v.6.7 Isentropic Efficiency. 2.2DimensionalConstant.1FluidReynoldsNumber. pi.6 Cas Power.ASME PTC 10-1997 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS Gas Work. 2. station.6.7. The fluctuation of a specific measurement is defined as the highest reading minus thelowestreading divided by the average of all readingsexpressed as a percent.13 Work Input Coefficient.7.6. Unless otherwise specifically a COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . Re.6. The total work input coefficient is the dimensionless ratio of the total work input to the gas to the sum of the squares oftheblade tip speeds of all stages in a givensection.5 Equivalence. The numerical value is unaffected by the localgravitationalacceleration. 2. where the velocity. 2.4. It i s equal to 32.Refer to paras.12Mechanical losses. 2.bearings.9 Fluctuation. for the same coefficient the flow ratios of the three dimensionless parameters (specific volume ratio. Machine Mach number.1 1 Polytropic Work Coefficient.

It refers to conditions at the mainstream discharge measurement station.8. 2.3 The subscript "rotor" i s used on mass flow rate to denote thenet mass flow rate compressed by the rotor.E N G L L997 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 Ob0543B bA9 COMPRESSORS A N D EXHAUSTERS A M PTC 10-1997 S E stated.8.2 The subscript "d" on thermodynamic state variables denotes discharge conditions. 2. E. 9 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . For singleentry streams it refers to conditions at the section inlet measurement station.1.5 of Appendix E.1 The subscript "i" on thermodynamic state variablesdenotes inlet conditions. the thermodynamic total conditions are used. 2.1.8.STD-ASME PTC L O . For multiple inlet streams it refers to a calculated mixed state. The subscripts used these equations are interpreted in as follows.Seepara. Its determination requires that all measured flows and calculated leakages are considered.1.

or built-in heat exchangers. 3.2. inlet conditions of pressure.1 Type 1 testsare conducted with the specified gas at or very near the specified operating conditions.2 When a test is to be conducted in accordance with this Code.1.7 The number of test personnel should be sufficient to assure a careful and orderly observation ofall instruments with time betweenobservations to check for indications of error in instruments or observations. and test gas.1 provide maximum allowable deviations of individual parameters for Type 1 tests. shall be COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .2.GUIDING 3. 3. Deviations in the specified gas and operating conditions are subject to the limitations imposed by Table 3. 3.Estimates of the probable uncertainty in the planned measurements should be made. The specified gas or a substitute gas may be used. that is. The test speed required is often different from the specified operating condition speed. The limits in Table 3.2 PRINCIPLES TYPES OF TESTS 3.1 PLANNING THE TEST .1. 3. emphasis The in conducting either a Type 1 or Type 2 test should be toward minimizing these deviations. if applicable. Typically this is the manufacturer’stest stand or the user’s installation site. shall be consulted. humidity.S T D * A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L797 W 0757b70 UbO5439 515 H COMPRESSORS EXHAUSTERS AND A M PTC 10-1997 S E SECTION 3 3. The mostreliable test results would be expected when the deviations in both tables are minimized. gas properties. cooling water temperature if applicable. 3.1.3 The scope of the test shall be agreed to by the interested parties. This may be dictated in advance by contractual commitments or may be mutually agreed upon prior to the start of the test. and input power expectedshallbedefined.8 An individual shall be designated as responsible for conducting the test. instruments.1 Compressors constructed withliquid cooled diaphragms. A test facility shall be selected.1. Selections of pipe arrangements. The limitations of Table 3.2. 11 3.5 A detailed written statement of the test objectives shall be developed prior to conducting the test. test driver.1 Before undertaking a test in accordance with the rules of this Code. These limitations are subject to the further restriction that their individual and combined effects shall not exceedthe limits of Table 3.3. speed. shall be made.1. discharge pressure. 3. 3. Where the compressibility values depart from the limits prescribed in Table 3.1. It explains the intended use of the Performance Test Codes and i s particularly helpful in the initial planning of the test.3 The selection of test type shall be made in advanceof the test. 3. 3.3 LIMITATIONS 3.6 ThisCodedefines two types of test which are based on the deviations between test and specified operating conditions. In theinterest of maximizing accuracy of test results it is desirable that test conditions duplicate specified operating conditions as closely as possible. mass flow rate.2 Type 2 tests are conducted subject to the limits of Table 3. the Code on General Instructions.2 only.1.1. This Code contains procedures for a single point performance test and gives guidance on determining a complete performancecurve. 3.2.3 the alternate calculation procedures provided for Real Gases shall be used.temperature.4 Specified conditions. PTC 1.1.4 Calculation procedures are given in Section 5 for gases conforming to Ideal GasLaws and for Real Gases.2 provide maximum allowable deviations of the fundamental dimensionless parameter groupings for both types. These alternate procedures apply to calculations foreitherType 1 or Type 2 tests.2. 3. the scope and procedures to be used shall be determined in advance.

5 90 [Note (111 10 200 12 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .2.2 PERMISSIBLE DEVIATION FROM SPECIFIED OPERATING PARAMETERS FOR TYPE 1 AND 2 TESTS ~~ ~~~ ~ limit of Test Values as Percent of Design Values Parameter Specific volume ratio Flow coefficient Machine Mach number Centrifugal compressors Axial compressors Machine Reynolds number Centrifugal compressors [Note (111 Rem Axial compressors where the Machine Reynolds numberat specified conditions is below 1 ~ . (b) The combined effect of inlet pressure. O O O 105 Axial compressors where the Machine Reynolds number at specified conditions is above 100. temperature and molecular weight shall not produce more than an 8% deviation in the inlet gas density.S T D . Cooling temperature difference is defined as inlet gas temperature minus inlet cooling water temperature. Deviations are based on the specified values where pressures and temperatures are expressedin absolute values. 3.1 PERMISSIBLE DEVIATION FROM SPECIFIED OPERATING CONDITIONS FOR TYPE 1 TESTS ~~ ~~ Variable Inlet pressure Inlet temperature S P d Molecular weight Cooling temperature difference Coolant flow rate Capacity Symbol Pi Ji Units psia OR Permissible Deviation 596 8% 2% N MW rPm Ibm/lbmole O R 2% 5% 3yo 4% gal/min ft3/m in GENERALNOTES: (a) Type 1 tests are to be conductedwith the specifiedgas.3 See Fig. TABLE 3. 3.E N G L L777 ASME 10-1997 m 0757b70 ObOSqqO 237 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS TABLE 3. (c) The combined effect of the deviationsshall not exceed thelimited of Table 3.000 NOTE: (1) Minimum allowable test Machine Reynolds number is 90.4 See Fig. 3.000. 105 Symbol vh’d Min 95 96 MW 4 104 See Fig.A S M E P T C L O .

intercooled compressors handling moist air. for conversion of testresults to specified operating condition results for compressors which may be treated as oneor more sections. and reported “as run.The power absorbedandheatlossorgain by natural ambient heattransfermustalso be determ ined.041 -0.O8 1.1. the meet requirements of Table 3.10 1.073 -0. volume flow ratio equality can not be achieved between test and specified conditions. Theresultsshallbe computed by themethods provided for a Type 1 test. The gas state and flow rate shall be established for each stream where it crosses the section boundary. If theleakage ratio difference between test and specified is significant.o9 .964 0. the capacity shall be measured a t thecompressordischarge.. 336 . Compressors with sidestreams also may betested by individual sections utilizing the criteria for a Type 2 test.982 0.993 GENERALNOTES: (a)Where: X = - T av v aT . Ideal or real gas method may be used if these limits are not exceeded.988 0.1 67 Min 0. and with the flow rate and the temperature specified for the cooling fluid. Heat exchangers are excluded from the interior of the section boundaries. that is. it is common to test at reduced inlet pressure and thereduced differential pressure across a seal to atmosphere could result in zero or negative leakage.1 and Y = 72)(See Figs.925 0.. As a result.O6 Min -0.344 -0.. A section is that portion of a compressor where no intermediate streamleavesorenters betweenone impeller inlet and the same or another following impeller discharge.7) v ap T (b) Maximum and minimum values of k shall apply to both the specified and test gas over the complete range of conditions. 3 3 2 Themethods of this Codemay be applied . compression sections.006 0. it shall be necessary to estimatethe leakage ratio.071 0. Volume flow ratios may in practice differ between test and specified operating conditions due to leakagedifferences. 3.1. for example.028 1. 333 .3 LIMITS OF DEPARTURE FROM IDEAL CAS LAWS GASES Maximum Pressure Ratio OF SPECIFIED A N D TEST ~ Allowed Range for Function X Allowed Range for Function Y Ratio 1.1 75 -0..3.2. including those at the sidestream.COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS ASME PTC 10-1997 TABLE 3.4 Compressors withinlet or outlet sidestreams may be testedusingtheproceduresfor a Type 1 13 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . theseeffectsshall be applied to the calculations of capacity and power. 3. Compressors with externally piped intercoolers may be given a Type 1 test or theymay be tested by individual sectionsusing a Type 2 test.12 1.050 0.033 0.o1 7 1 . (c) When these limits are exceeded by either the specified gas or the test gas at any point along the compression path real gas calculation methods shall be used for that gas. the leakage mass flow divided by the inlet mass flow for both test and specified conditions.279 0.O08 1.4. See Table 3.)Care shall betaken to assure that there is no liquid carry-over from the intercoolers. For example.4 2 k rnaxlk min 1. tested on the specified gas and at the operating conditions specified for the inlet pressure.(Foratmospheric exhausters the flow shall be measured at theinlet.6 and 3.991 1. 3. The fluctuations of the test readings shall be controlled within the limits of Table 3. inlet temperature and speed.O7 1 . Section boundaries are indicated diagrammatically in Fig.” test providing all conditions.031 -0.o1 1 1.O71 1. Therefore. 3 3 5 Where condensation can take place between .O34 1 4 8 16 32 0.025 Max Max 0.

Power in r-- I L c ------boundary lest section Multiple entry streams -7 - /1 I Multiple exit I " I Heat transfer I I ""- 4 - " " " I I FIG. 4.1 6 for further restrictions. (b) Permissible fluctuations apply to Type 1 and Type 2 tests.3.5% 0.4. 3.5% 2% 2% 0.5% [Note (2)1 gal/min volts 2% 2% GENERAL NOTES: (a) A fluctuation is the percent difference between the minimum and maximum test reading divided by the average of all readings.2.PTC ASME 1 O.1 SECTION CONTROL VOLUMES 14 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .25% 0.5.5% 1 Yo 1Yo Ibf * ft MW T kW lbdlbmole "R 0.4 PERMISSIBLE FLUCTUATIONSOF TEST READINGS' Symbol ~~~ Measurement ~ ~ Inlet pressure Inlet temperature Discharge pressure Nozzle differential pressure Nozzle temperature Speed Torque Electric motor input Molecular weight Cooling water inlet temperature Cooling water flow rate Line voltage psia "R psia Pi S "R rPm 2% 0. (2) See para. NOTES (1) Seepara.1997 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS TABLE 3.

When power is to be determined by the heat balancemethod. Also.2 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . 3. valves. the preceding section dischargevolume flow rate to sidestream inlet volume flow rate ratio for specified and test conditions must be held to 21O percent. piping. if any. is generally beyond the scope of this Code and shall be agreed upon by parties to the test.4.such as heatexchangers. the inlet gas condition shallhave a minimum of 5°F of superheat.2. 3.4.2. Permissible deviations from these ratios are listed in Fig. The ratio of inlet volume flow rate to discharge volume flow rate for specified and test conditions must be held to within +5 percent. the ratio of inlet volume flow rate to discharge volume flow rate for the specified and test conditions must be held to within +5 percent which is the same as that required for conventional compressors in Table 3. This requirement is most important in the second section of a three section machine where both inlet and discharge total pressuresare being determined at the sidestream flanges and velocity similarities arenecessary for test accuracy.3 The speed test shall be selected so as to conform to the limits of Table 3. or experimental determination as a source for these properties shall be agreed upon prior to the test. 3.7 Where the efficiency is to be determined by shaft input power measurements thebearing and seal losses should not exceed 10 percent of the total test power.3. 3.3.1 Section Treatment.4 TEST CAS AND SPEED 3.The specified operating condition performance of such components or the technique for correction of testresults to specified operating conditions shall be agreed upon by parties to the test.the ratio of the discharge volume flow rate of thesection being tested to the next sidestream volume flow ratemustalso be held to 2 1 O percent.2 The following physical properties of the test gas throughout the expected pressure and temperature range shall be known or accurately determined: (a) molecular weight (b) specific heat at constant pressure (cf) (c) ratio of specific heats (c&) (d) compressibility factor (Z) (e) dew point (fl viscosity (g) isentropic exponent (h) enthalpy (i) acoustic velocity 3. the heat losses due to radiation and convection.shall not exceed 5 percent.5. This is required so that the total pressure determined at the sidestream flange will have the same relationship to the total pressure actually existing at the exit of the first section boundary for specified and test conditions. Considerationshould be given to critical 15 It is necessary to maintain a consistency betweenspecified volume flow rate ratio and test volume flow rate ratio for each section.etc.9 3.S T D . Testpressures and temperatures shall not exceed the maximum allowable pressures and temperatures for the compressor.Finally.5 INTERMEDIATE FLOW STREAMS 3.8 Evaluation of performancecomponents of between sections. As an example. 3. speeds of rotating equipment in selectingthe test speed..4. 3.3.1 The physical and thermodynamic properties of the specified and test gas shall be known. The option of using tabulated data. expressed in percent of the total shaftpower.3.10 For Type 2 tests. In addition. it is required thatthe ratio of first stage sectiondischarge flow rate to secondsection inlet volume flow rate for the specified and test conditions be held to within 2 1 O percent. in the first section a multisection of compressor. 3. The gas state and flow rateshall be established for eachstream where it crosses the section boundary. 3. For thesecondandsucceedingsectionstherequirements are similar. an equation of state correlation.2. This will minimize theeffect of uncertainties in the bearing and seal loss determination of gas power.3.2.A S M E P T C 10-ENGL L997 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 Ob05YY3 T q b ASMEPTC 10-1997 In many cases it is not practical to measure the leakage flow and it is permissible to use calculated values of leakage for test and specified conditions.5. Compressors having flows addedorremoved at intermediate locations betweenthe inlet and final dischargeare handled by treating the compressor by sections. Code requirements arealsodescribed in equation form in Fig. Thetestspeed shall not exceed the safe operating speed of the compressor.

Min. Section 3 Min.2 TYPICAL SIDELOAD SECTIONALCOMPRESSORS COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services ."""" Section 1 Max. 41 - 4 2 ra3-2 = 93 42 where: subscript subscript 1 = Section 1 inlet from flange measurements from 2 1 Section 1 dMharge computed measuremanta from ridoatream 4 = Section 2 mixed inlet computed subscript 7 = Section 3 mixed inlet computed 8 = Section 3 dischargefrom flange measurements 5 = Section 2 discharge computed before 6 3 .Section 2 inlet from flange measurefnents - intemal measurements beform ridestream Section 3 inlet from flange meaturementr FIG. Max. 3. rql-2 = "Y L " LI " " " Section 2 Min. Max.

When compressors are treated as a number of individual sections. The pressure used for calculating the sectional performance is assumed to be equal to the sidestream flange total pressure. The higher internal velocities are accompanied by a lower static pressure which provides a pressure difference for inward flow.6 Extraction Sidestreams.7. Raw data may be affected by heat transfer from a cold sidestream to a hot mainstream flow or from recirculation which may occur within the flow passage. Under test conditions. A selection suitable for the prevailing test conditions shall be made and described in the test report. 3. 3. When it does COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . or other possible malfunctions should be reviewed.5. they will cross asectionboundary.6 SAFETY 3. large differences between the sidestream and mainstream temperatures may occur. The discharge temperature is needed to compute the performanceof the preceding section and to compute the reference mixed temperature for the next section inlet.2 Minimum straight lengths of piping at the inlet. The sectional head.For further information see para.e. The ratio of flow raterestrictions in Fig.1 The test gas used shall be in compliance with local regulations and prudent practice with regard to flammability and/or toxicity. 3. and pressures are defined flange to flange.7 It is recommended that each section of a multisection machine have its own performance curve defined by a number of test points. It is possible for internal total pressures to exceed flange total pressure due to the higher internal velocities. loss of cooling water..2 shall also apply to outward flowing sidestreams. Test used gases in a closed loop shall be continuously monitored for composition and avoidance of combustible mixtures. Permisare sible alternatesaredescribed for convenience and suitability. Simplified mixing based on mass temperature may be done for ideal gases with constant specific heat. bleed-off) from the compressor.5 of Appendix E.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L997 COMPRESSORS A N D EXHAUSTERS 0759b70 0b05445 8 1 9 ASMEPTC 10-1997 3. 3 5 5 Performance Definition. discharge.S T D . care should be taken to assure that the compressor pressurerise shall exceedsystemresistance. 362 . Consideration should be given to the needfor relief valves for accidental overpressure. compressor overspeed. these piping requirements apply to each section..3 The party providing the test site will be responsible for establishing the requirements of system protection. It is possible.3 Inward Sidestreams. Thistemperature measurethe ment shall bemade in a portion of thedischarge flow stream where the sidestream cannot affect the raw data. When testing all sections of a multisection compressor (three or more sections) simultaneously. This enables synthesis of the combined overall performance curve and provides data on the interrelations of the individual sections. The internal mixed temperatureshould be computed on a mass enthalpy basis (real gas evaluation) for obtaining the inlet temperature for succeeding sections. 3. E. 3. due to these differences. When the choke point is to be determined. The internal temperature and pressure can be assumed to be equal to the external flange temperature and pressure of the primary internal stream. 17 3. and on both sides of the flow device are specified in Section 4. 3.7. efficiencies.5. 3. When the intermediate flows are removed (¡. the dischargetemperature of the preceding sectionshall be measured prior to the mixing of two streams. . for thermal flow stratification to exist within the compressor sections.4 Temperature Stratification. low oil pressure. The only internal measurementsneededare the sectional discharge temperatures for computing the mixed temperature conditions and sectional performance. The requirement of alarmsand/or automatic shutdown devicesforsuchitems as high temperature.7 PIPING 3..5 will apply at all points unless other specified operating ratiosare identified. The ratios of Fig. the stream temperature differences should be maintained as close to specified as practical. Such piping between sections may not occur naturally in the design. When the sidestream flow is inward. Air or other oxidizing gases shall not be used in aclosed loop. 3.6.1 Piping arrangements required to conduct a test under the Code detailed in Section 4.5.6. It is common for sideload sectional compressors to have temperature differences between the mainstream and sidestream. This stratification mayresult in inaccurate measurements of internal temperatures in downstream sections.5.

theparties to the test should elect by mutual agreement to: (a) install additional piping between the sections (6) take measurementsin the availablespace.4 If a closed loop test i s to be performed. Provisions may be necessary to allow for expansion of the piping and the piping design shall beofsufficientstrength to withstandthe stresses imposed during compressorsurge. the compressor may be tested as separatesectionsand the combinedperformance computed by the method described in Section 5. shall be designed for the maximum pressure plus a suitable safety factor and the cooler shall be sized to dissipate maximum load.4 FIG. maximum messure to be obtained and the maximum be of interest to either heat load shall estimated.ordeterminedon a separate test.0 2 Ë -0.2 1.2 0. 3. Specified - 1.1 -0.3 ALLOWABLE MACHINEMACHNUMBER CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS DEPARTURES. Consideration shall be given to any compromise in measurement accuracy and its effect upon the final test objective. be The piping and cooler Pretest inspection may fromthe compressor discharge to the throttle valve party. 18 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .2 I -0.o Mmsp 1. the heat Additional lengthsof piping beyond the minimum prescribed may be required to provide additional system capacitance. 3. 3.7. the 3 9 PRETEST . (c) remove components such as external heat exchangers and replace them with the required piping.8 Mach No. 3 0. pressure drop are known for the specified operating conditions. calibrated. and installed in accordance with the requirements of Section 4.8 INSTRUMENTATION 3 7 3 Whereexternalintercoolerperformanceand .1 BI 8 0.2 0.6 0..3 I O I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1. When this alternate is selected it is important that the removal of the component have a negligible effect upon the section entry or exit flowfield so as not to affect the section performance parameters.4 0. Refer to PTC 1 for guidance.6 0. not.S T D * A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L777 A M PTC 10-1997 S E 0757b7ll ObO5qqb 755 EXHAUSTERS AND COMPRESSORS O. Test instruments shall be selected.

6 0.11.1 or 3. 15 0. 3.10.2.o 1.the test personnelshall take thefirst set of readings of all COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .8 1.4.10.4 ALLOWABLE M A C H I N E M A C H N U M B E R COMPRESSORS DEPARTURES.gas and coolant sides.COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS ASME PTC 10-1 997 0.4 Thepretest run may beconsidered as part of the test if it meets all requirements of the test. 3.2 All instrumentobservations pertinent to the test shall be taken during the pretest run.05 -0. Specified .20 O. and speed changing gear.10 4.10 I f 0. if atmospheric air is the test gas (d) discharge pressure (e) discharge temperature and/or shaft power input (0 flow device pressures and temperatures (g) speed (h) cooler inlet and outlet temperatures. if applicable 19 (i) lubricant temperatures.00 -0. if applicable (j) coolant and lubricant flows.10 PRETEST R U N 3.4 1. to determine if all instrumentsare functioning properly.4 0.2 When all variableshavestabilized.3 A set of calculations shall be made using the preliminary testdata to assure that the correct test speed has been selected.1 1. 3. Preliminary datashallbetaken to familiarize test personnel. AXIAL 3. and to ascertain if the reading fluctuations fall within the limits prescribed in Table 3.15 O 0. 3.1 The compressor shall be operated at the required conditions for a sufficient period of time to demonstrate that all variableshave stabilized. if atmospheric air is not the test gas (ml time 3.6 1.10.11 TEST OPERATION 3. as applicable.2 0.2 Mach No. inlet and outlet of bearings.1 Thecompressorshall be operated for sufficient time at the required conditions to demonstrate acceptable mechanical operation andstablevalues of all measurements to be taken during the test. if applicable fk) barometric pressure (I) gas analysis.Mmsp FIG.10. seals.were obtained and that the overall performance values arereasonable. that the test parameters required in Tables 3. They commonly include the following: (a) inlet pressure (b) inlet temperature (c) relative humidity or wet bulb temperature. 3.

The additional points should consist of one point nearsurge. essential instruments. Three sets of readings shall be taken during eachtest point.~~ S T D . greater of specified capacity).shallbe 15 minutesfromthe start of the first setofreadings to the end of the third set of readings. two points between specified capacity and surge. 3. It should be understood that a surge flow established in a shop may test not define the surge conditions which will occur in the field due to 20 3. and one point in the overload range (preferably 105 percent or COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . type of compressor.11. 3. provided that an equivalent speed is generated for each operating point selected. the flow shouldbeincreasedslightly until stableoperation is restored so that a completesetofperformance be repeated datamaybetaken.Remsp GENERAL NOTE: 90. andcapacitanceofthe piping system.A S M E P T C 10-ENGL L797 A M PTC 10-1997 S E 0757b70. Specified .1 1. Ob05448 528 COMPRESSORS AND E H U T R X A SE S Machine Reynolds No. 3. the shall consist of two test points test which bracket the specified capacity within a range of 96 percent to 104 percent. When the compressor is used with a variable speed driver additional points maybe run on selectedspeedlines.11. The severity of surge will vary widely as a function of pressure ratio.4 When a test is only to verify a single specified condition. fluctuations in the differential pressure of theflow nozzle.6 The flow at which surge occurs can be determined by slowly reducing the flow rate at the test speed until indications of unstable or pulsating flow appear.11.This may require a differentequivalent speed for each test point.Thisprocessmay a second time to demonstrate the reliability of the initial setting. When the surge flow has been identified.5 ALLOWABLE MACHINE REYNOLDSNUMBER CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS DEPARTURES. A point shall be taken at approximately the specified capacity. a multipoint test shall be performed.000 is cutoff FIG.3 The minimum duration of a test point. 3. Each point selected along the curve shall be assumed to be a specified point andcheckedforequivalency.Usuallyfivepointsshouldbe used to complete a curve. or a drop and/or fluctuation of the pressure and/or temperature. Surge may be identified by noise. after stabilization.5 Whenperformancecurvesare required to verify the complete compressor range of operation.

4 2. the choke flow may be determined by gradually opening the inlet valve whileholding speed anddischarge pressure constant. 3.2 The three readings for eachtest point shall be within the fluctuation tolerances listed in Table 3. FIG.82.6 0.2 2. 3. P. If choke flow is to bedetermined.FUNCTION Y VERSUS REDUCED PRESSURE differences in piping configuration and system response.S T D .41.c o LL 5 7 H .0 2.6 3. 21 3. the facilities shall be designed so as not to limit maximum flow.12 INCONSISTENCIES 3.8 1.81. 3.6SCHULTZ COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR .61.12. Where fewer than four independent measuring devices are used.12.0 Reduced Pressure.2 0.b 8 6 e V p 5 E 4 3 2 1 O o 0.4 0.A S M E P T C LU-ENGL 1997 U757b7U Oh05447 ‘ib4 PTC 10-1997 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS ASME 12 11 10 9 $ 8 O .1 1.0 1.1 Where four independent instruments are used to measure a pressure or temperaturevalue and recorded one observation is inconsistentdue to measurementerror.4. COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .7 The choke flow may be determined by gradually opening the discharge throttle valve while maintaining speed and inlet pressure until the flow remains essentially constant with decreasing dischargepressure. its value shall be discarded and the value determined from the average of the other three. If the compressor is to be operatedas an exhauster or tested with an open discharge. all values shall be used and averaged to determine the measurement value.2 2.

It is recommendedthatanuncertainty analysis be made prior to the test to assure that the test objectives can be met. ofthe The uncertainty is a measure of the quality as a measure of the quality of the machine.FUNCTION X VERSUS REDUCED PRESSURE 3.13. Raw data for each test point shall be recorded as observed on the test log sheet as well as the time of each set of data.The test report shall be completed in accordance with the instructions in Section 6. test andshouldnotbeused 3. driver identification.13 ERRORS A N D UNCERTAINTIES 3. Pr FIG.2 Thetest log sheet shall identifythe compressor manufacturer. The detailed procedures are given in PTC 19. 3. and serial number.7 SCHULTZ COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR . At the completion of the test the log sheets shall be signed by therepresentatives of theinterested parties. Copies of the complete log sheets shall be furnished to the interestedparties.1 It should be recognizedthattheresults of the test calculations are subject to error caused by the inaccuracies of the testinstrumentsand/or procedures. model. 22 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .14 TEST LOG SHEETS 3.7 of this Code. test instruments used. Test location.1 and are discussed in para. Corrections andcorrectedreadings shall belistedseparately in the test report.13.ASME PTC 10-1997 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS Reduced Pressure. and test date shall be listed. 5.

Straightening vanesdesigned for low pressure loss.1 The location of the pressure and temperature measuring stations have specificrelation to the compressor inlet and outlet openings. When the compressor has a volute that produces unsymmetrical flow at the discharge opening the static pressure taps shall be a minimum of six diameters downstream as shown in Fig.Pipearrangementsand allowable exceptions are described in thisSection. 4.2 Typical inlet piping required for compressors is outlined in Fig. Appropriate selectionsshall be made and described in the test report. Instrumentation is required to determine the inlet and discharge gas states.5. The instrument selection shall be justified by calculation that the uncertainty in results meets the statedtest objectives.The total inlet pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure.3 PIPING 4. by agreement. Theselection of instrumentation shall be determined by the uncertainty limit requirements of the test as well as suitability forthe test site conditions. downstream. the impeller may. 4.3. and compressor speed. minimum straight length of discharge pipe required before and after the instrumentation is specified.1.3. produce a vortex at the pressure station to cause substantial error in the measurement of inlet pressure. and the type of testselected. flow rate.1.INSTRUMENTSANDMETHODS MEASUREMENT OF 4. Forcompressors with an axial inlet. The four static pressure taps are a minimum of 12 in.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L997 COMPRESSORS A N D EXHAUSTERS 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 Ob0545L 0 1 2 H ASME PTC 1O.3 Typical discharge piping required for compressors are outlined in Fig.1 METHODS 4. pressure are The taps followed by the four temperature taps displaced 45 deg. taps displaced 45 deg. Minimum lengths of straight pipe are mandatory for certain pressure and temperature measurement stations and for certain flow devices.3.2.1997 SECTION 4 . Downstream of the pressure taps are temperature four 23 4. The pipe sizes shall match these openings.Thestaticpressurestationsshall not be less than four pipe diameters upstreamof the compressor flange as shown in Fig. undersomeconditions. downstream of the discharge opening. The inlet opening shall be protected with a screen and bellmouth suitably designed to eliminate debris and minimize entrance losses(seepara.mayusevanes suitably designed for low pressure loss to prevent rotation at the pressure taps. The 4.4. Analternatearrangementmaybe used when a compressor operating as an exhauster on air has a discharge velocity pressure less than 5 percent of the total pressure. In special cases when atmospheric conditions satisfytherequirements.1 The choice of methods provided in this Code will depend on the compressor.4). upstream of the inlet opening.S T D .1 ThePerformance Test CodeSupplements in the PTC 19 series on Instruments Apparatus and provide authoritative information concerning instrumentsand their use and should beconsultedfor such information. Temperature measuring devices shall be located on the screen to measure the temperature of the air stream at thecompressor inlet.4.2 INSTRUMENTATION 4.1. In this case thecompressorcan be run without a discharge pipe as shown i n Fig. The 4. 4. from themand atleast 8 in. other minimum dimensions are specified in Fig.Users of this Code.4. downstream. 4.2.3. 4. from them and at least 12 in. 4. The four staticpressuretapsare a minimum of 24 in. Depending upon the method selected. thespecified gas.1. COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .thecompressormay be run without an inletpipe as shown in Fig. additional instrumentation may be required to determine test power. The minimum straight length of inlet pipe is determined by what is upstream of the inlet opening. 4. The discharge temperature of the gas stream is measuredat the compressor discharge.

see Fig. apart (45 deg. For diffusing volutewith unsymmetrical flow. see Fig. 4.5. Discharge Configuration Inlet Configuration FIG.see Fig. see Fig. apart (45 deg. 4.2..4. 4. 4. apart I L Inlet temperature 4 measuring stations spaced 90 deg. minimum 12 in. For open discharge.1 INLET DISCHARGE AND CONFIGURATION Protecting screen mesh l . 4 3 . For vortex producing axial inlet. minimum 7 12 in.S T D B A S M E P T C 1 0 . minimum r 8 in.E N G L L997 W ASME PTC 10-1997 COMPRESSORS A N D EXHAUSTERS P Bminimum I 6 in. from static pressure) Inlet Opening Preceded By Straight run Elbow Reducer Valve Flow device Minimum Dimension A B 30 30 60 IOD 5D Discharge Opening Followed By Straight run Elbow Reducer Valve Flow device Minimum Dimension A B 20 20 30 80 3D 20 20 30 30 30 50 5D 1OD 30 80 For open inlet. minimum Inlet static pressure 4 taps spaced 90 deg. 4. from static pressure) Discharge static pressure 4 measuring taps spaced 90 deg.2 OPEN INLET 24 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . apart FIG. h Inlet pressure by barometer 4 measuring stations spaced 90 deg. apart i L Dischargetemperature 4 measuring taps spaced 90 deg.

paint spray.COMPRESSORS EXHAUSTERS AND ASME PTC 10-1997 r Inlet static pressure 4 taps spaced 90 deg. may used be by mutual agreement to minimize the effect of the unsymmetrical flow. Protective screens shall have an open area at least two times that of the compressor inlet or the nozzle pipe.Fig.1 for minimum dimensions 1D min Inlet temperature 4 measuring taps spaced 90 deg. 4.4 PROTECTIVE SCREENS 4.3 VORTEX PRODUCING AXIAL INLET Dischargetemperature 4 measuring locations spaced 90 deg. In general. 4.4. The mesh of a screen shall be selected to prevent entry of foreign matter which might damage the compressor and impair its performance. a screen on the inlet must be strongenough to prevent collapse in the event of accidental clogging.5 v FIG. Reliable tests cannot be made on atmospheric air laden with dust.1) U FIG. or other foreign matter which may foul the flow passage of the compressor. 4. 4. from static pressure) A- 4Dmin.3. 4.4 OPEN DISCHARGE as covered in para. 4. apart See Fig. 4. 4.6 and 4.4 Figures 4. When screens with very smallmesh orfilters are used. apart Discharge static pressure by barometer (when discharge velocity pressure exceeds 5% of total pressure use discharge pipe arrangement.7 show a typical arrangement for testing with a general closed loop and closed loop with sidestreams. inlet pressure COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . oil-fog.suitable 25 for the conditions.8. apart (45 deg. 4. L Straightener (optional) See Fig.1 Compressors operating with an open inlet shall be protected with a screen or filter. para.5.

4.5 Discharge temperature 4 measuring taps spaced 90 deg. arrangement and straightener III v” FIG. 4. apart (45 deg.S T D . 4.8. 4. para.A S M E PTC L O .6 Drain pot Gauge a Drain tank TYPICAL CLOSED LOOP 26 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . from static pressure) FIG.5 DIFFUSING VOLUTE DISCHARGE WITH NONSYMMETRIC FLOW Cooling water inlet temp.E N G L L797 A M PTC 10-1997 S E 0757b70 Ob05454 821 W AND COMPRESSORS EXHAUSTERS Discharge static pressure 4 measuring taps spaced minimum dimensions Straightener (optional) See Fig.

.7 TYPICALCLOSED LOOP WITH SIDESTREAM 27 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .S T D . ASME PTC 10-1997 Inlet Inlet measuring stations (See Fig. A S M E P T C LO-ENGL COMPRESSORS A N D EXHAUSTERS L777 = 0757b70 O b 0 5 4 5 5 7bB Flow equalizer measuring straightenerand Nozzle arrangement (See PTC 19. 4. 4.Cooling I water inlet temp.1 ' Throttle valve Nozzle measuring arrangement (See PTC 19.5) Y- Drain pot Drain tank Gauge -! + i& II.5) Valves for charging and venting gas """ jJ n I m Relief valve -" equalizerFlow and straightener LJ \ Flow nozzle Drain tank Gauge .i ?+ l FIG.

andrestrictedseparationofentrained gas bubbles. 4. The diameters ofthescalesandthearrangement ofthegraduations shall permit easyreading.8.5 28 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . The total area required of the holes may be determined from the following formula: Bourdon tubes similar or gages should be selected to operate in themid-range of the scale.Whenusingpressure switching devices.sketch length-diameter ratio of the tube shall be equal to or greater than eight and a maximum tube diameter of ’ I ~ D .Fig.Fig.3 4.5. Manometerscanbeeither U-tube orsingle to leg design. 4. the For range of pressures likely to be measured in compressor test. See PTC 19.1 Reference shouldmade be to PTC 19. Where screens or filters are used 4. where of the simple vanetype. and a single transducer.4. 4. These errors vary with the type of fluid.sq in. cfm pi= inlet density. nershallbethemultitubetype 4. The flow straighteas shown in Fig. See Fig.1 Flow straighteners may be installed by mutual agreementof the parties to the test as shown in Figs.3 A combined flow equalizer and flow straightener is used with flow nozzleswhererequiredby PTC 19.8. A.S T D * A S M E P T C 20-ENGL L997 A M PTC 10-1997 S E C M R S O S AND EXHAUSTERS O PES R shall be measured by static taps as provided in Fig. The specific gravity and the coefficient of temperature expansion of the fluid shall be determined before the test. the tubediameter.6. The plate should contain not less than 50 holes persquare foot of area.2.5. sketch (dl. Theymustbe calibrated before and after each test. Flow equalizers shall be a multihole plate. Smallboremanometersaresubject appreciable resulting capillary error from forces. means shall be provided to measure the liquid level. precautions such measurement of as the differential pressurearerecommended. and a correction shall be applied forunbalanced liquid head.6.sq in.2 for further guidance. sketch (c). 4.4 Deadweight gages testers be and shall selected to suit the pressure range. 4.6.2 where Ah= total area ofholes in plate.5.4. sketch (e). Deadweight gages cannotmeasure rapid pressurechangesand where necessarytheyshallbe installed in parallel with a Bourdon tube gage.The temperature of the gage during calibration shall be within 40°F of the ambient temperature prevailing during the test. 4.6. Manometer fluid shall be chemically stable when in contact with the test gasesandmetalparts of the instrument. sufficient time between successive switch points shall be allowed so that the transducer pressure will reach equilibrium for the selected pres4. Ibm per CU ft A= pressure drop acrossplate. the manometerand the deadweight gage shall be used as standards.5. transducer.These flow straightenersmay be (a).8.1 for straight pipe. 4. or other instrument.8. Transducers be shall selected with pressure ranges appropriatefor the expectedtestpressures. 4.6. Deadweight testers shall be certifiedby a competent laboratory. 4. 4. variable meniscus. Alternatively threeflow equalizers spaced one pipe diameter apart may be used as shown in Fig.5.Ibmper CU ft Dp= diameter of pipe. psi . forgeneral information on instruments to measure pressure. preceded by a flow equalizeronehalf pipe diameter upstream. pp= densityof gas in pipe upstreamofplate. Pressure transducers and other pressure measurement devices can be used.8.designed to produce a minimum static pressure of drop two times the calculatedvelocity pressure for pipe the section. When automated data collection equipment is used with a pressure switching device.sketch L/D will beequal to orgreater thanunity. Where gage lines are filled with liquids.2 Flowequalizers shall be installed if required in PTC 19. See Fig. q = inlet volume flow. wherethe themultitube type. and the tube cleanliness. sketch (b). in. uniformly spaced.5.3 and4.8.orof (b).= area of crosssection or pipe.5 FLOW STRAIGHTENERS A N D EQUALIZERS 4.6 PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS in a closed loop. These can be calibrated using deadweight testers or manometers. but not less than 50 holes minimum. Singlelegmanometersshallbecheckedforzero position before and after test. that transducer shall be selected to cover theentirerangeofpressure. 4.

ASME PTC 10-1997 lal Simple-Vane Flow Straightener I I L 4 1 (bl Multi-Tube Flow Straightener (cl Equalizer (PerforatedPlate or Screen) k 4 min. Id) Combination Equalizer and Straightener IfD-"-J (e) Multi-Tube Type Equalizerand Straightener FIG.8 STRAIGHTENERS AND EQUALIZERS 29 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . 4.

6. 4. or ventilating fans.9 Discharge pressure i s thetotal pressureprevailing at the compressor discharge.12). Total pressuremaybe directly measured by the use of total probes inserted into the flow stream (such probes shall be properlyorientedor directionally compensated to insurepropermeasurement). 4. the static-pressure-based result shall prevail.3.2 for further guidance. as in Fig.In by the event of significant unresolved differences from the total pressurededuced from thestaticpressure and average velocity.7 The measurement obtained by a total pressure probe can be influenced to varying extentby spatial location. in normal circumstances.4. If thevelocity pressure (based on discharge opening area) exceeds 5 percent of thestaticpressure.3. It is usually difficult to makeaccurate internal pressure measurements at a stage discharge since this is normally a region of high velocity with local variations of velocity. The instrument shall be located at the site of the test.the static-pressurebased result shall prevail. 4. Where the absolute values from four stations differ by more than one percent. and This measurement uncertainty should be reflected in the erroranalysis and in thevalueoftheuncertainty assigned to thesestations. See PTC 19. 4. compressor intakes. In the event of significant unresolved differences from the total pressure deducedfrom the static pressure average and velocity. this Codecannotspecifypreciselywhereor how internal pressure instrumentation may be placed.) Static pressure shall be taken as the arithmetic average of individual raw observations data from four stations. These probes should be located the incoming sidestream so does not affecttheraw data (see Fig.The measurement obtained by a total pressure probe can be influenced to varying extent spatial location. 30 4. Thediameter of the static hole shall not exceedfour-tenths of the pipe wall thicknessand it should not be greater than in. It shall be protected from weather. It i s the sum of thestatic pressure and the velocity pressure.1 Reference shouldmade be to PTC 19.spaced 90 deg.6.6.6. convec- COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . 3. the discharge static pressure shall bemeasured by a barometer.forguidance on instruments for temperature measurement. Total pressuremaybe directly measured by the use of total probes inserted into the flow stream (such probes shall beproperlyorientedor directionally compensated toinsurepropermeasurement).2 forfurtherguidance. The instrument elevation with respect to the compressor shall be determined andpropercorrectionsapplied. 4.4.5. as illustrated in Fig. (Seepara. four pressure probes (either static ordynamic) shouldbeinserted in themainstream flow.anopendischarge shall not be used. Whereno inlet pipe is used.6.1. a As guide. 4. See PTC 19.The following generalprecautions are recommended when making any temperature measurement: the instrument installation should assure that thermal conductance by radiation.Staticpressure shall be measured as specified for inlet pipes in Figs. the cause shall bedetermined and the condition corrected.8 Inlet pressure i s the total pressure prevailing at the compressor inlet.6). 4.6 Velocity pressure shall becomputed on the basis of average velocity.10 Barometerreadingsandthetemperature at theinstrument shall berecorded at thebeginning and end of each test point. 4. A preferred connection is obtained by welding a coupling to the pipe and then drilling the Total hole. Precautions shall be taken to prevent negativepressures in the vicinity of thebarometer which may be caused by strong winds. It shall be taken as the sum of thestaticpressureandthe velocity pressure. in the same plane of the pipe. 4. flow angle.2. and fluctuating temperature changes.7. direct sunlight. the sensitivity.Therange of their scales. and the required accuracy shall be chosen for each of thesignificant measurements according to the particular need. Static pressure shall be measured as illustrated in Fig. 4.6.1 or 4.7 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS 4. 5. TemperatureMeasurement. 4. the inlet total pressure shall be measured by a barometer.3.1 1 Internal pressure measurements are required only if the sectional performance is defined for internal conditions(as an alternative the Code definition in para.The hole shallbe drilled smoothandfree of burrs. Due to the many configurations of the internal passages in sidestreamcompressors. pressure probes be may used to measure pressure at the same stations static the measurements are made. Equilibrium shouldbeverified as part of themeasurementsystemoperatingprocedures. pressure. When no discharge pipe i s used.S T D * A S M E P T C 10-ENGL 1777 A M PTC 10-1997 S E 0757b70 O b 0 5 q 5 8 477 W COMPRESSORS EXHAUSTERS AND sure tap. Temperature shall be measured by thermocouples or mercury-inglass thermometers or other devices with equivalent accuracy.

1997 S E tion. 4. If the well is integral with the thermocouple. This measurement 31 4. 4.12).apartand displaced 45 deg. temperature measured is a value between static and total temperature.5 and 3. from the pressure taps. When thefour raw data observations differ by more than 0. etc.7. apart and displaced 45 deg.3 for further information. four instruments shall be anchored to the discharge opening with a suitable projection into the gas stream. These probes should be located so the incoming sidestream does not affectthe raw data Fig.5 percent caused by factors other than instrument error such as design may require more than 4 (four) measuring stations.. Caution should be taken because some of these deviceshave a relatively slow response time. Precaution shall be taken to avoid insertion of the temperaturemeasuring device into a stagnant area when measuring the temperature of a flowing medium. For low temperaturerisemachinesuncertainty analysis should be used to determine acceptable limits.5.9 Forsidestreamcompressors.3 Thermocouples shall have junctions silver brazed or welded. 3. When a compressor is assembled for test with a discharge pipe. Variations of more that 0. Theselectionofmaterialsshall be suitable for the temperature and the gases being measured. and shall be measured by it fourinstrumentsattached to the protecting screen. Insulation of thoseparts of thermometer well. 4. four temperature probes shouldbeinserted in the mainstream flow. 4.1 or 4. the cause shall be determined and corrected. When machines are assembled with an open inlet as in Fig. Wells shall be evaluated for the conditions of anticipated use to determine the time lag and the corrections to be applied.COMPRESSORS EXHAUSTERS AND A M PTC 1 O.5 and spaced 90 deg. Oil or other heatconducting fluid should be used in thermowells to improve heat transfer.5.8 Dischargetemperature i s the total temperature prevailing at the compressor discharge.7. As a guide.1 1 for gases. thermocouple sheath. The velocity temperature is then corrected for the recovery factor and added to the measured observation (see para. four temperature taps shall be spaced 90 deg.6). The temperature measuring device shall extend a sufficient distance into the fluid stream to minimize unavoidable conduction of heat.2. Calibration shall be made with the complete assembly. Normally.7. that extend beyond the pipe outsidediameter may be a means of accomplishing this objective if necessary. (see 4. etc.7.4 Thermometer wells shall be as small in diameter and with walls as thin as conditions will permit.theinstruments shall be located as shown in Figs.5 percent caused by factors other instrument such than error as design may require more than four measuringstations. inlet total temperature is the atmospheric temperature. In somecases. from thestaticpressuresensors(see Figs.4). the well shall also be included in the calibration. Variationof more than 0. 4.1 or 4. and conduction between the temperaturesensitive element and all external thermal bodies (pipe wall. Where the Mach number is lower than 0. 4. It is usually difficult to make accurate internal temperature measurements at a stage discharge since this is normally a region of high velocity.2 When selecting a liquid-in-glass thermometer there maybe a need for an emergent stem correction. 4.6 Total temperature is the sum of static temperatureand velocity temperature. 4. due to the many possible configurations of internal passages.7. and the lead wires.) shall be negligible in comparison to the conductance between the sensor and the medium being measured.7. Special temperature probes made to measure total temperature need little or no correction. or for air where the velocity is below 125 ft/sec.5 Resistance temperaturedetectors or thermistors should beselected for the appropriate range. this Code cannot specify where or how internal temperature instrumentation may be placed (see paras. In general. When the compressor is tested with an inlet pipe. the actual COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . Refer to PTC19. external portions of thermometer wells and thermocouple. insulation of the pipe wall near the thermometer or possibly insulation of the section of the pipe upstreamof the thermometermaybe necessary.3). Thermocouples should be welded to the bottom of a well toreduce or minimize the correction for well error.7.7 Inlet temperature is the total temperature prevailing at the compressor inlet. including the instrument.7. 4. when the 4 (four) raw data observations differ by more than 0.5 percent of the absolute temperature.thereference junction. They need not be perpendicular to the wall. 5.5 percent of the absolute temperature the cause shall be determined and corrected. 4. Where the compressor is operated without a dischargepipe. the velocity temperature may be negligible.4.

4 SD minimum FIG. Flow Measurement. concentric square edgeorifice. It diameter shall be a minimum of 1. velocityof approach is included in measurements 4. For a subcritical flow. The internal temperature measurenozzle flange. Otherreferences are provided operation at critical flow. The flow straightexhausted. 4.1 1. In this case the differential in Appendix D.ASME PTC 10-1997 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS Nozzle temperature " 4 " m I r Nozzle pressure 2 taps spaced 90 dag.1 O and 4. 4.1 Flow be may measured using by an ASME pipe for use where it is convenient to discharge the flow nozzle. The interested parties shall mutually pressure will begreaterthanbarometricpressure.8. 4.Methodsare included for times the nozzle throat diameter. Temperature is measured sensors by ment i s always requiredwhen sidestream and mainat the screen. the nozzle maybesizedfor and their applications.5 Formulas for calculating mass flow for a zle. as shown in Fig. In both cases the minimum length of straight pipe 4. shall be equal to five times the pipe diameter. Herschel gas to atmosphere.8. A.9 INLET NOZZLE ON A N OPEN LOOP uncertaintyshould be reflected in the uncertainty barometer pressure. 1 D upstream of the nozzle as indicated in Fig.10. or alternative devices of equal or differential pressure.Users of these arrangements are leakage that may inherent be in the compressor cautioned to observe the distinction between critical design. balancing pistons.8 CAPACITY MEASUREMENTS ments of the flow nozzle on theoutletend of a 4. 32 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . Multiple devicesare required for multiple and subcriticalflow. agree upon the type of metering device to be used and it shall be measured fromstatictapslocated and the choice shall bestated in the test report.8. 4. the nozzle type venturi tube.2 The flow measuring device may be located on precedingthenozzle shall be 1OD andthe pipe either theinlet or discharge side of the compressor.1 1 show optional arrange4.andothernormal 4.3 The nozzle may be used with anopen inlet.4 The nozzle maybeused with anopen discharge: Figs. the netcapacity 6 tions shall be located 0 upstream. stream flowsmixinternally. as described in para.8. A protecting screen the determination of the discharge coefficient.5. will be lessthan the barometbetteraccuracy. It shouldbenotedthatthe inlet or discharge flow sections. 4. 4.. variety of flow measuringdevices as provided in and the pipe diameter shall be a minimum of 1. shall be used.5 shallbeused.66 PTC 19. Differential pressure i s measured analysisand in the value of the uncertainty assigned from two statictaps located 112Ddownstream of the to these stations. enerand/or flow equalizer. 4. nozzle throat diameter.4. The nozzle arrangementshown in Fig. The minimum length of straight pipe. which excludeslosses by shaftleakage. Wheretheavailable detailed description of the various primary elements gaspressurespermit. Temperature measuring staor in the case of an exhauster. for general instruction and tubes.8. Upstream total pressure is equal to the expansion coefficient for various flow elements.66 times the shall be usedto determine the net capacity delivered. fluid shall be used in accordance with theinstructions expansion factor. following the noz4. metering and element thermal of para. made with impact tubes.5.9 may be used for the test of compressors as exhausters.condensation. I Protecting screen See para.Reference shall be made to PTC ric pressure and it shall be measured fromimpact 19. 4.

However./ .9 CAS COMPOSITION 4.9. the gas in the instrumentlines will be cooler (¡. Nozzle temperature 2 measuring stations spaced 90 deg. . SUBCRITICAL FLOW Nozzle temperature 2 measuring stations spaced deg- 7 1ODminimum i Nozzle pressure 2 measuring stations spaced 90 deg.- Il II ==== " " " " t r1 I. condensation could occur.e. under some conditions.2 Special precautions shall be taken when testingwith the closed loopto eliminate all liquids from the gas stream and static instrument lines.10 DISCHARGE NOZZLE ON AN OPEN LOOP. If the test gas is air no samples arenecessary. 4. II I I Efzz " " 0. sampling will betaken at the start and end of each test. Flow equalizer and straightener (See Fig. relative humidity or dewpoint shall be measured during eachtest point. . COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . 4. 4.3 Note that while the gas under test conditions may not exhibit condensation. 4. room temperature) and. .A S N E P T C 1 0 . 4.11 DISCHARGE NOZZLE ON AN OPEN LOOP..23d 4 1OD minimum SPECIAL NOTE: d not morethan 0. The sample shall be taken from the piping such that there i s no condensation before 33 the compressor or the sampling points.9) Not greater than 20 Il II - 1. This analysis shallconsist of identification of theconstituents. samples shall be taken at eachtest point andbe analyzed by spectrographic.S T D . act tubes for d > 5 in.a measure of mole percent of each and evaluation of the molecular weight. " " " " .1 The test gas must be defined. CRITICAL FLOW 4.9.. .- ""-I FIG.6D for any nozzle arrangement FIG. chromatographic. At the minimum. or chemical methods. When dealing with gas mixtures subject to variation.E N G L L797 AND COMPRESSORS m 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 ObOSLIbL T b l PTC 10-1997 Nozzle pressure One impact tube for d 5 5 in.9.

and a load loss.2 Thespeed of a compressor drivenby synchronous motors may be determined from the number of poles in the motor the and frequency of thepower systems.14. The segregated losses of an induction motor shall include friction and windage. 4.1 2.14. Efficiency shall be determinedbyan input-output test where output is measured on a calibrated dynamometer or other appropriate device. heat exchange COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .1 The shaft power input at the compressor shaft maybemeasured dicoupling orthedrive rectly by: (a) torque meters (b) reaction mounted drivers or evaluated from: (c) measurementof electricalinput to a driving motor (d) a heat balance method (e) heat input to a loop cooler The precautions. users select Code shall the method best suited the for application.7. The torsion member shall be selected for readability and accuracy at the speed andload prevailing during test. For efficiency determination. If gearsareusedbetweenthe measuring point and the compressor shaft.1 Instruments shall be selected to provide a continuous indication of speed fluctuation where variable speed drivers are used.14 SHAFT POWER BY ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS 4. 4. 12R loss of the rotor and the stator. 4. 4. i s alsorecommended. Detailed instruction on the measurement of shaft power will be found in PTC 19.one to provide a check on the other. limitations.14.12 METHODS O SHAFT POWER F MEASUREMENT 4.11.2 Efficiency determination by input-output measurements may not be practical for large motors.10. For large motors the loss method may be used.1 Torque may be directly measured by devices interposed between the installed in a drive shaft driver and the compressor.12.3 The electric power input to the motor shall bemeasured bytheinstrumentsconnectedatthe motorterminals.1 3.14.10. The indicating electric meters should be selected to readabove one-third of the scalerange.ASME PTC 10-1997 COMPRESSORS A N D EXHAUSTERS 4.3 Detailed instructions on speed measuring instrumentation is given in PTC 19. 4.15.1 O SPEED MEASUREMENT 4. 4.13 SHAFT POWER BY TORQUE MEASUREMENTS SHAFT POWER BY HEAT BALANCE MEASUREMENTS 4. the supply line voltage used for calibration shall the be same as that used for the compressor test. 34 4. These measurements shall be made in accordance with current ANSI standards. Measurement of RotarySpeed.15 4.or as the product of input andefficiency. Thepowerrequirement ofthe compressor should be above mid-point of the motor rating. it may be computed measured from values of thecapacity.1 1 TIME MEASUREMENT 4. 4. The transformers shall be measured for ratio and phase angle at the loadconditions prevailing during thetest.4 Calculations of electrical power shall include calibration corrections for the meter and current transformers.10.2 sible applicationsfor 4. Use of two independentinstruments.1 The and date time of day at which test readings taken are shall be recorded on all data records. gas properties at inlet and discharge.1 When it i s not possiblepractical or to measure shaft power bydirect means. and thepermiseach of these methods are described separately. 4.Thedetailedinstructionsforthe measurement of electrical power are as given in IEEE 120.Theoutputof a motorshallbecalculated bysubtractinglossesfrom the measured electrical input. Measurement of Shaft Power.1 3. For tests under this Code. core loss. the speed ratio shall be computed from a count of the number of teeth.1 The power shaft inputto a motor driven compressormay be computedfrommeasurements of the electrical input to the motor terminals under certainconditions. 4. torque meters shall be of a type suitable for calibration.

mechanical losses. External heat loss from the casing may be evaluated para. '' with 4. and gas leakage loss from the shaft seals. (2) Move the temperature measurement station away from the compressor and add pipe insulation.3 The balance heat method shall be used with the following precautionsand limitations.15. 4.12 TYPICAL SIDESTREAM INLET AREA through the casing. (a) The inlet and discharge temperatures shall be measured with instruments suitably selected and applied toprovide combined accuracy within 1 percent of the temperature rise. 4. Evidence of nonuniform temperature distribution more than 2 percent of the temperature rise at either the inlet or the discharge measurement station. 4.2 Methods to account for mechanical losses are discussed in para. A FIG. 4.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L977 0759b70 ObU5qb3 839 m ASMEPTC 10-1 997 COMPRESSORS A N D EXHAUSTERS k- Location C Location A Location B GENERAL NOTE: Mainstream instrumentation to be located between stations and B.1 7.15. the temperature measurement installation need not be changed.S T D .18. When the rise is less than SOOF. may require one of the following procedures be used at the offending measurement station: (7) Apply insulation to the piping upstream of the temperature measurement station in an effort to minimize thermal gradient. consideration should be given to direct mea35 surement of the temperature rise (such with differas entia1 thermocouples). If successful. This might be particularly effective when temperature COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .

(0 The heat losses dueto radiationand convection from the gas loop piping. piping.1 When it is not possible or practical to measure shaft powerdirectly or by a compressor heat balance. the upstream temperatures In of the two streams mixing internally shouldbe meathe sured.2 Methods to account the for mechanical losses are discussed in para.17 HEAT LOSS 4. fluctuation of the temperature rise by not more than 1 percent of the temperature rise. (d) Two or more temperature measuring devices shall be used at each cooling fluid inlet and outlet. (cf) The heat losses due radiation and convection to expressed in percent of total shaft power shall not exceed 5 percent. 36 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .16. 4.16. whereinternal temperature measurements areto be made. Acceptable equilibrium will be demonstrated by six or more readings.18. during which the temperature rise drift does not exceed 5 percent of the temperature rise. Theexternalheat loss fromthecompressorcasing andconnecting piping may be computed with acceptable accuracy measurements the from of exposedsurfacearea.2 Where cooling occurs between the inlet and outlet measuring stations as part of the compressor design. measurement of temperatures and flow rates of cooling the fluids are required.The 1 O sensing locations along each traverse should line correspond closely the average radii of five annular to regions of equal area which comprise the entirepipe cross section. as in large multistage compressors.'STD-ASME P T C 10-ENGL L 7 7 7 W 0757b70 Ob054b4 770 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS ASMEPTC 10-1 997 stratification causes the problemat a compressor discharge. 4. less uniformly timed. the compressor. 4.3 The exchanger heat methodshallbeused with the following precautionsand limitations. and cooler may be evaluated in accordance with para. (c) The cooling fluid flow rate shall be regulated so that the temperature rise i s not less than 20°F.17. It is recommended that the piping between the compressor discharge flange and the cooler inlet be insulated.1 7. fora period not than 1 O minutes. all cases. External heat loss from thecasing. However. and thus obtain anapproximateintegratedaveragetemperaturefor the total surface. If the compressedgastemperature rise is less than S O O F . (The central region actually would be a circular rather than annular area.ideally four locations should be used.) (e) The inlet gas conditions shall have a minimum of 5 deg.16.17. 4. or aftercoolers as part of the compressorpackage being tested.1 7. Where a hot surfacetemperaturevarieswidely. this may not prove to be practical. (g) Temperature equilibrium shall be established before starting the test reading. and exit piping shall be insulated atleast to the measuring station. the heat transferred to the cooling watermaybeused todeterminethenet compressor shaft power. apart at the same pipe crosssection. Acceptable equilibrium will be demonstrated by six or more readings. (b) The cooling fluid flow meter shall be selected and calibrated to maintain the uncertainty within limit 1/2 percent at test conditions. (3) Perform a temperature traverse usingO loca1 tions along each of two diametral traverse lines spaced 90 deg. (a) The cooling fluid supply shall be stablein pressure and temperature so that the fluctuation of flow rates will not deviate more than 2 percent and the 4. (e) Spinners or similar devices shall be used to insure thorough mixing of the outlet stream prior to temperature measurement. (See para. the average temperature of the surface.and the cooler shall not exceed 5 percent of the total shaft power. 4. 4. (b) In sidestream machines. the inlet piping.) The measured temperature would be the averageof the individual 20 measurements.1 When using either the heat balance or heat exchanger method for determining power.16 SHAFT POWER BY HEAT EXCHANGER METHODS 4. uniformly timed. (c) Temperature equilibrium shallbeestablished before starting the test reading. and the ambient temperature. it is advisable to divide the casing into arbitrary sections and determine the area and temperature of each separately. A measurement of downstream mixed temperature would be unreliable and should not used be for calculationpurposes dueto inherent poor internal mixing conditions in a machine. compressor casing. Examples are compressors incorporatingcooled diaphragms. it is recommended heat that loss be minimized by the application of a suitable insulating material. superheat for Type 2 tests. 4. and a heat exchanger is incorporated in the test arrangement. less during which the temperature rise drift does not exceed 5 percent of the temperature rise. interstage coolers. fora period not than 1 O minutes.

4. Where the mechanical losses are well known and documented. 4.COMPRESSORS EXHAUSTERS AND ASME PTC 10-1997 4. the lead wires. 4.5 Torque meters shall be calibrated by applying torque with certified standard weights. Temperature Measurement. For strain gage types. the calibration shall include the brushes. and the indicating instrument.3. thermisters.2 Where speed changing gears (not part of the compressor)areusedbetween a driver and a compressor. Current transformersshall be measured for transformation ratio and phase angle at the range of burdens prevailing in the circuit during the test.3 Temperature measurement devices (thermocouples.2 Pressure measurement devices (Bourdon tube gages and transducers. RTDs. The transformation ratio of potential transformers shall be measured at theapproximate primary voltage and frequency prevailing during the test. RTDs and thermisters shall be calibrated with the total system. or other appropriate devices spaced to cover the working range. viscosity. and voltmeters shall be calibrated with primary standards. the calculated values or those values determined from prior testing may be used by agreement by testparties. Instruments affected by temperature shall be calibrated in the same temperature range prevailing during their use.1 When practical. The additional external loss to the atmosphere may be determined by the methods of para. the and indicating instrument. ammeters. 37 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . shall be determined and included in the total mechanical losses. shall be followed for checking the accuracy of temperature measuring instruments. and shaft power is measured on the input side of the gear. 4. if used.1 9. Dynamometer may types be calibrated on either ac or dc current. The standard shall be suitable for the measurement range of the instruments to be calibrated.18. bearings. leadwires. mercury-in-glass thermometers.Theheat equivalent of the external losses as well as the frictional loss in the mechanical seals.) shall be calibrated with certified standards at 20 percent intervals the measurement for range. 4. 4.18. and flow ratesare similar to those for the compressortest. Procedures described in PTC 19.1 9INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION 4. handling.17.19.19. etc.1 All instrumentsused for measurement shall be currently certified by comparison with appropriate standards before the test. Those instruments subject to change in calibrations due to use. lubricating oil temperature.19. The quantity of fluid flowing shall be determined by calibrated flow meters.or exposure to injurious conditions.18 MECHANICAL LOSSES 4. Instruments showing pivot friction shall not be used.the heat equivalent of the mechanical losses (integral gears. Thermocouple calibration checksshall include the hot junction. They shall be examined for pivot friction.4 Instruments for measuring electric power such as wattmeters.1 9.Thegear power loss to the lubricating fluid may be determined by measuring the flow rate and the temperature rise. load cells. and seals) shall be determined from thetemperaturerise of the cooling fluid. etc.) shall be calibrated with a deadweight standard manometer at approxor imately 5 percent intervals for the anticipated measurementrange. care should be taken to assure that the load. When gear loss measurements are made on an independent geartest. 4. it willbe necessary to subtract the friction and windage loss of the gear to obtain the shaft power input to the compressor. The zero adjustments shall be checked. shall be compared again with standardsafter the test.

Iteration separately. 'Th.7) are for reference.2 COMPUTATIONALMETHODS AND REAL GASES FOR IDEAL 5.2 to 5.ASME PTC 10-1997 OF SECTION 5 . Ref. temperature.! table limik are defined so that the use of ideal gas laws will introduce maximum uncertainty of approximately 39 5.1 FORMAT Perfect or real gas treatment is selected.3. andthecorresponding derived equations of form. TheSchultzmethod is normally used when the ditions. The gas to be used in of thecompressor to operating gas or a COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .COMPUTATION RESULTS percent one in efficiency and two percent in discharge specific volume. Thegas may be treated 2 test is to be performed. Gases which exhibit deviations beyond these limits are considered real.1 establishingtheperformance be testedcanbethespecified Test Gas Selection. discharge conditions are unknown and anestimate The important subject of uncertainty is treated of the polytropic exponent. Many of the generalized equations of state provide sufficiently accurate predictions of gas properties to be used in conjunction with the calculation methods. Thereal gas equation of state.3 Tabulated Properties Equation and of State Methods. Specificvalues of the equations. the and desired accuracy.3. average is presented in the following chronological order: properties are calculated at the arithmetic mean 5. the user in basic calculation procedure andto present Thecurves provided for X (Fig. This Section For gases with variable specific heats. Appendix E is provided as 3.3. Tables 5.2 to 5. is needed.1. Three distinct treatments of gases are recognized in the computational procedures. n.1311 when the compressibility functions are 0 Test performance is calculated.(D. X and to predict performance at specified operatingconY. The appropriate choice will depend upon theselected gas. known. The test and specified gases maybetreated as eitherperfect or realdepending upon their respective thermodynamic behavior. the limits imposed h Table 3.2.4.2Schultz Method. the necessary equations. as a real gas using the method of Schultz [see 0 The raw test data is processed.2. 5. 3. The section format is intended to guide is required to obtain the arithmetic mean conditions. 'The ideal gas equation of The Calculation The process Of state.1. There are many gas property correlation equations of state for pure components and gas mixtures.2. For thepurposes of thisCode ideal gases are those which fall within the limits of Table 3. 0 0 5. They were derived from the a background theory source and further explanation generalized compressibility charts.1 Choice of Methods. Pure gases and gas mixtures for which tabulated data properties exist may be treated as real gases. 14dPv = RT. of X and Y may be developed for any test or specified gas composition. and the corresponding derived establishing compressor performance from test data equations in Tables and may be involves a number of calculation steps. between inlet and discharge conditions shall be used 0 The corrected dimensionless expressions are used for evaluating compressibility. specific heat. The use of either of thesemethods will require iterative procedures to satisfy the equations in Tables 5. section The appropriate test speed is calculated if a Type 5.4 are used. The arithmetic mean 0 Reynolds number correction is applied.6) and Y (Fig. 144pv = 0 Test performance is expressed in dimensionless ZRT. knowledge of its properties.

[rlplr = GENERAL NOTE:Appropriate units must be chosenrender the parameters dimensionless.1T-51 In PiTd Isentropic efficiency [%If = Polytropic efficiency hplf = Total work input coefficient See Table 5.. to Further explanation of the equationsis available in Appendix E.1T-21 [Pinlsp = [PinIr Isentropic work coefficient -RT.1 and. Polytropic work coefficient [Pdf = I5.1 IDEALGASDIMENSIONLESS Parameter Flow coefficient PARAMETERS Eq. No.1 k-1 IPslsp = [PJf Rm e.1 T-41 where nt = [1- (5.3 For ideal gases with constant specific heats k.. 40 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .S T D * A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L777 MME PTC 10-1997 0757b70 Ob054b7 4 8 T W COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS TABLE 5. -31 15. Assumption Mathematical Description at Test Operating Conditions Work input coefficient [5.

hi [Table continued on next pagel 41 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . = Polytropic work coefficient Irplr = where nt = [T] In vd I [5.2 REAL GASDIMENSIONLESS Parameter Description Mathematical at ! PARAMETERS Eq. No.2T-7j Isentropic efficiency [ d r = hd [5.2T-51 and f.2T-8] [vSlsp= I d t Remccllr .2T-41 (5.COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS ASMEPTC 10-1997 TABLE 5. [5.2T-1j Test Operating Conditions Assumption 4sp coefficient Flow = 4f t Work input coefficient where [ndr = [T] In vd t 15.

e m .71 For a real gas usingtheSchultzmethod.61 n l) ( : and. 5. The volume ratio limitation of Table 3.3 GENERAL NOTE: Appropriate units must chosen to render the parameters dimensionless. with the restriction that.3.2 may be met by controlling the test speed. Assumption Total input work coefficient See Table 5. [5..3. The appropriate test speed i s calculated from ¡. which is a function of polytropic efficiency. gas which allows for similarity testing at equivalent conditions.81 42 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . 1 Y-m(l k"1t = 1r"lsp [5.4] n = +x) I5.e. 5 6 3 . No.3. R. Further explanationthe equationsis available be of in Appendix E.3.1 -T k p E i5.3.2 Test Speed Selection.PTC ASME 1O.2 (CONT'D) REAL GAS DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS ParameterTest at Mathematical Operating Description Conditions Polytropic efficiency Eq. In order to apply theseequations it is necessary to know thepolytropic exponent. Foranygas. number is explained in para.. (E) 1 where The Machine Reynolds correction. n " n. Foran ideal gas..1997 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS TABLE 5..

The Fluid Mach numberfor ideal gases is given by COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . The need corrections andcalibrafor tions arises from both the indicating system components and measurementtechnique.4.S T D .1 Calibrations and Corrections. Where no better approximation is available. 15.AL) .2 Data Conversion. but total values are used in the intermediate computations.4 5.2. The relationship between staticand total properties is velocity dependent.4. See PTC 19. 5.2. temperature.3. thenthe point i s assumed to be valid.2.4aresatisfied. Threeormorereadingsare used to obtain the test point.etc.4.4. This averaged data becomes the reading. The individual readings and are summed divided by the total number of readings to establish average. Theobserved data shall be checked for compliance with the limitations imposed in Sections 3 and 4. 5.3 AF= fluctuation expressed in YO (Table 3. 5. A refined method for higher Mach numbers is given in Appendix G. 5.2 Processing Data.Some deviation is allowable. The allowable fluctuation of the readings is shown in Table The 3. Gas static state test point data shall converted be to total condition values for the computational procedure.4.5 Total Conditions. fluctuation is computed by taking the differences of the highest reading and the lowest reading and dividing the average of all the readings* AF= 1 O0 (AH . Rawdata shall be corrected as required based on: (a) instrument and instrument system calibrations (b) liquid legs in pressure measurement lines (c) temperature effects (d) thermometer emergent stem corrections (e) local gravitational variation 5.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL COMPRESSORS A N D EXHAUSTERS L777 0757b70 Ob05Y70 T7Y ASME PTC 1 O.4 Test Point Data.2. average an This is Performance at the test conditions is calculated then used as the test point data.4. The speed test is acceptable when the deviation satisfies the limits of Table 3.Average total properties are estimated herein from the average velocity at the measurement station.3 Fluctuation. Theaverage velocity at the measurement station is given by CALCULATIONS FOR TEST OPERATING CONDITIONS 5. When the actual test conditions differ from the estimated values. design the 5.1 for guidance on examining data for outliers.4) AH= highest reading AL= lowest reading Ai= ith reading n= total number of readings If the fluctuation values of Table 3.This does not preclude final presentation in terms of static conditions.91 60th the test and specified operating condition &iciencies are known only approximately beforethe test.4.4. The reading i s then converted to absolute units of pressure. Applicable instrument and system calibrations shall be applied to the raw data. by the following procedures.1 Raw Data Acceptability.2.2. Raw Acceptable raw data shall be processed to provide values to be used in the computation of results.4. The corrected raw data is then averaged from the total number of observations (raw data)ateachmeasurementstation. 5. 43 Simplified methods for converting between static and total conditions at low Fluid Mach numbers are presented in the following paragraphs.1 1 where TestSpeed Validation. they may be estimated from value.1997 where = ?(L+ x) C TP P [5-3. the most appropriate test speed will depart from the previously calculated testspeed.

5. 5.4 TestDischargeTemperatureFromShaft Power.4. The recovery factor i s primarily dependent upon geometric configuration. and.4.4.3) used at velocities below 300 fthec have a recovery factor for air equal to 0. For measurement station Fluid Mach numbers of 0. This ability is defined in terms of a recoveryfactor.3. and Fluid Mach number.4. The test total specific volume is the reciprocal of the total density COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . An alternative method for determining test discharge temperature is discussed in para.5TestDensityandSpecificVolume. 5.81 for ideal gases.1 and the methods outlined in Appendix G should be used. the discussion in Appendix G gives guidelines for more accurate methodsfor relating total temperature to measured temperature. It is less accurate for real gases and should be used with caution for real gases for Fluid Mach numbersabove 0. For cases where the measurement station Fluid Mach number exceeds 0.61 This equation is accurate for ideal gases (using an average c&.6. The temperature indicated by a sensing element is normally a value somewhere between the static and total temperature.4.4.2 for areal gas.4.such as near the critical point.ASME PTC 10-1997 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS M = V The test total temperature is calculated from the measured temperature taking into account the effect of recovery factor.2.9] for real gases.4. Recovery factors for various sensors may be available from the instrument manufacturer.3 Refined Method.4. A good approximation of velocity pressuremaybe obtained by assuming incompressible flow at the measurement station and calculating an approximate density from themeasuredstaticpressure and measuredtemperature. 5.2 (see Appendix G).2 or less the effects of compressibility are small.4.4. orientation.4 Temperature Test 5.65. 5. For cases where the measurement station Fluid Mach number exceeds 0.4. The above equation and the definition of recovery factor rf combine to give Va. the total temperature may differ greatly from the value indicated by para.2 Refined Method.4.4. This method is based upon the assumption of uniform compressible flow at the measurement station.2 Simplified Method.4. depending upon the ability of the sensor to recover the converted kinetic energy of the gas stream. 5. Thetest total density is calculated from the test total pressure and total temperature as [5. Standardized Performance Test Code wells (PTC 19.1 Recovery Factor. 5. 44 [5.3 Pressure Test 5.3.7.4.4. The difference between total and statictemperaturesmay be evaluated from [5.4. the refined method of Appendix G may be used. = ~ / 6 0 p A 15. or when abetter average velocity estimate is desirable.4. Thus 5.4.1 Simplified Method. For cases involving extreme variation from ideal gas behavior.31 5.

5.1 Shaft Power Methods. Test flow rates exare Shaft power i s the sum of gas power plus any pressed as mass rate of flow at thestation of interest. = Pt 1 [5.15] 33000 where W.sealleakage tl 5. S ta) hl60 1 15. - [5. the shaft power is calculated using the appropriate formula.4.5 for parasitic losses). Qr= 5.4.7. Shaft power is the power input to thecompressor drive shaft.7. Gas power is calculated by subtracting the parasitic losses from the shaft power (seepara.4. indicates the sum of mass flow rate-enthalpy products for all flows crossingthesectionboundaries. When power input i s measured by instrumentssuch as a torque meter. 5. 5. All references to calculated volume flow rate imply this definition unless otherwise stated.4. and the ambient temperature from Qr = I A tc -. In somecasessecondary flows such as leakages may be wholly calculated ratherthanmeasured when mutually acceptable methodsareavailable.4Casing Heat Transfer.3 Heat Exchanger Method. W= Pg. Both shaft power and gas power may be of interest.4.4.4. It is = Pg. Psh.1 Mass Flow Rate.7.7. Closed loop heat input tests are a form of the heat balance method.tl) + Qr + Qextl .11] P 5.parasitic losses.4.4. 5. mass flow rate P= total density This definition is consistent with the use of total properties in the calculation procedure. = [wwcpW (r2 .[5. or calibrated motor. This Code uses a flow rate definition in the calculation process which has the units of volume flow rate.10] where [Coutwh .Lnwhl 5.4. Test The calculation of test power depends upon the method of measurement. Gas power is calculated from theFirstLaw of Thermodynamics applied to the compressor section of interest. for example. yielding where Sc= heat transfer surface area of exposed compressor and adjoining pipe forsection of interest tc= casing surface temperature ta= ambient temperature hr= coefficient of heattransfer for area (combined convection and radiation) Where the surface casing temperature varies widely. Psh.6.4.4.2 Volume Flow Rate. It does not represent the actual local volume flow rate because it is based upon total rather than static density.6 Test Flow Rate.2 Heat Balance Method.14] q=where W [5.The gas power is given by. the accuracy of this calculation may be improved by treating small areas of the surface 45 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .6.7 Power.4. QI i s the heat transferfrom the section boundaries. the average temperature of the surface.= cooling fluid mass rate of flow cooling fluid specific heat C' P . The externalheat loss or gain from the section be may computed from measurements of the exposed surface area. dynamometer. i Pparasitic.4.7.COMPRESSORS A N D EXHAUSTERS ASME PTC 10-1997 v.1 61 = measured value 5.Gas power is the power delivered to the gas in the section(s1 of interest. The measured flow rate is calculated according to theformulas applicable to the indicating instrument used. t2= cooling fluid outlet temperature = cooling fluid inlet temperature heattransfer from the section boundaries QIxt= other external heat loss equivalent.

5.1 where mass flow rate of the lubricating or sealing fluid cp= specific heat of the lubricating orsealing fluid At= temperature rise of the lubricating or sealing fluid (b) Other Parasitic Losses. which do not contribute the lubricating oil temperato ture rise shall be determined separately. powersuppliedtodriveauxiliary equipment is treated as parasitic.7. 4. Forrealgases.31 5.4.4.18] The following dimensionless parameters are calculated for the test conditions to provide verification that the limits of Table 3.5 Prnech DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS = [wcpAtl 33000 I [5. it may be possible to obtain a value from the measuredshaft power.5. NOTE: An iterative calculation is required for real gases.2 Machine Reynolds Number.41 (a) For Centrifugal Compressors U= velocity at the outer blade tip diameter of the first impeller. according to the properties of the gas.5. The Machine Reynoldsnumber is given by Rem = Ublu [5. may be estimated from the lubricating oil temperaturerise. = di Yi =G (5. bearing. 5. seals. For cases where thedischarge temperature cannot be measured with sufficient accuracy. etc.7. Mechanical lossesare always considered to be parasitic losses.16. etc.1 I For ideal gases.6 AlternateMethod For Determining Test DischargeTemperature. Also.2 havebeenmet. and 4.Ppararitic [5.1997 0757b70 Ob05q73 783 W COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS Pg = Psh separately and summing the results.4. Those losses due to lubricated gears.. When the heat balance method is used. W= Machine Mach Number. Othermechanical losses from seals.17.S T D . power supplied to sections’of a multisection compressor other than the section being tested i s considered parasitic.1 71 (a) Mechanical Losses. That portion of the mechanical loss evident in the lubricating oil temperature rise is given by: (c) Determinethedischargestagnationtemperature from the calculated discharge stagnation enthalpy and discharge stagnation pressure.5 Parasitic Losses. ft COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . When the shaft power method is used. theauxiliary power requirement is treated as parasitic.5. The Machine Mach number is given by M m = U/ai i5.5. bearings. are They comprised of mechanical losses other and power requirements which do not contribute to theenergyriseofthe gas in thesection of interest. 5.19] (b) Calculate the enthalpy rise from thegas power (7 h Qr) 33000 yielding Pparasitic = Pmech = Pother 15. See paras. ft/sec b= first stage impeller exit width. 5.4. and total shaft power i s defined to include power to drive auxiliary equipment.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L777 ASME PTC 1O.4. Parasitic losses the are difference between shaft power and gas power for the section(s) of interest. . Themethod is as follows: fa) Calculate gas power from the shaft power measurement 46 5.. . 41 5.

5.1. The first step i s to calculate the following values: (a) flow coefficient (b) work input coefficient (c) polytropic work coefficient (d) polytropic efficiency (e) total work input coefficient The equationsneeded todo this are shown in Tables 5. ft2/sec Y= 5. 5. 5.3Specific VolumeRatio.1 Single The Section Compressor 5. and are explained in detail in Appendix E.5.2CalculationProcedureforSingleSection Compressors.6 CALCULATIONS FOR SPECIFIED OPERATING CONDITIONS Performance at specified conditions is calculated by the following procedures. A smooth curve i s drawn connecting the data points. For two pointsthis is simply linear interpolation. The flow coefficient is where wrotors the mass flow rate which enters the i rotor and i s compressed. and 5. 5. as explained in para. The compressor performance the speciat fied operating conditionpoint of interest is now defined in dimensionless terms. 5.2. The second step is an interpolation process. the specified operating condition dimensionless parametersaretreated as functions of the specified operating condition flow coefficient. The remaining dimensionless performance parameters are defined from the interpolation process of step 2. Improved data interpolation may bepossible with additional test points and nonlinear curve fitting. sidestream. 5. 3. This is done by solving the dimensionless parameter 47 5.ft/sec b= chord at tip of first stage rotor blade. The right-hand columns show the relationship between the test and specified condition values. Certain additional dimensionlessparametersare calculated for the test conditions andextended to specified conditions. Compressor performance at a single specified condition operating point is determined from at least two bracketing test points. The fourth step is to calculate the compressor performance in the desired dimensional form. It differs from the measured mass flow rate by the amount of leakage and sidestream flow which occursbetweenthe rotor entry and the flow measurement station. To perform the interpolation.3.3.4 Volume Flow Ratio. Some of these parameters are subject to correction for the difference in Machine Reynolds number between test and specified operating conditions.6.1. No condensationoccurs. Forsidestreamcompressors the volume flow ratio limits of Fig.6.5 Flow given by Coefficient. and inlet conditions of interest. speed.5.ft2/sec (b) For Axial Compressors U = velocity at first stage rotor blade outer diameter. a specified operating conditionflow coefficient is calculated from the flow rate.5. The volume flow ratio between any two points x and y in thesection is given by Forcompressors without sidestreams the inlet to discharge volume flow ratio is limited by the specific volume ratio limit. To do this. 5.COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS ASME PTC 10-1997 kinematic viscosity of the gas at inlet conditions.1. andleakageflows. Thesinglesectioncompressor from inlet to outlet measurement stations experiences no gas cooling other than natural radiation and convection.1 at the flow coefficient of interest.6. 5. This information is simply read from the curves of Fig. No gas flow is added or removed other than that lost through seal or balance piston leakage. Thespecified operating condition dimensionless parameters for each point may be plotted as shown in Fig.6.2 also apply. COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . FigureE. The specific volume ratio is the ratio of inlet to discharge total specific volume.1 Description. The third step is to establish the compressor performance in dimensionlessterms at the specified operating condition flow of interest.1. ft v = kinematic viscosity of the gas.2 gives a schematic representation of mainstream.

the inlet mixed condition shall be determined fromthe inlet states of theincoming streams. In the special case of sidestream mixing internally in a compressor.S T D . the performance of that component shall be known for specified operating conditions. The section boundaries may be drawn to exclude intermediate components such as externalheatexchangers. (1 ) I llspwmption (Pd coefficient input Total work (heat balance method) [arlt= . equationsforthosequantitiesofinterest.1 Description.12.2.12 may be followed to develop appropriate equations. E.3T-21 1S1p = Iadlt nhr GENERAL NOTE Appropriate units must chosen to render the parameters dimensionless. (b) When a component such asanexternal heat exchanger exists between sections. 5.Typical equationsused to do this areshown in Table 5.2 Calculation Method for Multisection Compressors. (c) Differences in the intermediate component performance between test and specified operating conditions shall have negligible or known a effect upon the single section performance. to calculate the discharge pressure at the specified condition flow the following steps are taken: (1 ) the pressure ratio is calculated from the now known specified operatingcondition polytropic efficiency and polytropic work coefficients. and (2) the discharge pressure is the product of this pressure ratio and the specified operating condition inlet pressure.2. NOTE (1 1 This equation applies to a particular model as presented in Appendix E. A multisection compressor is a compressor which may be treated as a number of individual singlesectioncompressorsoperating in series. Additional terms may apply. E. That the test speed.4. Some of the terms may not apply in a particular case. flow rate.2 The Multisection Compressor 5.fpdtie)33000 It [5. The analysis of para. ALL GASES Parameter at Mathematical Operating Conditions Test Description Total input work coefficient (Note (heat balance method) Eq. Further explanation equationsis available be of the in Appendix E.3 TOTAL WORK INPUT COEFFICIENT.The output from eachsinglesection provides input to the next section. para.3.3.6. a negligible or known effect upon the dimensionlessperformance parameters. 5. is.A S M E PTC LO-ENGL L997 m 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 Ob05975 55b ASME 10-1997 m COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS TABLE 5. The specified operatingcondition per- COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . 48 (a) It shall be possibleto gather testinformation for each single sectionas though it were an independent single section compressor. Forexample. That is.6. No.6. The following conditions shall bemet to treat a compressor as a multisection compressor. and inlet and outlet states must be available for each single section.

and on to the final discharge.Thetest data for eachsection is reduced to the form of dimensionless performance parameters which apply at thespecified operating conditions. pressuredrop. The performance of the section first is calculated just as is done for a singlesection compressor. For a heat exchanger these effects are temperature reduction.5. 5. the 49 effects onflow rate and gas are state taken into account. If an intermediate component such as an intercooler exists before the next section entry. The calculation process is repeated through the second section.1 SPECIFIED CONDITION CAPACITY COEFFICIENT FOR SPECIFIED CONDITION CAPACITY OF INTEREST formance for multisection compressors is calculated from the specified operating condition performance of the individual calculated sections. The resulting condition becomes the specified operating condition gas state at the entry to the second section.andcondensateremoval. It i s not necessary that an intermediate COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .S T D . This yields the discharge conditions from the first section. The flow coefficient calculated from the known flow rate becomesthe interpolating flow coefficient for the second section. remaining intermediate componentsand sections.A S M E PTC LO-EFJLL COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS L197 = 0759b70 ObU5q7b q92 m ASME PTC 10-1 997 I m p I t I Test F FIG. For the case of mixed streams see para. The basic calculation procedure for each section is the same as for singlesection tests. E.

4 O DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS F Test Operating Conditions Eq.4T-9] where ("Jv = [5.1 )sp Pressure ratio (real gas) [5. ~wmorlsp= ~p [ ~ O T N ( 3 W Polytropic work (head) per section Pressure ratio (ideal gas with constant specific heats) n-1 where n k -= -(VdSP (n .4T-111 [5. No.S T D .4T-1 O] nsp= [5 4 In vd sp I5.4T-12] [Table continued on next page] 50 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .1 (k .A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L997 ASME 10-1 997 = 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 Ob05977 329 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS PTC TYPICAL CONVERSION Parameter Mathematical Description at Rotor mass flow rate TABLE 5.

4T-191 The discharge temperature may also be obtained from the discharge pressure and enthalpy when the appropriate data is available.4T-171 Temperature ratio (ideal gas) 15. n = &h or.COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS ASME PTC 10-1997 TABLE 5.4 (CONT'D) TYPICAL CONVERSION O F DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS Parameter Mathematical Description at Test Operating Conditions Eq.4T-201 Shaft power Assumption. Gas power per section [5. 51 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . No.4T-141 Discharge pressure Pressure rise [5. Sf ash Sf GENERAL NOTE: Consistent units must be used in defining dimensional properties.4T-161 Discharge enthalpy 15.4T-15] I5. where the Schultz method is used 15.4T-131 mP 5 = [-ZR (-1 Cf + x)]sf [5. Pressure ratio (real gas) (Cont'd) or.

6. Theperformanceof a compressor is affected by the Machine Reynolds number.8 x lo6 x b) Rem ] RC [5. 5. If the Machine Reynolds number at test operating conditions differs from thatat specified operatingconditions.2 Correction Factor. (D. 5.6. When the individual section performance curves are steep. The limitations of Table 3. Calculation methods which attempt to make overall corrections without explicit consideration of the section matching effectcanlead to erroneousresults. Since frictional losses in the compressorare a function of the Machine Reynolds number it is appropriate to apply the correctionto the quantity (1 . v= the average surface roughness (b) For Axial Compressors The correction for axial compressors continues to be based on Ref. and as the number of individual sections increase. the overall compressor performance becomes increasinglysensitive.7). COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . The Machine Reynolds number correction for centrifugal compressors recommended in thisSection is based on Ref.2.3. as for the centrifugal compressor case. The exit of one section and entry of another may coincide. with increasing effect as the Machine Reynoldsnumberdecreases. The specified operating condition flow coefficients for the second and succeeding sections are functions of the performance of the preceding sections. The correction to be applied is as follows: (a) For Centrifugal Compressors RA = 0. It is because of this effect that it is important to follow the calculation methodpresented.6. The Machine Reynoldsnumber correction for axial compressors is unchangedfromthepreviousissueoftheCode and is based on Ref. Frictional losses in the internal flow passagesvary in a mannersimilarto friction losses in pipesor other flow channels.2] 0.5.000125 + RB = Rem log ( €+ ) f 13.31 5. 5. The flow patterns ofaxial and centrifugal compressors are relatively complex..1 564 where b= as defined in para.934 (4.066 + 0. a correctiontothe test results is necessary to properly predict the performance of the compressor. ft of the flow passage. and is a function only of the Machine Reynolds number ratio and not the absolute value of the Machine Reynoldsnumber.7).43 ~~~0.6.7 ) .988 . 52 Again.2 apply. The “Machine term Reynolds number” is used toprovide a basis for definition in this Code.3 Machine Reynolds Number Correction RC = General. The polytropic workcoefficientshould be correctedfor Machine Reynoldsnumber in the same ratio as the efficiency.~~ S T D ASME P T C 1 0 . What mayappear to be small differences betweentest and specified operating conditions in each section may combine to show up as important effects in overall performance. If anothermethodofcorrection is used it shall be agreed on by theparties prior to the test (See Appendix F). Themagnitude of the correction is a function of both the Machine Reynoldsnumber ratio andtheabsolutevalueof the MachineReynolds number. in. (D.2 i.1 0.67\ Rem 15.6.3) but simplified for ease of application.E N G L L777 A M PTC 10-1997 S E m 0757b70 Ob05477 1 T 1 m COMPRESSORS EXHAUSTERS AND component exist in order to treat a compressor in multiple sections. This dependence upon preceding section performance is an effect commonly referred to as section matching. (D.3.

For example. The scope of such analysis is subject to agreement by the parties to the test.1. thrust loads. Some means necessary are to quantify errors to make a judgement in terms of acceptable error limits for a test. and illustrates the various terms and methodsused to provide meaningful estimates of the uncertainty of measurements and results.4. Also.Coverage is thefrequencythat an interval estimate of a parameter may be expected to contain the true value. Neither should be construed as exhaustive in detail nor necessarilygenerally indicative of usual or anticipated uncertainty.5 Scope of Uncertainty Analysis.The methodology of ASMEPTC 19. The total error is made up of two components. Uncertainty analysis i s the process of identifying and quantifying the errors in test measurements and propagating these errors to estimate the uncertainty in the final result. Another simple compressor example may be found in PTC 19.6. the intervals will contain the true value 95 percent of the time. see Appendix F and Table E.7 TREATMENT OF ERRORS 5.7. Bias errors are the systematicerrors which may include those which are known and can be calibrated out.1 is the standard for ASMEPTC 1O tests.8 of this Code. The following discussion is includedto indicate the calculation method in generalterms. The other type of error is called precision error.to run a performance test with certain objectives in mind. One chooses.4 Uncertainty. 5. oiling systems. It is summarized in brief as follows: Step 1 .3.Exactagreement in repeated measurements does not and is not expected to occur because of numerous error sources. COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . Since the performance variations increase substantially the Machine as Reynolds number decreases. That is. 95 percent uncertainty intervals provide 95 percent coverage of the true value. the maximum and minimum permissible ratios between Reml and R m e.6 The Methods of PTC 19. in repeated sampling. It is anticipated that the user will refer to PTC 19. Precision errors the random errors observed are in repeated measurements. When the mechanical losses at specified operating conditions are not known they may be determined from the following equation: estimated error limit of a measurement or result for agiven coverage. PTC 19. The scope of the uncertainty analysis required for a given test is intimately related to the test objectives.describes.1 Source. Uncertainty is the 53 5. and those which are estimated and included in the uncertainty analysis. It usually has a value between 2. PTC 19.2. the over long run. those which are negligible and are ignored. It defines. Therefore.0.1 for detailed information to apply to individual tests. (a) Review test objectives and test duration.1.1 presents a step-by-step calculation procedure to be conducted before and after each test.4 Mechanical losses. The information presented in this Section is derived from PTC 19.Suchagreements shall be made prior to undertaking the test. The uncertainty analysis can thereby be tailored to meet the individual test objectives. are shown in Fig. It is in essential agreement with various national and international standards on the same subject. One i s called bias error. The exponent in the preceding equation may vary with the design of bearings.7.7. If other methods areto be used they are subject to agreement by parties to the test.1.A simple sample demonstration case is given in Sample Calculation C.6.3TheImportance of Errors. tests of compressors designed for operation at low Machine Reynolds numbers should be tested at conditions close to those specified.2 Errors.COMPRESSORS A N D EXHAUSTERS ASME PTC 10-1997 5. The uniqueness PTC 1 O test objectives precludes of exhaustive treatmentof uncertainty in this document.3 limits of Application. etc. 5.7. They may be as varied as establishing a benchmark for maintenance or to verify guarantee performance.Define the measurementprocess. 5. 5. The error in the final result shall be sufficiently small so as not to mask the test objective.7. 5. when a 95 percent uncertainty interval is constructed for each sample. Both are intended simply to demonstrate the method.1 includes discussions and methods which enable the user to select an appropriate uncertainty model for analysis andfor reporting testresults. 3. 5. All measurements have errors. Acceptable error limits will depend upon the test objectives.0 and 3. Errors are the difference between the measurements and the true value.7.

to data acquisition. (a) Bias and precision errors of the independent parameters are propagated separately all the way to the final result.ASME 10-1997 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS (b) List all independent measurement parameters and their nominal levels. (a) Exhaustive list of all possiblemeasurement error sources (b) Group error sources according calibration. (c) List all calibrations and instrument setups.Estimateelementalerrors. (b) Propagate according to the functional relationship defined in Step l(d) above using sensitivity factors. Step 4 . ' 54 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . (d) Define the functional relationship between the independent parameters and the test result. Step 6 . (bl Obtain uncertainty. UAOD URSS provides approximately 95 percent coverage when neither bias errors nor precisionerrors are negligiblecompared to the other.List elemental error sources. If the bias error negligible. both is UADD URSS provide95 percent and coverage.Calculate uncertainty. (6) Classify as precision or bias error.where S = [CS.Calculate bias and precision errors for eachparameter. Step 3 .Report (a) Calculations (b) Tabulated elemental errors (c) Bias (d) Precision [rssSl.anddata reduction .' (a) Select UADD and/or URSS models. Step 2 .2/Ni]" The UADD URSS and models are the mathematical models which are used combine bias and precision errors to a single uncertainty to provides approximately 99 percentcoverage while value. Step 5 . (a) Obtain estimate of each errorin Step 2 above. Step 7 .Propagate the bias and precision errors.

motor direct connected. description of testarrangementandinstrumentation. COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .4 Expected Performance Specified at eratingConditions (a) Developed head (b) Efficiency (c) Power requirement (d) Discharge total temperature (e) Others as needed Op- 6. flow rate. and temperature for cooled compressors (0 Speed (g) Others as needed 6.REPORT OF TEST The Reportof test shall include applicable portions of the information shown in para. 6. etc.2.2. temperatures. (e) Description of compressor cooling system and coolant properties 6. (2) Number of stages (3) Arrangement of casing and piping (4)Pipe sizes. ( 1 ) Type of impellers.2.1 CONTENTS .andany special written agreements pertaining to the testor the computation of results shall be included. cast. certificates of instrument calibration. 55 6. fabricated. Copies of the original testdata log. turbine direct connected.1 General Information (a) Date of test (b) Location of test (c) Manufacturer (d) Manufacturer'sserialnumbers and complete identification (e) Party or parties conducting test ff) Representatives of interested parties (g) Detailed written statement of the test (h) Agreement made by parties to the test 6.2. axial flow. radial flow. inlet and discharge (51 Arrangement of intercoolers. (4) Relative humidity if applicable' (c) Gas flow rate (7) Inlet and discharge mass flow rate (2) Inlet and discharge volume flow rate (3) Capacity (dl Discharge static and/or total pressure (e) Coolant type.ASME PTC 10-1997 SECTION 6 6. and may include other data as necessary.2 TYPICAL REPORT INFORMATION 6.3 Specified Operating Conditions (a) Gas composition and source for properties (b) Inlet gasstate (7) Total and static pressure' (2) Total and static temperature' (3) Total and static density'. etc.6SetupofInstrumentsand Methodsof Mea- suring (a) Description of all allowed departures from this Code which have been authorized by agreement (b) Piping arrangement with sketches and diagrams (c) Locationof all measuring stations diagrams with and sketches 'Pressures.2. etc. and motor gear.5 Derived Parameters at Specified Operating Conditions (a) Machine Mach number (b) Pressure ratio (c) Volume ratio (d) Flow coefficient (e) Machine Reynolds number (0 Others as needed 6.2. The curves shall be clearly marked to denote use of staticor total conditions. properties. shrouded. When tests are run over a rangeofoperating conditions the results shall also be presented in the form of curves. open.2 Description of Test Installation (al Type of compressor. prime mover (motor or other type) efficiency data as needed. if used (6) Impeller diameter and blade tip widths (b) Description of lubricating system and lubricant properties (c) Type of shaft seals (d) Type andarrangements of driver. and densities should be clearly identified as static or totalconditions.2.

8 Computed Results for Test Operating Conditions (a) Type of test (b) Test run number (c) Barometric pressure (d) Gas composition (e) Mass flow rate (0 Inlet static conditions ( 1 ) Pressure (2) Temperature2 (3) Compressibility factor (4) Density’ (5) Enthalpy (6) Others as needed (g) Inlet volume flow rate (h) Inlet velocity temperature2 (i) Inlet velocity pressure 0) Inlet total conditions (7) Pressure (2)Temperature (3) Compressibility factor (4) Density (5) Enthalpy (6) Others as needed (k) Capacity (I) Discharge static conditions ( 1 ) Pressure (2)Temperature2 (3) Compressibility factor (4) Density2 (5) Enthalpy (6) Others as needed (m)Discharge volume flow rate (nl Discharge velocity temperature2 (o) Discharge velocity pressure (p) Discharge total conditions (7) Pressure (21 Temperature (3) Compressibility factor (4) Density (5) Enthalpy (6) Others as needed (q) Leakages (7) Mass flow rate (2) Enthalpy (3) Energy loss or gain (r) Secondary flow streams ( I ) Mass flow rate *Iterative solutionmay be required. typically: ( 1 ) Pressure differential across flowmeter (2) Pressure upstream side of flowmeter (3) Temperature upstream sideof flowmeter (4) Flowmeter throat diameter [Items (P) to (W) apply to cooled compressors:] (p) Coolant flow rate CS..ASME 10-1997 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS (d) Method of measuring flow rates (e) Instruments usedfor the measurement of pressure. Coolant inlet temperature (r) Coolant outlet temperature (s) Gas temperature at inlet of cooler (t) Gas temperature at outlet of cooler (U) Gas pressure at inlet of cooler (v) Gas pressure at outlet of cooler (W) Condensate drained from cooler (x) Power input (y) Torque (z) Lubricant flow rate (aa) Lubricant inlet temperature (bb) Lubricant outlet temperature (cc) Mean casing surface temperature (dd) Ambient temperature (ee) Casing surface area Leakage flow rates (m v) 6. temperature. between the power measurement station and the compressor input shaft (k) Description of sampling and analysis method for test gas 6. and power (0 Proceduresand facilities used for the calibration of instruments (g) Calibration data (h) Instrument accuracy (i) Source of test gas property data 0) Method of determining power losses.2.2. composition of gas. speed. 56 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . density. if any.7 Mean Observations Derived FromTest Data (All calibrations and instrument corrections having been applied) (a) Test run number (b) Duration of run (c) Speed (d) Inlet temperature (e) Barometer reading (0 Ambient temperature at barometer (g) Inlet static pressure (h) Dry bulb temperature if required (i) Wet bulb temperature if required Dew point temperature if required (k) Gas density if measured (I) Gas composition if measured (m)Discharge static pressure (n) Discharge temperature (0)Flowmeter data.

9 Computed Test Performance Parameters (a) Isentropic total discharge conditions (7) Temperature (2) Density (3) Enthalpy (6) Polytropic work coefficient (7) Overall isentropic volume exponent (2) Polytropic work factor (3) Polytropic exponent (4) Polytropic work (5) Impeller blade tip velocity (6) Polytropic work coefficient (c) Isentropic work coefficient (7) Isentropic exponent (2) Isentropic work (3) Isentropic work coefficient (d) Polytropic efficiency (e) Isentropic efficiency (0 Work input coefficient (g) Total work input coefficient ( 1 ) Energy lost or gained via leakage (2) Energy lost or gained via secondary flows (3) Energy lost via casing heat transfer (4) Mechanical loss (h) Flow coefficient (i) Volume ratio ci..13 Suggested Summary of Results.2.2. inlet and discharge 57 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .1 Uncertainty 2 Analysis 6. TestResults.COMPRESSORS A N D EXHAUSTERS ASMEPTC 10-1997 (2) Enthalpy (3) Average mixed gas state (4) Energy loss or gain ( ) Rotor mass flow rate s (t) Mechanical loss ( U ) Heat transfer loss (v) Gas power (W) Shaft power (x) Head (I) Pressure ratio 6. Machine Mach number (k) Specific heat ratio.2.10 Machine Reynolds Number Correction (a) Test operating condition Machine Reynolds number (b) Specified operating condition Machine Reynolds number (c) Machine Reynolds number correction (d) Specifiedoperating condition polytropic efficiency (e) Specified operating condition polytropic work coefficient 6.1 1 ComputedResults for Specified Operating Conditions (Speed and inlet gasstate given) (a) Flow rate (7) Capacity (2) Inlet and/or discharge mass flow rate (3) Inlet and/or discharge volume flow rate (4) Leakage flow rate (5) Cooler condensate (6) Secondary flow rates (7) Others as needed (b) Discharge conditions (7) Static and total pressure (2) Static and total discharge temperature (3) Compressibility factor (4) Static and total density (5) Others as needed (c) Work related terms (7) Polytropic head (2) Enthalpyrise (3) Gas power (4) Shaft power (5) Others as needed 6.2.and Intended Values 6.2. Comparing the Test.

A. [A-11 for W s h gives Thisresult involves staticenthalpies determined A. Subscripts i and d refer to stagnation inlet and discharge conditions. as desired.l Theperformancecharacteristics of acompressor which depend upon thermodynamic properties for their definition are. based on stagnation (total) conditions. The inlet and discharge flanges may be considered to be at the same elevation so that y. Some calculations regarding theinternal compression process might require the use of static states intermediate to (Y and y. become equal. [A-1I through [A-51. the following expressionresults: The difference between static and stagnation conditions is shown graphically on a Mollier Diagram. is applied to a compressor section with the system boundaries defined as the interior wall of the casing the and transverse planes across the inlet and discharge flanges in the absence of leakage and sidestreams. Subscripts aand yrefer to static inlet and discharge conditions. Compressor performance may be specified at static pressures and temperatures or at stagnation pressures and temperatures.3 When the stagnation concept is employed. as shown by Eqs. Fig. Eq.2 When the FirstLaw of Thermodynamics. written as the general energy equation.) A. However. and In the stagnationprocess [A-41 A. [A-21 becomes 59 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . and the following explanation serves topointout the differences between the two. This procedure can cause confusion if the principles involved are not kept clearly in mind. A. as determined by stagnation pressures temperatures. under the provisions of this Code. respectively.PRESSOR PERFORMANCE (This Appendix is not a part of ASME PTC 10-1 997. use of the stagnation properties for the external energy balance of the compressor is an excellent approximation because: (a) "Charging" the compressor with receipt of gas at the stagnation enthalpy hi (at stagnation pressure pi) i s equivalent to charging it with receipt of gas at the static enthalpy h. the process ofcompression takes place between states (Y and y. respectively.1.4 As will be noted from Fig.APPENDIX A USE OF TOTAL PRESSURE A N D TOTAL TEMPERATURE TO DEFINE COM. A. Solving Eq.a (at static pressure pa) plus kinetic energy by staticpressures and temperatures.l. and yr the elevation heads.

A.takingplace within thecompressorproper.Should a study of events at the stagnation enthalpy hd (at stagnation pressure internal to the compressor be desired.)plus kinetic are energy included not within the scope of this Code. and. This is convenient because it permits a clear definition of volume flow rate consistent with mass flow without referring to thedesign of the compressor.h FIG. 60 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .6 Theotheruse of thestagnationpressureand stagnation temperature this Code is for the determiin of nation capacity. (b) “Crediting” the compressorwith delivery of gas v. Capacity is defined herein as thedelivered mass flow rate divided by inlet total density correspondingto total pressure and temperature. Capacity is a volumetric flow related rate to inlet conditions.l COMPRESSOR STATE POINTS STATIC AND TOTAL thermodynamicorotherwise. A. Studies of events internal to the compressor h. a new system p& is equivalent to crediting it with delivery of gas at must be defined and appropriate the conditions stated. 2gcJ A.5 The preceding analysis be can applied only becausethesystemboundarieswerecarefullydefined so as to preclude any consideration of events. the static enthalpy (at static pressurep.

based on experimental data or reliable mathematical and physical methods available.tables. ¡. Enthalpy: B. B. to substitute for thespecified gas during the test program.) With the state of each constituent thus defined. a two-part problem.2 When the thermodynamic state is such that the gas mixture and its constituent gases must be treated as real gases.e. the equivalent value of the property for the gas mixture may be calculated by summing the individual property values on a total basis. If the state of the mixture is such that it may considered be as a mixture of ideal gases. however. properties are these should be used with preferencegiven to thatdata based on experimental work.. the problem is one of determining density.l The testing of modern compressors may require the use of a gas mixture as the test “gas” either because the specified gas is itself a mixture or because it is necessary. the mole fraction. of any constituent gas j may used be to determine the 61 nmHm naHa+ nbHb + ncHc+ = e + n. and entropy of constituent gases at the pressure andtemperature each experiences. (This excludes saturated vapors.Hj 18-31 Entropy: COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . The equations are summarized below. the method of defining the thermodynamic state of the constituent gases and thus arriving at their properties shall be agreed upon in writing prior to the test. enthalpy. and a mixture is the only satisfactory method of obtaining the desiredproperties in the substitute gas.4 With properties of the individual gases determined. B. In either case there is the necessity that accurate thermodynamic data forthe gases be available. other methods must be used which recognize this deviation. the individual property of interest be may determined and the equivalent mixture properly calculated by the methods outlined below. Once the state of the gas i s defined. all constituent gases will have the same temperatures as the mixture thus providing the second of the two independent properties needed to define the gas state. So far as this Code is concerned. the usual methods of classical thermodynamics can be applied to determine the state of each constituent gas. presumably by pressure andtemperature. With a homogeneousmixture. quantity of the gas times property value.APPENDIX B PROPERTIES OF GAS MIXTURES (This Appendix is not a part of ASME PTC 10-1997. The use of a gas mixture presents.3 For ideal gases.If. If accurate thermodynamic properties for a gas. xi.theotherproperties of interestmaybe obtained from charts. partial pressure of that constituent by The molal (volumetric) analysis of the mixture is one of theitems of testdata andgives the mole fraction readily. the state of the mixture is such that the mixture and the constituents deviate from the ideal gaslaws.) B. in essence. or equations of state. specific heats. for one reasonoranother.

It shouldbe noted that the determination of theend point of the isentropic process starting at inlet conditions and ending at thedischargepressureandentropy value correspondingto inlet conditions will probably involve a trial-and-error solution. and [B-81 are on a mass basis. lB-21. 62 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . [B-71.S T D . and [B-101 are on a molefraction basis. and [B-41. [B-61. and [B-9] are on a mole basis. [B-31. [B-51.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L777 0757b70 0b05'488 104 In the preceding series of equations.

C. C. Each sample highlights one or more facets of the necessary proceduresfor application of the Code to realmachines. Sample C.APPENDIX C SAMPLE CALCULATIONS (This Appendix is not a part of ASME PTC 10-1 997.7 demonstrates the treatment of a two section compressor with externally piped intercooler.3 demonstrates the ideal gas application to selection of testspeed and testgas and alsocovers the methods of power evaluations. 63 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . A flow chart procedure is presented to assist in outlining the required steps. C.2 demonstrates a Type 2 test for a centrifugal compressor using an ideal gas. C.Thedatapresented is typical and does not representanyactual operating unit. C.8 demonstrates the application of uncertainty analysis to this Code. heat loss to ambient and variable speedeffectsarecovered. Additionally this data should not be taken as expected for any actual conducted test.5 demonstrates how to select a test gas for a Type 2 test using ideal andreal gas equations. Application of Reynoldsnumbercorrections.6 demonstratesaType 2 test using real gas equations for data reduction. C.) The sample calculations contained in this Appendix demonstrate the basic calculation principles of this Code. The conversion of staticreadings to total conditions and calculation of results by heat balance and shaft power methodsarecovered. C.l Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample demonstrates a Type 1 test for a centrifugal compressor using an ideal gas.4 demonstrates the treatment of bracketed test points.

shrouded (2) number of stages .876 in.The calculations demonstrated in this sample calculation would be used on both of these bracketing points.2.. if used no intercooler (6) impeller diameter and blade tip widths .Not applicable to sample (d) Type andarrangements of driver.6 Ibm fi3].inlet pipeis 18 in.6 in. .l TYPE 1 TEST F R A CENTRIFUGAL O COMPRESSOR USING AN IDEAL GAS Thissample calculation is intended to demonstrate: (a) Type 1 test (b) Test gas same as specified gas fc) Ideal gas (d) No heat loss (except to lubricating oil) (e) No flow leakages Cf? Centrifugal machine ( No flexibility to change compressor speed $ I fh) Single section machine The purpose of this calculation is to determine the quantity of gas delivered and the compressor head. and shaft input power. schedule 40 (Di = 16.4 in. efficiency.500 in. discharge pipe i s 10 in. SpecifiedOperatingConditions (see para.6.) (5) arrangement of intercoolers. Paragraph3.6 Ibm/ft3 so the oil flow rate is 59. Oil has constant pressure specific heat of cp = 0.4 of theCoderequires that when a test is only to verify asingle specified condition.SAMPLE CALCULATION C.97 and MW. 1 2 4 5 and D = D = 16.1. turbine direct connected.3) ía) Air with constant pressure specific heats of dry air and water vapor givenin Fig.No cooling system - - Simpliving Assomptionsfor This Sample fa) The gas (air) may be treated asan ideal gas with a constant specific heat (evaluated at the average of the inlet and discharge temperatures).6.462 Btu/lbm "R. schedule 40 ( D d = 10.1 1. motor direct connected. MWda = 28. íb) The Reynolds number correction is negligible. (b) Description of lubricating system and lubricant properties . the test shall consist of two test points which bracket the specified capacity.5 Ibm/min [8 gpmA7. etc. Description of TestInstallation (seepara.impeller diameters 0 = D = 4 = 18. Oil density i s 55.Lubricating sytem oil flow rate is 4 gpm per bearing for a total flow rate of 8 gpm.2) (a) Type of compressor . fc) Type of shaft seals . inlet and discharge. C.pressurerise..02 65 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .48 gal/ft3) x 55. = 18. motor and gear.020 in.2. five stages (3) arrangement of casing and piping not applicable to this sample (4) pipe sizes.single section.).. first stage impeller tip width = b = 1.centrifugal (7) type of impellers .Not applicable to sample (e) Description of compressor cooling system and coolant properties .

6220 .8 "R.000 rpm (g) Not applicable ExpectedPerformanceatSpecifiedOperatingConditions (see para.) The following preliminarycalculationsestablish the given specified operating conditions in a form convenient for the Code calculations.80 (c) Power requirement = Psh = 1019 hp (d) Discharge total temperature = 844. (a) Partial pressure of water vapor is found using the steam tables: [Ref.2011 (MWaIsp = mole da ( M W d + mole W (MW. (D.05921 lbmole W lbrnole da (c) Air molecular weight [Ref. 6.4) (a) Developed polytropic head = 44100 ft Ibf/lbm (based on total conditions) (b) Efficiency (polytropic) = np = 0.05921 lbmole + 0.20)] (b) Air humidity ratio at inlet flange [Ref.(0.05921 lbmole W 1 .97 ibm da) 180.00 psia at discharge flange (e) Compressor coolant not applicable (0 N = 10.0 "R at inlet flange &i (3) have to calculate inlet densities (4) RHinlet = 81.(b) Inlet gas state (7) pslatic i = 14.00 0.7826) psia ") - lbmole W (28.00 psia at inlet flange (2) TStatic = 560.1 "R (The discharge static temperature is assumed given as 842.7 percent (c) Gas flow rate (7) inlet mass flow rate = discharge mass flow rate = (3) capacity to be calculated W = 600 Ibm/min ( )inlet and discharge volume flow rates have to be calculated 2 (d) Discharge static pressure = 45.20)1 (HRi)sp = (0.02 ibrn W lbrnole da ) = 0.2. (D. (D.) mole da + mole W Ibm da - ) + 0.O00lbrnole da 66 W COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .7825 psia) Ibm Ibm da (1 4.6220 -( 0.

36 Ibrn 0.20)] 0.247 Ibrn "R Btu 1.(1. C.03683 Ibrn (O 448 Ibrn w"R W * + 0.O00 Ibrn da 0.252 Ibrn "R Btu Btu -) .000 Ibrn da 0.03683 Ibrn W = 0.247 m) Btu Btu Ibrn "R Btu (1.36 Ibrn ) (0 Static specific volume at inlet and discharge flanges is found using the ideal gas law 67 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .252 (kd)sp = Btu Ibrn "R (0.986 )( lbmole ) = 1.03683 Ibrn W O 462 Ibrn da "R ' Ibrn w o R 1.986 )( lbmole "R lbmole = 1*385 28.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L777 0757b70 Ob05492 h35 Ibm = 28. (D.247 (kAp = (0. \ Wpdsp = ( + 0.S T D .000 Ibrn da + 0.396 lbmole "R 28.240 (cpi)sp = ( Ibrn & " R 1 .03683 Ibrn W ) ( = 0.2445 .252 Btu -[note: ( H R i ) s p = Ibrn "R (e) Air specific heat ratio [Ref.l) (cp)sp = 1 .36 lbmole (d) Air specific heat at constant pressure is found using dry air and steam properties mass da (Cpda) + mass W (cpw) mass da + mass W (Fig.O00 Ibrn da ) + 0.

S T D - A S M E P T C LO-ENGL 1777

0757b70 U b 0 5 Y 9 3 571

(vstatic Jsp

=

(1545 ft lbf) lbmole (560.0 "R) lbmole "R 28.36 Ibm (14.00

(

)

$) $)
(144

= 15.13 Ibm

fi3

(1545 ft lbf) lbmole (842.8 "R) lbmole "R 28.36 Ibm (45.00

(

)

$)(144 $-)

= 7.086 I bm
ft3

f) gAverage fluid velocity at inlet and discharge flanges (see para. 5.4.3.1)

( 6 0 0 2 ) (15.13
(Vilsp

=

ft3

)

= 97.40

ft sec

(600
(vd)sp

g) L)
(7.086

ft

=

= 129.4

sec

(h) Fluid Mach number at inlet and discharge flanges (see para. 5.4.2.5)

97.40
(M;)sp

=

ft sec

Ib (1545 lbmfole "R 68

) (28.36 Ibm) (560 "R) lbmole

= 0.0832

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129.4 (Md)sp

=

ft sec

1.385 32.1 74 ft Ibrn2) Ibf sec

(

-(1545

) ( lbrnole ) (842.8 "R) lbmole "R 28.36 Ibrn
ft Ib

= 0.0905

(i) Totaltemperaturesat inlet and dischargeflangesare assuming an adiabatic process (see Eq. [5.4.61)

found usingtheenergy

equationand

(97.40
(Ti)sp

= 560.0 "R +

k)
= 560.8 "R

2 778.17") Ibf ft Btu

(

(32.174-) Ibrn (0.247 ft Ibf sec2 Ibrn "R

(1 29.4
(TdlSp

= 842.8 "R

+2

(

778.1 ft Ibf (32.1 74 7) 7 ft Ibrn (0.252 Btu Ibf sec Ibrn "R

-)

h)

= 844.1 "R

ci,, Since the Fluid Mach number isless than 0.2, the total pressure may be calculated according to the simplified Eq. i . . 1 544

(97.40
(pi),

= 14.00 psia

+

A)
ft Ibrn
= 14.07 psia
sec/

(pd)sp

= 45.00 pSia i -

2 (7.086

s)

(32.1 74 Ibf Ibrn (1 44 ft sec' 69

-)

$)

= 45.26 psia

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(k) Total density at the inlet and discharge flanges is found using the ideal gas law

(47 10) .:
(pi)sp

= ($)*P

=

ft Ibf
(1545 lbmole "R

) (lbmole) 1
28.36

(144~lbf) in2

Ibm
= 0.06632

"

Ibm

(560.8 "R)

fi3

(45.26
(Pd)sp

=

( g ) s p =

(1 545

ft Ibf lbmole "R

)(

s)

(144

$)
(844.1 "R)

"

lbmole) 1 28.36. Ibm

I bm = 0.141 7 ft3

(I) The sum of the squares of the blade tip speeds is

\ lo4 min)
j= 1 j= 1

13 (18.4 inIL + 2 (16.6 il.,

,

= 2.983
mln

X

lo6sec2

fi2

Mean Observations Derived from Test Data (seepara. 6.2.7) (a) Test run number 1 (b) Duration of test = 30 minutes (c) Compressorspeed = 10,000 rpm id) Inlet temperature = T&ic dbi = 540.0 "R (e) Barometer reading = 14.1 7 psia (0 Ambient temperature at barometer = 540.8 "R (g) Inlet static pressure = 14.10 psia (h) Dry bulb temperature at inlet flange = = 540.0 "R (i) Wet hulb temperature at inlet flange = TStatic = 530.0 "R wbi 0) Dew point at inlet flange = 524.4 "R (k) Gas density not measured (1) MWda = 28.97 and MW, = 18.02 (m) Discharge static pressure = fstatic d = 47.00 psi in) Discharge static temperature = Tstatic dbd = 830.0 "R (o) Mass flow rate = 38,000 Ibm/hr ( ) to (W) Not applicable to thissample P (x) Shaft power input = Psh = 1097 hp (y) Shaft torque = 57.62 ft ' Ib (z) Lubricating system oil flow rate is 4 gpm per bearing fora total flow rate of 8 gpm. Oil density is 55.6 Ibm/ft3 so the oil flow rate is W, = 59.5 Ibm/min. Oil has constant pressure specific heat cw = 0.464 Btu/lbm. (aa) Lubricant inlet temperature = Toin = 530.0 "R (bb) Lubricant outlet temperature = Toout= 561 .O O R (cc) to (fi3 Not applicable to this sample

Computed Results for Test Operating Conditions (similar to para. 6.2.8) Theprevious test data is converted into a form convenient for Code calculations. (a) The air humidity ratio ofthe inlet air is found using air and steam properties [Ref. (D.20)] 70

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447 Ibrn w"R W = 0. C.35) Ibrn W 7 0. 1 .03024 lbmole W Ibm = 28.03024 lbmole W (28.244 Ibrn "R 71 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .01 881 Inm ) + 0.03024 lbmole W - ( Ibm da lbmole da 1.2 (1095.38.6220 0.00 lbmole da + 0.01661 G (1092.01881 Ibrn (0. = I.1) mass da (cpda) + mass W (cpw) mass da + mass W CCP).O00 Ibrn da 0.240 (Cpi)t = Btu ( Ibrn da "R 1 .0) R t (0.) I.= 0.0 .000 lbmole da 28.O00 Ibrn da + 0.3667 psia Ibrn da - - Btu Ibrn da "R Ihm (540.65 lbmole (c) Air specific heat is found using dry air and steam properties (see Fig.97 W W (MW.38.97 lbmole da lbmole da (b) Air molecular weight [Ref.5.35) Btu Ibm W ") Btu .2011 (MWA = ( M d + mole [mole damoleWda + mole 1. ) + 0.530.1 O psia 0. (0.3667 psia Ibrn W = 0.01661 14.

388 28.65 Ibrnole) 540.460 1. = Btu Btu da OR ) + 0.34 ft3 (144$) (14.244 + 0..0.244 cc.246 Ibrn "R (dl Air specific heat ratio = (Z).244 Ibrn "R &)(0.248 (kd)t = Btu Ibrn O R Btu Btu (o'248 Ibrn "R -) .S T D .1 986 lbmole Btu OR) (G 1 r lbmole ) = 1.O00Ibrn da + 0.65 Ibrn (e) Static specific volume at inlet and discharge flanges is found using the ideal gas law (1 545 (vstatic d t = lbmole O R ft Ibf ) (28. = Btu 0.248 Btu Btu 2 " Ibrn "R ..0 "R 1 Ibm " = 14.A S M E PTC LO-ENGL L 7 7 7 D 0 7 5 7 b 7 D Ob05q77 1 1 7 1 .01881 Inrn W = 0.248 Ibrn "R A verage specific heat 0.244 (Mt = (0.01881 Ibrn (0.(0.1 986 lbrnole "R )( 1 Ibmole) = 1.O00Ibrn da (0.10%) 72 I brn COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .397 0..

020 ft)' y) ft = 127.613 I bm ft3 (0 Fluid velocity at inlet and discharge flanges (see para. ~ (Mi).00 $) $) (1 44 = 6.45 .000 hr (vd)t 5) 3 E) (6.0 "R) 28.5 sec (g) Fluid Mach numbers at inlet and discharge flanges (see para.0 O R Ibrn (47.0852 ( I 545 lbmole "R ft Ib ) (L (540.5 (Md)(= J1.45 sec (38.3.5) 97.65 Ibrn = 0.0 "R) 28.000 hr (VJt = %)(1 4.1 74 ft sec ( -)Ibf sec2 ft Ibm = 0.87 T) ft = 97. [5.34 E) Ibm (3600 7 (T ft) T 16.65 Ibmole) 830.65 e) Ibm 127.388 ft sec ( ft Ibrn 32.1) (38.= J I . 5.(Vstatic d)r = Ibf lbrnole "R )( " 28. 7l 10.4.i (T .1 74 Ibf sec2 (1 545 -) Ib lbmole "R ) (-e) 1 (830.397 32.6]) 73 is foundusing theenergyequationforan COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .61 Ibrn (3600 = .4. 5.4.0902 (h) Total temperature at inlet anddischargeflanges adiabatic process (see Eq.2.

1 74 Ibf sec2 (144 74 $) = 47.0 "R + Z) = 540. 2 4 4 Btu( 7 7 8 .00 psia + 2 6.4.1 ( -) 7 Btu E) (32.174 Ibf secz ft .45 (Ti).174 ' I b m ) lbfsec~(144%) (Pd)( = 47.10 psia + 2 (14.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L997 0759b70 Ob05499 T 9 T (97.ft Ibm ~) Btu Ibf sec2) (Td)t = 830. = 540.0 "R + Btu 2 0. the total pressure may be calculated according to the simplified method of Eq.45 ( p h = 14.~~ ~~ S T D .248 Ibrn "R (778. (5.1 7 psia (32.8 "R 0 .34 &) &) 2 = 14.27 psia COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .3 "R (i) Since the Fluid Mach number is less than 0.5 A)' Ihm) ( -) Ibm ft3 (32.61 3 (1 27.2. 1 7 4 . 1 7 E ) ( 3 2 .bm ) = 831.41 (97.

= (&). = 5 ft (47.4.1 .8"F) ft3 " 28.65 Ibm (k) The sum of the squares of the blade tip speeds is [E.(831.(i) Total density at the inlet and discharge flanges is found using the ideal gas law (P").4.540. Also using Eq. 5 j= 1 D?].5 min (0. [5.462 F) c) m) . = [Tz 5 D?] = 2.141: where Eqs.8)"R ft Ibf ) Ihm) Ibm "R ) (42.= (lS4' (14.131 gives losses to be mechanical losses (represented (38.06997 Ibmole) (540.3'F) " I bm = 0.2459. 15.440.4.171 and f5.(60 min hp (59.] = [Tz :.181 showtheparasitic by the lubricating oil temperature rise).O "R) (31 Btu = 1065hp + 20.26 Ibf )( $)(1 44 $) 1 lbmole) (831.1518 ft3 (1545lbmole O R 28.17 ft Ibf lbmole "R )( $)(144 g) 1 I bm = 0.000 F (0.65 Ibrn (Pd)sp = (g).4.1 hp = 1085 hp (heat balance method) 75 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .983 x lo6-ft* j= 1 j=l sec2 (I) The shaft power was measured by the shaft power method to be (PJt = 1097 hp (shaft power method) Theshaft power canalsobe determined using Eq. [5.

000 .Isp.000 x 100 = 0% 10.71% Thetest inlet total pressure is within theTable 3.8 X 100 = 3.000 T) -k) 9f = = (0.1 limit of 2%.17 14. x 100 = 650.(MW. (b) Inlet temperature departure (T.(m) The gas power can be calculated from the heat balance method using.36 (MW. 76 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .1.07 X 100 = -0.8 .10. l5.07 .4.36 .4.14. (c) Speed departure (NJsp ( Ni)sp .)sp ( T.1 limit of 2%.000 Thetestspeed is within the Table 3.(Ni)(x 100 = 10.12].540.28.8 Thetest inlet temperature is within theTable 3.181 P&= (Psh)t wo c p A To = 1097 hp 20.171. [5. (dl Molecular weight departure (MW.4.) sp .4. (a) Inlet pressure departure test conditions meetthe limits prescribedfor a (Pilsp - x 100 = (php 14. [5.02% 28.Eq. - - (38. and [5.13] The gas power canalsobe calculatedfromthe Using Eqs.)I 28.1 hp = 1077 hp (shaft power method) (n) The capacity is shaft powerusingtheshaftpowermethod.(Ti).1 limit of 8%.1 limit of 5%.06997 *) ft3 (60 = 9051 - ft3 min Check for a Type 1 Test The following calculationsconfirmthatthe Type 1 test in Table 3.65 x 100 = x 100 = -1.6% 560.) sp Thetest molecular weight is within the Table 3.

000 38. 6.000 0.65 Ibm Btu )( Polytropicexponent (see Eq.O49% / The test inlet capacity is within the Table 3.5% 0.06632 IO0 = -O.06997 x 100 = -5.1 (excluding the coolant parameters) satisfy the Table 3.E N G L 1997 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 D b 0 5 5 0 2 304 9 (e) Capacity departure 1 36.392 Btu 1 Ibrnole) . (a) Polytropic efficiency is found as follows: Averagespecific heat ratio (0.1 limit of 4%. the test is a Type 1 test. The test coolant temperature difference and coolant flow rate were not checked with the specified values since there is no coolant at the specified condition.555 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .8 "R) (14.0.06632 . Since all the testparameters listed in Table 3.3 "R) 77 = 1.1T-51) 47.246 í Mt )Ibf 0.26 psia In In (14.06632 (Pilsp Thetest inlet total density is within the Table 3.000 \ X \ 36.2. Computed TestDimensionlessParameters (similar to para.986 lbrnole "R 28.17 psia) (831.A S M E P T C L O .9) The dimensionless parameters which form the basis for the conversion from test data to specified operating conditions are calculated in this section.1 limit of 8%.1 limits.S T D .1 pia) 7 (47.26 psia) (540.(pJr x 100 = 0.(1. [5.246 7 Ibm R = 1. (0 Density departure (pi)sp .

20.8 (G K) "R) [ (2. [5.1T-4]) (F) o 555 = 0. [5. [5.06997 F) 5) ( () 2.5 (om) t = wotp0ATo = E) M) (0.392 I (b) Flow coefficient (see Eq.1 hp) 33.174 Ibf Ibm sec ft sec2) 1 ( - = 0.1 1 q) (d) Total work input coefficient using the shaft power method (see Eqs.6052 (e) Total work input coefficient using the heat balance method (see Eq.4.1 hp - (1097 hp .983 x 1 O6 7 32.000 (0.OO 7 mm hp ( (38.983 x l o 6 sec ( W ) 32.Btu ) minhr (31.462 Btu mm (42. [5.rrrad 60hr min F)0.000 (1 Ibm = 0.3T-11) 78 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .4734 545 lbmole "R) (540.18] and [5.7905 1.555 -.O "R) = 20.1T-91) = (L) n-1 (E) -= -.44 .174 ft Ibm L ft Ibf 1 lbmole 47 26 0. [5.03996 (c) Polytropic work coefficient (see Eq.0.3T-2]) (59.000 2) ft2 (2.Polytropic efficiency (see Eq.1T-1]) (38.

6.5996 (0 Work input coefficient (see Eq.986 Btu lbmole "R )( 1 Ibmole) 28.389 Polytropic exponent is found assuming equality of the polytropic efficiency at test and specified conditions (see Eq.250 (0.1 6 ft Ib Btu = 0.1 1) The performance at the specified operating conditions is calculated from the test dimensionless parameters. (a) Discharge total pressure at specified conditions is obtained as follows: Average specific heat Btu (The design discharge temperature Average specific heat ratio 0.3.2.~~ S T D .247 .6997 ft3 = 2.8)"R + O1 778.540.4T-71) 79 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .0. These values apply directly sincetheReynoldsnumber corrections are negligible.170 Computed Results for Specified Operating Conditions (similar to para. ft3 Ibrn 0.(1. I5.250 2 Ibrn "R Btu - has beenused to estimate cpd) 0.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L997 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 0 6 0 5 5 0 4 L87 - ) (831. [5.36 Ibrn = 1.252 + Ibrn "R Ibrn "R Btu = 0.2T-21) gc (g) Volume ratio at stagnation conditions (for information only) Ibm 0 151 8 .250 Ibm "R Btu Btu Ibrn "R -) .

(5.549 lbmole "R 1 549 (2.823 = 1.4 ft3 (T 3 = 9051 ft) min COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . = 0.97 psia = (b) Capacity at specified conditionsfound using the definition of the coefficient and equating is flow the flow coefficients at test and specified conditions(see Eq.000 ( 2) (2.1 96(14.823 = 1.823 nP S 2.= 0.4T-11).389 = 2.549 - = 0.03996 10.8 "R) (pd)sp = 3.") 80 rad 18.983 X 1 O6 5) ( L )( = ) 32.4734 ( (-) sec ft Ib (1 545 0.7905 1.196 (pjlSp 3.174 ft Ibm 1 2.36 Ibm (560.07 psia) = 44.389 (-)0.823 Ibmole) = 3.196 28.

[5. [5. [5.4. the average specific heat chosen for the calculations is assumed appropriate. u2 (600. Since the flow Mach number is below 0. and 81 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .1 hp = 1041 hp (shaft power method) or (Ps&. The shaft power is then ( p s h ) ~ h= (Pg.2.000 ft Ibf (33. Eq. Using the shaft power method and Eq.31. (5.4..5996) c. and total temperature and pressure.4T-201gives Wsp (&b)sp (y)sp (0.61may be used.1°R. = (Pghb+ = 1011 hp + 2 . f5.Eqs.4T-201 gives Using the heatbalancemethod. A P = 1021 hp + 20.3 hr min - - (cf) The specific volume ratio based on total conditions is (for information only) (e) Discharge total temperature is found using Eq.21. hp = 1031 hp 01 (heat balance method) (h) Static discharge temperature and pressure may be calculated from the mass flow rate. flow area.020 = 600. [5. [5.41. the mechanical lossesareassumed + Q .4. (0 Gas power is found using the equality of the total work input coefficient between the test and the specified operating condition.000mm hp (60 -) $) = 1011 hp (g) Since the specified speed and the test speed are equal.06631 F) 7) (60 Ibrn Ibm = 36.S T D m A S M E P T C 10-ENGL L997 D 0759b70 Ob055Uh T 5 T (c) The inlet mass flow rate is WSP = (E)sp (pi)sp = (9051 min Ibm ft3 .3 x) Ibm - (2.4..4T-18] Since this temperature is nearly equal to the design value of 844.983 X lo6 (PghJsp = 33. equal.in) (0.

1 74 ft Ibm (0.2)gccp (130.7 (Trtatic d)sp ft Ibf (1545 ibm "R -) (Lm) "R) 28.140-Ibm) .2 = 0.5 ft/sec.97 I bf -- (0.5 .140- Ibm ft3 82 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .36 Ibm (854.2 778.7 in in' 144 - ft2 - sec2Ibf Checking V=Ibstatic II A/ \(0.1 7 Ibm sec ( Ibf -ft Ibf ) Btu (32.(1 . obtained by trial and error..5 ft2/ - ft sec ft3 4 (Pstatic d)sp = 144 R (pstatic d)sp - (1 44 $) $) (44.174- ( Ibf ( sec2n) = 44.5)' = 846.1 40 F) (130. (Tstatic d)sp = (Td)sp v2 .252 -) sec2 "R f' t = 845.2) T I = 130.5)' ft Ibm) 2 32.2 OR (pstatic d)sp = (pd)sp - (Pstatic d)sp 2gc (1 44) vd = 44.With a guessed velocity of 130.

7 847 843.1 14.0 83 1 47.1 1 - Rem (vi/v& - k pp Pmin 11. Machine Mach no.3 (pg)sh ( pg)hb hP hP 1o m 1060 1O20 1010 1O00 1000 applicable N Qm rPm hu 10.900 44.9 36.1 541 14.39 2. Head (total) 4. Pressure Expected at specified Condition Symbol Value Condition W Units Ibm/hr psi 30.39 0. Total work input coefficient (a) method (b) Heat method 14.1 561 T P T P OR 845 psia psia 45. Quantity of gas delivered rise 2.000 38.100 43.0400 0.S T D .0 "R 830 47.473 0.0 psia OR O R psia 540 14.000 33. Capacity 15.0 10.5 45.000 20.1 *P W P 3.80 Shaft (Psh)sh (Psh)hh VP 4 Mm 7 1. Shaft power (a) method (b) Heat method 5.790 0.000 83 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .3 44. Polytropic efficiency 6. Work input coefficient 13.2 561 14. Inlet gasstate (a)Statictemperature (bl Staticpressure (c) Total temperature (d) Total pressure 16. Cas power (a) Shaft method (b) Heat method 18.l CALCULATIONSUMMARY Test Corrected to specified Operating Test Operating Quantity 1.605 0. Mechanical losses 0. Polytropic work coefficient 12. Flow coefficient 7.l.0400 0.900 1020 hP 1040 1020 hP 1030 1100 1080 0.600 Shaft ah s nhP 9 = (w/oJ T 0. Speed 20. Specific volume ratio (total) heat10.000 36.0 844.1 20. Machine Reynoldsno.000 20. 8.8 45.605 0. Discharge gasstate (a)Statictemperature (b) Staticpressure (c) Total temperature (d) Total pressure 17. Specific ratio ft Ibf/lbm 43.600 P T P 560 14.600 2.1 10.1 1.600 ft3/min 9050 9050 0. 9.473 0. Cooling condition Not 19.0 560 14.790 0.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L777 U 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 0 b 0 5 5 0 8 8 2 2 = TABLE C.

9 0.450 0.440 600 600 700 800 900 loo0 1200 1100 1300 Steam Temperature PR) FIG.1200 1100 400 0.l(b) IDEAL GAS SPECIFIC HEAT FOR STEAM 84 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .600 lo00SOO 900 700 1300 040 . C.

and shaft input power. Oil density is 55.876 in. motor direct connected.6 Ibm/ft3 so the oil flow rate is 59.. first stage impeller tip width G b = 1. if used .inlet pipeis 18 in. turbine direct connected.5 in. Oil has constant pressure specific heat of cp = 0.no intercooler (6) impeller diameter and blade tip widths .centrifugal (7) type of impellers .5 Ibm/min [8 gprnA7.not applicable to this sample (4)pipe sizes.Lubricating system oil flow rate is 4 gpm per bearing for a total flow rate of 8 gpm.) (5) arrangement of intercoolers.shrouded (2) number of stages .2 TYPE 2 TEST FOR A CENTRIFUGALCOMPRESSOR USING A N IDEAL GAS Thissample calculation is intended to demonstrate: (a) Type 2 test (b) Testgassameas specified gas (c) Ideal gas (d) No heat loss to lubricating oil and to ambient (e) No flow leakages (0 Centrifugal machine @) No flexibility to change compressor speed (h) Single section machine The purpose of this calculation is to determine the quantity of gas delivered and the compressor head. motor and gear. (c) Type of shaft seals .4 of the Coderequires that when a test is only to verify asingle specified condition.SAMPLE CALCULATION C.020 in..impeller diameters D = D = D 3 = D = 0 s = 1 2 4 D6 = 20 in. 7 l (b) Description of lubricating system and lubricant properties .The calculations demonstrated in this sample calculation would be used on both of these bracketing points.6 Ibm ft31.Not applicable to sample (d) Type andarrangements of driver.pressurerise. etc. schedule 40 (Di = 16. C. Specified Operating Conditions (see para. the test shall consist of two test points which bracket the specified capacity.97 and MW.0 in. D = Ds = D 9 = D 0 = 18.single section.2) (a) Type of compressor . = 18. Paragraph 3.).Not applicable to sample (e) Description of compressor cooling system and coolant properties .No cooling system Simplitjhg Assumptionsfor This Sample (a) Thegas (air) may be treated as an ideal gas with a constant specific heat (evaluated at the average of the inlet and discharge temperatures).2. MWda = 28. inlet and discharge. 6.2.3) (a) Air with constant pressure specific heats of dry air and water vapor given in Fig. ten stages (3) arrangement of casing and piping .1 1. 6. discharge pipe is 10 in. efficiency. schedule 40 (Dd = 10.02 (b) Inlet gas state 85 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . Description of Test Installation (see para.48 gal/ft3) x 55. .1..462 Btu/lbm "R.

82 (c) Power requirement = Psh = 1025 hp (d) Discharge total temperature (The discharge static temperature is assumed given as 1103"R.00 psia at discharge flange (e) Compressor coolant not applicable (fl N = 10. to be calculated (4) RHinlH = 50.4) (a) Developed polytropic head = 88200 ft Ibf/lbm (based on total conditions) (6) Efficiency (polytropic) = np = 0.456) psia lbmole W (28. (D.456 psia) Ibm da (7.2408 lbmole W 1 .20)] (6) Air humidity ratio at inlet flange [Ref.50 . (D.(1) hatic i = 7.2408 (c) Air molecular weight [Ref.300 Ibmhr = 288.0 % (c) Gas flow rate (7) inlet mass flow rate = dischargemass flow rate = W = 17.) The following preliminarycalculationsestablish the given specified operating conditions in a form convenient for the Code calculations.2011 Ibm da ) + 0.6220 = -( 0.97 Ibm da) 18.50 psia at inlet flange (2) T& dbi = 600.000rpm (g) Compressor internal roughness = E = 0.6220 Ibm (1.3 Ibm/min (2) inlet and discharge volume flow rates have to be determined (3) capacity has to be determined (d) Discharge static pressure = 48.1.6.04 Ibm lbmole 86 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .2.02 Ibm W lbmole da lbmole W lbmole da - ) = 0.20)l (HRi)sp (0.O00 lbmole da t 0. (a) Partial pressure of water vapor is found using the steam tables: [Ref.2408 lbmole W = 26.0 O R at inlet flange (3) inlet densities. (D. ExpectedPerformanceatSpecified Operating Conditions (see para.00012 in.

O00 Ibrn da + 0. (D.1498 Ibrn W O 448 Ibm da "R * Ibm 1 .267 0.000 Ibrn da (0.267 Ibrn "R Btu Btu Btu G) .281 Btu Ibrn "R (e) Air specific heat ratio k)sp = (0.281 -) Btu .240 (cpi)sp = ( Btu + 0.(1.84 Ibrn (0 The inlet flange kinetic viscosity is found from Ref.1 498 Ibrn W ) ( W "R 0.267 Btu Ibrn "R 1.281 (kd)sp = (0.1498 Ibm (0. The specific heat at constant pressure for both the dry air (da) and water vaporW ) are given in Sample Calculation ( C.O00 Ibrn da + 0.20) and is assumed to be that of dry air at the inlet pressure and temperature (~i)sp = 4.(1.480 Ibrn w o R W 1 .986 Ibrn "R Ibrn "R Btu lbmole "R Btu )( lbmole ) = 1*357 26.1 498 Ibrn W = 0.l.986 ) ( lbmole ) = 1'383 26. C.00 87 X 1 O4 ft* sec COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .000 Ibrn da 0.251 kp&p = da OR ) + 0.4 Ibrn lbmole "R 0.1) mass da (Cpda) + mass W (cpw) mass da + mass W (cplsp = 1. (Fig.(d) Air specific heat at constantpressure is found using dry air and steam properties.

00 $)(1 44 $) = 9..0 O R ) 26.h r ) (31. 5.876 .50 ( ) 5) (1 44 $) ) = 31.3.(g) Static specific volume at inlet and discharge flanges is found using the ideal gas law (Vstatic i)sp = (1545 ft Ibf) lbmole (600.84 Ibm (48.98 Ibm ft3 (1545 ft lbf) ( lbmole "R lbmole (1 103.4.1) (Vi)sp (1 7.84 Ibm (7.94 ft sec 88 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .300 .98 hr 3600 sec = ?r i16. \ 2 Ihm) ( $) = 98.186 ft3 Ibm (h) Average fluid velocity at inlet and discharge flanges (see para.0"R) lbmole "R 26.

0 "R) lbmole equation foran ci.{i) Fluid Mach number at inlet and discharge flanges (see para.2.1 74 ft Ibm (0.4. [5.0 "R) Ib lbmole ft sec 80.0484 -) lbmole "R Ib ) (26.4] 89 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . 5. Totaltemperatureat inlet anddischargeflanges adiabatic process (see Eq.0798 ) (1545 lbmole "R) (26.61 (Md)sp = (32'174 = 0. [5.5) = (-)W V T SP 98. the total pressure may be calculated according to the simplified Eq.4.1 (0.7 "R (80.2.0 "R + 2 (778.1 7 \ sec/ ( ft Ibm E) 74 7) (32. " " ft sec (Mi)sp = = 0.267 Btu Btu Ibf sec = 600.84 Ibm) (600.61 (Td)sp = 1103..4.281 7 Btu Ibf sec2 Ibrn "R -) -) k)2 = 1 1 03.0 "R + 2 778.94 .84 Ibm) (1 103.1 ft Ibf (32.6]) is foundusingtheenergy (Tilsp= 600.46 "R (k) Since the Fluid Mach number is less than 0.

174 ft Ibm m) (144 G) = 48.= 560.53 psia 48.037 X lo6 h2 sec2 Mean Observations Derived from Test Data Thetest is to berun with air at atmosphericpressureandtemperature as the inlet pressure and temperature.84 Ibm Ibf = 0.00 psia + 2 (9.(pi).08 psia (I) Total density at the inlet and discharge flanges is found using the idealgas law (7.53 $)(1 44 $) " ) ( ' Ibmole) "R) (600. These give (pstatic = 14.08 (Pd)sp = (&)sp = h Ibf (lS4' lbmole "R )( z) 1 (1 44 lbmole) $) (1 103.84 Ibm (m)The sum of the squares of the blade tip speeds is j=l - = 7.1741bfre.0 "R.5 "R) Ibm = 0.03136 ft3 Ibm (48.186 $) (32.98$)(32. Assuming equality of the (total)volume ratio between the testand specified operating conditions gives 90 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . = 7.7 (1545 lbrnole "R 26.i)(144$) ft Ibm = 7.1090 ft3 " 26.1 O psia and Ustatic &i).50 psia + 2(31. Both the specified i)l gas andthe test are gas assumed ideal gases.

2) reduces to the equality of Machine Mach numbers between the test and the specified operating conditions for ideal gases with equal values of the specific heat ratios. 5. Not that no Reynolds number correction (as used later in converting the testdata to the specified operating condition) is used in this estimation of the testspeed. assume kt = ksp Then. note that the Code speed rule (para.0 "R dbi 91 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . 6. fa) Test run number 4 (b) Duration of test = 40 minutes (c) Compressorspeed = 9.1 1 Assuming equality of the polytropic efficiencies between the test and specified conditions gives or Since the same gasis used in the test and at the specified operating conditions.500 rpm fd) Inlet temperature = TStatic = 540. Thetestspeed is found by assuming equality of the polytropic work coefficient between the test and the specified operating condition to give which can be obtained from equality of Machine Mach numbers.2. The numerical values give Nt = 10.Also.3.000 rpm J - = 9841 rpm as the approximate appropriate test speed. See para. as the approximate (total) discharge pressure for the test.7.

48).3667 psia Ibm W = 0.1 O psia g (h) Dry bulb temperature at inlet flange = Tstatic dbi = 540.02 Ibm W lbmole da ( = 0. (D.500 Ibm/hr (pl to (W) Not applicable to this sample (x) Shaft power input = Psh = 1851 hp (determined by measuring shaft input torque of speed) (y) Shaft torque = 1023 ft Ib (zl Lubricating system oil flow rate is 19.0 "R d 0) Dew point at inlet flange = 525.5 Ibm W ) 1 lbmole W) (28.5 "R = (cc) to (eel Casing heat loss = 6740 Btu/hr (ft7 Not applicable Computed Results for Test Operating Conditions (similar to para.6 psia d (n) Discharge static temperature = Tstatic d&j = 1042.97and MW.3667 psia Ibm da - - 0.0 . (a) The air humidity ratio of the inlet air is found using air and steam properties [Ref.2 .01661 14. (aa) Lubricant inlet temperature = Toin = 525.(e) Barometer reading = 14.0 "R ( ) Inlet static pressure = Pstatic i = 14.2.35) Ibm W Btu (1092.01881 .03024 lbmole W lbrnole da 92 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .0 "R (i) Wet bulb temperature at inlet flange = TStatic i = 530.9.1 O psia (0 Ambient temperature at barometer = 540.0) R + Btu .20)] = 0.38.3 gpm.1 "R (k) Gas density not measured (I) MW& = 28. The oil density is 55.35) Ibm W (1095.6220 0. The oil has constant pressure specific heat cp = 0.8) The previous test data is converted into a form convenient for Code calculations.97 0.38.3 x 55.45/7.02 (m) Discharge static pressure = PStatic = 99. 6.2 "R (o) Mass flow rate = 36.530.462 Btu/lbm "R.0 "R (bb) Lubricant outlet temperature = Toout 568.10 psia .240 Btu Ibm da "R (540.Ibm da 18. = 18.1 Ibm/min (19.45 Ibm/ft3 so the oil flow rate is 143.

01 881 Inm W ) ( = 0.253 Btu Ibrn "R Average specific heat 0.O0 lbmole da + 0.O00 Ibrn ¿a (CPi)f = Btu (0.01881 Ibm 0.240 IbrnBtu "R ) + 0.(b) Air molecular weight [Ref.O00 lbmole da 28.475 Ibrn da " R Ibm w " R 1 .65 I bm lbmole (c) Air specific heat is found using dry air and steam properties kp)t = mass da (Cpda) + mass c (wpw) mass da + mass W 1.244 + 0. (D.97 ( Ibm da + 0.249 Btu Ibm "R 93 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .20)] = mole da (MW&) + mole W (MW.) mole da + mole W If ) - 1 .03024 lbmole W = 28.O00 Ibrn da + 0.01881 Ibrn (0.244 Ibrn "R 1.01 881 Inm W = 0.000 Ibrn da 0.253 2 Btu Ibm "R " - 0.249 I * [Cpdlr = ( + 0.447 Ibrn w"R da 1 .O00 Ibm da + 0.03024 lbmole W lbmole da 1 .

4.1) COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .65 Ibrn 1042. = (z)t (+) = C -RI 0.253 = Btu Ibrn "R &)( - 0.65 Ibmole) Ibrn Btu Ibrn "R = 1.919 ft3 I bm (g) Fluid velocity at inlet and discharge flanges (see para.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L977 0759b-10 0b05519 bO8 m ( 4 Air specific heat ratio &.244 Btu Btu 1 m) (0.3 "R (99.1 986 Btu lbrnole "R )( 1 Ibrnole) 28.1986 lbmole "R) (28.20) and is assumed to be that of dry air at atmospheric pressure and the existing temperature (Yilt = 1 .244 (kilt = (0.397 0. (D.6 $) $) (1 44 94 = 3.S T D .34 ft3 (14. 5.0 "R 28.3.10$)(144$) Ibrn (vstatic d)r = ft Ibf (1545 lbmole "R )( 1 lbrnole) " 28.65 Ibrn 1 = 14.TO X 10-4 ft2 sec KJ Static specific volume at inlet and discharge flanges i s found using the ideal gas law (vstatic ilr = ft Ibf (1545 lbmole "R )( " Ibrnole) 540.65 Ibrn = 1.37 (e) The inlet flange kinematic viscosity is found from Ref.

500 (Vi).876 fi)' 7 T %) hr (1 4.0 "R + 0.60 ft sec (36.2.020 h) (3600 (h) Fluid Mach numbers at inlet and discharge flanges (see para.60 (Milt = f-t sec lbmole "R Ib ) (Ibm s -(540.0 "R) ) 28.0818 72.56 (&)r = ft sec ) (- 1 -) Ibrn (1 042. 5.4.60 (T.7 "R 95 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .244 E)Btu (778.919 (vd)t = 77 -)hr Ibrn 10.34 E) Ibrn = 93.0459 "R) lbmole "R 28.56 sec ft 93.5) 4( F r) = 72.1 74 ft Ibrn Btu Ibf sec2) -) .)( = 540.= 540.1 7 ft Ibf (32.S T D * A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L777 E 0757b70 Ob05520 3 2 T (36.500 Ibrn (3. = 4( (3600 F) 16.2 = 0.65 (i) Totaltemperature at inlet anddischargeflangesis adiabatic process found usingtheenergy equation foran (93.65 1 = 0.

56 (Td)l 1042.74 psia ( -) Ibrn ft3 (32.74 E) (144 $) = 0.2555 (1042.S T D .253 7) (32.35 X lo6 ft2 sec2 mm (m)The shaft power was measuredby the shaft power method to be (/'$h).6 "R Ibf secz) (j) Since the Fluid Mach numberis less than 0. = 14.2 'R + A)' -) Btu 2 (0.1 7 psia = 99.6 OR) = Ibf (1545 lbmole O R ) ( ) Ibrn W ' 28.4.41 (93.1 74 (Pd). = 99.500 z)' I6 (20 in)' + 4 (18 in)'] = 6.91 9 2) )( 144 (32.6 pS¡a + 2 (3.= 1042.A S M E PTC LO-ENGL L777 0757b70 Ob0552L 2bb E (72.7 28.65 Ibrn ( O R ) = 0.2.60 (pi).17 ft Ibf Ibrn R .1 74 lbfsec~( inn) ft Ibrn ) (k) Total density at the inlet and discharge flanges is found using the ideal gas law (14. the total pressure may be calculated according to the simplified method of Eq.174 ft Ibrn Btu (778.1O psia + 2 14. = 1851 hp (shaft power method) 96 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .34 A)' -(144 $) Ibf Ihm) sec2 = 14.17 $) $) (144 ft Ibf (1545 lbmole "R " 1 Ibmole) 540.65 ft3 Ibm (1) The sum of the squares of the blade tip speeds is (9.06993 fi3 Ibm (Pd)sp = (&). (99. [5.

97 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .14. Also.462 .5 .44 6740 hr Btu &) (60 F) (143.4.18] show the parasitic losses to be mechanical losses. (W Cp)t ( T d .= (Psh)r .1 min (0. [5..141 gas power using the heat balance method Equations [5.65) hp = 1794 hp (heat balance method) The gas power can also be calculated from the shaft power using the shaft power method (P. the test is not a Type 1 test.53 . the inlet pressure departure is (Pi)sp in theinlet .2459 Ibm "R (1042.2 requirements.16 X 1O0 = -88.1 limit of 5%.bm "R (568.0) "R I bm -) 5) = (1791.0% which is outside the range of the Table 3. ¡.).).17] and [5.8) hp = 1794 hp (shaft power method) Check for a Type 1 Test Theabove test does notqualify as a Type 1 test due to the large differences pressures. using Eq.540. therefore.7) "R (psh)r r) E) (60 = (42.65 + 67.44 &) c) + (42.S T D * A S f l E P T C LO-ENGL 1797 I 0751b70 I Ob05522 LTZ W The shaft power can also be calculated from the and Eq. [5.53 (pi)sp 7. satisfies theTable 3.4.Tilt + Qr = (1791 4 + 2. w e must conduct a Type 2 test.8) hp = 1862 hp (heat balance method) (n) The gas power can be calculated from the heat balance method done above to get as (P.525.4 + 2.(piIr x 100 = 7.6 .4. however.e.W o Cpo ATO = (1 862 .131 gives (36. To formalize this observation.67.500 I bm (0. w e will verifythat this i s a Type 2 test. Therefore.5.

[5.65 Ibrn (99.500 s)2 ft) (1 20. (a) Polytropic efficiency is found as follows: Average specific heat ratio 0.249 Btu Ibm "R Btu -) "R .74 psia) (540. 6.386 28.74 psia) 14.1 7 psia = 1.2.6 "R) Polytropic efficiency (see Eq.06993 F )(9.03148 3 98 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .1T-11) - (36.ComputedTest Dimensionless Parameters (similarto para.9) The dimensionless parameters which form the basis for the conversion from test data to specified operatingconditionsare calculated in thissection.17 psia) (1042.0 60 min hr = 0.986 lbmole "R Ibm Polytropicexponent (see Eq.7 "R) In (14. l5. [5.500 2)(L) (-) 2 T rad Ibm (0.(1.1T-51) f Ibf i )( 1 Ib mole) = 1.1T-91) (b) Flow coefficient (see Eq.507 (99.

35 lo6 sec2 32.4927 99 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .2T-2]) b i " h = cp (Td .500hr Btu Btu - 1 Btu (6.0.17 28.6.44 mln hr ft -)mmIbf (60 $) hp = ) (-.3T-23) (1 43.4935 (0 Work input coefficient (see Eq. [5.= 1 Ibf sec2) (36.7)"R + llbm "R -) 6740 hr 778.249 (1042.507- 11 sec2 32.174 ft Ibrn -) (ft2 = 0.540.17 *) Btu CU2 g c = 0.65 Ibrn ' E ft2 ) ( 1 Ibf sec2) 6.174 ft Ibrn = 0.507 (1545 ft Ibf "R lbmole 1-( ) ( ) (540.7"R)[(-)14.Ti) I - -) Btu"R Ibrn (1042.174 ft Ibrn (e) Total work input coefficient using the heat balance method (see Eq.507 1.35 lo6-X 0.1 (Q.35 x lo6 - -) = 67.462 Btu G) (568.8 hp) (33.(c) Polytropic work coefficient (see Eq.74 1 507 .)t= w0c& To = z ) hr mm (0..0 Btu (42.181 and [5.500F) (6.1T-4]) 99. L5.4.5 .3T-ll) Btu (0.4075 (cl) Total work input coefficient using the shaft power method (see Eqs. [5.6)"R (778. = [ Psh c "21 Qm (1851 hp .16 ft Ib 36.000 ft2 W- r gc sec2 32.6.8 hp (ash).. [5.525.67.540.

281 + Ibrn "R Ibrn "R 2 Btu Btu = 0.5 ft = 6.(g) Volume ratio at stagnation conditions (for information only) (.2555 0.TheReynoldsnumber limits for this correction are found using Eqs.73 x 105 NDib (9.4.6993 Ibm ft3 ft3 I bm = 3.36 Ibrn 1 = 1.267.41 (F) SP = 2.6.)r = c)r = 0.370 Polytropicefficiencycorrection is now used to accountforthedifferences in theMachine Reynoldsnumbers. [5.986 lbmole "R Btu )( Ib mole) 28.2. 6.500 min (2 T$) T ) (=E) 20 rad (E) 1.1 1) The performance at the specified operating conditions is calculated from the test dimensionless parameters. The effect of the difference between test and specified operating condition Reynolds numbers is estimatedfromthe PTC 10 Reynoldsnumbercorrection.0.274 Btu Ibrn "R -) Btu Ibrn "R .(1.65 Computed Results forSpecified Operating Conditions (similar to para.41 and 15.6.274 Btu Ibrn "R (Thedesigndischargetemperaturehasbeenused Averagespecificheatratio to estimate cps) 0. (a) Discharge total pressure at specified conditions is obtained as follows: Averagespecificheat 0.10 x 105 sec 1O0 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .11 to 15.

67 log c + Remt) ( - - log 0.73 x 105 ] ] 0.243 = 0.988 (6. Remt > 0.03881 = .04718 RCt= 0.9961 ~ X 105 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .10 x 105) 13.O99940 RBt = Reml 13.10 x lo5)fallsintheaboverange.988 = 0.066 + 0. R.10 X 1 5 0 0.73x 105)4.03881 x = 0.0354 RASP= 0.066 + 0.988 (2.934 0 46 X 1' Rem RA.988 Remt0.04718 = 1.066 + 0.775 (2.2094 (2.10 1o1 13.or Remt< 4.066 0. RCt R.67 6.243= 0.00012 + ( 6.2430.000125 + ( log 0. A= 0.67 = 0.73 lo5) = 1 3 x x . = 0.775 Remsp= 4. A= 4 (I in) x 1 Os .5 2.10 105)-0.934 4 (I.Thecorrectedpolytropicefficiencyforthespecified operatingcondition is relatedtothetestpolytropicefficiency by 1 where RCsp= - = 11 .= 1. RCy.the following Reynoldsnumbercorrectionmay be used.2094 Rem.( q $ d RASPRBsp RAt RBI " 0.934 + [ 46 X lo5 Rem 1.934 0.73 x lo6 lo5) = 5.72 x 1 O4 Sincethetest Machine Reynoldsnumber (6.5 in) x 1Os 6.

042 ) () R) ' (600.03148 10.1.4044 [(E) (1 545 Pd (7.9961 and (vsp)sp 0.054 0. [5.174 fi Ibm 3.2 psia (b) Capacity at specified conditions is found using the definition of the flow coefficient and equating the flow coefficients at test and specified conditions (see Eq.9967) = 0.4075 -= 0.000 ( z) (277~) rad 20 fi) 2 = 9157min fi3 102 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .70 3 lbmole "R 28.0.O354) -p0.822 (pplsp 0.828 Discharge pressure ratio is found using the definition of the polytropic work coefficient to give r = r. 1 -( ~ ~ =) 11 ~ 1.Then.1785 0.4T-151 = 6.400 Dischargepressure is foundusing Eq.49 The polytropic work coefficient ratio for the specified operating condition is = (pph-.054 2.36 Ibm = 6.400 (7.53 psia) = 48.99940 0.4T-11) = 0.400 (pi)sp = 6.037 x lo6 sec fi Ib fl ) iz 1 (-Ibf secz) 32. [5.822 The polytropic exponent is found from or nsp = -.828) (-(0.4044 (qp)r 3.

the average specific heatchosenfor the calculations is assumed appropriate.230 -(0.174 ft Ibm min = 939.037 min X lo6 (33.230-Ibm 3 bm hr (d) The specific volume ratio based on total conditions is (2) = vd sp [(E)q 1 = 6.174 ft Ibm r ) = 932.(-1 Ibf sec*) sec2 32. 0 3 1 I3 6 ~ () 6 0 5 ) = 17.3 gives - (17.4T-181 n-1 ] 0.49 = 600.4T-201.49 = 1 1 .5"R.3 hp (heat balance method) 103 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .4901)7. [5.230 h) (0. [5. [5.4001.A S M E PTC 10-ENGL L997 = 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 Ob05526 h10 m (cl The inlet mass flow rate is = ( 9 1 5f t7 ~ ()0 .4T-20].48 1 - S P (e) Discharge total temperature is found using Eq.8 hp (shaft power method) Using theheatbalancemethod.S T D . Using the shaft power method. Eq.000 ft Ibf (60 min min hp ) ft2 ) 1 Ibf sec2) . and Table 5. ( 7 power is found using the equality of the total work input coefficient between the test and 1Gas the specified operating condition. andTable 5. Eq.49 = 3.(-sec2 32.3 gives - I bm 17.037 lo6 x ft Ibf ft2 .7 "R (6.4935) min (7.O6 "R S P Since this temperature is nearly equal to the design value of 1103.400)l.

flow area.500 min - = 77.17.5 67. - sec2 ft2 ft Ibm 2 778.4. Eqs.4.4.8 hp ( 10.17].5 'R = 48.41.174 Ibf sec2 ( = ) .4.i5.4.2 - Ibf - (0.000 rev - 2.and[5.1 hp The shaft power is found using Eqs. With a guessed velocity of 80. The shaft power is found by assuming the mechanical losses are proportional to a power of the rotational speed (see Eq.4.5 9.21.181 = 1O 1 0 hp (shaft power method) or = 1016 hp (shaft power method) (h) Static discharge temperature and pressure may be calculated from the mass flow rate.Ibf) (32. and total temperature and pressure. (5.J 48. and 15. 15..2. obtained by trial anderror.14]. [5.81) (Qmlsp = (Qm)r N (2)= 2.281 Btu Ibf sec ( -) Btu = 1 105.2)2~ ft* e c ~ Ibf 104 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .6. 15. Since the flow Mach number is below 0.12 in2 -(144 - (80.A S M E PTC LO-ENGL L797 m 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 Ob05529 557 (g.4.2 fthec.61 may be used.1 74 (0.S T D .33.[5. (802)2 = 1106.1 O 9 F) ft Ibm 2 32.

[5.500 (1 7.049% Thetestspecific volume flow ratio is just within the Table 3.2T-11 and [5.03 136 y) 0.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L997 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 Ob05530 2 7 7 Checking (287. [5. A retest at an adjusted speed would reduce this deviation.06993 x 100 = ft3 F) E) min X F) (9.1 7 Ibm rnln -) (-1 -min ) 60 sec = 80.65 3.2- ft sec - (1 44 $) $) (48.300 hr F) 100 = 99. The difference is due largely to the assumption of equal gas properties between test and specified conditions made when determining the testspeed.51) x 100 = 3.109 ft3 Ibm Check for a Type 2 Test (a) Specific volume ratio (see Eq.S T D .2 range of 95% to 105%.000 fi "min ) 105 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .6% Ibrn (1 (0.speed (flow coefficient) ratio (seeEqs.500 hr (0.4T-43 (36.48 X 100 = 1.5.2 = 0. (b) Capacity .

625(0.2range (c) Test Machine Mach number (see para.5. 3.Thetestcapacity speed ratio is within theTable3.085)to 0. [5.0.4% 2.73 x 105 Thetest Machine Reynoldsnumber is abovetheTable 3.1) - of 96% to 104%.105).500 mm Remt = ?) (hg) (g fi) ($h) = 6.000 andthe Machine Reynoldsnumber is between the Fig. Mm.73 X 105 (9.4 range (0. Since all theTable 3.10 x 105 Remt Remsp x 100 = 6.710 (9. = = 0.7 moe = 0.5.500 Mmt 2) ($ 1 h) (2 = TE) z) (A of 0. 3.51) .84 2)“R) “Ibm (540.thetest is a Type 2 test.71O + 0.708 The test Machine Mach number is within the Fig.6 limits of 0.17 and 6.10 x 105 X 100 = 223. = sec = 2. 106 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .5. 5.815 Rem.2 lower limit of 90.2 requirementsaresatisfied. (cf) Machine Reynolds number ratio (see Eq.710 (-26.

6 88.8 1.44 0.408 0.48 1. .2 933 939 Rem (Vi/vd 9.1 CALCULATIONSUMMARY Test Corrected to Specified Operating Condition ~ Expected at Specified Operating Condition ~ ~~ Quantity ~~ Symbol ~~ Units Test Value 1. 71 10. (b) Heat method 5 Polytropic efficiency .1 1106 48. 4.000 107 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .490 0. Shaft power (a)Shaft method W lbm/hr psi ft .300 40.703 273.48 1. 7 Machine Mach no. Specific heat ratio 11.0315 0.724 6 0.000 1 34 . Capacity 15.000 3. speed 20. Specific volume ratio (total) 10. Mechanical losses 10. Work input coefficient 13.37 0.7 88.2.493 0.37 0.828 0. Quantity of gas delivered 2 Pressurerise .200 1025 *P W.450 1010 1016 17. Total work input coefficient (a)Shaft method (b) Heat method 14.53 1103 48.490 0. 8.494 9 60 1 660 7.TABLE C.230 40.39 0. Discharge gasstate (a)Statictemperature (b) Staticpressure (cl Total temperature (d) Total pressure P T P psia 17. Mm 1 025 0.0316 0.494 Whin T 0.50 601 7.6 80. 3 Head (total) . Casing heat loss 19.500 85.82 0.65 9. Machine Reynolds no.3 0. Gas power (a)Shaft method (b) Heat method la.000 3. Polytropic work coefficient k l*P 12. IbfAbm 36.400 17.6 1043 99.7 1794 1794 2. OR P T psia OR P T psia "R psia O R 16. 6 Flow coefficient .2 1042 99.500 67.50 601 7.822 0 0 15 .000 7. 41 541 14.703 273.8 9 90 1 600 7.493 0.53 1106 48. Inlet gasstate (a)Statictemperature (b) Staticpressure (c) Total temperature (dl Total pressure 8700 540 1.0 1103 I 48.

and inlet gas conditions. 1o9 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .SAMPLE CALCULATION C. Impeller exit tip width = 0. Air is available at 14.3 IDEAL GAS APPLICATIONTOSELECTION OF TEST S E D PE AND TEST GAS AND METHODS OF POWEREVALUATION Thissample calculation is intended to demonstrate: (a) Test speed selection (b) The effect of substitute gas use on achievement of flow similarity (c) Methods of power evaluation The following information is givenaboutthe Number of stages = 6 1st stage diameter = 11. Average valueswill be used. It is assumed that circumstances prohibit testing with methane. The test speed required to provide equivalence between test and specified conditions is obtained from the speed selection rule.7 psia. will be treated ideal gases with constant as specific heats. It is the purpose of the test to verify these intended values or establishthe actual values. and 50 percent relative humidity. The driver has variable speed capability. 520°R. and the specifiedgas. This would lead to slightly more accurate results. (a) Both the test gas. air. The following assumptionsaremade to simplify the calculation process so that focus may be made on demonstrationpoints.76 Shaft power = 690 hp Thedata in the left hand column above indicate the specified operating conditions. The rotor mass flow rate is then the inlet mass flow rate. (The alternative is to use actual gas thermodynamic data and the Type 2 calculation procedure.5 in. the operational speed. For ideal gases.) (b) Leakages will be assumed negligible at both test and specifed conditions. methane.1 1006 x 1O5 ft-lbf/lbm design: At an flow inlet of 3000 ft3/min pressure = 90 psia Polytropic efficiency = 0.Methane Inlet pressure = 30 psia Inlet temperature = 570"R ZU2/gc = 1. Shaft rotational speed = 16000 rpm Gas . The data in the above right hand column describes the intended performance of the compressor at the specified operating conditions. This data describes the compressor geometry.459 Discharge in.

Thegasdatausedandresults of the computations indicated abovearesummarized in Table C.769 x 16000. Ti R "R ft-lbf/lbmOR 570. efficiency. However. psia psia 90. 53.53 1.396 0. = 1 Precise values of pressure ratio.TABLE C.28 0.0761 1.3.76 (excludes Reynolds Number correction) TP 16 . 21 9 . With these a test pressure ratio estimate and a required test speed estimate be may calculated.1. This speed may be used to calculate Machine Mach andReynoldsnumbers. It is ignored simply for computationalease. and polytropic exponent for both specified and test conditions are of course unknown before test.583 X lo5 0. 96.While the Reynolds number effect might be taken into account here. sec rPm ft/sec N u Mm Rem 635 0.532 3.00343 3. appropriate speed be the test may estimated by making the following assumptions: (al Thepressure ratio and efficiency at specified operating conditions are equal to the design values.1' and Remco. Thevalues in thistable may be used todetermine if it is possible to accomplishthe proposedtest within the allowable deviations in similarity parameters. with 1 1 and " n n-1 k 'Ip- k .3.31 1. 0.078693 0. 30.597 14. 800. Mach Mach NumberCheck:The test Mach number is = 6. it is small and the current calculation is only an estimate..5675 1.The second allows calculation of the test polytropic exponent.6 percentgreaterthanthedesign consequence of gas selection with number.7 520.76 k P P Ibm/ft3 Ibmh . 14 .411 X lo5 0. The firstassumptionallowscalculation of thespecified condition polytropic exponent.51 21 9 . 0. This is an unavoidable 110 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .27x 10-5 12704.1 PRETEST CALCULATION SUMMARY CaS Pd Pi Methane Air 51. (b) The efficiency at test conditions is also equal to the design value. pd/pi n qi/qd 4 30 .

The deviation is.9595 Ibmhec pi= 14. The correction has not been applied to the tabulated values. within the limits of Fig.different k values when specific volume ratio equality i s maintained.5 Btu/hr (calculated casingheat loss) Td= 832 "R flow rate) Psh= 339.53 ft-lbf/lbm-"R The next step is to compute the following dimensionless parameters from the test data.4 Ibf/in2 om= hp (from lubricating oil temperature rise and 20 or=5574. (e) = 3000 12704 (-)16000 = 2383 rnln ft3 The test yields the following data: W = 2.2. Specific Volume Ratio: 'V. is -46 percent of thedesignReynolds Reynolds Number Check:ThetestReynoldsnumber number.4. This is within the deviation limits of Fig. however. which is The desired test inlet flow may be calculated from test and specified operating condition flow coefficient equality.3. 3. A bracketing point lies within 2 4 percent of the specified operating condition flow coefficient of interest.perhaps from a torquemeter) N= 12690 rpm R = 53.since the computations are preliminary.. hp (shaftpower.= 50% p d = 50. which yields q.7 Ibf/in3 G= 520 "R RH. and the correction relationship applies.03363 111 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . The compressor is run to obtain a bracketing point. = (3' 1 W¡ = 2. = 9i.14286 Flow Coefficient: 9t = = 0.

= 1.Polytropic Work Coefficient: (-)n -n 1 ClPt = RF xu2 [ .583 X lo5 V Ub which havebeenevaluated using COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .1 1 = 0.62702 Work Input Coefficient: PolytropicEfficiency: Total Work Input Coefficient: (Heat balancemethod) Total Work Input Coefficient: (Shaft power method) gc Machine Mach Number: Mmt = U -- Machine Reynolds Number: Remt = .

A S M E P T C LO-ENGL 1777 = 0757b70 Ob05537 b 2 3 = W.57 Ibm/min N = 12690 rev/min D = 11.53 ft-lbf/lbm*"R CU2 1.459 in.396 Btu Ibm "R cp = (5574.91 Btu/min 113 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . = (2.11006 X 1' = 6.9828 X 0 lo4 Ibm ft Ibf k = 1.9595 Ibm/sec) (60 sec/min) = 177.5 Btu/hr) (1/60hr/min) = 92. R = 53.S T D .

076047 (F) sec b = 0..2 min Btu U =" 2lrN D 60 24 Rad .7 p i = .alsoapplyatspecifiedconditions.53 (-)Ibm "R ti Ibf Ibm = 0.) 11.5 -)ft sec 1.9595 q. -) = 0.67 X ti2 - 0.1 6 ft (-)min Ibf hp f-\ti Ibf = 848.459 1 t (--)fin. 2 10 .076047 I bm (F) (20hp) 33000 o = m .27x y="= 10-5 P ( r Ibm ) sec Ibm = 1.. 2) ) 9 rev mm 1 (--) min 60 sec (?in. 778.=-= Pi Wi (E) 60 sec (=) min = 2335 min ft3 0.5 in.(.(6. 1 t (-12 fin.041 7 ft The preliminary assumptionismadethatthesecoefficients withappropriateReynoldsnumber correction. 12 = 634.076047 ft3 520 "R 2.14.-Pi = Ibf (5)( 144 ): R Ti 53. Thelimitsforallowable test Machine Reynolds numberaregivenby 114 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services ..

(1 . = 0.99648) = 0.243 = 0.= -= 1.934 7 RCr = 1.81 x lo6 Thetest Machine Reynolds number does fall within these limits and the efficiency correction may be used. 115 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . Remsf= 3.8 X 1 O6 b) RCsp Rm e.97798 RAI = 0. 5 1.01184 R.053862 b= 0. vpsP= 0.988 Remsf-0.5 in.000120 in.p-0.O1 0.744 TheReynolds number correction is applied to both the polytropic efficiency and the polytropic work coefficient.066 + 0. B = = 0.593 x lo5 E= 0.41 x lo4 5 Rem. = 0.044696 C RCt= 0.988 Rem.and Remco.066 + 0.744)1 .or 6.0.243= 0.Thus 1 where VPsp = (1 . = .99648 with R.752 Pt 0.7524.934 AP (4. so.2476 184 (0.VPt) RASPRBsp .411 x lo5 Remr= 1..9971 8) R S = 0.0118 ‘PSP ’ 0.97798 (0.

4395) x96.752 = This assumption is taken to be valid to the approximation involved if: (a) the test specific volume is within 2 5 percent of the specifiedcondition volume ratio (Table ratio 3.744 (1 .O1 18) 0.In summary. This is done by using the polytropic work coefficient and polytropic efficiency to calculate the specified condition discharge gas state.3363 “p*p = qpt Remcorr= 0.4395 = 2.9750 where n 1. following dimensionless coefficient set drp = 4.28 0.11006 lo5 ((3.7524 = 3.6344 1. = 0.. ¡.2).31 )(570) + 11 3. = [0. the preliminary assumption is that the applies at specified operating conditions.4395 116 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .e. The specified operating condition volume ratio is calculated to determine if this requirement is met.

459 (-ft) 12 3 = 2944 min ft 3 wj = p jq. (d) the test flow coefficient is within ?4 percent of the specified operating condition flow coefficient of interest. Thespecific volume ratio is then (which is within the + 5 percent limit). The following quantities of interest at the specified operating conditions are established from this set as follows. (c) the test Machine Reynolds number is within the limits as already described.) = 89. which is seen to be satisfied.4099 - Tdsp = ($sp Tisp= 1.975 1. = (30) 144 [96. = 2.i) ] = 0.4099.4099 = 1.975 (30.31 (570) F I 117 Ibm Ibm 2944 min = 2 3 1 ' 7 mln ft3 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .373 0.S T D O A S M E P T C 20-ENGL 2 7 7 7 m 0759b70 Ob05542 0 5 4 which yields nsp = 1.6 "R The flow is determined from the flow coefficient D 3 qi = [4sp27N(. 3. It is concluded that the dimensionless coefficient set developed is valid for the specified operating conditions.373 (570) = 782. Thedischarge gasstate is then pi.03363 2 SP rad T - 16000 rev rev min 11. (b) the test Machine Mach number is within the limits of Fig.4.25 Ibf in2 (x = (3" n-1 = 2. The section pressure ratio has alreadybeenestablished in the volume ratio calculation using the polytropic efficiency and polytropic work coefficient.

The power requirement at the specified operating conditions is determined from the total work input coefficient. 118 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . = 3. -=" 33000 I Om.Thisexamplewas specifically constructedusingvaluessuchthatthepowers would match.862-60-0.849 sec Ibm sec min 1. I 33000 N t ( Nsp)2'5 = 20 hp In this example both the shaft method and heat balance method give exactly the same power requirement. This may not always be true because of differences in the independent measurements which areused. Om.11006~ lo5- ft Ibf Ibm = (G=) 697.3 hp min hp where.

or 3000 4= ( 2 7 r e)0 rev:6 )0( 01 ft3 min ("fi)11.2).11006 X lo5 (3.. which falls about midway between data the points in Fig.1.4.4.459 = 0.3.4304 = 2. It demonstratestreatment of bracketingpoints. C..The flow coefficient of interest is for3000 fi3/min atspecified conditions.3. . Calculations were done for this data set following the same procedure as in Sample Calculation C.Linear interpolation gives These values are used to calculate the compressor performance in dimensional terms as follows: Flowrate: 3000 ft3/min as above Dischargepressure: 119 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services + = [ 1.3 is available. The data is shown in the upper portion of thesecond column in Table C.430196. the values o the dimensionless coefficients at the f flow coefficientofinterestaredetermined by linearinterpolation.. The calculated efficiency and work coefficients are plotted as functions of flow coefficient in Fig.1.Supposethat a seconddata point forthecompressor of Sample Calculation C.COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS ASME PTC 10-1997 SAMPLE CALCULATION C. C.03427 . Theresults are summarized in the lower portion of column 2.1. data The points are valid bracketing points in that they are well within 4 percent of the flow coefficient of interest (Table 3.9497 .31 (570) '10 3. In the absence of additional data points..4.4 TREATMENT OF BRACKETEDTEST POINTS This sample problem is anextension of Sample Calculation C..

5574.1 2.4304 n = 1. 120 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .750 (g) = 3. 330.832 0.843 0.39 5495.53 1.034 0.748 0.9595 1.1429 0. 49.752 0.838 0.4 832.4.634 0.1 Point Data 1st Units Data Test Data Point nd 12690. 5. 50. 339.4 828.84900 0. 3.84900 0.035 0.794 0.794 0.034 0.396 12690.0799 14.396 Calculation Summary: 1st Data Point Test Conditions Conditions Conditions Conditions 2nd Data Point specified Operating operating Test Operating ~~~ specified Operating ~ 0.849 0.53 1.5320 3 4 1 x 1Os .5 53.1 668 0.ASME 10-1997 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS TABLE C.627 0. 53.035 0.843 0.5674 1.411 X 1 5 0 2.1351 where n = tsp (T)k = 0. 20. 2. 47 520.7 520. 0 50.41145 and.5320 3.838 0. 20.5675 1.744 0.583 x 1Os 2.1 0.623 0.1105 0.583 x 1 6 2.739 0.832 06 5 .849 0.

11c)06 x IO5) 3 3000 35.7 = 705.848(1.08)0.COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS ASME PTC 10-1997 * I FIG. C.4.1 Power requirement: Heat balance method: "" = Pshhb 5 Wi f i h b Cu2 33000 33000 gc where 121 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services + (236.-79 .

Since only two data points are available it might well beprudent to retestfor verification.Forsmallspeedadjustmentsthetestresultsmayremainvalid. indicating an error in measurement. 90.79 2. With mutualagreement by parties tothe test.7 hp = 689.08)0. (c) assuming one or the other measurement correct and ignoring the other. typical industrialreaction in lieu of mutualacceptance as tested is hardware modification or specified condition speed adjustment. In this case the error would appear quite large.11006 x 1Os)t 35. the seconddata point is questionable. theoptionsmayinclude: (a) retest. This is due to the contradictory measurementsfor the seconddata input coefficient. 2. Calculated 16000 Methane 570. eliminating the error. (d) comparison with other data points if available.43 hp 33000 Notice that the shaft powerandheatbalancemethods yield two different results in contrast to Sample Calculation C. In the event of hardware modification the testmust be repeated. 122 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .S T D . One of the values is point. 88.3.since the testshaftpower is smallerfortheseconddata flow rate.76 690.However. 0.1 52 Comparison of the design and actual results indicates that the compressor falls short of meeting is designpressuregoal at design flow. the shaft powermeasurement is especially suspect.1 9 30.823(1. 3000. 30.This is determined by conversion of the testresults to the new specified condition speedand verifying that the limits in departurebetweentestandspecified conditions are not exceeded. The implication of this fact to the parties involved are t beyond the scope of thisCode. reflected in the two different values for total work clearly in error. (b) neglecting the error should the difference in results be deemed negligible.750 705. Assume that further investigation leads to disqualification of the shaft power measurement for the second data point.A S M E P T C 10-ENGL L997 ASME 10-1997 COMPRESSORS AND EXHAUSTERS Shaft power method: . as they would bealso had thecompressorexceeded its design goals. As the methodsagreeforthefirstpoint.(236.49 0. point despite a largermass Further. 3000. The final results from the bracketing data points may be summarized as Design 16000 Methane 570.

STDmASME P T C 1 0 - E N G L

1 9 9 7 D 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 06055’i7 5 7 2 D

SAMPLE CALCULATION C.5 SELECTION OF A TEST GAS FOR A TYPE 2 TEST USING IDEALAND REAL GAS EQUATIONS
This sample calculation is intended to demonstrate how to select a test gas and determine the testspeed. A compressor designed for use on a hydrocarbon mixture is to be tested in the shop with aclosed loop for an ASME test. Table C.5.1 gives the specified operating conditions and predicted performance for the point to be tested. Additionally, it gives mechanical design requirements of the equipment such as the maximum temperature, pressure, rotating speed requirements, the impeller design data neededforthe evaluation of test equivalency,andthe critical speeds of thecompressorrotorsystem. The selection of the test gas and computation of the required compressorspeed is a multistep process. Table C.5.2 outlines the basic steps involved in flow chart form.Thefirst step involves computation of the specified conditions; Reynolds number, Mach number, pressure ratios, volume ratios, etc. This data is contained in Table C.5.4.The next step is to select the possible testgases. In this problem nitrogen, carbon dioxide, refrigerant134a (R134a) andrefrigerant 22 (R22)havebeenselected as possible testgases.’ Knowing a closed loop is to be used, 20 psia and 100°F were used for afirstestimate of inlet conditions. Theselection of the 20 psia was to allow a loop with a positive pressure and therefore, no inward leakage of air as a contaminant would occur. Table C.5.3 lists the test gas inlet conditions for each of the gasses.The next step is the determination whether ideal gas or real gas calculation methods should be used. The X factor and Y factor of Schultz were computed for the specified gas as well as for each of the test gases. It was found that the specified gas required real gas calculations, nitrogen could be assumed to be ideal, and CO2,R134a,R22 required real gas calculations. From the X and Y factors,an estimate of the cp and the compressibility Z, the test polytropic exponent was computed. Since specific the volume ratio at test should equal the specific volume ratio at specified operating conditions, the test pressure ratio was computed along with the test discharge pressure and temperature; see Table C.5.4. At this point, a check with mechanical design conditions found that nitrogen and CO2testdischargetemperatureswere in excess of maximum allowed by the mechanical design and a furthercomparison of speeds also indicated extremely high rotational testspeeds in excess of mechanical design.Further computation was not needed for nitrogen and COz,asthesegases were eliminated. Firstestimates of temperature and speed for refrigerant 134a and refrigerant 22(See Table C.5.4) indicated possible testgases since they did not exceed mechanical limitations. However, the rotative speed for the preliminary R22 selection was only 3 percent below the first critical speed and the rotative speed for the R134a selection was approximately 14 percent below thefirst critical speed. For the first pass, there was no Reynoldsnumberscorrection, verification of specific volume ratio, efficiency,or an estimate of real gas correction factors. The final testspeed should be checked so that it is not too close to a critical speed. The next step is the computation of the test head, dischargeenthalpy, isentropic discharge condition, and the real gas correction polytropic work factor. Table C.5.5 has the computed data

l It is recognized that there is a potential environmental problem of using refrigerant demonstrate the calculation method.

22. The here use

is onlyto

123

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TABLE C.5.1
SPECIFIEDOPERATINGCONDITIONSANDPREDICTEDCONDITIONS
Inlet
650 Pressure, psia Temperature, O R Specific volume ft3/lbm 200 575 0.7578 0.8768 0.01 021 0.4894 1.1 28 830. 164.9 1.577

Discharge
704.8 0.2602 0.7981 0.01 373 0.6266 1 .O98 820. 1.592

Z
Viscosity centipoise Specific heat Btu/lbm-"R Specific heat ratio Sonic velocity hhec 209.8 Enthalpy Btu/lbm Entropy Btu/lbm-"R

Cas properties: Hydrocarbon mixture Critical pressure: 646.4 psia Critical temperature: 577.2 'R Critical specific volume: 0.7943 ft3/lbm Mol weight: 35.67 Volume flow rate: 22734 d m Mass flow rate: 30000 Ibm/min Polytropic efficiency: 0.781 Polytropic head: 27310 h-lbf/lbm Speed:Gas 3600 rpm Mechanical 1 0 0 hp Mechanical design: Max. temp 350 O F Max. pressure 900 psia Max. speed 3775 rpm 1st critical speed: 2600 rpm 2nd critical speed: 4700 rpm 1 in. Width, Impeller Diam., in. Tip f, in. 36 3 st 2nd 36 5th rd

36 1.75 1.25

4th 36 1.5

36

2.5

0.000125

for R134a.Thetestspecific volumeratiocomparedtospecifiedindicatedthat the R134a gas conditions are very close (within the accuracy of estimated gas properties) to that of the specified. Furthercheck on theassumed efficiency also indicated it was within 4 percent of specified. The polytropic headwascomputed along with Reynoldsnumber correctionfactorand a new against the critical s p e e d of the unit speed also was computed. Further check of this speed indicated a margin of 8.6 percent, which should be within a reasonable range for unit operation; therefore,R134a could beused. .. ratio is considerably off Table C 5 6 has thebasic R22 checkdata.Thetestspecificvolume from that specified. The test speed is 2556 rpm which is too close to the first critcal speed. This problem demonstrated the extent of calculation necessary to come up with the test speed for a given unit. The final test power may be increased by changing the inlet pressure and then ratio shouldremainconstantand test re-computing all thevalues.Effectivelythetemperature speedmay vary slightly with increase of inlet pressure. The test speed computed is only an estimate. Once the unit is on test, the 9/N should be set r", checked from test data. If the volume ratio is not correct, the and the specific volume ratio, q/N reset. testspeedshouldbeadjustedandthe

124

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S T D - A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L777

0 7 5 7 b 7 0 Ob05544 345

=

TABLE C.5.2

GENERALFLOWCHART

FOR TESTGASSELECTION

Rem, Mach No., qfN, Wp, tlp. ‘P’ ‘y

L

Y
I

Compute Test Speed

Select Test Gas

Verify Mechanical Design for Critical Speed, Max Speed, etc.

I

P. f

Requirements(Table 3.3) Compute Test Polytropic Exponent

I
1

I F””” 4
Verify Volume Ratio
I

Estimate New Discharge Pressure

I I

Compute Reynolds No. Ratio and Efficiencv Correction Verify Computed Test Efficiency Compute Corrected

I

t
Compute TestPressureRatio
1

Compute Test Discharge Temperature and Pressure

Compute MachNo.,
JO

t
Verify Test Temperature Pressure Lower Than Max. Design

I
Compute Test Head Discharge Enthalpy and Isentropic Discharge andReal Gas

Compute Test Power

I

125

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TABLE C.993 00 5 .273 894.65 350 65.1 1.5.0 706 - 4067 [Note ( 11 1 2554 [Note (311 NOTES (1 1 Test values exceed the mechanical designlimit for the tested unit.017 0.287 Real N 2 CO2 R134a R22 - 5.01 0.2 836. Btu/lbm-'R 204.21 03 1.366 34860 - 107.O27 - 1 .4 FIRST PASS FOR GAS SELECTION specified Ca 3.08 1 . 20 2816 .9 MW 44.157 0.509/1 . is of The use here is only to demonstrate the calculation method. efficiency. 'R 560 vi.8 20 3.1 1.8 TO 'R 547.2098 1 .781 0. [Note ( 11 1 3600 5822 [Note ( 11 1 86.41 00 1 . 126 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .02 - 20 6. 673.266 x lo7 0.1 0. 227.TABLE C.5.01 o9 0.296 29 2 .840 4. or real gas correction.O98 538.1 121 .982 p.1 1.3 TEST GAS INLET CONDITIONS N2 c02 R134a R22 560 560 pi.1 o Real 3.3po psia 1069. 28.4 493.O3 Real 3.781 00 .781 0.681 565.1 1. ft/sec 0.3 0.02 1 .73 1 .6 [Note (1 11 1.1 1.2499 1. (2)No Reynolds number correction or verificationof volume ratio.7 0.358 29 2 .O3 Real - 0.2 1030.O3 GENERAL NOTE It is recognized that there a potential environmental problem using refrigerant22.5 22 121.07 1 .25 29 2 .1 027 2731 0 0 .226 1 .2 - - 122.1 0. psia Ti.166 598.01 h&Btu/lbm si Xi Yi 20 560 10.983 2232 1.9 648 0. 2.8 0.o0 0.7 590.6 0.396 1 178.116 1 o499 3.O56 1.551 29 2 .778 0.495 0.5 1.9 102.309 29 2 . (3)Test speed too close to rotor critical speed.161 1.O273 071 .781 Ideal 1.574 7 422 1 - 1. centipoise c.1 50b. ft3/lbm 4 k ai.185 13750 70.473 x 106 0.975 0.8 721.

509 Ymin = 1 .O03 2247 0.2) 144 1.5 Specified CaS Polytropic work factor f RemdRem.I50 Xmax = 0.15 = 830.25 Volume Ratio r.779 10605 1.A S M E P T C 10-ENGL L997 = 0759b70 O b 0 5 5 5 1 T T 3 TABLE C.3 Use RealGas Calculation Method forSpecified Gas - 1.2 ftfsec.1 2.92 1.004 2. rpm Mm 9 hP 22734 31 790 2039 Supplement C. ft Ibf/lbm R134a 1.91 2 0.O975 = 1 .7578) (32.1283 /1 . Allowable range (minimum) r.315 Check SpecifiedGasforType of Calculation From Schultz Charts = Xmi" = 0.128 (200) (0.S T D .912 kmaxkmin = 1.655 14190 2731 O 3600 0. check qp check W.7578/0. 127 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .056 Ymax = 1.5.5. = Vi/Vd = 0.681 Remcon N.1 53 0.287 Based on Table 3.O28 9/N = 2273413600 = 6.A PredictedConditionsSpecifiedGas PressureRatio rp = pd/pi = 650/200 = 3.781 0.2602 = 2.o1 0.

7678) = 2.86 x (0.01021 centipoise = 0.781 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .Tip Speed Machine Mach Number T (36) (3600) fi = 565.5 sec 720 Mm = U/& = 565.0 Remco.5 (565.01 = 6.5f830.0 x = 0.5)(E) Rem = 6.86 x lov6Ibm/ft-sec 021 /(1488.2= 0.O ComputePolytropicExponent npt = nPsp= 0.0 f = 1..2) 2.681 Machine Reynolds Number Rem = Ulbl/pv . U = 0. = 1 .266 X lo7 Test Gas Nitrogen(N2) Initial Estimate: Assume Ideal Gas Y = 1.

396 0.1 ) = 0.=1.396 .358°.3632 nl = 1.574 Compute Test Gas Pressure Ratio r). = ( r pn-1y 5.781 1 (1.3632 1.840 J = 129 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .

5704 .993 cp = 0. = 1.022 Reduced Pressure = Rp = pi = 20/1069.01 Y = 1. Test Gas Co.1 = 71422 ft-lbf/lbm TestSpeed Nt = 3600 = 5822 rpm NOTE Test temperatureexceedsmechanicaldesignlimit.7 = 1.Test Polytropic Head W.21 03 130 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . Test speed exceedsmechanicaldesignlimit.358°*3632 1) 144 1.01 Z = 0.1 x = 0. = =pi n vi (rp n-1 n .1) 144 W.9 = 0 0 87 .5704 (20) 10.! Initial Estimate: Assume Nonideal Gas Use inlet conditionsfor initial calculations.it = 560/547. = T /Tc.725 (5. i Reduced Temperature = R.

304 Pdf = = 4.01 0. = ff T.01) = 1.781 + 0.25 = = 4. = 1494 (560 "R) = 836.2103) (44.993 1545 (-)44.01 144 (20) (560) = 6.A S M E P T C 111-ENGL 1917 I 0757b70 Ob05555 h119 D ComputePolytropic Exponent n= 1 Y .993 (1 545) = 0.01 .2749 n= 1.1027 rPf = rpspnsp 3.1 p i a Compute Test TemperatureRatio Td.2755 (1 + 0.0.3655 1 Compute TestPressureRatio nt - 1.01) 778.304 X 20 = 86.m (1 +X) - 1 (-0.6 "R "'r = -P if Z Ti.778 131 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .3655 1.S T D .17 (0. 0.

3655 . . Test Gas R734a Initial Estimate Assume Nonideal Gas Use Inlet Conditions for Initial Assumptions ReducedTemperature = RI = Tiflcrit = 5601673.1 ) 144 1*3655 = 34860 ft-IbWlbm TestSpeed = 3600 J-- = 4067 rpm NOTE: Testtemperature is marginal.1) 144 Wpt= (1.S T D .027 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . n- 1 Wp.3 = 0.(rp n-1 n " .0339 X = 0.778) (4. = -pi .8 = 0.1) 20 (6.A S M E P T C 10-ENGL L997 9 0759b70 O b 0 5 5 5 b 5 8 5 Test Head ..Test s p e e d exceedsmechanicaldesign.07 132 Y = 1.2677.8311 ReducedPressure = Rp = pi/pcrit = 201590.304°.

25'. = 3.975 (1 545) 1 778.07) = 0.2955 1.ComputePolytropicExponent - 0.m (1 +X) + 0.91 psia Compute Test Gas TemperatureRatio r( = r$ = (3.1157 - Pd = rp pi = 3.07) - 1 1 .'02' = 3.'22'5= 1.O27 .2098) (1 02) 0.0.1 7 (0.1157 Compute Test Gas PressureRatio rP.781 (- + 0.1568 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .2955)0.1 221 5 n = 1 Y .2955 x 20 = 65.1 221 5 (1 = 1.

144 (65.1157 .1) 144 = 10499 - fi-l bf Ibrn Compute TestSpeed Nt = 3600 J"= = 2232 rprn CheckVolume Ratio Vd = .9832 = 2.1) 144 = 57 20 (2.9832 Ib ft3 r..921 Compute Polytropic Work (RealGas)Factor Isentropic P= 65. - .91 psia T'= 168.9753 (560) 144 (20) = 2.' r:= VdvJ = 2.951 (1 545) 647.1 .911 102 ZRT = 0.0. z 0.2955/1n 3.8716) 3.9205 ft3/lbm h'= 135.8716 n W.8716 /0.8 144 p M W .= Inrplln r.ComputeTest Head 1545 (K) vit = -P i.9205 = 3. = 2.1 196 n.29!jS(*) (1.46 Btu/lbm n. = pi vi (rp n-1 n.7 "F (628.= In 3.1 ) [ . .O482 134 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .7 OR) V = 0.871610.1 196 = 1 .

17 ns ( P d vd n.6(~) 2.67/Rem)/log (e RC = 0.324 x 1O-6 (2.01 1 .243 R. C = 0. 350.S T D .000125 + 13.8 xRem bIRC + 13.5 Remt= 7.473 x 106 Reynolds Number Ratio Rem. " .O482 [65.1 Compute Reynolds Number and Reynolds Number Correction Use Preliminary TestSpeed Rem = Ub/pv U= ?rDN/720 = ?r 36 (2232)/720 = 350.473 x lo6 = 0.266 x l o 7 Rem.1 Therefore. Allowable Ratio Remt/Remsp 2 0.46 = 10241 ft-lbf/lbm - 122.988/(Rem)0..871 6 1 144 1 1.153meets Compute Reynoldsnumber conditions.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL 2777 0757b70 O b 0 5 5 5 7 29q Ws= (h2 .153 2.871 6) = 3.6 ft/sec.theReynoldsnumber ratio of 0.3) 778.01 612 135 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .934 (4.3.hi) = (135.1 .20 (2. conditions.pi Vi) 144 f= 10241 = 1.66 lo6 + 0.O482 .91 (0.67/Rem) RB= log (0.9205) . RA = 0.

0 = 0.781/0.473X 1O6lo.2955'.= 0.8) 71.871 01 157 .1 ] (144) = 10605 ft-lbf/lb Correct Preliminary Test Speed NI = 3600 136 = 2247 rpm COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .224 qPr= 0.7786 = 1 ."3 = 0.RA.548 (-) O 1.O11 (20) (2.O03 "P= (p () 144 zp 7r n f n-1 v 1) 1.T&= (1 .O 0.1157 .934 R. B= RC.66 + 0."57 .934 RBI= 1 0 .. - 6) [3.7786 Remco.02543 R= A I 0.66 t 0.= 1 .= 0. 1 565 1 (-)1..988 [3. (1 .

1027 = 3.9 psia = 137 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .1821 (1 n= 1.0 Use real gas calculation Use inlet conditionsfor initial estimate Compute Polytropic Exponent m= 0..03 .m (1 + XII t~= 1/[1.02) = 0.1 845 3.17 (0.48 0.781 (- n = 1/[Y .= 1.= ?Psp Remco.681 = -0.1 845 Compute TestPressureRatio + 0.Mmsp= 0.1821 778.0.0. Mm= 3531539 = 0.O f= 1.655 Mach Number Ratio Difference Mmt .982 (1 545) 2 + 0.026 Test Gas R22 (Chlorodifluoromethane) Initial estimate TP.0211 'P( = 1.546 pd = rptpi = 3.251.NOTE Test s p e e d within 8-1/2 percent of 1st rotor Critical Speed Calculate Mach Number Mm= U/ai U= ~ D N / 7 2 0 = [~36(2247)1/720 = 353 fVsec.161) 86.655 .546 (20) 70.

138 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .1845 -1 = 13750 ft-lbf/lbm Compute TestSpeed = 3600 = 2554 rpm Testspeed is tooclosetothefirst critical of 2600 rpm.Compute TestTemperatureRatio rtt = rpT = 3.259 = Compute Test Head 1545 0.1 1.48 (560) Z Ti.982 86. = -P it - (-) 144 (20) = 3.4113 n.546L0~'82'' 1.

Table C.2465 Specific volume. Btu/lbm-OR CP k Specific heat ratio Sonic velocity. TABLE C.Thedata shown is the average of the actual test data readings.'Thetestdataare shown in Table C.6..577 1. This is the reduced data from the test point of Table C.4"F.7 Temperature 650 244. Table C.3 shows the derived designfunctions. head.7578 0. The molecular weight and the calculated gas constant are shown in this table.The calculations are shown in Supplement C.8 0.6266 Specific heat. temperature ratio.6.6.A S M E P T C L O .E N G L L997 = 0759b70 Ob85563 715 SAMPLE CALCULATION C.4.are shown in Table C. as well as the isentropic discharge conditions.2602 0.O975 It is recognized that there is a potential environmental problem of using refrigerants. efficiency.5.6. ft3/lbm 0. The calculation of these values is shown in Sample Calculation CS.4894 283 1.05 209. volume ratio. ft/sec 820 a Enthalpy. The inlet pressure was held at 20 psia at an inlet temperature of 100OF. The derived test functions. Table C.8768 3730.01 0. The unit wastested on refrigerant 134a.temperatureratio. Discharge conditions achievedwere 67. pressure ratio. The use here is only to demonstrate the calculation method.1 830 164.1 outlines the conditions for which this compressor wasdesigned. as well as polytropic exponent.6. etc.A for obtaining each of the individual items.600 . 139 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .6 TYPE 2 TEST USING REAL GAS EQUATIONS FOR DATA REDUCTION A mixed hydrocarbon compressor which wasset up in the Sample Calculation C.592S 200. volume flow.The test is supposed to verify these values. Btu/lbm-"R 1. Btu/lbm 199. It wasat a test speed of 2245 rpm. It is assumed that all scatter was within the allowable test requirements for thesedata point positions.7749 Compressibility factor P T V 0.84h Entropy.2 shows the gas composition and critical properties for this hydrocarbon mixture. specifically pressure ratio. 115 0. centipoise P 0.01 021 0. volume flow ratio.6.6.4.S T D .577 1 .6.000 Ibm/min Speed 3. psia 227.rpm Inlet Discharge ~~ - Isentropic 650 Pressure.5was tested on refrigerant 134a using aType2test.7981 Z Viscosity. It tabulatesthe inlet and discharge conditions.9 1. and power.5psia and 187.1 SPECIFIC DESIGNCONDITIONS Mass Flow 30.

and volume is shown in Supplement C.6.ICFM 9/N.O281 22734 6. which alsoillustrates the use of an iterative procedure. hp Table C.Thecalculationofdischargeconditions.O56 1.ICFM/rpm Reduced temp min/max Reduced pressure min/max Schultz factors XmdXmax YmdYnux 3.pressure.91 2 1.Theconvertedspecific volume ratio was within the specified 4 percent allowed.6.6. As canbe seen the inlet capacityfortheconverted test conditions was within 1 percent of the original specifieddesign point andtheheadwas within 2 percent.31 ft-lbf/lbm O R = = R TABLE C.287 565.30911 .5 0.o495 1. Polytropic exponent n Isentropic exponent n.4 psia 577.6 compares the test data and the test data converted to specified operating conditions with the predicted performance at the specified operating conditions.A Calculations:Derived TestFunctions 140 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .25 1.o04 26570 2731 O 0.31 5 0.1027 1 . temperature.226 2.509/1 .67 43.781 31 790 1st stage tip speed.7943 fi3/lbm 35. ft-lbf/lbm Polytropic efficiency Unit gas power.1 50/1.266 x 10' 1.B demonstrates the calculationsfortheconversion.221 0.6. Polytropic work factorf Isentropic head.6.3 DERIVED DESIGN FUNCTIONS ~~~ ~~~ Pressure ratio Temperature ratio Volume ratio hax/kmin 9.6.2 "R 0. Wsec Machine Mach no.2 GAS COMPOSITION A N D PROPERTIES Composition: Methane Ethane Propane N-Butane Critical properties: PC TC 20% 25% 50% 5% = = v. Supplement C. Machine Reynolds no. Molecular weight Gas constant - 646.681 2.TABLE C.C. ft-lbf/lbm Polytropic head. Supplement C.O06 0.996/1.

49 0.2 0.49 x 106 1. = (460 + 187.3 psia 213. ft/sec Enthalpy.375 1.1 56 2.8 122.1139 10735. Btu/lbm-"R Specific heat ratio Sonic velocity.4 =- 560 = 1.975 0.E N G L L777 m 0757b713 Ob055b5 5 7 8 m TABLE C.980 14143 6.O71 8 7 1.80 TC 590.Ibm/min Inlet ~~ ~ ~~ Discharge ~~ Isentropic ~ Pressure.245 ~~~ . Btu/lbrn Entropy.psia Temperature Specific volume.rprn .9234 k a 5 =P h 140.9639 V 0.4 TEST DATA Mass flow S P d ~ ~~ 4.5 DERIVED TEST FUNCTIONS Pressure ratio Temperature ratio Volume ratio q ICFM q/N ICFWrpm 1st stage tip speed (ft/sec) Machine Mach no.3 352.6.778 2059 Pressure Ratio rp = p&i =20 = 3. centipoise Specific heat.944 Viscosity.2098 1.156 141 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .8 O F TABLE C.6.654 3.5 167.S T D . 3.O98 538.A S M E P T C L O .01 o9 0.923 2.04 0.4 67.2639 0.2731 135.3 0.871 0.955 Z CL 6 20 1O0 2.Refrigerant 134a Mole weight 102 PC P T 0.Btu/lbrn-OR Gas . Machine Reynolds no.375 67.o01 1.5 Temperature Ratio rf = T&. ft3/lbm Compressibility factor 0.5 187.2639 67.4) (460 + 100) 647. Isentropic exponent Polytropic work factor Polytropic exponent Polytropic head (ft-lbf/lbm) Polytropic efficiency Unit gas power (hp) 'P '1 'V U Mm Rem ns f n W P VP p.6 0.

6 DATA SUMMARY Test Data Converted To Specified Operating Conditions 3600 22670 6.8716 Discharge Specific Volume Vd = ZdR Td -144pd 0.4 2.8 115 246.8716 = 14137 ~ C F M CapacityISpeed Ratio q/N = 14137 2245 = 6.5 Test Data Predicted Performance At Specified Operating Conditions 3600 22734 6.84 rPm ICFM ft-lbf/lbm hP psia psia OF OF ftVbm V/lbm Btu/lbrn Btu/lbrn 2245 14137 6.9 209.A S M E P T C 10-ENGL L777 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 ObO55bb '+i?'+ = TABLE C.958 164.871 6 0.778 2059 20 67.7578 0.31 5 2731O 0.975 1545 (K) 144 (20) (560) = 2.9635 2.4) 144 (67.8716 0.2562 2.7 0.6.5) = 0.7578 0.9 21 0.3 140.780 321 80 200 660.781 3 1790 200 650 115 244.5 1O0 187. = Vj/Vd == 2.955 (x) 1545 (647.98 122.297 27690 0.2602 2.96347 Inlet Capacity 9 = mvi = 4923 x 2.297 10736 0.96347 Specified Volume Ratio r.8 0.04 Inlet Specific Volume vi ZiR Ti = 144pi -- 0.S T D .9805 2.91 2 164.297 142 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .

5/12)(1488.9234) 0. 0 x 2245 720 = 352.871 6/0.3) 778.1138 143 In (3.9234) = 1.pi n.1 hd n.3750) In (2.01 O9 (2.6 (2.A S M E P T C 10-ENGL 1997 I D759b70 Ob055b7 3b0 I 1 st Stage Tip Speed 720 U= aD N -= a 3 6 .871 6) = 3. Vi) f= (1 38.1 7 - 1 .072 1 2 .20 (2.9805) COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .2) 0.002 Polytropic Exponent n = In (rp)/ln(rv) = = 1.6 538.S T D .5/20) In (2. .07212 Polytropic Work Factor f= .5 (0.6 ft/sec Machine Mach number Mm = U/a = 352.O7212 [67.hi @d vd' .8 = 0.50 .8716)1144 = 1.122.493 x 106 - In (67.352.654 Machine Reynolds number Rem = Ub/pv .

96347) .1138 [67.7777 Gas Power pg=” Wpw TIP - 10737 (4923) 0.778 (33000) = 2059 hp Supplement C.A S M E P T C 1 0 .6.20 (2.B Calculation:ConversionFrom Inlet Capacity TesttoSpecifiedPerformance = 1 1 35 4 3600 (-)2245 = 22670 ICFM Reynolds Number Correction forEfficiency RC.- S T D .988 RemP243 144 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .5 (0.E N G L 1997 - 0759b70 Ob055bB 2T7 9 1. = 0.871 611 144 = 10736 ft-lbf/lbm = 0.

0.0 1 .493 x 1 6 = 1.66 + 0. = ( . = 0.66 + 0. 0.A S M E P T C L O .8 x 1 6 x 2.0254 12] 0 3.266 x 1 07)0.~~~~ ~~ ~ S T D .565 0.01 61 2 (Rem.VPsp = 0.8 X lo6 X Remsp b"p )s = 0.67 RAI = 0. = C 0.988 R.o1612 = 1.934 [ 0 4.266 x lo7 ("'1 o.243 (2.0 13.565 1.0 1 .548 1 .8 X lo6 X - 25 .E N G L L977 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 Ob055b9 L33 D RBf = Remf = 1.245 - RA. = 1.p)0.934 (4.O -1.934 [4.548 RB.2199 145 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .qp.934 [ 4.66 + 0.7777) 1 1.66 + 0.988 = 0.8X lo6 X b] Remf RCt = 0.

O03 Polytropic Head = 110736 3600 (-)2245 1.780 Remcorr = 1.O03 = 27690 Ibm ft-lbf Power = 14137 2245 (-) 3600 (-)0. Theiteration procedure and calculationinvolves assuming a discharge pressure at the known dischargeenthalpyand finding the corresponding temperature and specific volume.7578 1 = 29915 Pg = w~sp SP (29915) .27690 (33000) = 32180 hp 0. if not the same. This iteration procedure is continued until the conditions match the required head. and a new discharge volume is evaluated and polytropic exponent are computed. The new assumed pressure is evaluation properties for at theknown discharge enthalpy.C The conversion from test conditions to computed specified conditions involves an iteration to obtain thedischarge pressure from the known head and discharge enthalpy.780 Supplement C.then a new discharge pressure is assumed. This polytropic head is then compared to the actual and. The polytropic exponent and polytropic head is then calculatedfor the assumed discharge pressure. 146 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .q p s p = 0.6.

6.5 246. RSUE CONSTANT ENTHALPY FiguresC.1 POLYTROPIC HEAD vs.630 640 650 660 Pressure.5"F.9 Btu/lbm vi= 0. The final point at 27. C.605 ft-lb/lbm is 659 psia. This methodcaneither be Btu/lbm.6. -1 andC.2are a plot of discharge conditions at a constantenthalpy of 210. psia 670 680 690 FIG.7578 ft3/lbm 147 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . P E S R . Calculation Procedure: Known Wp= 27. computerized or done graphically as shown in thisexample.690 ft-lbf/lbm pi= 200 psia hi= 164.6.

~~ ~ S T D . psia 670 680 690 FIG.2 TEMPERATURE/SPECIFIC VOLUME vs.6.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL 1997 D 0759b70 Ob05572 728 D 630 650 660 Pressure. C. CONSTANT ENTHALPY 148 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . PRESSURE.

Calculate dischargeenthalpy.O04 Step 7 . If they donot match. to the actual.8/200 = 3.Compute the polytropic exponent. 149 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .2562 = 2.7578/0. In r. vd = 0.8 (0. 1 .qp= 0.757811144 - fi-l bf = 27705 Ibm Step 6 .304 0.958 n= In 3.For p d and hd.lo2 Step 5 .9 + 27690 0.25/1n 2./ln r.Compare the computed W.Compute the polytropic head.5 Btu Ibm Step 2 .= .905= 1 .2562 ft3/lbm Step 4 n= r.780 f= 1 .2562) 200 (0. then a new dischargepressuremust be assumed and the procedure repeated from step 2 thru 6 .8 psia Step 3 . = 165.= r. Pout = 660.78 (778. obtain the discharge volume for the properties.1 7) = 210. If they are within acceptable tolerance. 660. then the discharge conditions are established.o04 [660.Assume a discharge pressure.

we obtain pw = RHpsv= 0.60 (0.000 After After Cooler Final discharge Final discharge conditions -: I I " " Leakage Condensate Leakage Condensate Power requirements * Measurement stations It is desired tocalculatethe compressor performance at thespecifiedoperatingconditions shown.000 Section 2 U 1065 D = 12. Taking the saturation pressure of watervaporat 560"R to be approximately 0.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L997 075'7b70 Ob05579 S T 0 SAMPLE CALCULATION C. CONDENSATE REMOVAL This sample calculation illustrates the computational procedure. The compressor has been tested and the test data reduced to the following dimensionless form.1 31 Ibf/in2 and COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .0. Consider a two stageaircompressor equipped with oneintercoolerand anaftercooler.7 .204 N = 20. The selection of testmethodandthemeansofestablishingleakageandcondensate flow rates were subject to prior agreementby parties to the test.7 TREATMENT O F A TWO SECTION COMPRESSOR WITH EXTERNALLY PIPED INTERCOOLERS.S T D .at specified operating conditions. The first step in calculating thespecifiedoperating condition point of interest is to establish the first section performance. data The was collected with pressureandtemperaturebeingmeasured at the inlet and outletof eachsection.949) = 0.569 Ibf/in2 pa = 14.The flow coefficientswerecalculated based upon test rotor flow rates. Section 1 U = 1200 D = 13. with the remaining specified operating conditions attheinlet. starting with the flow coefficient.751 N = 20. for a multisection compressor havingexternallypipedintercoolers.560 = 14.949 Ibf/in2.

$ To continue For thecalculationstheproperties of air at the specified operating conditions must be known. The Rem match isassumed sufficiently close so as to render theReynolds . .1 152 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .1)./vdfor the data are assumed to match the specified operating conditions within Table 3 2 Limits. That is = 0.STDOASME PTC LO-ENGL L997 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 Ob05575 437 D Thegasconstant for the mixture is = 0. and v.020 Q L I I 0. k. and = 0.0295. polytropic work coefficient.17) 27r (20000) () F 13.andtotalwork input coefficient are read fromthesection 1 dimensionlesscurves (see Fig. C.7.599.7.025 0.040 The Mm. C.751 = 0. Rem.0295 3 With the flow coefficient established the corresponding polytropic efficiency. I 0.up = 0.The flow coefficient is then Q= Wrotor - w~RT~ - 6.50 E I U .030 0.035 0. the purpose of this example we assume that the air-water vapor mixture maybetreated as an r).0250 Ibrn w/lbm da a The rotor flow rate is the same as the inlet mass flow rate.722 at C = 0.5 (60) 54. number correction negligible. Section 1 Section 2 I I 0. FIG.13 (560) 144 (14.83.

This value will be used for both sections for this example.50 .174 1 2.5178. s the mass flow rate at the intercooler entry is o w/cooler entry = wrotor - Weak = 6.The air streamexperiences a total pressure loss of 0 8 psi across the intercooler. It must now be determined if and how much .83 1.931 = 2.2457 Ibm "R . k = 1.722. . 153 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .395 -= 2.03 Ibm/sec for these conditions.931) 54.13 (560) 32. n = 1.0. The average constant pressure specific heat is Btu 0.A S M E P T C 10-ENGL L777 M 0759b70 O b 0 5 5 7 b 373 D ideal gas with constant specific heat.166 Thedischarge pressure is The temperature ratio and discharge temperature are and The power absorbed in the compressor section is obtained using the total work input coefficient s1 = 0.up Using the polytropic work coefficient of = 0.83 gives k p K " n n-1 - = 0.03 = 6.599 (1 20012 (2. Using the polytropic efficiency of vP T = 0.S T D . The shaft seal which is located downstream of the rotor leaks 0.395 is used as being representative of the end result which might be obtained by considering the propertiesof the constituent gases over the compression range.931 0.599 gives = [l + 0. and specified operating condition coolant temperatureand flow rate.47 Ibm/sec The intercooler is known to cool the flow to 560"R at the mass flow rate. gas entry state.395 or.

84 0 8 = 31.01 97.O196 = 53.) The exit mass flow rate for the air Wex Wda = 0. Since the cooler exit velocity is assumed.436 Ibm/sec The intercooler exit conditions are thesecondsection inlet conditions.condensation occurs in the cooler.. C. The difference between the two is the ratio of condensate to dry air Condensate/wd.7.312) Ibm/sec = .O4 .949) = 0.0054 (6.0054 Ibm w/lbm da Themass flow rate of dry air is given by so.76)1/1 . starting with calculation of the flow coefficient.0.949 psia.0341 = 6.: (31 2 zsv where p = 31. = HRi - .0196 Ibm water Ibm da p i::. the humidity ratio is HRd = --.560.condensation must occur. Thegasconstantchanges slightly due to the water vapor removal. Thesaturationpressure of the vaporat 560"R is approximately 0.0196 (85. the condensate is Condensate = (condensate/wd. If the exit air is at 100 percent relative humidity. and = 0.47 .1) for q5 = 0.watervapormixture is = W/ . The previous calculation sequence is repeated for the second section.34+ 0.HRd = 0. very low stagnation valuesareused in the analysis.condensate = 6.0196 = 0.0250 . andusing 154 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .0. R = (Rda + HR R w ) / ( l + HR) [53.0.04) (3 ni = 0.04 psia . Sincethesaturated humidity ratio is lessthan thecoolerentry humidity ratio.691 from the section 2 dimensionless performance curves (see Fig.96 ft-lbf/lbm "R And the flow coefficient is i= ' 144pi 6. p P = 0.0197 3 2000 ( y q Reading q p = 0.96) (560) - 144 (31.81.436 (53.

861 =L1+ (2.436 (0.0.96 (560) J = 1.801 Wrotor -6 0 gc ZU2 Gas Power = 3300 6.2. state. 155 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . so the mass flow rateattheaftercoolerentry is Wcooler entry = 6.1 hp 3 O00 3 - ( Theshaftseal downstream of the rotor leaks 0.2449 Btu Ibm O R yields q pk E = n = 0.811.537 rp= [ r 1+ fip gc (L) RTi n.861) 53. gas and specified operating condition coolant temperatureand flow rate. and n = 1.96 1.1 0.376 Ibm/sec Theaftercooler is known to cool the flowto 580"R at this mass flow rate.861.1 .1 74 = 285.692 psia and following the intercooler condensation analysisscheme. Theaftercooler pressure drop is 1 psi.436 .06 = 6.56 1 0652 gc 1 n n-1 12.06 Ibm/sec for these conditions.S T D * A S M E P T C LO-ENGL 1 7 7 7 0757b70 Ob05578 L 4 b 53.395 0. Assuming a saturation pressure of 1.395 0.691 10652) 60 1 32.395 yielding n " n.

91 psia.91 . the final discharge temperatureattheaftercoolerexit is 580°R. no condensation occurs in theaftercooler.91 psia.1 = 54. 156 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . Rda P psv 1.76 54.692 53 34 85.0198 Ibm W Ibm da where p = 55. the final discharge pressure at the aftercooler exit is 54. andthetotalgaspowerrequirementofthe two sections is 667 hp. In summary.692 ) =A( 1. Sincethesaturatedhumidityratio is greaterthantheentryhumidityratio.HR= -( R.91 - = 0.

84 560. 60.722 2nd Section 53.1 08 .0341 0.83 0.9 580.722 0. 53.0295 0.03 6. rPm constant. ASME P T C 10-ENGL L777 0759b70 Ob05580 8 T 4 TABLE C.2457 0.7 560.537 1065 3 1 .O4 1.9 6.436 0.751 20000 12.9 285. vapor in.51 78 1200 14. Intermediate Calculation Results: Cas constant for mixture Specific heat for mixture Flow coefficient Polytropic efficiency Polytropic work coefficient Work input coefficient Total work input coefficient Polytropic exponent Tip speed Inlet pressure Pressure ratio Discharge pressure Inlet temperature Discharge temperature C a s power Inlet mass flow rate Leakage flow rate Discharge flow rate Cooler condensate flow Cooler pressure drop 1st Section 54.8 ft/SeC psia psia "R - "R horsepower Ibm/sec lbmkec lbm/sec lbmkec psia Overall results: Final discharge pressure Final discharge temperature Total gas power Delivered mass flow rate 54.1 0.801 55.7 21 66 .691 0.5 0. 729. 31.1 3 0.56 0.376 O.500 14.2449 0 0 97 .91 560.47 0. 667 6.o ft-lbf/lbm-"R Btu/lbm-"R 1.1 6.599 0.7. 1 .1 SUMMARY OF RESULTS Specified Conditions: Inlet mass flow rate Inlet total pressure Inlet total temperature Inlet relative humidity Gas dry air water Gas constant.STD.691 1.76 20000 13.204 lbmhec psia "R % ft-lbf/lbm-"R ft-lbf/lbm-OR rPm in.96 0.38 psia OR horsepower Ibm/sec 157 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . 381.06 6.34 85. 1 st Section: Rotational speed Tip diameter 2nd Section: Rotational speed Tip diameter 6. 687.

This particular case has been selected because o the relative simplicity of theequations f involved. (4) Calculate the bias and precision errors for each parameter. wspand E (F)U 2 are treated as knowns having no error.S T D * A S M E PTC L O .8 APPLICATION OF UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS Thissample problem highlights some of the features of uncertainty analysis as they apply to a PTC 10 test. There is no intention toimply that it covers all uncertainties of interest. Step I . Since the shaft power is being evaluated for a given flow and speed. FromTable 5.4 we obtain Assumingasinglesection and no leakage or sidestreams and. using the step-by-step calculation procedure given in that document. (61 Calculate uncertainty. It is desired to determine the uncertainty in shaft power for a given specifiedoperating condition flow rate. ( ) List the elemental error sources. Uncertainty analysis is done following PTC 19. SP 159 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . 2 (3) Estimate elemental errors.E N G L 1 7 7 7 m 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 Oh05583 730 m SAMPLE CALCULATION C.1.are: ( I ) Define the measurement process. Suppose that test results which meet Code requirements are available. The steps. excluding final report. It simply demonstrates the method. (5) Propagate the bias and precision errors.The propagation of measurementerror to final results is emphasized. Nor is it intended to imply achievable or expected accuracy in general.Assume that the shaft power measurement method wasused during the test.Definition of the measurement process requires expression the functional relationship of involved.

and where In general the procedure would now be to break down the individual variables in this equation if the shaft powerweredeterminedfrom a torque meter. Q m l r Ut.Theresultsmay be expressed as follows. only in this section.fromTable S P 5. that power would be expressed as the product of measured torque and measured speed.1 of the mean = S / a .01 Phf Som. Step 5 .01 Ur SU. Thisprocessdepends upon theactualinstrumentation systemand data collection techniques used.Ppararitic) 33000 Assuming that Qm is the only parasitic loss.o1 Phr = 0. and drop. as ashsp a h = = s. Parameter Absolute Bias wt Bwr = 0.3. and the corresponding bias and precision errors calculated. .01 W.therotor mass rate of flow might be expressed in terms of nozzle pressure gas composition.= 0. W m . in terms ofindependentmeasurements.and wf are treated as individually measuredelementalquantities. 160 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . To do so it is necessary todeterminesensitivitycoefficients. is the Absolute Precision Index u t ß BU.The individual errorsarepropagated into theresultaccording to a Taylorseries expansion.Theterms Rsh and Pparasiticsp arerelated to test conditions. Nnte ' B. S.theelemental errorsestimated. Absolute Precision Index MeanNQ of the sw. In everycase a onepercentvalue hasbeenassigned to each bias limit and precision index forthemeasuredquantities.Forexample.01 Om.= 0 0 Ut . Similarly.theprecisionindexof the result.pressure.01 Bpfif limit W.1. Many examples of this procedure may be found in PTC 19. (/%h . SPhr= 0.1 Shr Qm. Forbrevity.This of coursedoes not reflect what might be expected in reality. = 0 2 ß .andbias limit of theresult. = 0 0 Om. = 0.temperature. Steps 2 rhru 4 . Thesevalueshavebeenchosen to demonstrate the effect of unit variations. = o. in this example Pdt.Assumethat theelementalerrorsourceshavebeenlisted. The bias limits and precisionindices represent the combined effects of the independentmeasurementsforeachparameter.

The sensitivity coefficients #i are determined by partial differentiation.e.. if r = API.Calculate uncertainty 161 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . P2. P.2ß.. Thus Step 6 . The precision index for the result is the square root of the sum of the squares of the product of sensitivity coefficients and average independent parameter precision indices. g [-$($) = W U 2 +(%)']J 33000 PshsP A bias error is assumed in the mechanical loss conversion equation due to an assumed unknown error in the exponent ß. then +Pi = #Om. Thus The bias limit for the result is the square root of the sum of the squares of the product of the sensitivity coefficients and average independent parameterbias limits. e Pi). = a a. It is estimated for this example as 0. ¡.

05.. assume [33000/ Qm 1 r = 0. = -1.20 (1. by choice.1-1. The value r is called the Student's r. Assuming a large sample.20 (1 .1 for further explanation. Results In order to allow expression of the results of this example numerically.0512= 1.20.10.0. The models combine the precision index and bias limits of theresult differently. and ". which is usually one less than the number of points averaged. PTC See 19.5 The sensitivity factors are 4psh.20 (1 .6638 (2) I COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .0512 (1 .05)' + (1 4QMf - 1 = -o.Uncertainty may be calculated according. to two models.323 .= 1.= 1.oo456 33000 &.1) (%) = -1 A907 W f (z)f = -2.P WP S Uf Wr = 2. . = 1. r = 2 may be used. It is assigned depending upon the degrees of freedom of the sample.

for URSS 0. Similarly. for example.( 2 0.097 Psh.001 Ut. Inspection of equations (a) and (b) for the largest terms immediately indicates the speed measurement.097 PS+ will be expected to contain the true value 99 percent of the time. It is reasonable to assume that the uncertainty for this example is so large as to mask the objective of the test (recall that the numerical values for the independent measurement bias limits and precision indices wereselected at 1 percent simply to demonstrate unit variations)...001 Ut the uncertaintiesbecome It is clear that such analysis is of great value in both planning a test and evaluating test results. 163 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . It is a very simple matter to review the calculations to expose the major uncertainty source. = 0.0320) 0. if the bias limit and precision error for speedmeasurement could be reduced to But = 0.0325 + 2 (0. the measurement PS. For UADD= 0.097 psh.072 PS+ the measured PShr ? 0. = Discussion The UADD and URSS uncertainties may be interpreted as follows.072 Psht will be expected to contain the = true value within 99 percent of the time. Thus. and Su.Theuncertaintiesare = 0.

15) A.16) R. G. Wiesner. 1964. Journal of Engineering for Power. “Shop Full Load Testing of Centrifugal Compressors. J. (0. W. A. Franzini. “Influence of the Reynolds Number on the Performance of Centrifugal Compressors. 2nd printing. (D.. p. G..”Transactions of the ASME. M. Casey. J. March 9. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power. 1953. McLinden. “Equivalent PerformanceTesting of Multi-Section Compressors. R.” December 1982 proceedings of the 1l t h Turbomachinery Symposium.13) H. V. International Refrigeration Conference. (D.” Transactions of the ASME. G.lournalof€ngineering for Power. 22. Series A. Moss. Texas A& (D. “Accuracy Expectations for Gas Turbine and Centrifugal Compressor Performance Testing. Schaffler. and P. IN. and W. E..K. J. Inc.. p...July1979. 1981.Vol. Hipp. Merrill Books. 102. F. Purdue University. 2nd edition. C. “The Effects on Reynolds Number on the Performanceof a Single Stage Compressor. Carter.. Strub. 1963. 83 GT-118: Transactions of the lournal ofEngineering for Power. and B.10) Lee. C.” Final Report the Working Group of of the Process Compressor Subcommittee of the International Compressed Air and Allied Machinery Committee (ICAAMC) Zurich. Herd. M. H.11)A. 541 -548. “Thermodynamics..E. 5-1 3. Gottenberg.. S. Green. Giovannini. 107. J. “Compressible Fluid Flow. and F. presented March 27.” Paper ASME 83GT-128. D. M. January 1962. N.2-Tetrafluoroethane). Huber. and G. “Thermodynamic Properties of R134a (1.” July 14-1 7. 165 (D.1992 proceedings. Nathoo.” Charles E. O. U. (D. L. S. L. “A New Appraisal of Reynolds Number Effects on Centrifugal Compressor Performance. “Measuring the Thermal Dynamic Performance of Multi-Stage Compressors Operating on Mixed Hydrocarbon Gases. Bulskamper. f R. October 1982. 69-82 and April 1962. 1960. memorandum 31 84. Lay. p. Annear.lourna/ of Engineering for Power.ASME paper no. Vol. Mechanics with Engineering Application.“ The Weld Press Co. January 1980.” ASME 81-GT-150.8) Samurin. 1977. May 1957. and E.12) (D.” Transaction of the ASME. “Fluids (D. (D. 84. April 1985.. On the Evaluation of Reynolds Number and Related Surface Roughness Effects on Centrifugal Compressor Performance Basedon Systematic Experimental Investigations. A. pp.” McGraw Hill Book Co. Simon. West Lafayette.” Addison Wesley Publication Co. A.1.1. p.. Sears.” Aeronautical Research Council Reports and Memorandum.) f Maretti. M.9)Daugherty. A. F.” Transactions o the ASME. ”The Effects of Reynolds Number on the Efficiency of Centrifugal CompressorStages. Vol. “The Polytropic Analysis of Centrifugal Compressors. “Thermodynamics. N. 1983. J.101. COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . Vol..APPENDIX D REFERENCES (ThisAppendixisnot a part o ASME PTC 10-1997. and M. Schultz. Texas A and M. Nava. 384-395.14) M. Shapiro. and A. A. and M. ”Experimental and Analytical lnvestigation of Effects of Reynolds Number the and Blade Surface Roughness on Multistage Axial Flow Compressors.. Strite. T.’’ December 1981 proceedings of the 10th Turbomachinery Symposium. J.

G. p." Transactions the ASME.19) Moore.18) Skoch. John Wiley & Sons. SAE. lntext Educational Publishers. CA. and Royce D.920-926. 166 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . M.. 3rd edition."A New Look Performance Analysis Centrifat of ugal CompressorsOperatingwith Mixed Hydrocarbon Gases.Gottenberg.W. S." 23rdJointPropulsion Conference cosponsored the by AIAA. Principlesof Heat Transfer. of October 1983. 105. (D. 1973. (D..20) F. tals of EngineeringThermodynamics. S.Vol. San Diego. ASME and ASEE. Fundamen- . Moore. Gary J. 1987. Kreith. and W.lournal of Engineering for Power.. Inc. Shapiro. J. (D. 1988.17)Nathoo.and H..(D. June29-July 2. NASA TechnicalMemorandum 7007/5 AJAA-877745. AVSCOMTechnicalReport87-C-21 "Performance of two 10 Ib/sec centrifugal compressors with different blade and shroud thickness operating overa range of Reynolds Numbers.

2 PROBLEM MODEL The ultimate aim of a Codetest is to determinecompressorperformancefor conditions. inlet gas state.gaspropertiesexpressed in dimensionlessterms) F. to determine relationships of the form Dependentparameter = F (many independentparameters) a given set of Examples of dependentparametersaredischargepressure. illustrates the general features of dimensional analysis as they are applied in this Code. Rem. Rem... E. Mm. gas propertiesexpressed in dimensionlessterms) p i n = F2f FI Thedimensionlessparametersaredefined in terms of dimensional variables.Onemethod is to employ dimensional analysis. Mm.speed.1 Dimensional Analysis.2. E22 Basic Model.1 167 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .= F2 (#J.) E. In essence it provides a means to reducethenumberofparameters in a problem which is expressed in in dimensionless dimensional terms. and simplifying assumptions.= F1 (4. head. Themanyindependentparametersrepresentthespecifiedoperatingconditions.APPENDIX E RATIONALE FOR CALCULATION METHODS (This Appendixisnot a part of ASME PTC 10-1997.. The theory of dimensionalanalysisandsimilarity arediscussed in PTC 19.Amongthe independentparametersaregeometry. background theory. This is done by appropriate grouping of dimensional terms groups. It is to bedetermined by the test.Practicaltest is precluded from taking on the situations are often suchthatoneormoreoftheseparameters desired specified operating condition value.l PURPOSE The purpose of this Appendix is to describe the Code problem model.etc. A simple conventional set of dimensionlessparametersoften applied is given by v.etc.andmany fluid dynamics textbooks. flow rate. n. efficiency.23. gas properties. That is. Means must then be sought to determine the effects of thedepartures. Considerationof a simplemathematicalmodel of compressor performance .The functional relationship f i s unknown. Guidance Manual for Model Testing. E.

3. AllowableDepartures. Mach number departures assumed are to be of increasing relative importance as the Machine Mach number increases.3. It oftenremains impracticalto satisfy all theindependentdimensionless parameter requirements. .S T D . as shown in Table 3. .3. This basic model is generally accepted to adequately describe the main features of compressor performance. The preceding allowable independent dimensionless group departuresmaycombine to alterthespecificvolumeratiobetweenthecompressor inlet and discharge. The following approach is taken in this Code. Mm.2 orFigs. E. . Whenthese limits are exceeded the gas must be treated as real.2 and Fig.2 Cas Properties. The assumption is that the limits placed upon these departures render the effects upon the dependent parameters either negligible or predictable.2. . Theeffectsdue to volumeratiodepartureareassumed to be negligible when these limits areobserved.2. according to gastypes k= C & Z= pv/RT It is presumed in performing a dimensional analysis that all of variables the affecting the thermodynamicand fluid dynamicperformanceofthecompressorhavebeen included. properties) valuesfor r].3.3. E. This is reflected in the allowable departures shown in Table 3. In Vi vd dJ= W Rem= ULIv Mm= U/a gas properties .2. Allowable departuresfromtheidealgaslawsfor both the test and thespecified gases are given in Table 3. It i s assumed that negligible effect is associated with departure within these limits. E. . E. As a resultan additional restriction i s placed upon the volume ratio. 168 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . This situation may be addressed allowing controlled departures by in certain independent dimensionless groups. Uand p i .2.3.2.3 E.A S M E PTC LO-ENGL L977 0757b70 Ob05587 T 2 1 with. But of at leastequalimportance it providesa means of accounting for unavoidable departures from desired specified operating conditions.4. For example.2.4 Specific Volume Ratio. The allowable departures in Machine Reynoldsnumberaregiven in Table 3. r.2 and 3.3. 3. It has the immediate advantage of reducing the number of parameters which must beconsidered in developing a test. it may be used to establish an appropriate testspeed to compensate for the effect of a test inlet temperature which differs from the specified operating condition temperature.1 Mach Number.. If so. different sets of dimensional variables which combine to formidentical sets of independent gas will have associated with them identical dimensionless groups (4. Rem.3 Reynolds Number.

It is assumed that departures in these ratios will produce negligible effects upon the dependent dimensionless groups. -.. and density to define the streams we may form three additional independent dimensionless groups by referencing mainstream values. enthalpy. r"..Each additional entry flow streamhasassociated with it a flow rate and gasstate.. or three additional independentvariables. Departures in these secondary dimensionless groups do affect results in the dimensional sense. TheCodeperformance model maybesummarized as follows: vp. In actual practice secondary flow streams may enter or leave a compressor section.x .5 or leakagesperpara.is new to this issue as an explicit parameter..A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L777 D 0759b70 Ob05590 743 E.Remcor. In such cases the parties to the testmay elect by mutual agreement to further restrict these ratios as well.Thesesecondarystreams give rise to a number of additional dimensionless groups. 7r2= = (q/qx)m (hh. If we use volume flow rate. and rn denotesthereferencemainstreamvalue. dimensionles gas properties For a given flow coefficient 9..Examplesaresidestreams and leakages.)rn 7r3 = ( p / p x h Tl where x denotesthesidestreamvalue. certain departures are allowed in the remaining independent dimensionless groups.2.. = F3 9s ( 4 . 4x 9m M m . as. 169 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .The volume ratio restriction serves to limit theeffects of the combined departures in the otherdimensionlessgroups. Where thorough mixing of inlet streams before thecompression is doubtful. this assumptionmay not be valid. When these limits are observed it is assumed that the effects upon the dependent dimensionless groups are negligible. Thebasiccompressorperformance model assumes single entry and exit flow streams. r. as.4 Secondary Flow Streams. 3. The fourth. dimensionles gas properties)(Remcor. = F1 ( 4 .2. 9m Mm.... It is a power coefficient which takes on different forms for energy balance and shaft power methods. -. No specific restriction is placed upon the density or enthalpy ratios.Thefirstthreedependent groups have the same form as those in preceding issues of this Code. It is related to theotherdependent parameters.S T D . dimensionles gas properties)(Remcorr ppsp pPtRemcorr = = F2 9 (4. but is useful explicitly in a bookkeeping sense for complicated arrangements. r.6.3. = vp. This is accounted for in the calculation procedure.5 Code Model Summary. E. Theapproachtaken in this Code is to require that the ratio of sidestream to reference flow rates remain within the limits of Table 3. 9m M.

3. E.3. It i s givenby 170 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .1 Inlet and Exit Conditions. For multiple inlet streams it is the stagnation state computed from the mixing of the individually determined streams. The flow coefficient is defined as where wrotor= mass flow rate entering rotor (mass flow ratecompressed) pi= inlet total density N= rotor rotational speed Dis the blade tip diameter of the 1 st impeller for centrifugal compressors Dis the diameter at the leading edge of the 1ststage rotor blade for axial compressors. The ratio of flow rates is the ratio of flow ratesat two points in the flow.3.5Ratio of Flow Rates.4 SpecificVolumeRatio. A standard calculation scheme is given in subpara. The inlet condition is the stagnation state assigned to the flow stream entering the impeller.2 Flow Coefficient. E33 GasProperties.andcompressibilityfunctions.5. The exit specific volume is that computed for exit total conditions where E. E.compressibilityfactors. E. and is denoted by the subscript i on thermodynamic properties. The inlet specific volume is that assigned to the flow entering the rotor. are in dimensionless form as theisentropicexponents. Thestructureofthe problem model is such that it is necessary to carefully define the inlet and exit conditions which areused in calculating the dimensionless groups.3 CODE DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS Appropriateunitsanddimensionalconstantsarerequiredforthesystem computations. The specific volume ratio is the ratio of inlet to exit total specific volumes. of unitselectedfor E. For a simple single inlet flow stream this is the stagnation state at the inlet flange..The exit conditions are thestagnation condition at thedischargemeasurementstation.3. The mass flow rateenteringtherotor i s determinedgivingdueconsideration to all section inlet and outlet flow streamsandleakages.E. The physicalpropertiesof the gas expressed .

The Code departure limits shown in Fig. 3.2. This is true when the test and specified operating condition local Fluid Mach numbers are equal. E.The Code departure limits shown in Figs.2 and 3. E. The Machine Mach number is given by Mm = U/a where U = first stage impeller blade or rotor blade tip velocity a= acoustic velocity at the inlet total conditions For ideal gases For real gases The Machine Mach number so defined i s not an actual Fluid Mach number.8 Isentropic Work Coefficient. E.6 Machine Mach Number.7 Machine Reynolds Number. It is nearly directly proportional to actual Fluid Mach numbers when theCodedeparture limits areobserved. The flow rates so defined havethe units of volume flow rate.l.For axial compressors. but donot representactual volume rates of flow since they are defined in terms of total densities.3 for centrifugal and axial compressorsarealso given in equation form in Table E. 6 is the exit width of thefirst stage impeller in thesection of interest. The viscosity U is taken for inlet (stagnation) conditions. 3. The Machine Reynoldsnumber i s given by Rem = Ub/v For centrifugal compressors.3.where W= local mass flow rate P= local total density and x and y denote different points in the section. Theisentropic work coefficient is givenby 171 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . b is the chord length at the tip of thefirst stage rotor blade in the section of interest. and the deviations are assumed negligible when the Code Machine Mach number departure limits areobserved.3.3. It is assumed that there is aconstant relationship between these flow rates and actual volume flow rates between test and specified operating conditions.4 for centrifugal compressorsare given in equation form in Table E.

266Mmq 6-0. AXIAL COMPRESSORS Specified Mach No.olP = 0... 5 1.20) - + 0.215-0..Mms&c (-0.3 Application Range 9x 1x Equation RemJRem./107)o. M m 4 c (-0. <(Mmt M m d c 0.286) <(Mm.6 5 Mmq .25 Mm./107)n.O.1 0.03 - + 0.. Lower Limit Upper Limit <(Mm..m M .3 Application Range 9x104cRem.3.. .286) <(Mm. Range 5 0-0. 3.6 0..1 NOTE: (1) See Fig.20) TABLE E.271) -0. x = (Rem.214 0.. 1 x lo7 LOWER LIMIT Remt/Remv c 1.25 Mm.07 <(Mm.< lo7c Rem. M A C H I N E M A C H NO.Mms& c 0.Mm4 c (-0.0.25 Mm. Lower Limit -Mmsp (0.O x = (Rem. = RemJRemp = 100 lo4c Rem.M m 4 c (-0.86 0.266 MITI.05 . LIMITS CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS Specified Mach No.86 5 Mm.. Remt/Rem.2 REYNOLDS NUMBER APPLICATION LIMITS FOR CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS' UPPER LIMIT Remt/Rem.042 Upper Limit .25 Mm.0.. <(Mmt . + 0.cl x106 e. = (0.A S M E P T C LO-ENGL L777 0759b70 Ob05593 4 5 2 TABLE El . 172 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .1 (0.S T D . 1 x l o 6c Rm Equation RemJRem.. + 0.1 9) -0. Range 0-0.

= 144 pi vi k-l Forany gas the isentropic work - [(z) kl Pd T - 11 may be calculated from Theisentropicworkfor a real gas mayalso be calculated from the following: W. It is computed from E39 . For a real gas the isentropicvolumeexponent is notthesame as k. Polytropic Work Coefficient. n.Theisentropic workper pound massforan ideal gas is given by k W. Thegaspropertiesare evaluatedatthearithmeticmeanbetween inlet anddischargeconditions. and the actual isentropic exponent.. -1 [ e"' () Pi n.ll Equation (a) differs from equation (b) by substituting n.where W= isentropic work per unit mass Z U 2 = sum of rotor tip speeds The isentropic work for the purposes of this Code is theworkdone in anisentropicprocess betweenthe inlet stagnationstateandthedischargestagnationstate. for k in equation (a) wouldproduce a small error unless theisentropic exponent were constant and equal to n. The polytropic workcoefficient is givenby where W'= polytropic work per pound mass ZU2/gc= sum of rotor tip speedssquared The polytropic work for the purposes of this Code is the polytropic work required to compress the gas from the inlet stagnationstate to thedischargestagnation state. along the compression path. = 2f 1 4 4 pi vi n.1 . The polytropic work factor f compensates for the difference between n. 173 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . On test. for k and introducing f.. canbe calculated from Pi ns = vi In In Pd Vd Substitutingthis n.

1 W.For ideal gases n.11 For real gases n. just as thevarying n.3.8. = -144 pi n-1 V¡ [(?)T . Efficiencies.3. = -f 144 pi Y ¡ [(. The polytropic work factor f i s assumed to havethesame value as computed in para. Efficiencies are in general defined as the ratio of ideal to actual work required in a given compression process.Thedischarge gas state calculated for specified operating conditions using this efficiency definition therefore assumes the same relative heattransferandsecondary flow effects as those prevailing attest. It represents theactualwork in the process only in the absence of heattransferandsecondary flow effects.hi) and the corresponding isentropic efficiency is W s v 5 = (hd . The actual work is taken as thechange in totalenthalpybetweenthesestates. affects W.)y .13 n-1 n where or 1 Y-m(1 + X ) n = and It is assumed that here a variation in n affects W.10 = (hd . standard The ideal work chosen this for Code is the work required in a polytropic compressionprocess occurring betweenthetotalpressure at the inlet reference stagnation state and the total pressure at the discharge stagnation state.h ) I 174 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .. The polytropic efficiency is then W P E.1 n W. E.

Work InputCoefficient. E.12 Total Work Input Coefficient.The following model i s presented to establish a method to account for these effects as they relate to power consumption.l) is From the conservation of mass The only work done on the gas is that done by the rotor. The method is based on relating the total work input to rotor mass flow rate.3. Relative differencesin heat transferand leakage or sidestream flow rates often will occur between test and specified operating conditions. The work input coefficient is given by E31 . Theleakageandsidestream flow ratedifferences. The first law of thermodynamics for a control volume surrounding the rotor (in Fig.. E. It is a dimensionless representation of the actual gas work not including the effects of heat transfer and secondary flow. It is assumed that these relative differences are sufficiently small so as to produce negligible changes in the polytropic work coefficient and efficiency.l.can produce relative differences in actual power requirement.however.l) is Thefirst law of thermodynamics for a control volume surrounding the section (in Fig. The dimensionless total work input coefficient is determined as follows. The problem model and nomenclature are shown in Fig.1 The ideal work coefficients are related to the foregoing efficiencies through the work input coefficient E. E. so - f'grOtor = [ M'rotor h~~ - wrotor h~~+ 175 Qrotorl I 33000 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . The work input coefficient is defined in terms of the stagnation enthalpy rise.

Q= heat loss rate from section. When the gas does not escape.. FIG. hd= corresponding enthalpy per unit mass.l 176 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .For inward leakage. Wd= mass flow rate at the discharge measurement station. ¡. W.. W/. hi= enthalpy per unit mass at the inlet measurementstation.. downstream of the rotor. Qraor= heat loss rate from rotor. ¡. it is theenthalpy of the gas outside the seal. hlu= enthalpy per unit mass for escaping gas. P= work input rate excluding mechanical loss. but inlet leakage occurs. hlu is the enthalpy of the gas outside the seal.= mass flow rate sidestream for flow enteringafterthemeasurementstation but before the rotor.measurement 1 Section discharge measurement station L I Q P Figure Nomenclature W ] = mass flow rateat the inlet measurementstation. Qrotw= net mass flow rate through rotor. h ~ 1 =enthalpy per unit massat rotor inlet.= leakagemass flow rateforgasescapingbefore the rotor. W/d= leakage mass flow ratefor gas escaping after the rotor. Wsd= mass flow rate sidestream for flow exiting after the rotorbut before discharge the measurementstation. hid= enthalpyper unit mass of theescapinggas.upstream of the rotor.e. h ~ z =enthalpy per unit mass at rotor exit.e. h.= corresponding enthalpy per unit mass. hd= enthalpy per unit mass at the discharge measurement station.... E.

but accounts additionally for the energylostthroughheattransfer and secondary flow effects.Rearrangingand non-dimensionalizing with CU2 This equation represents the total work input to the gas in dimensionless form.. mechanical losses and power input to other sections.e. PS a = 33000 U2 c wrotor gc This coefficient bears aclose relationship to the work input coefficient. pin. Is purpose is to aid in properly accounting for heat t transfer and secondary flow effects in power calculations. where Pparasitic represents all power in the shaft power measurement which does not represent work input to the gas in the compressor section of interest. Like the work input coefficient it i s assumed to be invariant between test and specified operating conditions at the same flow coefficient. It is called the total work input coefficient and is given the symbol fl. ¡. for example. For heat balance method tests. 177 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . Forshaft power method tests.

It is anestimate in the sensethat the appropriate test speed depends upon a prior knowledge of the test efficiency andgasproperties.The appropriate speedmaybe determinedby combining the specific volume ratio requirement or 1 1 [ ( y ] ] .1 . .A S M E P T C LO-ENGL 1777 0757b70 Ob05577 970 E. The anticipated test efficiency is estimated from the design value when available.S T D . = [(3] SP with the polytropic work coefficient equality or which maybe written as where wpt= [(fi) and n. The volume ratio at test may be controlled at a given flow coefficient and inlet conditions by controlling thecompressorspeedand flow rate. The anticipated polytropic exponent may then be estimated for ideal gases from 178 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .1 These relationshipsmaybeused to estimate theappropriate testspeed.)y 1 -1 n.4 SPEED SELECTION Theprocess of structuring the Code performance model includes adding the volume ratio to the independent parameterlist to serve as a limiting parameter for the effects of other dimensionless parameter departures. fZi R Ti (..

S T D * A S f l E PTC 10-ENGL 1777 W 0759b7fl Ob05b00 412 W

I

"I I
L

IC I
I

I

-X-axis

FIG. E.2

and for real

gases from

E5 .

INLET STATE FORMIXED STREAMS

For compressor sections with multiple inlets it is necessary to establish the mixed inlet conditions. Ideally thiswould be the mixed stagnation state. It is conceivable that this state might be measured byobtaininginternal pressureandtemperaturemeasurementswherethecompressorgeometry allows.However, in practice thesearevery difficult measurements to obtain. In somecasesan actual full mixed state maynotevenoccur. The following development provides a standard method for calculation of the mixed conditions. A number of simplifying assumptions are made. The computed reference conditions are only an approximation to the stagnation state after mixing. The intent is simply to model the main features of the mixing process. It is presumed that the same model when applied to the test and specified operatingconditions will produceconsistentresults.Other mixing modelsmay be appropriate for particular compressor geometries. These may also be used with mutual consent by the parties to the test.
E.5.1 Inlet StagnationEnthalpy. The inlet stagnationenthalpy is deducedfromtheaverage total enthalpy of the mixed streams. In theabsence of work andheattransfer in the mixing section,

wherethesubscripts

a and b designatethe individual streamvaluesbefore

mixing.

E.5.2 Inlet Stagnation Pressure. The inlet pressure be may calculatedbyapplyingthelinear momentum principle to a simplified mixing section model. The geometry under consideration is given in Fig. E.2. The following simplifying assumptionsaremade. (a) The flow is one dimensional. Conditions atstations a, b, and c aredescribed by constant average values for the cross section. The flows are thus treated as being fully mixed. (b) The flow velocity at stations a and c is assumed to be parallel to the x axis. (c) The flow velocity at station b is assumed to enter at an angle with respect to the x axis. (dl The static pressure at station b is assumed equal to the static pressure at station a. fe) The wall shear stress is ignored.
179

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services

Thesubscript s in the following developmentrefers to static conditions. With theseassumptionsthex-componentofthelinearmomentumconservationequationfor the control volumeshown is

Introducing the continuity of mass equation yields the mixed inlet staticpressure

The inlet stagnation pressure is obtained by adding the dynamic head deduced from the average Fluid Mach numberat c. The actual form of the equations to be solved depends upon the choice of gas.The following setamenable to iterative solution may be written forideal gases.

180

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services

k

A simplerformulationassumingincompressible

flow may be written as

where

"

P

This formulation will yield similar results to the compressible solution for numbersandnearlyequalmixingstreamdensities. Figure E.3 showssome typical resultsbased upontheprecedingequations.

low Fluid Mach

181

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04 0.99 O 2 wblWa I I I 4 6 FIG.o1 1. E.o6 1 .6 0.07 r 1.98 O 20 40 ab 60 80 1.97 O 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.3 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .5 o B 1.o0 x - Ab is implied 1.2 0.0.4 0.o2 1.0 WblWa 0.8 1.

is simplified in that the correction is only applied to the efficiency and polytropic work coefficient. and Strub (D. Test data supporting Reynolds number corrections has been published by NASA[Ref. (D. Semi-empirical correlations are derived for efficiency. (D. for centrifugal compressors. This method is developed by analogy with the turbulent flow in rough pipes.1411 [Ref. recommended in this Code is based on the work done by Weisner [Ref. The changes resulted from new references not previously available. The method of correction.) TheReynoldsnumber correction for centrifugal compressors recommended in thisCode has been changed significantly from the previous issue of PTC 1 O. Similar correction methods have been proposed by Casey (D. Another correction method has been documented by Simon and Bulskamper [Ref.811 [Ref. 183 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . The corrections are all based on thedeparture from a nominal Machine Reynolds number which may vary from one manufacturer to another.8 x lo6 x b and the surface roughness to 0. but on the flow coefficient and work input coefficient as well.l8)]. The old correction for centrifugal compressorswas adapted from work on axial compressors (D. work. The data presented by Weisner suggests that the Machine Reynolds number at which a compressor operates has an effect not only on the efficiency.APPENDIX F REYNOLDS NUMBER CORRECTION (ThisAppendixis not a part of ASME PTC 10-1997. and work coefficient. The correction for axial compressorsremainsunchanged from theprevious issue of the Code. and flow coefficients.2)I but has been simplifed for ease of application. [Ref. The equations developed include a correction to the head. No correction is applied to the flow coefficient or the work input coefficient. head coefficient.411. the nominal condition has been standardized to a Machine Reynolds number = 4. (D. flow coefficient. for centrifugal compressors. Additionally. since no centrifugal compressor data was available.The correction used in this Code.000125 in.1611.

l IDEAL GASES 1+ (k .Let &tatic = heas be the initial estimate of static temperature. 5. .Compute total temperature = tmeas + (1 . W. are the only local measurements. O Step 8 . measured absoand lute temperature.3 for example.3 and 5. The detailsof thermodynamic property evaluations are not a part ofthis Code. and pipe flow area.Compare from step 6 with the value used in previous steps. The mass flow rate.4 in terms of temperature. use from step 6 and repeat steps 2 through 7 until the change i n i s acceptable (for example. SOF).Compute static temperature tstatic = t G. k .A S M E P T C 10“iNGL 1777 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 CIb05bU5 T T 4 H APPENDIX G REFINEDMETHODS FOR CALCULATING TOTALCONDITIONS (This Appendix is not a part of ASME PTC 10-1997.4. The calculations outlined below for both ideal gases and real gasesmust be supplemented by the data and proceduresneeded to provide the required properties.1) M’ 2 The following iterative procedure is appropriate: Step 1 . which is defined in para.S T D . A. Ahtatic < O. If agreement is unacceptable.) Guidelines are presentedfor calculating total pressure and total temperature with accuracies that exceed those determined by the simplermethods of paras. are known and thermodynamic properties are calculable as needed.Compute Mach number V M = d z m E Step 5 .4.5..specific heat at constant pressure 185 Should Fluid Mach numbers be unusually high.4. Compressible flow and uniform velocity are assumed for the measurement station in question. Tmeas.Calculate total pressure p = density (from p = 144 p/Rt) p = Pstatic [1 + ( k .rd V 2 21gccp Step 6 .Compute velocity V = (w/60)/pA Step 4 . pStatic. rf. Static absolute pressure. Step 2 .ratio of specific heats Step 3 . tstatic): Step 7.4. accuracy could be improved by evaluating cp and k at both t and &tatic COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . Theremaining key assumption is the recovery factor.Calculate needed properties corresponding to (pstatic. greater than 0.1) I”]& c.

That is. temperature obtained from pressure and enthalpy (b) p (h.Compute static entropy This definition is the same as that given in para.Compute velocity .Compare Tstatic from step 7 with the value used in previous steps. andtemperature which corresponds as closely as possible to known or expected p-v-t behavior.65 remains the best available value for typical applications. Z. and r[ = 0.Compute "measured" enthalpy Step 6 . The following iterative procedure is appropriate: Step 1 . R The purpose of an equation of state is to provide a mathematical expression relating pressure. If agreement is unacT&c from step 7 and repeat ceptable. use then change in Tstatic is steps 2 through 8 until the acceptable (for example. volume.) Step 12 Compute total temperature - t(p.4 when appliedto ideal gases.05 "R).Compute static density Step 1 1 . giving Step 7 . 5.v) Step 4 Step 5 . is not unity andmust be included in p-v-T calculations according to pv = Z T.2 REAL GASES Theterm"real gas" normally suggests thatthe compressibility factor. will be defined in terms of enthalpy rather than temperature.4. are Only the results of these calculations arereferred to below. Most equations of state use temperature and specific volume (or density) as independent variables. cp and k in the above Step 3 .Compute static enthalpy Rigorous thermodynamic procedures are available for evaluating all thermodynamic properties needed forcompressorcalculationseventhough only the equation of state andlow pressure (ideal gas) specific heat correlations known. h) 186 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . from which pressuremay be calculated. Step 9 .such as: (a) t (p.s).Compute kinetic energy G. rf.Let Static = b e a s bethe initial estimate of static temperature for the calculation of density.and using average values of calculations.Compute static temperature Step 8 . p = p(t. Step 2 . ATatic < 0. h).Compute total enthalpy Step 10 . pressure obtained from enthalpy enand tropy Therecoveryfactor.Compute total pressure (Recall that static and total entropies are the same. The above definition is considered to bemoreappropriateforreal gas calculations.

- cv D Btu/lbm "F in.0254 0.3048 0 0 1 08 .3048 1 .A S M E P T C LU-ENGL L 9 9 7 0759b70 ObD5b07 8 7 7 m APPENDIX H S UNITS I (This Appendix is not a part of ASME PTC 10-1997. Customary Conversion Description Symbol Units Flow channel cross sectional area Acoustic velocity Tip width Coefficient of discharge Molal specific Specific heat Specific heat at constant pressure Specific heat at constant volume Diameter Diameter of fluid meter Relative error Thermal expansion factor for fluid meter Polytropic workfactor Acceleration of gravity Dimensional constant Molal enthalpy Humidity ratio Enthalpy Coefficient of heat transfer per unit area (for combined convection and radiation) Mechanical equivalent of heat Flow coefficent Ratio of specific heats.1 74 m ft Ibm Ibf + sec2 1 - N .S.m/kg.3 2324 1 dimensionless m/s2 32.S T D .3048 0. Cp/G X Factor = S Units I m2 m/s m dimensionless N-mkgmole K N-m/kg K N m/kg K A a ft2 0.K m m dimensionless dimensionless d e Fa f g g c 0.S' . dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless ft * Ibf Btu 1 1 not used dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless k log Common logarithm (base 1 O) 1 187 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . Btu/l bmole da Ibm w/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/hr ft2 "F - N m/kg mole kg w/kg da - 2324 0.) U. in. H HR h h.0929 b C C C CP ft/sec ft dimensionless Btu/lbmole "F Btu/lbm "F Btu/lbm "F 0.0254 1 1 1 N.04896 N a mkg N m/s m2 K - J K 7 8 17 7. kg . 1 4 1 8 3 41 83 - . dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless ft/sec2 8 4 3 1 0.

09294 - ft2 BTU/lbm "R "R - "F 188 41 83 Nemkg-K 0.A S M E P T C 10-ENGL 1997 0757b70 ObU5b08 703 Symbol in Description Naperian (natural) logarithm MW Molecular weight Mm Machine Mach number M Fluid Mach number m Polytropic exponent fora path on the p .01 757 0.0004719 0.S T D . RB.01 667 1 Hz dimensionless kg 0.T diagram m Mass (Appendix B only) N Rotative speed n Polytropic exponent fora path on thep v diagram n Number of moles (Appendix B only) Isentropic exponent for an n.K dimensionless 0. Customary Units dimensionless Ibm/lbmole dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless Conversion X Factor = S Units I dimensionless kgkgmole dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless 1 1 1 1 1 - Ibm Tm dimensionless lbmole dimensioness 0.4536 kgmole dimensionless 1 0.01 757 psi psi Btu/min Btu/min Btu/min ft3/m in ft3/min ft Ibf/lbm "R dimensionless e hP kW N/m2(Pa) N/m2(Pa) kW kW kW m3/s m3/s N.v diagram P Power Pressure P Velocity pressure Pv Total mechanical losses Om (equivalent) Casing heat transfer Or External seal loss Qsl equivalent Capacity 9 Volume flow rate 9 R Gas constant RA.4536 0.67) COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services .746 6895 6895 0. isentropic path on a p .0004719 5.5556 K ("F + 459.S. RC Machine Reynolds number correction constants R e Fluid Reynolds number Rem Machine Reynolds number RH Relative humidity r Pressure ratio across fluid meter Recovery factor rf Pressure ratio 'P Flow rate ratio rq Temperature ratio rt Specific volume ratio rv S Molal entropy Heat transfer area of SC exposed compressor casing and adjoining Pipe s Entropy T Temperature r Temperature U.5556 K 0.381 1 1 dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless Btu/lbmole "R 1 1 1 1 1 1 dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless N mkgmole K m2 - 1 1 41 83 0.01757 0.m/kg.

06243 2. Customary Description Symbol Conversion X Factor = SI Units m/s N m/kg m/s m3/kg N m/kg U U V V W W X X Z ß Y Y a 77 P P in PP PS Y $ Y e fl d l Blade tip speed Internal energy Fluid velocity Specific volume Work Mass flow rate Compressibility function Mole fraction Compressibility function Elevation Compressibility factor as used in ideal gas law.m m dimensionless dimensionless 1 1 1.3048 2324 0.09294 16.U.00756 1 kgls dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless m dimensionless 1 1 0.02 1.S.0254 1 1 dimensionless 189 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services . pv = ZRT Diameter ratio of fluid meter Partial derivative Efficiency Absolute viscosity Work input coefficient Polytropic work coefficient Isentropic work coefficient Kinematic viscosity Density Summation Torque Surface roughness Total work input coefficient Flow coefficient ~~ ftlsec Btullbm ftlsec ft3/l bm ftllbf/l bm Ibm/min dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless ft dimensionless 0.3048 0.356 0.989 0.3048 1 1 dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless Ibmlft sec dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless ft2/sec Ibm/ft3 dimensionless ft * Ibf in dimensionless e dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless kg/m s dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless m2/s kg/m3 dimensionless N.488 1 1 1 0.

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