Page 1: Fundamental constants Gravity acceleration Gravitational constant Avogadro's constant Gas constant Boltzmann's constant Stefan-Boltzmann

constant Coulomb constant Permittivity of free space Permeability of free space Speed of light in vacuum Planck's constant Charge on electron Electron rest mass Proton rest mass Neutron rest mass Unified atomic mass unit g G NA R k W k I0 Q0 c h e me mp mn u 9.81 ms-2 6.67 x 10-11 Nm2kg-2 6.02 x 1023 mol-1 8.31 JK mol
-1 -1

1.38 x 10-23 JK-1 5.67 x 10 Wm K 8.99 x 109 Nm2C-2 8.85 x 10-12 C2N-1m-2 4T x 10 TmA
-7 -1 -8 -2 -4

3.00 x 108 ms-1 6.63 x 10
-34

Js

1.60 x 10-19 C 9.11 x 10-31 kg = 0.000549 u = 0.511 MeV/c2 1.673 x 10-27 kg = 1.007276 u = 938 MeV/c2 1.675 x 10
-27

kg = 1.008665 u = 940 MeV/c

2

1.661 x 10-27 kg = 931.5 MeV/c2

Page 2 : SI prefixes and unit conversions tera = T = 1012, giga = G = 109, mega = M = 106, kilo = k =103, hecto = h = 102, deca = da = 101, deci = d = 10-1, centi = c = 10-2, milli = m = 10-3, micro = Q = 10-6, nano = n = 10-9, pico = p = 10-12, femto = f = 1015

1 light year (ly) = 9.46 x 10 m 1 astronomical unit(AU) = 1.50 x 1011 m 1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 3.60 x 10 J
6

15

1 parsec = 3.26 ly 1 radian (rad) = 180o/T 1 atm = 1.01 x 10 Nm =101 kPa = 760 mmHg
5 -2

voltmeter. battery. heating element Page 4 : Measurement and mechanics Horizontal and vertical components of the vector A: Uncertainties: If y = a s b then (y = (a + (b If y = ab/c then (y/y = (a/a + (b/b + (c/c AH = AcosU AV = AsinU v = (s/(t a = (v/(t g = F/m g = Gm/r2 Page 5 : Mechanics v = u + at s = ((u+v)/2)t s = ut + ½at 2 v = u + 2as 2 2 s : displacement. transformer. t : time. ammeter.Page 3 : Electrical circuit symbols Symbols are given for: cell. v : final speed. potentiometer. switch. lamp. resistor. u : initial speed. a : acceleration F = ma p =mv F = (p/(t Ek = p / 2m 2 Impulse = F(t = (p W = (Fss =) Fs cosU Ek = ½mv2 Ep = mgh P (= E/t or W/t) = work/time = Fv F = (-) kx Eelas = ½kx2 a = v 2/r = 4T2r/T2 X = Fr sin 5 Ffr = QkN and Ffr < or = QsN . ac supply. galvanometer.

F = Gm1m2/r2 constant Page 6 Q = mc(T Ep = -Gm1m2/r V = -Gm/r T2/R3 = Thermal physics and Waves Q = mL p = F/A pV = nRT (Q = (U + (W (W = p(V efficiency = (QH .QC)/ QH L = Carnot efficiency = (TH . electromagnetism F = kq1q2/r2 where k = 1/4TI0 E=F/q E = kq / r2 E = .f 2  Moving source: f' = f ( 1 / (1 s vs/v)) Moving observer: f' = f (1 s vo/v) d sin 5 = n P n2sin52 s = PD / d sin 51 / sin 52 = v1 / v2 n=c/v n1sin51 = Page 7 : Electricity and magnetism.TC)/ TH QC/QH = TC/TH (Carnot cycle) f = 1/T v=fP fbeat = f 1 .(V / (x E=V/d V = kq/r where k = 1/4TI0 I = ( q / (t R=V/I P = VI = I2R = V2/R R = R1 + R2 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 B = Q0I / 2Tr B = Q0NI/L = Q0nI F = ILBsinU F = qvBsinU F/L = Q0I1I2/2Tr I = BLv * = BAcosU .

N(*/(t Np/Ns Irms = I0 /˜2 Vrms = V0/˜2 Vp/Vs = Page 8 : Atomic. nuclear and quantum physics E = mc 2 E = hf p = h/P hf = + Ek.I = .1/m ) 2 2 (x(p u h/2T (E(t u h/2T Page 12 : Astrophysics and Relativity L = WAT 4 Pmax = 2.max hf = hf0 + eVs N = N0e -Pt T½=ln 2/P Page 9-10 : SL options Page 11 : Biomedical physics and The history and development of physics F = 10 log ( I / I0 ) where I0 = 10-12 Wm-2 I = I0e-Qx x½ = ln2/Q Mechanical Advantage = load/effort Velocity Ratio = distance moved by effort/ distance moved by load Absorbed dose = Absorbed Energy / mass Exposure = total charge / mass Dose equivalent = quality factor x Absorbed dose 1 / TE = 1/TB + 1 / TR 1 / P = RH ( 1/n .90 x 10 / T -3 d(parsec) = 1 / p(arc-second) b = L / 4Td2 v = Hd (P / P } v / c K = 1 / ( 1 .v2/c2 )½ (t = K(t0 L = L0 / K .

uxv/c ) 2 m = Km0 p =Km0u E0 = m0c 2 E = mc 2 E2 = p2c2 + m02c4 (f / f = g(h / c2 RSch = 2GM / c2 Page 13 : Optics n1sinU1 = n2sinU2 u M = Ui / Uo n = 1 / sinUc U=P/b 1/f = 1/u + 1/v m = hi / ho = v / U = 1.22P/b d sinU = nP .v ) / ( 1 .ux' = ( ux .

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