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International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, August 2011 Vol. 2, No.

Simulation and Analysis of Spread Spectrum Techniques Using MATLAB

Dr. Anil Kumar Sharma* and Dinesh Kumar Sain** *Associate Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Institute of Engineering and Technology, Alwar-301 030, Rajasthan, India E-mail: **M. Tech Scholar, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Institute of Engineering and Technology, Alwar-301 030, Rajasthan, India E-mail: Abstract
Wireless communication plays an integral part in our daily life. Cellular phones are quite common and we can hardly imagine life without them. Spread spectrum is the technology that holds the potential to revolutionize the world of wireless communication. Spread Spectrum (SS) is particularly favorite in military because of its low probability of interception which means that it is difficult for eavesdroppers to listen in. It also has anti-jamming capabilities which means that unauthorized sources cannot transmit false information to mislead or deceive the receiver. Spread Spectrum is a technique that takes a narrow band radio signal and spreads it over a broader portion of the Radio Frequency (RF) Spectrum. The two main type of spread spectrum systems in use today are Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS). DSSS is one of the most practical spread spectrum systems around because of its digital nature. The use of these special Pseudo Noise codes in Spread Spectrum communications makes signals appear wide-band and noise-like. It is this very characteristic that makes SS signals possessing the quality of Low Probability of Intercept. SS signals are hard to detect on narrow band equipment because the signal's energy is spread over a bandwidth of around 100 times, the information bandwidth. The spread of energy over a wide band, or lower power spectral density makes SS signals less likely to interfere with narrowband communications. Narrow band communications, conversely, cause little to no interference to SS systems. Keywords: Amplitude Shift keying (ASK), Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), Frequncy Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Phase Shift Keying(PSK).

1. Introduction
Modulation is a process of varying a carrier signal in order to use that signal to convey information. The three key parameters of a sinusoidal waveform are its amplitude, its phase and its frequency, all of which can be modified in accordance with an information signal to obtain the modulated signal. There are several reasons to modulate a signal before transmission. These includes the ability of different users sharing a medium (multiple access), and making the signal properties physically compatible with the propagation medium. There two types of modulation schemes which depend on information signal are Analog Modulation and Digital Modulation. Modulation is known as Analog Modulation, if information signal is analog signal. There are many ways to modulate analog signals: Amplitude Modulation, Frequency Modulation, Phase Modulation and Pulse Modulation. Digital signals need to be processed by an intermediate stage for conversion into analog signals for transmission. There are three major classes of Digital Modulation techniques for transmission of digitally represented data. All convey data by changing some aspect of a base signal, the carrier wave (usually a sinusoid) in response to a data signal. The digital techniques are: Amplitude Shift Keying, Frequency shift Keying and Phase shift Keying.

2. Spread Spectrum Techniques

The two popular forms of spread spectrum technique are Direct Sequence and Frequency Hopping. Direct Sequence is one of the most popular forms of spread spectrum as a result of the simplicity with which direct sequencing can be implemented. In this form of modulation, a pseudo-random noise generator creates a 30

International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, August 2011 Vol. 2, No. 8 high-speed pseudo-noise code sequence. This sequence is transmitted at a maximum bit rate called the chip rate. The pseudo-random code sequence is used to directly modulate the narrow-band carrier signal; thus, it directly sets the transmitted radio frequency bandwidth. The chip rate has a direct correlation to the spread of the information. The information is demodulated at the receiving end by multiplying the signal by a locally generated version of the pseudo-random code sequence. Another popular form of implementing spread spectrum which takes entirely different approach is Frequency Hopping in which spreading takes place by hopping from frequency to frequency over a wide band. The specific order in which the hopping occurs is determined by a hopping table generated with the help of a pseudo-random code sequence. The rate of hopping is a function of the information rate. The order of frequencies that is selected by the receiver is dictated by the pseudo-random noise sequence while the transmitted spectrum of a frequency-hopping signal is quite different from that of a direct sequence signal. In both cases, the resultant signal appears noise-like and the receiver utilizes a similar technique to the one employed in transmitting in order to recover the original signal. There are many advantages of using spread spectrum. Since spread-spectrum receivers can effectively ignore narrow-band transmissions, it is possible to share the same frequency band with other users. These users can weather a significant degree of overlap without interference effects. In both mechanisms discussed above, a pseudo-random noise sequence was employedeither to directly modulate the signal or to determine the order of frequencies in the hopping table. Since this pseudo-random signal makes the transmitted signal appear as noise, only receivers possessing the proper duplicate pseudo-random noise code sequence will be able to recover the signal. This fact has great implications for ensuring the privacy of point-to-point or point to multi-point communications as the case may be. In Spread Spectrum systems, the signal spreading code is called as Pseudo noise sequence and there is no interference with other signals. As the signal is spread over the wider bandwidth, therefore interception and jamming of signal will become difficult. It can be operated at the same frequency at which present narrow band systems are operating. The Spread Spectrum systems are the ability of these systems to reject interference that otherwise might prohibit useful communications. In a DSSS system, it spreads the baseband data by directly multiplying the baseband data pulses with a pseudo-noise sequence which is produced by a pseudo-noise code generator. The spreading code spreads the signal across a wider band which is in direct proportion to the number of bits used. The advantages of FHSS are the large system bandwidth, relatively short acquisition time and less distance effect. It can be programmed to avoid some portion of spectrum. The disadvantages of FHSS are that it requires complex frequency synthesizer and error correction. It is not useful for range and range rate measurement.

3. Simulation of DSSS and FHSS

The MATLAB simulation of DSSS and FHSS is obtained using bit pattern and pseudorandom sequence. The Fast Fourier Transform of DSSS and FHSS are also obtained. Figure1 shows The Original Bit Sequence, Fig 2. shows The Pseudorandom Bit Sequence, which is used to obtain Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum. In Figure3. The Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Curve is depicted. Figure 4. shows The Fast Fourier Transform of DSSS and Figure 5 The Original Bit Sequence, BPSK Modulated signal and Spread Signal. The simulated results of The FHSS and its FFT Curve are shown in Figure 6 and Figure7 shows the Power Vs Frequency Curve of DSSS. Finally in Figure8. the Power Vs Frequency Curve of FHSS is shown.

Figure 1: The Original Bit Sequence


International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, August 2011 Vol. 2, No. 8

Figure 2: The Pseudorandom Bit Sequence

Figure 3: The Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Curve

Figure 4: The Fast Fourier Transform of DSSS


International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, August 2011 Vol. 2, No. 8

Figure 5: The Original Bit Sequence, BPSK Modulated signal and Spread Signal

Figure 6: The FHSS and its FFT Curve

Figure 7: Power Vs Frequency Curve of DSSS


International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, August 2011 Vol. 2, No. 8

Figure 8: Power Vs Frequency Curve of FHSS

4. Result Comparison of DSSS and FHSS

The analysis of the spread spectrum techniques are carried out through various graphs obtained using MATLAB. The DSSS and FHSS curves are obtained by taking bit sequence and pseudorandom bit pattern as well as modulation techniques. The FFT of DSSS is also obtained and their parameters such as security and power are studied. The results obtained shows that security is less in DSSS as the spectrum is less spread so its encryption is easy while in FHSS security is more as the spectrum is more spread. The result obtained in case of power by MATLAB shows power is more in case of DSSS while in FHSS power required is less. Table 1 the comparison of DSSS and FHSS.
Table 1: Table of comparison of DSSS and FHSS

Sl. No. 1 . 2 .

Parameter Security Transmitted Power

DSSS Less More

FHSS More Less

Remarks As the spectrum is less spread in DSSS and more spread in FHSS As Power is more in DSSS and less in FHSS

5. Conclusion and Future Research

In the present paper, the two major types of spread spectrum techniques i.e. DSSS and FHSS are studied. Their advantages and disadvantages are learnt and a simulation analysis is carried out using MATLAB software to conclude the comparative results. The comparative parameters under considerations are the security and transmitted power. The results show that DSSS has less security and needs more transmitted power as compared to FHSS. The future work can be taken up using other parameters for comparison and also by introducing the noise or other channel or receiver disturbances in the simulation environment.

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Dr. Anil Kumar Sharma received his M.E. Degree in Electronics & Communication Engineering (ECE) from Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi- India in 2007 and Ph. D in ECE in 2011. He is now an Associate Professor in the Deptt. of ECE, I.E.T. College, Alwar, Rajasthan, India. He has published 12 papers in International Journals and 21 papers in various conferences. His research and teaching interest include Expert Systems, RADAR, H.V.D.C and Power Electronics. Dinesh Kumar Sain received his B.E. in Electronics and Tele-Communication Engineering from College of Engineering, Badner, M.S. (India) in 2000. Presently he is pursing his M. Tech in Digital Communication from the Institute of Engineering and Technology, Alwar (Raj.), India. His area of Interest includes Multimedia, Signal Processing and Mobile Communication.