Powell, Jim. "What Is Modernism?" "What Is Postmodernism?" Postmodernism for Beginners. York: Writers and Readers, 1998. 8-81.



Well,whot is modernism?


ie Lerm H lvloderniem a blanket, for an exploeion neweLylee of and trende in the arLe in the firet half of the zolh cenlury.lf lhe modern era had a cenlral imaqe-it wae LhaT, a kindof non-imaqe-a of Void-and if the era had a quoIation that, eummedit,all up,il was lriehVoet, m Willia SuIlerYeaLs's linee:

But whot things fell oport in the modern ero? What center could not hold?


Whatfellapart in Lhemodern were values the ltth era xhe of

century,the Aqe of Enligh;f,enment,, known bhe Aqe of Keaeon. aleo ae Trobably the mainvalueof lhe aqe, beeides reaoon, wae lhe idea of Vrogreoe.

ln f,hel9th cenlurybhinkere became oVlimisticIhat by ueinqNhe valueeof ocience, univereal reaaonand loqic, they couldqet rid of all Ihe myihs and holyideasf,hat keVf humanityfrom ?roqreoeinq, They felt this wouldevenLually humanilyfrom mieery, free religion, euperotif,ion, ircational all behavior, unfounded and belief. Humanilywouldthue ?roqreeeLo a elaf,e of freedom,happineeeand proqreee. Francishacon eaw ?roqreee akinqI,heform of a wiee, t elhicaland ecience-minded whowouldbe Nhe eliLe guardiane knowledge who, of and t h o u q hl i v i n q u f , e i d L h ec o m m u n i o e l,y,wouldneverthelese inffuence il. Marx aleo believed in and a ?roqreee, envieioned Ulopia,7ul Marx'eUloVian vieionwae of a ?erect,world brouqhtr aboul by a maLerialiet, ecience,

Otherbhinkere, however, were nol, Eo oVtimietic.Edmund 9urke wae diequetedwilh Nheexceooeo the French of Revolution. And lhe Marquie de 1ade, lhe qreaf,-qranddaddy 3/M, of exVlored the pervereitiee eexualfreeof dom-Vainting a dark Victrure hurnanliberof Theeociologiet al,ion. Max WeberVroVheeied lha| lhe future wouldbe an iron Vrieonof reaeon and bureaucracy,


Well, moybeYeots ond oll the

were right. lt look os if things skeptics did foll oport. Whot did Science, get Reason ond Progress us, ofter oll? ThezOthcenturyhos beennothing if nightmoreof not o dork, Kofkoesque rqtion-olly odministered deqth comps, WorldWqrs deoth squods,Auschwitz, I ond ll, Hiroshimo, Nogosoki, ecologiof col disqster-ond vorious systems And oll in the nome totolitorionism. ,,)), /,'), \s

vqluesof Science, of the Enlightenment Liberotion, Reoson, Freedom ond Progress !








7uI I haven'|, evenlold vou the biggeet, ekepticof abouf, a e e a l l - I h e Ge r m n ? h i l oo V h r for had no lolerance Enlighlvalues. Keason? Unienmenf, vereality? Mo raliry?7roqreee? Alltheee Enlight enmenf, pre' nolhinqtro him. leneee meanf,

He eawthe worldae the dance of the deolructively crealive god deef,ructive and creatively Willto Tower-and Dionyouo wae hie modelof howlo acL in Ihe chaotic eLormof life.Any man who acf,edin euch a way w o u l db e a S u p e r m a n .

FriedrichNietzsche.Nief,zeche Dionyeue-the danceof the

411 lv

moralilyand metaphyoico. Afr. qionor in f. With t worohiVpinqhemearneolly with lhe worde"O rmyHoly Hole.er many all.wherewe Vreviouely had a the central oymbols.zeche aleo ?ro' Ihe "Oeabh God" as claimed of wellas trhedealh of Chrietian . unlike Ouddhie|. however.l" No. we had nothinq.And Nietzeche hit the head. vacuum. insNilutions center-wheNher in Christrian reliand beliefeof Weslern cullure.ure lhat. wholesover holesl And one waveof his VhiloeoVhical wand. nol and do $nmtD? toleraie voids very well. abhorga vacuurr. ye|.diea??eared-?OOF?roqreoo likea maqician's rabbiT.. 1halin.ernerg. What remained wereonly dark waveoof Nothin7neee-a Void. you haveto deotroy in order f.. esNeems over ?reeence icon overnon-existence. nail right on t. oave mel). ZOt h-century IuV ermenhave ?rovenlhaf. Nief. Vao.etc.o create: Hitler.he notrdrill holeein lhe walleof our housesand hallow lhese hollowe.he whichhad alreadyeuffereda IS NOTI{IN6 idealeof ecilremendousblowby lhe Aqe of enceand Keaeon. voluVNuoue virqinovervacant.We livein a cull.e Taoietre. Nature. absence. into the -euddenly dark folds of a cloak.We do . and we Wegf.

a waitrer. ehowed the way.trA I v t v 7'7A_9'7\ vvJ \yvLf lf modern thinkerecouldno lonqerbelieve a in Chrielian God. scienlifc ?ro7reoo-if Ihere wao or no lonqera cenlerlo\Neetern culture-it was neceooary find a new Xo one for." oneof hiecharacf. reworksf. ln hie of ehofr. aft. Alf.y. we don'I likevoids.zsche-whohad t'he proclaimed deabhof Enliqhlenmenl valuee.erall. Vlacee: //t t'/t't rc. God and Chrislian moraliby-Ihat. Well-lighted?lace. creaf. Chrislian moralif.)ome modernjof'g.c.edworkeof arr f.houqh had deVrived he Weetern . euch as Heminqway. eIory "A Clean.ere.he Lord'e Trayer andthe Hail Mary-eubetritrutinq "nada"(or "nolhing"in gVanieh) atr oiqnificanf.hatr ex?reeeed kind of Vaeeive a recoqnitrion this lack of a center. And il wae Nief.

er.idenlify.ln a world withoul a cenf. VerceVt.arde.Cubistr afrieT.ween memory." .he culture of a centrer.you oee. all Theee arlieNeadoVtedIhe heroic. aeslhelicsatb-became centrral.amidel everythinq fallinqaVafi.Thue.. "nof.of fillinqin NheVoot-NielzecheanVoid various all in wayo. who brouqht modern arDto ite fullesl bloeeoming eomeIime be|.ween 1910 NrW and the 193Oe.s Vainted. ralliedaround poet Ezra Tound'e ballle cry "Make it new. ag TicagooVut.il. Afr for arL'o sakel Modern q Vaint.in wa s abo uNVaintinq.e.ion.. ?reoervere old cultrural )uch aft becamea way t o reVreoenl Ihe eNernal Ihe mideVof chaos.Cubiem in drew ineViration qeometries from lhe eimVle of Af rican oc ulVhur d emaleri alize obje e.what. d cte. onlythe idea of a qood and evil.modernarAists beqantro lookfor oomeet ernalvaluetrhat wae beyond the chaos.eelf abeorbed. erim enlinq wilh Iraditional qenreeand otyleemoderna(bisf. bre aki q lh em n down into trheirbaeicgeomelricforme. only did so by Vuttinq eomething eleein ils guVerman qood and evil who ie beyond place-nof. q Oohemi avanf. |/ tiee: all pooeible inheractione bef. exV an. eelf exVlorinq own VrimaryVoeeibiliite ?oeee6eed.of findinqan eNernal lhe of value beyond lhe chaoe." eeeinqNhemgelvee a6 creators of the newralher than as of forme..but what you knowis fhere.amonq allNhefraqment buNaleo ar| beyond alion and chaoe. almosl )uVerhumanrole of rediscovering eeeence humanily.


youlh seeksensilive the inqtroeecape confineeof hie in CatholicuVbrinqing ie Dublin, baeedon Greek trheancient, mfih of the hero

aro6ewar machines ao ?owefiulae Ihey were effrcient ln ltaly, of Ihe war machine lhe )u?erman ltAussolini. Germany, ln )uVer-

and ated AuechwiLz AndNhere Hiroehima. wereolher Vrob' leme-aftietic oneo.

af,tremVtinq m a n Oaedelue Hitler's the LabyNoeecaVe rinIh. Thue,it, has a at rnyDh it s cenler. OneoymbolIhaI atlem?f,ed f,o fill in Ihe Voidlhal had been left by Ihe "deal,hof God" wao the oymbolof the Toel Ezra machine. Toundeaw wordeae machines. Voet The WilliamCarlos said Nhat Williams the wholeVoemie a machine madeuV of worde,Modernarchitecle f,houqhl ot housesae machinee for livinqin. ln facl, all of society wae becominqmoremachinelike:bureaucraNic, raf,ional, Nechnical, Fromthie kindof Nazi Nrainsran on f,ime, deliverinq theirhuman carqo lo deabh campe like Auschwitz and These buchenwald. cam?oNhemselves drew u?onmoderniet planninandarchiq NecturalVrincipleo. And lhe Nazl war machine had iIs own center-Nhe myth of Ihe SuVerRace-f,he euVeriority blueof eyed,blondmembers of the Aryanrace. 9o one Vroblem Modern arL and lit eraf,urebecame increaeingly difficulf No underetand. Moderniam Hiqhmodbecame e r n i e m H i q hm o d . in ernismpeaked

1922, wilh the with moderniem is of Vublication thal science and rea- JameeJoyce'o
eon didn't juel create Ulyeeeeand

machine4ike efficiency ?roqre6e-Nhey cre-

"The Wastelandl' T,9. ElioN'o ln bolh Ulyeeeeand Finneganb Wake, Joyce exVerimenled with a sNream- conscioueneee ofelyle, plunqin7 the reader within Ihe fluid,ehiftrinq free-flow hie of characNere' ?oychee. g E]iol' "Waeteland" exV erimenNed with a fraqmenied poetry full of literary,hieNorical and mytholoqical tidbire from around the world-depiclinq a soul and a eocietyin fraqmenNalion and deeV eeekinq air, reinleqraf,ion, a new cenf,er.1of,h Joyce and Eliof, rejected lhe etraiqhttorward, and ralional ffowof the et ory or lheme. Theyaleo rejecLed Nraditi onal characT,er elo Vm dev enl, f avoringinetead a fraqmenled otyle. Dul Ihis dislikeof conventional characlerdeveloVment and the celebration insf,ead, Vrv of vaf,e, eubjecNive ex?erience added trothe t endency moderniem'e of arf,iels,assembled emall in qrou?ein ?aris,Oerlin, Kome, Vienna, London, NewYork, Chicaqo, CoVenha7en, Munichor Moscow, o viewlhemselvee an t as exiled, alienahed cultural eliLe. ln "The Metamorphoeie" lhe wrif,erFranz Kafka eymbolized Nhiealienation the arl,jet wilh of Nheimaqeof a huqehuman-eized buqNraVVed an abeurdhuman in environmenl. Such afrieIs creaf,ed workseo challenqing weird and tha| Nheycouldonly be appreciated by a narrowaudience. This onlyfufi,heraddedtrolheir elitiet imaqe. Modernafr,, in fac|,, wao eo far-ouI thal it, dividedculture into "Hiqhbrow" and "Lowbrow." Il, excluded middleclass,who the could not,underelandiI, and qave riee No a kind of "Vrieolhood"of echolarsand crif,ice. Theirjob wa6 and ie f,o explain moderniem'e myof,eries, read James Joyce'o To "Waeteland" Ulyeeea,T.9. ElioN'e "Cantoo" ie an or Ezra Tound'o advenf,ure,You needa quide, you wereexplorinq ae Nhough the Amazon.


differ rhen how doesPostmodernism
from Modernism?


there ie lirrleaqreemenr Nhe eubjecl, on becaue Varf,ly
an aNIemVINo

"TooT,modernism"whaleveril is-is

of what ie qoingon now-and we can oeeIhe Vreeenl only in retrosVect,,

theorieL,lhabHassan,offere a Nable differenceo )ne Toetmodern of the beT,ween Nwomovemenf,g;

Form (,coniuncf,ivel cloged) <" " " " " " ">
{ . . . . a a . . . o o o o o }

Antiform (digjuncbivel o?en)

{ . . o o . . . . . . o o o o }


{ o o e . . . . . . o o o r o }


AfL Obieet/FinighedWork {oooo......o..o} TrocegglTertormance/

Tresence Cenlerin
{ o o o o a a a . . a o . . o }

Abeence Diepereal

{ o o . . . . . . . o o o o o }

TexIllnt efreKY
(T?L 267-0)


{ o o o o . . . . . . o o o o }

ruclureg.mo dernieIg often create. comy o ? o 6 e o r ? a i n I e n t r i r e lb y c h a n c e .a neweenee of grimordial oriqinin m$h.g: 7 Thue. eufiace.o cenT. or who compoeer John Cageie a Toelmodern advocaleecomp oeition by chance-by an L e i m V l y u r n i n g n L h em i c r o V h o n e e d o random. recordinq 7 .eee.Accordinq and lasean. a form of ' and deVth..everyday oounds.t .newcoherenl gf.e. of chance.er.' . Eliot eouqhrf. newl eenee deeign.i-arf. mining the qiLchand duraLion mueical of Io arf. eeeking de-define l:tr f' . new a eenoeof Vur?oee.Ticaoeo ernieLe and Eliol were conslellatring aroundnewcentere.noLeein a melody. whereae f.1 . For lo create non-arf. Lo anT. anf. 7ogT.. randomly deter' throwinqpainl on canva.iform.ToetmodernieLe for oflen eee no reaoon a lnelead Lheyf avor a decenLering-a ?lay cenLer.e p i l l i n q r .p'.heimaginaLions mod' of euchae Joyce.where and Joyce reoLore deep new a Yeaf. Haegan.

MAKERg 7oetmodern Thi nkers l^?ortant Lyof. Who ore someof these"mop-mqkers"? without THE MA?.in May of 1968.AlNhuqh Lyotard o became djsillueioned socialiem with and Marxiem early 1964. .E pretty chootic.. ln 1985 he became director of the Colleqe ernalnt Iional de Thilooophie." intellectuols chort the depthless to new world q center. in in Braziland California. beforebecoming of profeeeor philoeophy Ihe UniaN veroityof Taris in 1968.lt's no wonderthqt we need lt oll sounds "mop'mokers.elyl e communiem. confirmedhis unregf. criNicized 3 ovieI. For some 15 yeare he wae associa|.ed with a leflieNqrou? called goaialism or Barbariem.which.Vhe ao as evente of the studenL revolt in ?arie.ard bornin wae E Jean-Francois France 1924andtrauqht Alqeria. amonqother trhinqe.

ie ll flat. dreame are fragmenf. dieruptrs rational trhe ft \ .haN lhe Holocausl reeisto reVreeentrabion. o atlemptr t o reVreeentAuechwif.Thie becauee ie the fiquralnaf. t 7imilarly. Lwodimensional.like fiqureo 6he one draws eciousie difficultr reVreeent Io in lanquage. al lo a conceVN-drowne outrthe ecreame.he same oenoef. languaqe.AuschwiNz lhe Nazis would drownouf.ion. periodin @ and drippingwilh deeire. alivewilh three-dimeneion dream fiqureo. Lyohardeu4qeotstha| Ihe unconscious not so much is likea lan7uaqe it ie visualand ae fiqural.lanquaqe Nhearts. His book Diecouree.!i/ttt.z or Vainte.VoeIMaxist.AccordinqLo Lyotard.Dreamo.ar7uee with Ihe conceVt.forAh by JacqueoLacanIhaI lhe unconeciousmind is likea language. Nheolher hand. figure ln 1971 we find him b e g i n n i na q Ionq. figure. itr . At. after all.ed.the ocreamgof the vic' time in the death cam?oby playinq muoicloudly. m G o o o of whichhe is qiven nabure the unconecioug.Discouroe. Vut.Ihou7h dioruVte N ot h i n k i n q at workwithin lanquaqe. reVreeeeo in lanquaqe-t o reducethe deaf.hand et ench degradaf. visu fiqure.are vieual.akinq The al.Languaqe. ThefiquralreeieNe reVreeentration in T. :\ =^-\\ orderof lanquaqe. lnstead. lheir attempV ln to makeunconocioue matrerial vieual. fi7ural.ure Nheunconof and VhiloooVhy. about.Like muchmodernpainNinq. dreamedierupt Lhe kindof linearawareneee NhaN lanquaqe requiree. on desire.

should No conf.woheteroqeneoueelemenf.o eay Ihal f. tincN.lemVlingto reV' ehouldconreeenlthe Holocauet feelinq trhaI there ie eomelhinq t alion. . Thus. forgotten. Of.a eimulf. iN.g.here paintrinq whichcannol io alwayl an Otrher be truly reVreeented. whichdieplayeboth elemedieval and Kenaieeance t i n u et o h a u n l u e w i l h i t e i n a b r l i N ymenle.a Varia Novella. to oay f.ha distinct.inue haunt ue with the 6eemeT.emVtinqlo preoenN differenl eras.her han re?reoent of offers Ihe examVle LyoNard on Vaeaccio'eTrinity. Another examVleLyotrard Mont offers is Cezanne'e an 9 a int-Victo i rr.IemVI Io preoenL modeeof NwodifferenT.ed Ihe in walleof 1anf. Florence.f.he uneayable. trwoimVoooibly No reVreeenN unreVree lf.he entable. 3y alt.f f u s e i n d i e d .Lhe T. cannot be remembered-but aleo be Ihal whichcannot.painf.Aqain.he is thereforeneceeaary alaine imm emori Holo ausf.rem c remainebeinqlhal which Ihat. af. vieion: vieionwif.any art. focal cenler and vieionwhich i e V e r i p h e r a l i. eou6aI.thal f.

ard qainedinternaf.atrus scienceand of f. in 1974 he on a eandwich. a n a c c o u n lc o m m i g - ed sionedby lhe Council Vredict that. hae and oomethinq become qeneoue rneano "rnadeup of dissimilar elementra. Lo deaf. no will of Univereities knowledge eurvive of lhe Quebec Ihat cannol be .ional fame for The Poatmodern Condition: a report on knowledge.h etoraqe.o computer languaqe He anof. and a )oviet down probef.her.y. Toetmodern noveliel ThomaeTynchon'e Gravityb Rainbow. a radieal they are difference.eroqea neou6difference.echnolo6. wonLhe Naf. lrAama Caeeof the thal for lhe past few decadeeeciencehae increasN ((n languaqe.the year Helero' n Yes. ingtyinveoNiqaLed N K ff polirical.I The Tostmodern Heterogeneous?Condition trl T ln 1974. chan7eo Nechnoloqical would havea major imVacX knowledqe. Oecauee f. trtl The 7overnment..'hese claimedNhat.hese all worksof arfi bring our attention Eo f. Lyof. on fhus.erall.ouched on Mare.a banks.daf.WhenI eay "my loveig a roge" I am invoking hef.he to Ohher." ToeLic melaVhor ta a c c o m ? l i e h eh e eame. Vrof."sfreak' inq"became fad in a Ihe UniLed SIalee. of and Vrobleme tranelationfrom one T. Aft.ional SookAward. repo(Deurveyothe sf. linquie-i l il. a rose and my love may havevery liVllein common.

he globeaL f.ific will knowledqe.iv "diI caurga.huqemulf.ina.na r raf. lnformaf. but. bul on compuT.And al informaf.he He word"Nalk.ere.s.hetranemieeion Lyolard adde lhat.in howsciand knawledge enNific melhod leryibimize lhemeelves-how and believable selvee f. Veo' ple willtry No et eal it.inctrion willzip aroundf. lhe onlykindof . betweenecienlific talk and narcaT.o Lhedirection quanlitiee of informa.af.ion they makethem- this Voint.ed wihhhhe lraining of minde-wiNhleachFor f. Vuter lanquaqe-inf.raininqeluden|." u6eoocienlifrc "digcouroe" and e eLalee.ive t alk.ereot. Learning no lon7erbe aseociaf..ewill grow weaklhe placeof er.Of couree he doeen'N uge f.heepeedof and electriciNy.Taking corporaNione Nional willdominaNe. is nof. Eion. Iurno ouf'.enlific knowledqe Ihe scientificmet'hod.and etoraqeof informationwillno longer iN int. produced Nalione will fight for lhe way Ihey ueed to fight. lnformalion will be and eold.rusNworIhy.so much in oci- and o d e p e n d n i n d i v i d u a l e ." ere f. 7ul havinq eaid tranelated into comallthie about.for Lerri?er oe. The role of the sf.ion makesa disf.of ecienf. scienhific knowledge noN ie Hie knowledqe.Lyotard fory.

And in 24 . a 1anf. poVularst oto riee.legendo and t ales. whenhe chanNe Ihe otory of Oumbavomitinqf.ime.El Norrotive? I n Yee.arounda fire and hear a chanl of how Ihe world was created by thought. which buL helV exVlain hie f.ime bheyleqitrimize lhe eocietyin whichIhey are lold.ural time is dieeolved and Ihe awareneoo oVene o t mythic lime: No narcalive time..mythe.. chanl howNheqod Dumbavomiled fofDh lhe Moon and ?lare. Thechanter of the mfih leqilimizesiNeimVlyby etatinq: ':. Accordinqto Lyotard.. in lhe vibrationsof 6he the chanT. tltt Trimordial S\ Eqq-they are lisf. Verely in Vefiorminq Lhe myth.or Nheboshon0o.I willqiveyou eome examplee IhaI LyoLard doeenol uee.ars.hm-lhe 6en6eof naf. beat. haveI.en- inq to narcative. the rhyT.he formatrion of Heaven and EarAh from a : atr NheeameT. Theteller of trhemfih doee not.heory. nureery rhymeoand eome repetitiveforme of contem?orarymusicaNIempI t o enNer Nhesame o?aceof mylhic f.o argue or ?rove. When membere the of Winnebaqo tribe ei|.like scia entiet.he Voon and the 1f. And euch mylhe leqitimize ih ems elv e-m ake Nh eelv e e em e believable-juot. or when the early JaVaneoe hearda chanN about f.uIribe. the t ellinq.

" donein Nhecullure.ecientificdiecouroeie a differenl kind of lanquaqe qameI. ie even lt mwh '( \ t Lyotard. When he is finiehed he eaya: *'He"eenAs fhe I u'ryfh o* Butr.*'He"e fhe is r^tylh o0 Bvtvv} )a.hechanl becauoe hao he heardit chanted himeelf. .h requiree no authorizaf.A. Vot tifirtg fhe l." He then chants the myth. thal gumba Himeelf wae Ihe firel one t o chanV r . The atlwatyshecrA if charrfe."rbat. atS l'Ve claimed IhaI the chanl hae been chanled forever.Anyone l i e l e n i n g a i n et h e o a m ea u t h o r i q ly merelyby lietening. lwill char'rf if fo yoh irr r.{oon avr| Sfatrg.The myf.ion or Ieqitimizatrion "v" other /lhan iloelf. c lhe audience.try fr4vrr.o chant f. l h ec h a n L e r .a c c o r d i n q t o The narrator has authority f. form a kindof all socialbond-a socialqrouplhal leqitimizee ileelf f. definee The u^athwho hats what hae ttluilWr\ the righl \ cl"l*anfed if lo ro be eaid and \ yoh iS Pontgo. h e h a n t .hrouqh the chantring lhe of mfih. 7 u f . LiSf er\.hannarral.iv diecouree-th an myth. e 5 cientific diecouree annol c legitimize iteelf.T h em f u h .

qoeeiVinq. awearinq..hepertecf.heru6e of lanAny quaqe-euch ae tellinga joke.eelfby ile own ?roceduree. Iellinq makinq promiee.hescientiel makeedenola' ln the lanquaqe rather than myT.6. oinqinq. e qameof ecience f.* .ermtrhatr denof.according knownNewlaw6.loqical for languaqe that could of.inq mfih of Sumba-he wouldhave6eenae meaninqleee.hie early workWittrgenstidn ln looked f. Livegf.Wonouncinq coupleman and wife. legilimize ileelf or validat if. For inetanc jokee. ll cannot.af. of.emenl. a qamefrom thaV of mylh.1J I J Ihe work of the Vhilooopher Ludwiq WiVLqenef.ein.onian(or Eineteinian) . ?lay.o a defrniledislance.Science a differenf.reciting lhe poetry.hical ones. 7 u I l h e n h e c h a n g e d i e m i n d .ale everylhinqwilh clarif.y and Vrecieion. ie kindof lanquaqe a lie.ellinq a vow.es material body (oafellife) a ' whichrolaleo and orbita aroundlhe planel and at' EarIh wilh a uniformand knowneVeed f.g tl\t El Denototivestotements? I ig A denotativesLaf." f.or chanf.H e h be6anLo eee LhaLLhereare many qame6thaN we languaqe differenL e-?r ayinq..t*o and )r ^{ g Lwo i( T. a taking f.ement one ouch as "'Moon' n ie a f.


the eecond.hernarcaNives.in order to legitimize the moon-shot. celebrityand and Vreotiqe.Accordinq to n Lyolard.he e veryideaof an intellectual-was a Vroductof lhe Enliqht enmenl.ignorance.trhe and Enliqhtenment the The Revolution.aire.onf a9 wilh the associat'ed l9rh century.lnlellectualswere called "'VhiJoooVhers In France lhey werecalled ' philoeophee.ecience has deVended upontwo The ot.moralitry. politice. where they enjoyed6reaf. ouperotit ion. int oleranaeand paroahialism! Let. Rougseau.t'lheratlional faculties of t. o c Thefirst.imize itself ie because lhe qreat thinkere of the e?4.-in FranceLe Sibcledee Lumibre* Volr. Vhil ooVhi al.lhemind. French l9th centurywas also calledthe Aqe of Rea' 6on. firet ie polif. do to thio day.qeneralized cribical Do you meqn to soy thot NASA scientists. buffon. narrative reliee ecience u?on in orderNo leqif. men . Condillac and DideroV.ical. Theideaof a place in oocietyfor a kind of Reject rellgiouo authorlt'yl Downwith old lhinge like metaphyoice. life: reli eociallife. inNellct-in f act. f. chont the myth of how Bumbq vomited the Moon? I No. appliedreason to everyarea of qion. . such .

on with t.henarraor tive of Chrisliansalvation. lhe happinessof humanity on earth mean the libert'ythe liberation of humanity! All this meano ?rogreesl Let scienceand reaoon bring ?rogrese and treedoml Joinedto f. little.his French polilicalnarrative of freedom is a Germannarrative: Heqel'o of VhiloooVhy Ihe Unityof all Knowledqe.ie a litlle narcalive Nhat io Vaft of the biq ot ory-Nhe metanarraiive-of f. Heqel.hefreedom.tainmentof a ?ure. live and the German knowledqe narcabive are what. localnarratives. exVlain and eubordinate all lesser. both NheFrench Enliqht narraenmenf.olal being.)ome other melanarralives are lhe philoooVhiee of Marxigm t. and the af.iveof a successful Mare exVedition in which 3" x 3" nanoa roverlandeon the disaoverlee eoience metanarcatives of or -11O Celsius surfaceof lhe Vlanet qenerate to and tranemit backNo Earth diqital imaqee of the Mare-oca?e. biq gtories.glorieg of mythic proVorLionethal claimtro be able to accountfor. Thusf.trheliberalion of humanity(French).weddedto ecience.self-conscious eViril-the Unityof all Knowledqe (German). For knowledqe played an essenlialVarLin the gradual evolution of Nhehuman mindfrom iqnorance to f.he ?ro?er busineeeof eeekinghapplneeel And happineee meano p olitlical freedo ml Let.henarraf.Lyotardcalls grand narrativeo. . advance knowledgeto everexpandingviotasl Let reason unloakthe laws of nature and usher in an ofiimletic agel Let the praaliaal allow men and women to get.

wodifferenf..heeVacein beNween. peoVle lonqer in AfLerall. 4fY' That'e right. knowledqe? For Vhyeice can f. Varadoxl anolher withoul croeoinq if And howcan we unfoldthe Unity of all Knowledqe our are Nhoughtproceeeee notrevenabletro comVrehend Ihinqe haVVen? howLheee in of Oecause disbelief NhemeNanarcascience ecience.palho Nhrouqh lhaf.-J. . elec|. wouldlead us elowlyloward full freedom e and abeolut knowledqe. of freedomand liberaLion? exVerience theee VeoVle Anddid ocience fulfillAegel'e narcaNive increaeing ol has led ue NoNherealizabion No. scienceand reaeonIo Lhe conelruclion of qae aVplying Lhe and efficienlrailroadschedules./ Soporodoxicolly.ravelI. believe Lhesetwo grand meNanarratrivee. chambere Did Nazieexterminaled millione humanbeinqe.rono 6?aceeimullaneouely-or ?aeefrom one orbil No A f. buI lhe Vroblem-accordinq to no Lyotard-ie thal einceWorldWar ll. lives trhat had leqilimized no lonqerplayeNherole of a herolhat. science octuolly depends uponthese two grond norrotives for legitimizotion.

"What kind of reeearchwill work best?" And t o "work be6t" meano"What kind of research can qenerate more of the eame kind of reaearch?Can it perform? Can it produce more of the oame kind of research?"9o ecience ie no lonqerconcerned witrhtruth but.abandone search iNe for ' decidable truths and eeeks legitrimize through Io itself performativity. it.legitrimize ecience.u* if scientific whqt is it obout? E . er6 suchas the elechron qoe6oVVooihe directione eimu\.hat.becauee the more research you Vroduce. scienceie then forced No leqilimizeiloelf-juef. becarhse fhatf's fhe warywe A.reseorch no longerobout finding Truth-then is @ .r. \e Ao whatf we Ao. bolh science and VeoVle chantinqthe bumba chant.the moremoney and power getr. When ecience encount ?aradoxes.h ?erf or mativiNy-V erto r minq-V rod ucinq mo re of th e oame kind of research.oit" .wiT.can then oay.Ihemore Vrootyou Vroduce and the moreyou are oeen beinq ao riqht. Scienceotopo aokinq. you 9o whenVeople lon7erbelieve lhe metranarcano in lives trhat.aneouoly."Whatkind of research will unfold the lawe of nature? " and be7ino iaekinq. as Ihe myth of Dumba vomitinqthe Moonand 7trars leqilimizeo itoelf by itself.

./i h Naf. may tell a t raditional Eskimo or Hlqtr But doesn'tthis meon the disoppeoronceof our universql systemof meoning? Doesn't this just creqteq void? Yes.. legitimized by Ihe q r a n dH i n d u Nheliberalion of the human eoulIhrouqh Enliqhlenment. talee in ancientr lndia. LyoIard.ee.eitrtrinq underhie banyantree.ive. doee noL seekt o |eqitimizeitself Nhrouqh erenc ref e qrandnarcative t o a eingle out For instance. or vieiting children the atryour local echool.ie for n LhaNwhere tradilional eocietiee are underthe eVell one domiof nanNnarraf. the otory of bumba vomiNinq Moonand 9t arsf.And bhis carnival narof raNivee reVlacee monolilhic the of ?regence one metanarratrive.o r the eNory lettinq down her lonq. of RaVunzel younq qolden hair for a handeome or Vrince.ragf..er t a l e . all .iv s.y whichno one narcain tive-biq or litlle-no one lanquaqeqamedominaf. wouldhave Iold Nhousands etrories-buI of wouldhavebeen all Ihese e|. ln conf.a f. qfter qll? the I The difference. . '.ellNhem in one oiltinq.thie void ie filledin by ewirlingqalaxieeof little etoriee-lit t le micronarcaf. The e void ie filled in by a kind of et oryIellingIhaf.TosNmodern oociely ie a oocief.ellerof side if.Dut.Thenwhot'sthe difference between two.-/ otory-tellerat.ive Ameri' can TrickgT.he and f. ouch as the mfuh of Dumba. Toslln modernsocietrieo many micronarralives jammed are toqether.your localbookslore.oriee 'f .self.r '.

o havegreat inffuence.moderniem ae incre dulity tow ard metan a rrativ ee conlinueef. .eloriee eeekeleqilimizaf. ffi" I n !'t isn't E But [yotord's storyobout disbelief in metonorrotives just qnother metonorrotive? lsn't he being outhoritorion obout how there cqn be no quthorities? Yee.ion Noneof Nheee Each or Vrooflhrough oomeqrand narcalive. Lyot has been ard attracked Nhoee on grounde.hienotion ln trhatr VeoVle haveetoVVedbelievinq qrand narcativesbein caueeeuch narrativee marqinalize minoriliee 7- tilffi. definitionof ?oef. facL.

u?oetmodernlem. een' Vared-down f.Whoore some othermopmokersof the Postmodern world? A eecond infruential Toslmodern Ihinker is Fredric As Jameeon. eoue. whetherNhoee objectre be cans ot o o u ?o r m u l t i n a lional corVoratione. For instance. uoually by exVatriateewho havealienat ed from themselves American induslrial eociety.enceg-can degcribe movemenf.far from indueNry. "?opl. rejecte Ihe way in which induetrialoociety alienaleoVeoVle. fraqmenled. conf. incomheteroqenVatrible. Thue skillis disin Vlayed leieure acbivilies. leminqway'e?roee olyle-hie bare. or ihe Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism" Lyotardcelebratee the multiVle.Jamegon ie int eresf. through naf.seeNhe ... his refreclionson Ihie relationehip alwayelead backto hielorical reality. The ekillof a bullfiqhter or t roul fisherman Hemin inqwayreffectrs the American admiratrionof trechnical skill-buf.ure and ouqqeoltension and resent ment belweenhie machocharactrere.radict ahd ory nabure ambivalenf. Like mostr Marxietrs. of Tostmodern 6ociety while Jameson distrusls anddielikes ln hiefal it.edin trhe relationehiV rhe of individual the to world of objecNe.moueeegay moderniem: or Loy'ic LheCultural CaViIal' of Latre ieml'Jameeon doesnot. a Marxigf.

d u r i n ql h e a g e of imVerialiem. National marketre ex?anded inI. m o n o V o lc a V i a l y t i e m . whichbrokedown Toetmodern ae era Voetinduef.haoe mar\els were baeedin Vafricular imVerial nationgNateg. r. F I R 9 T :f r o m 17OO 1&5O.Thou1h f.oworld markat"s. .{ff S E C ON D : Late Capitaliem.her.bAl rnarket s. :1.o the periodof marketr caVitraliom. Ka|. sees iL he ae an intensificaNionand lat eel of Vhaoe a caVifalietrworldeyetem. they deu?onoutVended lyingareao for raw materiale and cheaplabor. wae Jameeon heavily infuenced by Erneel Vandel'e rhe 19lh and ZONh centuriesinto definitre hietorical periodo.rial-ae an ebb in the Lide of caVitraliom. r. Durinq Lhis era induetrial caVihal aocumulatred moetly in n ahi.-:.

Vaeeionat'e Thiv/' is fhe ^ge oP PosfuroAevnisu."r hietoricalnovel.fhe ^ge o0 Reatlisr. For Jameeonit' ie a deeVerate of Nhemee alienaf. icizesan enfire world of peaeanl poverLy "qreat euchae Le Corbueier'e Modernielbuildinqe. Theera of Ihe bourqeoie.lack identrily.t and ?oelmoderncultural f orme reflecIlhe dielocatrion fraqmeninlo smallqrouVecommunities-eVlinlered t alion of lanquaqe . Theyex?reee Volirically roundinq visionof Ut'oVia.and eocialfraqof roolleeeneae.ion. of caVilaliomyeI f. beaconsin Vilolio"etrandouf.ory inepired Mandell'o Jamesonlo proclaim Ihree culNural Veriodo-in each of whicha unique af.o emerqe-invading nature by forme of agriculluredeetroyinqthe ?re-capilaliet.heToslmodern Vhaee wilh the unreeruVled Ihe worldecene on strictedgrowVh multinalional of corVoraform Thieis Ihe Vureot.ure modernieN because Jamesonadmiresmoderniem wilh I'he world. gimilarly. the mindby advefiieinq. lione-euch ae Coca-Cola. Nhe cry ex?reeeinq qreaf. and invadinq unconecioue hiot.rastr the deqraded a them.es.modernieV eolilude. cu\ur al logic domin is Fiv51.alion.Van Peaoantthoee critrOoqh'oVaint'inq and mieery. menf.THIKD-i'.ae grand ut'oVian city our' lo briqhl conf.TakeEdvard ite ex?reoaed dieeaNistact'ion The Munch'eVainT. SeconrA is fhe ^ge o+ Hoaevhisu culf.in7 gcream.

o.Srillo boxee. ComVared Van to Gogh'e Peaaant thoes. donedf. kitsch. evaporatinq inlo mereimageo.ion. cul- Thue. mona umenl of Toef.ion.fixal. maeeeeof oVechaf.all eamenees.oeVaraXed from everyone el6e" (co 114). leavinq onlya 6urface.a gimulacrum. motrele.o a qazeof imaqe addictrion:'N imaqee etripVedof reality. surtace-all all deVthleoaneee. oVect acles. Vroducf. botllee of Coca-Cola. euV cial. exhilaraNinq a reality an blur. qraof erfi poVa(0.liviinan hallucinanq f. whichex?re6eeea real worldof rural mieery. collaqeeof idenf. . schlock.accordinq Jameeon.elranqe newwarVein time and oVace. Nioing.ore abancominqNo be a kindof linguistic ieland.edon com- moditieg. tro ?oslmodern y -dwellers cit are alienahed.eclural eVace. on floweof imaqeeet olen t uitous eclecbicism of from conoumer cultrure and re?ro. Warhol'e Diamond Duet thoee ex?ree6eo a depthleooc a n n i b a l i z i n gl N h ea r c h i al leclural eNylee the of Vaet+f. KeadersDiqeef. imaqee.and frnally each individual lure. f.modern archif. adver?ul? fic|.each profeeof neeewith no linkt o any realily: the collaVee Nhedistinction of eiondeveloVinq Vrivat code or between iIo e hiqhcullureand lowculdialect. CamVbell'e )oup cane.ure:Nhemerelydecoon on likethe exVloeion Andy Warhol'e ralive.ical imaqesof Hollywood eNareeuch as Marilyn Monroe."a each o?eakinq curiousVrivale languaqe itreown.he Donavenlure lotel in Los Anqelee. O movies..7oslm od ern architeclure ducedwilh induetrialreVebiIion.

lile a[ac[doon! entens lle apostmodenn [ypers[ace!nides lfe eleuatonsescalatons and etennally up ilown 0iant gondolloating and lile '-')t- =:l :1- :.ieteeuch ae Heminqway ?ooeeeeed unifiede4o and idenlia f.tbtl f-'{tis1 # And an Nhey ?oeoeaeinq identity.r ^^ .. too. . .worke er >ns. lleuuants s0 he map way extennal uuonldl * r.wellknown hie dieT. in . hie dizzineet when aced wirh ?oetf ) our incaVacily ma? our relato rcrld of vael comVut nef. . worldthan a cure. . ^ the eubject-the . Toetmodern theory.' -\.inclion for Onethinq trhal ToeLmodernily hae ' I I . ?oeeeeseda otyle f.m of the centerleespoelmodern ..f. dnonlnin0[euuildenin0 ina emptire$$.Ii amal tlrat can ftis tothe i .^ ) t believed. offere . I 4o.eqo.1 diny.for instance.1- i:tH-.r-'.hereis a lilerary conteel in whichwritere imitrale tt Heminqway's otyle in a humorou.-.. t'.y-even if it wae an alienatedone.\lF-. 1:-1151 : i l : l*\J -n. .ameeonf eelet'hat.hat could be the oubject of Varody-you could make fun of iI by imit atrinqil. t ^ ! ^ ^ L L t Afr. Everyyear. way. In the aqe of modernitywe sLill L^ti ^.

Everyyear we met at Harryb bar.. and rhen No Doy Georqeor and f'hento KonaldKeagan. Lhereio onlyIhie omorqaebord quotarione-like a dozendifferent.ic normaliLy.<. . lfl Yee.rhere nolinquiot. Wedrank there. and Nhenswirchee. parodyand ealire are only in Voeoible an era af healthylinquieticnormaliNy.lnVaetiche Jamee Dean.Jonothqn Swift wds oble to sotirize the qbnormql longuoge of scientific reoson becouseeveryone knew what normol speechwqs like? r It\t lll I Dut.t t- :A (. Jameaonfeelethat. And we sat and drank and imitated Hemingwayb i.4> ('oK f. '.f.. And everyyear was a good year.J 7f but Toetmodernityhao fraqmented lanquaqe and T.oMarilynMonroe.movieand M'W of videoeand televieion ehoweeVliced randomly toqether. Thuewe can only Vroduce paotiche-lke an impereonaNor ranwho domlyet. And we were good there.arls ouNimVersonaling boqarr. etyle.he oubject-bolh havebecome echizoid. the in middleof hie line. You meon like in Gulliver'sTrqvels.) N+ .in ToeNmodern the ie aqe.

What we needis whal Jameeon callean "aesthetia of cognitive mapping"No repreeent our imaqinary relationehip realiLy.ln fact.like HumVly I DumVLy.Itrie whal we needto unifylhe paoI. of bu| Jameson feels that an awarenee. 7't JP pl rut wouldn't Lyotordsoythqt Morxism is q metonorrotive? I l) Yeo.Jameson'e bigqeet7ripeaboul the ?oslmodernera is lhal it eignalo Lhe end of a qenuine awareneoe hiehory.o eurrender this ffow. And 60 you can oee Ihat nol all Tostmodernists aqree.. oeemsIo euqqeet." Jean gaudrillard.can f. (t .ell whaVie imaqinary and what ie real-Nhal can recover lrue historicalconecioueneol and normalcy. in the Toetmodern our nexL"ma?-maker. havebecome ' fragmented.Nered ?oef..Jameson ffow of imaqee eeemeovercome T.accordinq Jameeon. Lo What we need.Vreeenl-fulureof trheeenNence-t o unifyour ?oychee and our lives.As a Varxisl who believee trhat.modernlanqua7e and eelvee.haf.a kind of paooive f.of history i6 Vrecieely what we now needto Viece Ioqether our ehaf. Marxism-a ecii6 to encef.he by media-but. which. the world is run by hielorical forces.

1.lunarliqhl.rgirs53 is krreelirrg ovev yoq-volugh^ously-fhe muscles oP he" rrecl. fhe ivory cqwe o€ he" shoql/ets.embracinq with if.Nracl. o* €eel her cool breo*h. gla:ilng fhem with at shee\ forrgrae glistertirrg 45 if laqs fhe whife o€ u. The maqazines. of maeemedia. -fl.ion. illramirre/ as i€ by cool moonlight She lic\cs he' scar"let ligs liLe ath arhiu arl. She leatrrs close".hev eugovgeA feefh.. auA 42Y4vtiSirrg.rgullv.and the Deathof vhe Real -I1ne gatssivevichu'r oS You arve wiveA. era of maoe communicat'ione ue invades our darkenedroome. in ^urrenderinq ourselvee an ecelaoy of communication.cou..roisft^v€. accordinq t'heimaqery ToeNmodern gaudrillard. auccumbto the fatal af. Yoq close yoqv eyes ih at latrrgtrotor. .ratges.scool. )orr ratise You{v eYelias. eimilar eociely'e world No relaNionehiptrhe to is newo?a?ero. ?rivale receggeo. by fhe obsce\e €low oP iu. A Varu. Lelevieion. Yoq awe hygrrofizeA by the lhbe.ts ecsfatsy atrrA watiFwatif wifh beatfirtg heatrt t'heoristJean of tro This. ?enetrabinA We inNoour mooT. adve(bisinq. fherr the shat"Phess ihcisors Pehetvarlirrg yotar treck.

ies wereeventually ohut down by the studenl eNrike. whileAmerican . Underthe threatr of a radical overthrow of the oyoNem. creat inq oomelhinq betrween carnivaland a a revoluNion. and the death of eex. ln Vay of 1968-while miniskirt-cladAmerican womenwerecelebralinq No 7ra Day by burninq Nheir undies. Kobinoonn-Tarieian youlh.ical ecience.economice. hi?Vieo weretriVVinq " TurVleHazel"' V ellow No Yellow.ionaries inlo beachqoers. turning the wouldbe studenl revolul. and factory workerefollowed suit.'BOs '9Oe-replacinq and Nhetrenry over former waveo dominaledW poet-WorldWar ll fiqureesuch as )a(Dre. reliqiouo eNudies. baudrillard's Nhouqht declares I.o Ihe etreets in a defianI and jubilant. polit. vacabion lime. Gaulle de left.fhe countrry.Thetrhoughtof Jean Daudrillard ie parl of a New Wave of French theory lhat brokeon American ehoresin the'7O9. film and mediaetudies-to namejuol a few. wag oummer if." and "Mrg. backedby Communiste and other Marxiste. The encour- . mood. Oy June. workers. however. liher alure.he death of modernity. Tariei univ an erei f.took f. the death of the real. eemiotice. Oaudrillard underminee deep foundationsof thouqhi in diecisuch as Vlinee Marxism. Troduction and educabion camelo a hall. Just ae Nietzeche once the Vroelaimed Oeabhof God. anthropoloqy.

he 9o beqanlookinq also gf. . but. Nevet'Vhelees. Nheorized. of theee One I Semiotics? lEl Structurolism? T AN timeae fil Yee.would ei'ill I iI I # 1ausgure.o. \ '. there is ) ) no natural correeVondence betrween "oound"horge.Vhiloeophy ie ineuffrcienl No exVlain in life lat e caVitaliet societiee.Vroduced ie by a colleclionof sounds gauwae Jean drillard. Nhe lhe continue be tro inffuenced by Marxiet. concept"hor6e"and a horee.\\ \. for who. he Ianguage a eyelem of differie 't\N ".eomebhing Ihe red.would feel increaeinqly that Marxisf. uVrieinq.\ \ encee. relurned Notrheir jobe-and thinqe wereeoon back No normal. the mags conlagion of Nhemovement left deep imVreeeione on oomeof the participanT. revolu). '.Katrher.s werelaking placein Lhe eLudyof lan- ) g o o O de )aueeure arquedthat meaninq in lanquaqe nof.. .a7ed by de Gaulle. NL^ IITL' Iionary evenf. manyyeareto come. thouqhl. like yellowand qreen liqhtoin a traffic eignal.t\ ).ructuraligm to and eemiolicet o ouVVIemenL Marxiem. the eame the etrudenf.\\\ .

et .* ootae'Ff." eIc.'ho.r'.t1.* 6tern f"t (uooh. blueand qold liqhtowouldworkjueL ae well. TheIerm media.. obherrealme: reliqion.o fu ct?z?p- 4for"ab-. . exf. no meaninq hag for by ileelf. lI onlylakes on meaninq ol ag an elemenlin a eyet'em an e qy Chrieli Nh olo / myth. eyelem of purple. '. "Devil" inghance.Volitrice. where"devil"ig relaied lo other conceptssuch as "Godr" "Anqel.' The red.faehion.ended aue3 9 emioNics intro ic eure' linguiet et rucNuraliem e f'he mfuh. ri. re ^"a(f. *Q.yellowand qreenliqhle qaintheir meaninqe onlyin relatrionA ehiVNo each oNher. elc.

a6 a younqboy who qroweu? amonqwolvee t( {\ . up in a world of objects-become more objecllike. lanquaqe. fashion. that. oue Vlacee. his early works-The in )yetem of )bjects. an For objectr.what. myT.Earfy Writinge )emiotice ie the slrucluraliet eNudy variousoyetemeof of like f. . '(\t \-/-' lEl But don't commoditiessotisfy our noturol needs? This ie not. becomeowolflike. meaning.i ThouqhTostrmodern oocietry basedon Nheconie oumpbion commodities-on buyinq of and uoinq thinqo-Ihis coneumVtion can nevermakeuo happy.Daudrillard's workscombine eemioNic. etrudy cullure a of with a neo-Marxistanalyoio. beforeif. qrowinq Veoplein ToetmoderneocieLy.eNc. juot.For insNance.Marx believed.he. \ . eNrucburalisl. \ t\\\ D . Varx. car is ueeful A because io VleaiN eurableto drive-becauee it lete you feel Nhevoluptuoue curvalureof the earthand becauee traneVoflo you to variif.rafficoiqnalo. ie a commodity. hae a natural usevalue. The )ociety of Consumption and For a Critique of the ToliticalEconomyof the )ign-Saudrillard arque.

raf. ffi *NN$ffi. r.em- /gn ^$. Mercedee eiqnifiee havinq a beeidee The Merc&des.. . m e a n i n a en l h i e ffi-Wfigtffibffit' Z rafionallv.. ie eumVtion noLiuet conoum7coneum?f. \aulluman neede.. $i$'.: eocietry ffifllii. like .hat. We dieplaywhaLwe buy. - . Thecar an an exchange for Dul can be exchan4ed money. of difpurchaoe f'he Mercedee terenliateo Lhe buyereocially who driveVolkswafrom VeoVle 6 e n e a n d L h i e? u r .. whena Oul in our eocief.-y I.i \H Vf\( lM y and arically ficlishre. afLer all. aleo believed T.ionbut'conoVicuoue lion.ee dtNi. buyoa Mercedes conourner tor inetead of a Volkowagen. havea deeVdesireLo dietrinfrom oLher guiehthemeelvee throuqhoyotemo humanbeinqe For of oocialdifrerent'iat'ion.'-r) chase helVe --1--i-..N.'N.\.'.Vreoliqe.akes becomee commodivy value.commoditieehave l. . $ .1i. eocietyan objec| in a caViLaliet a and I. into a homo\ qeneoue level donr moditiee i'2ilh.-inwhichevery '.at. Thueconand eocialelandin7.recoqnize eymbolic...ir*dffiffiffillii I \ __ onedriveo our crear.ffitW.'lt'. lxrlarx the not.ic Ihe factrthal whenyou buy a eomet. for Thue.ltrlarx However. rank. '\\lrr \-*6-' ffi did drillard. wilh a semiotic analyeioof an analyeie Lhe o meaninq f the F he examVle. ''*i.hinq.y.. objeclaopect'of f. f. gerveo a eiqn of ae use value. eaw Ihie Marxiel Saudrillard of aeoeoementr an object ae too i l i m i t i n ya n d e u V V l e m e n t erd .'he eemiof. ie buyingint o a wholesyef'emof needelhaL ie homoqeneouo.toog or f eat'herg....4/'.oyef. aT. .Mercedee.emalic and hierarchical.nffiY'4 .'N\ a al needs-rathe. inLegrale ! hinr.. -. lhe consumer'..' jtRf>*- For. if..j objecl.' *ffi ( of bvet eociery 1ueIea|iefynaf'ur. beinqo.'. once rat'ional.. of members tribal cultures miqhtr oigbe differenceo Nheee naledby rhe uee of certain f.'lso. The eyef.

not natural-somelhinq we aut. meaninq and Vreetiqe trhrough coneumVtion. lhen. The effoft requiredt o do lhie of-f.omaticallyinheritfrom naturebutrcullural.- whenyou are Vickinq your out.etc. faehionable vacaT. orderIo differee entiatreourselv oocially. entire eyolem of objecte. NeiLher coneumption is for Vrimarily pleaoure-for il requireo immense reaourcee and enerqy.as it is a need Io disl"linguiehoneeelf eocially.ion epof. cauoeofatique and alienation the heroee conin of eumVbion. codeeorganize commoditriee hierintro archicaleyelemo of meaning baeedon Vriceand preotiqe.lhen. A go mucha need.ennig club..-----:>. you Mercedeo.e an in exclueive neiqhborhood. dioVlay and uee of objectetakee placeon Nhebaeieof cullural codesthaN demandwe conform 4rammar that. qood a e a Vrivat echoolfor your children. Coneumers reacha Voint. l u r k se V i r i to f a rebellion. .of refusal-they qeI fed uVand end up burninq their brae or eruVtinqinlo more radical forme of eocialchange.af. Alwayslatentrin cone u m V t i o n . Theeecodeeare juot likethe ruleeof --. needfor social differa enceand meaning. this searchfor beinq.TheconeumVtion. A earn trhe moneyand leieure trimetro obtain the Mercedee and ehow it off. ig needfor a Vafticular object. Thue \:::---\- buyby ceaoeleoely ing inlo f.en demandeNhedenialof ConeumVNion. VereonmuoT.he lalest' fads and trends. Andyou can'trbuyjuol one a object in ordert o enNer eocial you needNo buy into an level.an egt. I h e n . This Iiring feedinq frenzyof coneumplion. also needtro ohop for a T.in cona?icuouoly. not. underlie a lanquaqemakinq communicalion The Voeeible. ie Vleaeure.

whenGuinevere. simulocrum.ln "TheOrdereof Simulacral' he deecribee .havemoved inNoa new realif.Durin7Nhefeudal era.a IttNKt. sociTostrmodern elies. and trheVirqinMary the illumined etained qlaeewindowe and Isimulocro." Simulqcrq? howNherelaNionehiV be|. whichhe outlinee in "The Orders of jimulacra.ele' vision. blewkisses from the ramVafie to of castrlee Lance' armor. dominaled by ers comVut and f.advanced orief. fi€REFoRr L rMl 'The Ordere of 9imulacra" rhe 197Oe Ourinq and 19BOebauem' drillardet oVVed hio Vhaoizinq Marxist and was leaninqo as heralded the themoef. plurol. singulorl Yee.of mediaand eociety in f.y. lote in ehininq whenthe feudal lord wae Nheoymbolof eafthly auNhorily.he ?oetrmodernera.ween trhe real and hae lhe simulacrum hioNhrouqh chanqed tory.For Dauare drillardsimulacra coViee real obof jecto or eventg.

could not become a knight.eee. @ ffi' w@ ":0 . \t likea caeLe.And.es imoooeible.ionehiV a eyetrem fixed of eiqne.he to convenNione of love.ly c o u r 6 ea l l t h e g e .sof her oociely devof. Voeedly For insLance. Iaboring in the fielda.he by eymboleof lv1ary and o f J e e u ee h i n i n a eerenely the Iop aI of the hierarchy of eymbole-throuqh o l a i n e dg l a e o windowe.and mobilitybelween eocialclaeeee or caef. The eocial elalue of trhe blowinq Vrinceee kiseeefrom trhe ram?arLe. eiqie nifiedby her dreeeand by her adherence f.the hearf. ln eucheocieLiee o n e i e a e e i q n e do t a fixed social e?ace.of courT. wae orqanizedby to a relaf. which werelimited in n u m b ea n d e u ? r divine. is A serf. we can read in Lancelol's coal of arms h i e e o c i a lr a n ka n d elalus. codeeof behavior and dreeeare divineIy eancLioned f.

a For baudrillard.lt lhe Renaieeance mental substance.subsNanceor repro lhe world in hie own imaqe-Kein' forced Concrete. ent'ire oewinq violine. NheFireLOrder of jimulacra.Ihe riqidorderof lhe feudalera brokedown due t o Lhe rise of the bourgeoieie. Nhe in Veriodof early modernily. livedin cook.er.from f. includinq Accorda oheeV. imaqeo. Ihouqh counf. oigneand eymbols werenot divinebuI atificial in and Vroliferaled the fieldeof ruled like a qod over hio pertect.y.ed in f. 6d.From thie he chaire.1audrillard as olaqe of the simulacrum f. frexibl ind es|'ruclible eeeeIhis mat erial. and qave riee eu?reme lo gaudrillard'e examVle of thie aqe-Nhe 7Iucco Anqel..he otraqe of fashion.aft and Voli. "o eymbolof thie aqe Kenault. old an wae Camille who eculVNor.. a Vroduced newworld of torms made of a e. world made Voeoible conby cref.Nrees.beqinninq theaf. . Renault' ing to Daudrillard. concrele(and latrerVlaelic).erteif.Then. lhe simulacrumtriceae lhe newrieinqclaee ed af.7lucco aleo wasorllyone more oteV to Vlaolic. est orch ra.he imaqeof God.o trhebeqinninq of Ihe lndueNrial RavoluNion.Nurned lhe and discovered the Ardenneo f ducing pertecf. simulacramoldedof etuc' DUN co. d ealhl es s. the medieval Durinq periodNheworld wae creaf. hoq. in lhe era of early modernif.e-which for him wae like a in a6 emerqed Ihis Veriod a medium of baroqueaft.drawero. but.NemVt No creahef'he world in iNeown image. fashioned an machineo.

No l o n q e r s t r h es i m u l a c r u m c o u n i a LertdL likeCamille KanaulL'o hog.rial mecnera anizedmeaneof maeeaoeembly and producf.which by nowbecome lhe dominanf.ural objecle. l T Iike aulomobilee rollirlq the off line-bul aeoembly i IHt |JLfl[HlJl 5|I. Vrin' Lhe ciVle-reVlacinq worldof nat7uL.h ee i m .l H[[ill't t5 '. Whereao Camille Kenaull molded arlificialworldby hie hand. !gr'g'rF_g tT"'$rLF fiifft4{Ti 'l .accordinq Saudrillard. concreLe I h e l n d u e l r i aR a v o l u l i o n .in the induef.headvenl of ulacra now becomeinfinitely re?rol d u c i b l eh r o u q hi n d u e l r i a m a e z l produclion.oryto Nurnouf.ion enable Kenault a aulomobile facf.or an i$finiteeeriee. evenarl ouccumbet o the force of mechanical reprod ucLion.replicae care. Kep ducti on ie ro governed markel forcee. to we are now in lhe Third)rder of )imulacra-the era of ToeImodernity-lhe era of models.TheSecondOrderof Simulacra a??earewiLhf. maeoeeof exacf. of WhengholograVhy cinema and arriveon trheocene.

cookbookg." ('tu 63-04). Theeecodes not. adv efi. e l e v i "Diqilalityie iVemef. And such yoqa videos.TheVreoidinq in ?ower trhis m e n f . . ?rophet.a c o m m o d i era is Nhe modelor the code. T we have oex videos. how't o LesIs nof.isin t elevieion very eco?e of the issuee binary requla|ion-where o n l y V r o v i d em od ' oVf els buf. Thus our liveeare cont rolled by a oyotem of q.l i m i l i n qt h e and lhin7e we may choose from. H algodetermine or"no" buN o u r o p l i o n e . weqring ColvinKlein our cu\ural life ie baeed or Jordoche?' on a variety of codee.in.s i o n ?roqram. entrinq t a n d n e w e ? a ? e r sr o provideNhesecodes.trhe queof. a n d n e w o s s u eo r a ? o i DNA ie its l i t i c a l c a n d i d a l e . t y .an adverlise- . .aVhyei. El You meon like: " A r e y o u w o t c hi n g erned by Ihe doytime TV or not? "code" of qrammar Areyou buyingPepsi or and our bioloqical Coke? you for con' Are ?roce?oeo are conX didqte or Y? Are you trolled by the DNA code. our reg?oneeoto "yeo" videog. Every o f t h e I e s t ' h a s b e e n r e - time we reepond duced No an eilherlor binary "yeo" or "no" t'o code: a fashion.ionlanewer ion uallylest' ue. Juet' as lan- our re6?on6e ie monitored. a c a l V r i n c i p l e .?arexercige manuale.also conf. only regtrricL quaqe ie qovmanualg. a t . n Exactly. a V o l l .

if we feel we hove o choicebetween Pepsiond Chon' Coke.o reVreeenN differencee but. everylhing becomes reduced to cybernetice-t o a binarycode thaL geeme f. For baudrillard t'he Nwinf. Thue. oinqular are buill decades for af. which only minimizes differenceoae iN Noqqlesback and fofth belween "yeo"or "nol' TeVei Coke. and comearlier. KeVubor licanor Democral. While binaryeyeNem. between o Republicon ond q Democrot.Nhe t'wo pele aqqreaoively t owerestrandlor lhe "clo6ureof Ihe oygof Lem in a verhiqo duVlicalion"lotutb6-T).only perpetuateo binary eyolem. in realiNy. Ihie oelf-requlalinq.owereof Ihe H t'his eymbolize NewYork WorldTradeCent.tl. After qll. ond Copitolism-oll ruled by betweenSociolism whqt more o binory.of This oyoT'em binarychoicesacf'g ao a "deherradical chanqe' rence modell'whicheu??reoses pl w.betweenthe Soopsqnd the Discovery nel. which. I con see how thqt would hoppen.tent'ion.er the olher ekyecra?ere. - _::+ . either/ot4l1-logic-then do we need? .

ekide. Consider the caoe of Joe Tlayer. Jurassic oeemoNo leaVNowardhim. He is anothercar on a curve. Joe Tlayer'e How'oNhat? Becouse Jurassic Park is obout people either possively occepting refusing or to buy into beingpossiveobservers o of spectocufor.um a ad via code.ie it self a monetrouosimulacra qeneraNed infinif.E E E Tomeit seems thefifm like park. of generoted infinitumby od meons codes. monstrous worldof simulocro. too f ast to evadeNheoncominq truck thal \r. Vaeeing He is doinq22O. A eecond laNer the craeh evaporalee.He slams on the brakes. inculburat ed VeoVle int o Toslmoderneociety are 60 surrounded simulacra by Nheyno lonqerhavea choice. aleo realize NhaI your veryexample. tir .lhe film Juraeeic Fark. of n t Thal'e brilliantlbutr you muet.buI accordinq 7auto drillard. copies. He is on a narrowmounLain road. He CrashlTheNwovehiclee up in a go burst of flame. 17-year-old an behind the wheelof a car.

heexVerience a lmagine of Chrietiannun in medieval EuroVe. imVure coVieo a univereal of and ldealEeeence Doqgineea.Whenhe he runeouI of qua(bers qoeo ] lof'. ae he pulleout'inf.The icon reffecle a The feminine realiNy.in ?latro'e VhiloeoVhy. the worehipo icon of the an Madonna.racinglo Vaeo anothercar juetrahead of him.Joe ?layer is eurfinq the simulacrum. f. car rea??eare Foore it. ie inq tro ?laNo.o\ Lraffic.Joe Tlayeris ?layinq a videoqame.. Tacman eaNsdobs. a A cockeropaniel. And in Ihis hao hapVened ef.aqee. ineNance. He feels IhaI if he ran into them he would juel ea| them likeMe.Lrue copy because is so closetrothe original lhat.into hio gx out. wouldbe. Germanohepfor herd. the couldbe calledan idolater-a worohiVer an idol. iI doesn'L. of view. icon is divine it a qood. buI.o NheeViritual?reoence behind the form. ei accordOriqinally rnulac?urn. Nhefalse copU that overshadowsour expertence of bhe essential and ldeal Forme. of .hrown very concepl of true co?y. Nor do Nhecare on lhe road.or a collie.into Ihe Varkinq realcar.He unecathed.Toel7ut in Saudrillard'a Nhe modernity hae ovefr.. in her meditationeNhenun awakene l. eeemreal.

imaqee. t'hereie a foufth pereVective.He feels Nhat the whole is t'hinqie a farce.hereie no divinebeing-hidee bhe abeence a divinebeinq.ive that of the ekeVIic. the simulacrum.bad coVies. Therefore. euch imageoare evil.ln f.feel NhaN )he imaqeerevealdivinily. and ehouldbe deslroyed.o factr. the eimulation. beoomee the real! You meon like thereore o million copiesnot of the Modonno-but of Modonno-which becomemore reol thon Mqdonno the person? .1uT' trheiconoclasN seeethinqo differenNly. ln era.but mask and perve(D Nhedivine. the oopy. A f'hird ?ero?ect. NheToeNmodern icone. of Finally. doeo not. copiee-simulabione-bear no reaemblance any realiry.The icon of Ihe Madonnaonly hidestrhefactrlhat t.

like.. decide between am I like a like Virgin or like a like Whore. Today. "cool" or like "sucks. of course. edit with like.Holy Writ which they. players. not my belly button. there are millions of me and like. it is not like. leploducing. infinitely. Beavis and Butthead binary brains: they like think that my image. prayers wete. in a like. which has become the reaa. * -/ . Madonna.like... were only the outer expressions of a. and mil. but. Virgin. wrote down." It is the image of my belly button.. lions of my like belly buttons.KS . the Madonna who dominates. fike domfnatcd. the. ' @ ] s 4 f f i It a!.i@.@@.gJ{ ffi={ q 5uc. like. like. like. by a single image-that of the Holy. Madonna. ::=. my image that undulates forevetmore. belly button.t4 a I 4 F € .flc! Today it is like.. r THIS : : t ' . like. like. like. deep fntcrcou?le they were having with the mystical Word that illumined their. like. like. bouncing back and forth before everyone's vision as if trying to like. all these. is either like. the image ol my like. But of course. erotic stream of images that MTV viewers.4]1. like. * t q r d . like.

is t akenfor f.'N. gut lhey are nol.. the lAOf. cyberbliNz.its Tom gawyer'eleland.M a r i Disn and World.buN ! more than real. ende uV coverinq f. of Loe Anq lead ue to believe are (a21.ln coverinqu? f'he beril ri|.wilh iNeTirat'.ier.. and Top ArL. ente(bainment' suchas Varko EnchanledVillage M n M a g i c o u ta i n . of ln lhe universe Hollywood.heNerritory.ory. Theytoo and America a hyVerred-p ure eimul crum.are the pertect exa hyVerrea of Vlee rhe hyVerceal. more real than real. For baueocie|y ie drillard one of lhe characteriet'iceof Tost'modern Nhat we are all similarlyentrancedby ourfingthe eimulacra. Fron f. For Daudrillard.he real.ee.Theee ae worlde ?reeented imaqinary only are Ihat. and of eVecLacle t'he mediaecaVe-siqne the dazzlinq lo imaqeono lonqerbear any corceeVondence t'he "real" world-bul creale Iheir own <-- lhat hVperrealiNy-an orderof represenrafion is and haoroplaced'realiLy' is noI lhe unreal.its Fulure World.lilllll1 T his emVhaeizee n Daudrillard 0 0 1nl I nol wilh hio bellybuIIon bul wit'hI h e tale in whicht'he cart'o7raphero frorqeo draw u? a ma? eo of an emVire det ailedbhat it. eoVecially ite land. .

audrill 3 ard ar6u how ee. reality energy. As but.a simulacrumof whal an "ori4inal" pre-civilizedt ribe " ehould" looklikebefore ethnologyl F Ft H $ . For paradinqNheecandalouo illeqalities of home. eimulT..-a town of fabulous?ro?ortiono. the ThiliVVines of re-siluat ed a emall tribe of Taeaday junqle lndians their ori7inal l.No remain demacracyre?reeenV deviation a from lhe norm-and lhal t:he eyeLemof governmenlin general reeVecls law and morality. ever. that in removing Taeaday the f rom mod ern civilizaNi et hnol qy on.in 1971.ao muaha film etudlos.ea mere model. needsthie old imaginary makeup oignalsand faked phantasmsfor its of childhood sympalhet'icnervouooyetem (?lM 26).ian imVlieo. the qovernmenf.f. whichis nothing morethan an immenae ocript.aneouely ignoreothe real f aloely.Los Angeles is enoircled by theoe "imaginary stations" which feed reality. accordinq the Io qovernffient'o ethnologigt f. is nothingmorethan a networkof endleso.to a town io whoee myot. The Death of the Real also ineVireea VroliferaT.this town. tribe could liveuncorcup\ed civby ilizaf.ion mytho of of origin.he o. o t/ I I n NheNixo adminiehraf.Thus. and a ?er?etual molion machine.o living amonq'Ws and care-and creaf.Here.ery precisely / that it. much and nuclear as eleatrical ?owergtationg. What Saudrillard callelhe Oeath of the Real arouaes noelalgic aNtempteNo reaurrect the real.withoute?aceor dimensione.hat NhesaaffronNef. SaudrillardeeesWahergale ao one such attemVt.ion.o Taeaday-who wanf. unrealcirculation.

Wafer' qaf. oriqinal.he oriqinalcave6-an exacl reVlicaof the caveehae been created in order to Vreoerve lhe lt. vastrVoetfallin7?reyto Nhe occaeionally huntinqtrribee IhaI deVended u?onIhe herdefor Nheir eubeielence. rhinoceroeeo. Thus.lhatrteeminqherde qrazinq of maqnificenl animals Vaeeedin wavesacroee trhe qlaciallandeca?e. And in the oameway. Taoaday.erefrom f.in thaT.iste Vainf.marnmof.he Keal. hae become more real than the real cave.e. the has also t akenVlace lhe at caveoof Lascauxin soulhern France.the hypercealtrakeeover* The Dieneyland.modernscience recently hao gearedup Lo eave trhemumrryof Rameeell. And wilh hy?erreality all Nhe 6iv ally VoNentri Volitical. this representotion of whqt q tribe should look like wos ceqted only by ethnology? No @ rru.hanthe real ibeelf. real.In other words.ed primitive nificenlformg. ma7art.with the Death of f.bison.oday 5OO mef. exVlo e. AndrhisaT. Ihe subtrercanean caveo.the oriqinal. the Lascauxgimulacrummore real f.he realml Volitical . clooinq millennia the laetr of GlacialAqe. Ihat had Volaranlaqonisme inhabiled and animaledLhe int RealcollaVee o one anot'her-implod* eci eoV ally in f.durinqthe lt.And iI wae here. Yet f. wae here.hg.NemVN regurrect.

in blind circles.somewhot bloodshot. BOng!! smoke oboveon ort blossoming ' museum.E con yougiveme on exomple? E ' somewhere-Vilnius. CD.flying in concertwith frogmentsof recliningnudesond peocefulttolion londscopes.chosingshredsof newspoperor otom- suppose bombgoes o off izeddroplets espresso. perhopsoirline tickets-cohor vulsingsposmodicolly omid floweringsof brick or morble dust ond spent plostique. or governmentdocuments. Ripplingwoves of the explosionsuffocoting deoth screqms.o grovernment building. AdisAbobo. Poris. frogments on of of Elvis oll whirligiging qbsurd.perverse orbits. surging kqleidoscopi- . Splotsof humon flesh. or perhopson oir terminol.bits of eyeballs.

aonetit'utes Facte no longer have anytrajectory of t'heir own..they ariee at the intereectionof the models. this ?receesion. orbit'ing whirliqiqing. f codeeor modele.in the image of modele from whiah t"hey proaeed. aroundtrhemereeVacV-accordin7 No eelabliehed "9imulation ie charact'erized a W of the model.a einglefact' may by evenbe engendered all the modelsat onae. absurd. exf. .have nothing t'o do wiih the facts.?erverge.remee? KiqhI-winq 3 Lo aVVealinq the publicneedfor eecurily?The answer(e). orbit. in the oenee that their truth is exchangeable.of all mod' ?receooion ele around the meregt fact'-t'he models comefirst. Corrupt Volice eaye Daudrillard. ln a generalizedcycle"(alu 32).thie short-circuit (no more diverno genceof meaning.LeftieI ex1remisld H Thatlejuetthe queetion lo Nhe ekinheade? Cenlriste seekinq diecredit. more dlalectical polarity. All Ihe media and ree?onoes are and inlerVreNalione alreadypreVroqrammed all in naueeoue circleo. and t'heir orbital (like the bomb) circulation the genuinemagnetia field of evente.E whodidit? I# Saudrillard aeke. even the most contradictory-all are true.Thie anticipation.no more negative electricity or implosion of polee) ie what each time allowsfor all lhe poooibleinterpretatione.

aimulatione ln and eimulacra. liVotrick. condoffie. . furniture. the code come6 fireV. neulralizedand neutered frowof codeo.ies. tL.onothinq.in half and trhen g o a a n da q a i n n da q a i n . f evenf. abeolute of imVloding abeorVtion-where trhe difference belween r e a l a n d e i m u l a t i o n i s a ? ?e a r s . q l i n q l i k et r h ec u r v i n q V i r a l o f a M o b i u s o e cuf. AuI it is invisible-one eeeo only its e i m u l a l i o n s . and eimulacrum. f ormer antaqonisyrlo.e.i m V l o d e e d inf.e p i n n i no u f .in half aqain et rip cut. intrermincurveback u?ontheir oVVoeif. hyVerceallty the model. imaqeeof Madonna'e bellybutlon.&.foods.Thus.alion. t inwarde o a Voint. Volarif.ee.i d e n f . trhereis no realiry behind ln the hyVerceal Ihis qeneralized. V i r a l i n g galaxiee f re?reeent.ical televisionimaqeo.ac e h o V V i n m a l l ef i l l e d il q with idenT.medicinee. o o real and Voeitive neqalive.brae.

ry conT.. bueted-that ln The Shadowof The Oilent Majorities tltr ghadowof the gilent Majoritiee(ogv In H ln anorherbook. iI io Ihey. watch '.loaling freelyabove allanlagoniomo. And in orbit'.hey Loo'"". imVl d e into a a e o ? eimulabion. the 1970)'Daudrillard conhends thaL whaN had been oocietyhae imVloded inlo a hyVerconformieT' obeeeeed much body eo wilh epectacle Nhatil r hqs s| Butwhot othereffects this hqd on society? . It watrchee over us like whirliqiqs DNA. ^ Volar .yovof erningthe mutaNione Nhereal into trhe of hyperreal. and life. and we watch TV watching over us.r cL. that are being the whole trhinqie takinq Vlacelive-IhaV the cope and Nhecamera havebueNed inhoIheir livinq room. W watchea us.'r Lhe cope breakin trhedoor and bust them-live!-but lr. Life has become TV and W. are qluedNolhe tube No realize Ihat.realand hyperceal.eleco e. dichot'omiee dieeolve. T. 7eneralized A deterrenceis qeneraled.A1omic war willneverhaVVen.hyver-eimulation: t h e L u n a rm o d u l e . hyVerceal The mediaeVectracle the nuclear of arm6 raceand the e?acerace imploded ant agonieme the lhe of In hyVerreality antraqonisme and euper?owero toward a ?eacefulco-exislence.lunar. watchinq TV.lhemselvee.orbitingaroundu6.Iheul1imaLe end vroduct of Nheevace race ie trhecool.Likethe Deaviaand 'tT AuIIhead epieodein which :'i'*1 the two. c oll Vs e. life.

ercaolinq a oly eidelonq qlance. .wouldrather walch'N Lhan NakeVolilicalaclion. io hyVer. wa6 an involved and elaborat riNual e requiring the exchanqe love?oemo..On 5eduction.Dut.aculare. mago entrerXainmenf.eown ende. All thie hae oiqnaled dealh of the social.. whi pere. evenmoremoonghot rock eVecf. g. aValhetic becauee realizee IhaN any atrIemVItro chanqeNheeyetrem eimVlybe will co-oVtedby lhe oyetem for if.demanding ?aogive. the medieval in Couraly courte of eouthernFrancein Nhe 11Nh cenNury. adroiNevaeione. eyeeeuddenly downcael aft. double enf. .half unveilingo. lt becomee electrifiedonly by compuler nelworkeand electronic media-by whichif. o dre jealoueies.e-yet euoVicioue eceVlical. f ainlinq. teeted.en e. and hyVedby modelelhal itr hae become ine(Yand bored. trhe On 5eduction ln his nexl book. resigtanf. feiqnedrefusale.lee. love. blushee of behind fforalfane. Daudrillard Nalkeaboul love.eurren erin . implic alione.atr trheeamelime it. kisses blownfrom lhe ramVar2eof caef. ie eo polled. Nitillabione. feint e. and if. half d 0o.

butrthere ie aleo.eeducbion ie feminine.inq. a cool eeduclion-the eeduclion eimuof . is neither drillard.ualsex-in Ihe Vrolonqing art. Sexuali|yio Ihis )exualiNy.ralion. lf.Vhallic of eexuality tion.io not culturalbul naturala form of maetrery overIhe real univeree. Andfor 1authat. Freudwao riqhb: f.cenT. the on of.ingin Nhe Lurewhichie diecriminaf.tt/i r::.And it ie onlylhrouqh euchseduclion that the maeculine can be eubvefredl Thieie hoI seduclion. gervegno to ?ur?o6e dream of somenon- afbificial and oymbol.hereio onlyone einqle eexuality. of mast ery overT.her. )ex. f the dieplay of a ehoulder or breaeN beneathblack lace.juch moveo Nhe dielincl et rucin qame of court. and arAifice eeduc. u?oninfinitedeferral-in Nheputlinq off of acf.ered the on ?lay of r. on Nheolher hand. . ic-deliqhf. one einqle libidomaeculine.he on na0ural.Feminine eeductionrelies on aflificemakeup.lylove werearielocraNic. ie a form il Nered the Vhalluo.{ gardeae a maeculine a(Difice eiqneand of mode-alwaye cengeeburee.. Vhallue.herhand.aehion. oymbolic universe.heqame it eelf Thegame relied faf. caef.for Daudrillard.repreooion.baudrillardrebarcednor markedeED16). non-a rlifi cial. )ince seduclion ie composed the of . lhe nameof Ihe Thereion'I any other.

in America.. He tion of de Tocqueville'e Oealh of Sexuality in wrole Ihat he found . America ln the early 19rh cenlury NheFrench count Alexiede Iook a IriV Tocqueville lo the NewWorld.Le Jazz-myevariousaeNifyinq Vecte of Americaas e ally eeeenf.Lhe Iille of an imVorLanI chapter is "Vaniehing ?oint.followedin de TocquewhichVrovided t. empty deserx mof.ville' f oolst e?6.?ro' 1ocial.lacra-of filme. Toetmodern by taking a road f.er. road Oaudrillard's IriV.?oor democracy. iohinqinlo emVf.ion which we geduceoureelveg our' by immeroing eelvesin a Vlayof simulalions. reveale Americaof an van' surtace qlit'Ner.ione culture. in civilization. and the Tostrmodern simularacy in Amenca.neon liqhto.ele.." referringtothe Death of Meaning. ln hie nexl.book n ard cont'i uee b a udrill on his medilaT.riVIo f.he mosf' of Toshmodern Tost'modernculNuresAmerica.'ineee.lheDeath of the e ial for one of hie besl. ln factr. lhe idols of Nhesilver or Technicolor ecreen-a selfin seducf.b a udrill s also contravelogue forms trothe more recenl Frenchfixations on such Ameri' cana as NhedeeerA'. maf. that eoca?e imaqeo male eexualit'y. the Death of knownworks:Democ' vidinq. radio.a the ?olitical. l n t r h e1 9 7 O e n d a 19bOs Oaudrillard ard' a ccounf'. the AmericanWlld Wesf.i VrimiNiv and oavaqe. eiqno. landgcaVeo. oVeeding VaoI vietas of endlees road eiqne. Americarich in but. the Death of Reality.

he "wall-No all proolilut * *. of rraffic and Vedeetriansin Loe Angelee.For baudrillard rhie visionof Americais rhe model for t'he resl of Nheworldlhe code for an emerqinq r? *t hyperreal and eimur^+ ^ ) world.ion:Objecrein thie mirror may be cloeerLhanthey aVVear! 1ae1 The realitieeof NheVre-oimulacrumera vanishing miraqee like in a rearview mircoris an a?ocalyVricvieion-a vieionof the end of the world..^lrE^.trhe of deeerbof meaninqfut oocief.trheTostmodern univerge. lunar deserD astral America. Daudrillard'e lraveloque beqino wilh the warninq onefinds on oomerearview mircors.-L ^r .. joqqere. dry..elandin oca?e6or cirysca?eo."And of Americais a deeerf. whetherin lhe insanemovemenf. Sanha Barbara or of of )antra Cruz. bodiescirculatinqon freewayo Vluqged o com?uror int er circuirs.^.thege"realitieg" recede into a vanishin7 point in Daudrillard's rearview mircoron hie drivelhrouqh Death Valley.y.er the world.whetherin the uloVia of California.B Nion"of NewYork.^t ^ .empNynon-culhure.2L1. oecauee thie America of ie "the cenT.=_* of like Vlumee smoke "girlswrinqinq oul Lheirhair . \e * ' "* * .with ite VtrJll r-/l l\L/VV lU/l N.L '!.-r.Nheparadiee of r. VVlVll lV-J iffiffi.. ln facf'. ot erile. | - LB- .b in the qreat neonwhoreof Lae -w Veqao.unedto a dead channel-wheNher if.. Cauf.-esVecially in ite citiee-a Vlacewhere"real life" hae vanishedinto a kindof qlirLerinq. emVtya6 a'N f. And rhie emVty.

VrimiNiv ar e. T H Actually.\9 \-r \'J E \\J ilr N.works-we are all likeechizophrenics.ion-which. eleclrifyinq. is of in the title of hie nexLbook.Ihisie one of the main criticismsof Saudrillard: only ree?onoe offere f. anim eNi viN pof. per real.heechizophrenic.becomeo ?ure a 6creen.lI is too cloee.afLer balhinq...t . the new Toetmodern univeree of int erconnecT."with ils "beaufy of the blackand 7uefro Kicowomen" wilh ibs allurinq"Tigmenlation of lhe dark racee"wibhiIe Nribes and gangeand Mafia.rr 1\ -(.rein movedfrom realily-butr realily preeeesin u?onhim. ali c.o the The he ffowof mediaimaqeoie paeeive eurrender-an eceT.with itrevioIenc e-3 audrill d'6 America ie t urbulent. For f.aoy communicaf. The Eastaoyof Communicaiion Accordinqto baudrillardin TheEcstaey of in Communication. facI.is no|. He doee not mirror realily buf. huddled hie cell.enl. haveall become we like '( tfi. al.ltr ie abeolulely close. 1imilarly.iviLy-of Lelevision and compuler nef. . hy It seemsos if Boudrillord hqs surrenderedto Postmodern Americq in q kind of possiveecstosy.

invaeion our former of Vrivacyie bolh ecotatic and obecene. And 1audrillard underet ands thal trhebeel way t o makehie lheoriee competrilive t o is Iransform them inNohyVerceal eimula- Oaudrillard Lhan Oau.oo-vieual.. 7ul1audrillard informeue in hie introduclionlhal Ecataoy ie only a eimulation modelof oomeof hie earlier booke-a simulation in whichSaudrillard him' out-tsaudrillards eelf-becominq more forgeLthaf. eVinoul Juraeeic We .ivelece. in trhe French cullural6cene theoriee are juet. To drillard. And thie Vromiocuou.inq our moof.y lonqer harboreany gecret.ion.t elevieion andcomVuler 9Creen6E h o e el u n r i - noue eyee illuminatinq nd a even Venetraf.he Frenchcullural marketplace.not. obgcene An eceNaey-a coollun seducT. ar trricVornoqraVhy of imaqeeand excessive informalionfeeding u?onue.e e?aceewith an obecene ?reooure. The obeceniLy not of the hidden but of the allf. a Vroducinq et aie of giddiness lo which eurcender we in an Ecef. like commodiliee-trhey are in comVetriLion with other theorieein f. musf. ?enelratinq all our private o?ace6.tione of theory.privaf.y like of faecinaf. the obscenif.aey Comof municalion. a fft ?ornoqraVhic clooe-up. The that no obeceniT.

of technologies on culturesis so intense. .tc can ref. ' of undersf. in hie later work.acks on hie fellow made famous. b ut.ion writ ers do a bet'ter the job al deocribinq impactrof cybefi'echthan doee noloqiee at. of Toet'modern cleemean| for Vublic lendinq con6urn\. Daudrillard. hag been criticized. ln Thatr's facl.sincethe imPoct Tark monsl'ersof baudrillard's Nheory. lrue.frh :l is actuallydoinqoci' Frenchintellect'uals ence ficlion inst'ead eVectraare hyVerreal theory. eome Toetmodern f.urnNo laf'er. to science we is a Eop. oomecritice c l a i mt h a l O a u d r i l lard.ance.emenle guchae "TheGulf War neverhappened!' ln facL.ion. l$l Butit seems moreand more thot Postmodern t oward a kind of van' iehingVoinLFor inehe f.andinq the mediahas madehim an eftective comVet'iIor-a kind of celebriNy-because hie atf.by hYVerrealst'af.hinkersoaYlhaN e cerlain s cienc ficf.but aleo theory would hove to be similur fiction.

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