ZERO EFFLUENT DISCHARGE

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ABSTRACT
The effects of effluents causes a major problem in the environment and it also creates diseases like respiratory problem, blood cancer etc., so as to avoid this the zero effluent process must be implemented in the industries creating pollution. Also this made the water to get polluted. ZERO EFFLUENT discharge process is possible by adapting the RO i.e., Reverse Osmosis process in the industry. There are many industries which are working under this process and many are in progress. Environmental concerns associated with textile processing had placed the textile sector in a Southern State of India under serious threat of survival. The textile industries were closed under the orders of the Statutory Board for reason of inadequate compliance to environmental discharge norms of the State for the protection of the drinking water source of the State capital. In compliance with the direction of the Board for zero effluent discharge, advanced treatment process have been implemented for recovery of boiler feed quality water with recourse to effluent recycling/reuse. The paper describes to a case study on the adequacy assessment of the full scale effluent treatment plant comprising chemical, biological and filtration processes in a small scale textile industry. In addition, implementation of measures for discernable improvement in the performance of the existing units through effective operation & maintenance, and application of membrane separation processes leading to zero effluent discharge is also highlighted.

INTRODUCTION
Traditionally, very little attention was given to water in industry. Water has always been seen as a cheap, readily available resource, an endless supply. However, this is rapidly changing as the costs of water, effluent treatment and disposal are rapidly increasing. There is increasing attention to minimizing the use of water and there are only two options for wastewater collected from any plant: it must either be treated and returned to the receiving waters or recycled and reused within the plant. It sets out to maximize the internal recycle of water, by characterizing the process streams, seeking consistent optimal operation, and applying recovery measures as appropriate to the streams. This requires assessing the viability of such changes and ensuring the treatment plant accommodates any ensuing feed variation. With the “stretch target” of eliminating effluent, material eco-efficiency will be substantially improved, while satisfying manufacturing quality criteria. A transferable, generalised methodology will be devised for the management of waste aqueous streams characterised primarily by suspended and dissolved solids content.

The evaporation and concentration is done at lower temperature. Evaporators are designed to reduce foaming and scale formation. one tonne molasses having 46 % of fermentable sugar produces 240 Liters of alcohol. the dyes in the water do not have to be fully decomposed for decolorisation to occur. rivers & natural water. The problems faced in the system of concentration are Serious Foaming. The ash after burning is used in the fertilizer as it contains high potassium. Evaporator These levels make major effects in the environment so as to make a solid waste which when stored affects the area and that can’t be used further. aldehydes . ZERO EFFLUENT DISCHARGE: USING EVAPORATOR The effluent with initial concentration 4 – 5 % will pass through falling film evaporators and concentrate up to 40 %. The evaporator is designed with multiple effect preheaters and calandrias at each stage such that retention time is reduced to zero. As the dyes are oxidized. User Friendly Plant. A number of distilleries have gone for a primary treatment of this spent wash by setting up a biomethanation plant where even the best possible results have given a very amount of BOD reduction. The innovative feature of this technology is: I.characterised primarily by suspended and dissolved solids content. COD. Requirement of large quantity of steam due to restarting and poor design of evaporator. Compact plant requires very less space. SS. which requires less amount of energy as compared to existing one. Totally integrated zero discharge system. For reducing the above BOD. No Scaling & Froth formation. II. VI. As per the practical experiments. So as to avoid this ZERO Effluent discharge is to be carried out. The concept and the treatment is based on the belief that all the BOD requirement should go down and the condensate coming out should not be polluted. nitrogen. COD level of the effluent a technology of evaporating and drying the effluent. Based on the above mentioned fact. In most of the technologies. The Condensate water from the plant again can be reuse. IV. water. they are broken down into small colorless molecules. V. the treated effluent also yields very high BOD. The decolorisation process occurs in the smaller molecules of the organic dyes such as in carbon dioxide. OXIDATION METHOD In oxidative process. a treatment by which it will be possible to overcome all the problems have been worked out. The system of evaporation and concentration of effluent from initial concentration of 4 – 5 % to about 40 – 45 % is being attempted by a number of distilleries since past few years. EFFECTS TO THE ENVORNMENT DUE TO EFFLUENTS Most Distilleries in India have been generating huge quantities of high toxic effluents and in spite of the best efforts made so far a comprehensive treatment has not been possible. Scale formation. Then the concentrate will pass through spray dryer to convert concentrate to dried powder. Due to above problems frequent shut down and restarting of the system. . Powder has a good calorific value of 3500 Kcal/Kg. Complete use of condensate water. III. VII. Concentrate at 40 % solid from the evaporator will pass through Spray Dryer which s then convert into powder. and TDS level with black colored and odor effluent to streams.

Reverse osmosis process works based upon the membranes. Due to some abnormal circumstance and economical conditions many started undertaking this project. Only industries having high investment had planted the system and so the remaining is in progress. Cost is the main fact which makes industries not to treat the water. RECOVERY AND RECYCLING OF WATER . This is zero effluent discharge. In oxidation process. 5. in many of the areas in Tripur. 7. REVERSE OSMOSIS WATER TREATMENT PRESENTLY ZERO DISCHARGE INVOLVING INDUSTRIES The industries present in the residential area must be involved in this process as this is a major fact of water pollution. 14. The same situation is on Erode. · Reliability—The primary equipment for membrane processes is membrane modules and electric pumps. 10. MEMBRANES: THE CONCEPT Membranes are used as semi permeable barriers between liquids. There are more than 700 dyeing units located in tirupur out of this 200 dyeing units have been started in zero effluent discharge system and the make reuse of the water. Membrane processes offer several advantages over conventional evaporation and distillation processes: · Lower energy costs—Membrane processes use energy only to pump liquid through the system. A 9% salt brine has an osmotic driving force equivalent to 1. 2. water. The water that comes out from the industries must be treated effectively and also with a reasonable cost. Advanced oxidation process is one of the potential alternatives for decolorisation and detoxification of waste water from textile dyeing and finishing effluents. · Pollution control—Electric-driven membrane systems eliminate emissions released by fuel-fired evaporation or distillation processes.. 9. depending both on dye molecular structure and on the strength of the oxidation technique. 3. 13. 11.100 psi. etc. Erode. This process implies generation and subsequent reaction of hydroxyl radical. which is the most oxidizing species after ozone. No energy is required to heat and vaporize the liquid. 6. the effluent water is treated in a effective manner which makes Zero Discharge system. The modules have no moving parts and are easily replaced. Moreover many of the industries are going to implement the reverse osmosis process as described earlier which makes zero effluent as well as zero water discharge. A separation is achieved by applying a driving force to cause permeate to pass through the membrane. In direct osmosis leachate treatment. This will make the environment not to be affected in terms of water pollution. Ozone decolorisation UV irradiation Decolorisation Hydrogen peroxide Decolorisation UV/Hydrogen peroxide Photochemical oxidation Combined sonolysis and ozonation Combined ozonation and Chemical coagulation Ozonation with ultraviolet light Combined ozone carbon decolorisation Gamma irradiation technique Gamma irradiation + Ozone decolorisation Gas phase oxidation Wet air oxidation Sodium Hypocholorite decolorisation Persulphate decolorisation REVERSE OSMOSIS In this process the waste water is initially treated with primary and secondary treatment plants and the water is treated in reverse osmosis process where the membranes make the water purified and that water is reusable one. In this no water is let-out from the industry. Now.molecules of the organic dyes such as in carbon dioxide. They allow certain components to pass through (the permeate) while rejecting others (the retentate). aldehydes acids etc. 8. the aim is to destroy the chromophore or convert it into a biodegradable form by attacking weak bonds in the dye molecules with suitable oxidizing agents. Electric pumps have fewer mechanical components than evaporators and require less maintenance. 12. nitrogen. Different oxidizing methods are given below: 1. 4. the osmotic pressure of salt brine drives the separation.

The first stream is the influent to the waste water treatment plant. . These are owned by the integrated production units or are those that cater to the needs of the large exporting units. these number about 100. use about 5-6 lakh litres of water a day for their dyeing operations. The next category consists of the medium-sized units.. the level of TDS is even higher. which ensures that the effluent does not have colour or odour.RECOVERY AND RECYCLING OF WATER Two streams have been chosen to investigate further for the viability of a major investment in a membrane separation recovery project. These units.5m³/hr) and the second stream is the outfall from the waste water treatment plant (37m³/hr). according to industry sources. a leading dyer who had established an RO plant more than two years ago. at the top are the large dyeing units. Therefore recycling either stream would have huge environmental and economic benefits by avoiding buying and disposing of water. The Madras High Court ordered the closure of more than 600 dyeing and bleaching units. According to the TNPCB. when water evaporation is higher. At the bottom of this structure are the small units. Having successfully employed stalling tactics. The present problems of the dyeing units are related mainly to the question of secondary treatment of the effluents discharge Roughly speaking. the dyeing segment of the industry is itself stratified.that the TDS levels in and around Tirupur are way above this norm. most of the units in the town now employ some method of primary treatment. In the late 1990s. This is essentially in terms of their scale of operations. Many industries are implemented the ZERO DISCHARGE system around this area itself. numbering about 150. The water must be recycled and reused. A TNPCB source told Frontline that the Board stipulates that the total dissolved solids (TDS) in the water discharged into the river should not be more than 2. So this CETP is not a correct manner to treat the effluents.000 ppm. The CETP’s are very much scared about this problem as the Govt. This is the fundamental difference between them. In SIPCOT (Perundurai). The streams are very different as one has been through a biological activated sludge plant and the other has not. is undergoing an unprecedented crisis. in the absence of any study of the structure of the industry. Now the govt. the salts used in the dyeing process remain in the effluent.100 parts per million (ppm). 8. the dyeing units were unprepared for the tough ruling issued by the High Court asking them to install reverse osmosis (RO) plants for the secondary treatment of effluents from these units. in summer. Some of these are run by those who take on lease a unit owned by someone else. in the course of arguments over the last 10 years. after sustained pressure from all quarters. However. the common effluent plant had been made first before starting up of the industries. The next group consists of units that use less than 1 lakh litres of water a day. The court had. As a result. A COMMON EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT IN TIRUPUR BY THE NOYYAL. about 150 units may belong to this group. The main problem CETP’s are the sludge disposal. the hosiery industry finally agreed to establish effluent treatment plants. However. told Frontline that the TDS level in the water in the Orathupalayam dam area is above 9. TIRUPUR CRISIS The ruling by the Madras High Court asking dyeing and bleaching units in Tirupur to install reverse osmosis plants for the secondary treatment of effluents causes consternation in the hosiery town TIRUPUR. which are a key element in the production chain in the hosiery garment business. Most of them are either linked to Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETP) or have their own plants. ordered not to discharge any of the things from the industries as effluents. are being let out into the Noyyal every day. He also pointed out that the level prescribed by the TNPCB only related to water used for cultivation. determined that only a zero discharge norm for effluents would save the river. THE PILE-UP OF SLUDGE IS STACKED ALONGSIDE COMMON EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANTS According to the DAT there are about 700 dyeing units located in Tirupur. so in essence is a process stream (22. recently that there should not be a drop of water coming out of industries and if found the industries will be sealed. Mostly industries on this area are to be involved in this CETP. In fact. the hosiery capital of India. which may number 50. which use up to 2 lakh litres of water a day. It is well known ..8-crore liters of effluents.even the dyeing industry admits it . The problem of pollution in this region is not new. after primary treatment in effluent treatment plants.

Cost is less when production is more. that aim at conservation of energy. The basic limitation of a processing unit is the higher installation cost associated with such techniques. ADVANTAGES OF ZERO EFFLUENT DISCHARGE There are many advantages over the zero effluent discharge as it controls the water pollution and the followings. Preventing of happening diseases. The water can be reused The government is providing loan for this project which makes it easier for investment which is a major advantage for reverse osmosis process CONCLUSION Many techniques are readily available for a processor to treat waste water. Today. Controls thermal pollution which controls in BOD. water. No requirement of skilled labour for this process. Thus the zero discharge process can be done in an effective manner. Controls land pollution. and are environment-friendly. The coming and newly formed industries are on the planting of Reverse Osmosis process.recycled and reused. Keeping the environment free from pollution. Minimizing water consumption. there have been 5 visits (6 hits) on this page! . Further R & D is under progress for this to be done in a more effective process. time. Technocrats need to realize that they have to develop simple and cost-effective waste water technologies.