A complete storage battery ( or cell) consists of negative and positive plates. The negative plates are soldered to one terminal known as negative terminal and all the positive plates are soldered to the positive terminal. They are so assembled that each of the positive plates is interlinked between two negative plates. As the negative and positive plates are kept close to each other, there is always an increasing tendency for short circuit which is avoided by keeping wooden, ebonite, glass or rubber seperators in between each positive and negative plate. Chemical action during Discharging when the external circuit is closed of this Cell or Battery. Dilute H2SO4 decomposes giving the ions of H2 and SO4. The H2 ions move towards the +ve PbO2 plate and SO4 ions towards the lead plate. On +ve plate PbO2 + H2 + H2SO4= PbSO4+2H2O Lead sulphate +water On –ve plate
= Pb+SO4=PbSO4

Thus, during discharge

(i) Both anode and cathode become lead sulphate (PbSO4) which is somewhat whitish in colour.
(ii) Due to formation of water, specific gravity of the acid decreases. (iii) Voltage of the cell deceases. (iv) The cell gives out energy. Hence, during charging :

(i) The anode becomes dark chocolate brown in colour (PbO2) and cathode becomes gey metallic

(ii) Due to consumption of water, specific gravity of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) is increased.
(iii) Voltage of the accumulator rises. (iv) Energy is absorbed in the cell.

1. Container. The container is made of hard rubber or bituminous compound which
accommodates plates , separators, electrolyte, etc. In it. There are ribs at the bottom of the cell which make sediment chamber or mud house. The plates on these ribs or bridges. The active material from the plates falls down and collects in it. A partition wall is provided between the two cells so that their electrolytes do not get mixed.

2. Plates. +ve and –ve plates. These are of types-(a) plante type (b) Faure type.

Positive and negative plates are welded separately with it forming positive group and negative group post terminals. 4. Constant voltage method In this method charging voltage is constant throughout the charging. 3. 6. there are vent-plugs in the cell cover for easy escape for gas. The voltage of cell is when discharged is 1. The Battery should not be left in discharged continues for long time Charged . Electrolysis take place when current passes. perforated rubber or celluloid and are used to insulate te active plates from one another. As upward extension from each connecting bar forms the terminal pole. 8. charging current is high in the beginning However reduce as the battery back emf increases. 9. These are made from specially treated wood. Sealing compound. 5.discharged should be normal rates. so that acid may not come out while cell in use. It is made from bitumen compound and is used to form an acid tight joint between the covers and containers. 2. The specific gravity when fully charged Battery is 1280 11. plates are made by paste process. . These are obtained by moulding hard rubber and are used to cover the cell.Plante type plates are formed from pure lead by repeated charge and discharge.1 volts Precaution for using battery 1. Separators should be such that acid electrolyte should be able to pass through these separators. For lead acid cell the electrolyte used in dilute solution of sulphuric acid. 7. The adjustment terminal posts are then welded. Plate connectors. They are made of pure lead.9 volts 12. Electrolyte. The battery is charged till the cells are gassing freely and the specific gravity of the electrolyte and the terminal voltage of the battery remains constant. Plates in the cells are so arranged that the negative terminal of one cell is close to the positive terminal of the next cell and so on. These plates are immersed in dilute H2SO4. Do not over charge the Battery. This usually consists of three parts of water to one part of sulphuric acid and thus has a specific gravity of 1250 approx. This method is most common method of charging. The voltage of cell is when fully charged is 2. Method of charging. . Red lead Pb3O4 is oxidized to lead peroxide PbO2 forming the positive plate and negative litharge PbO educed to spongy lead. Cells are connected in series to form battery. In case of Faure type. Separators. Cell cover. formed in the cell during charge. The specific gravity of at initial charge of cell is 1250 10. Cell connectors. 3. Active material is pasted in lead made grids in the form of paste of red lead Pb3O4 on the +ve plates and paste of PbO on –ve plates.

sulphuric acid. In this tester there is a one resistance of one value which works as a load on the cell of the battery. Clean the two terminals of tester and cell before using. It should be connected with cell terminals for a long time. discharged conditions also indicated. On the same volt meter dial charged. Full charged 2. It consists of glass made tube with bulb. The bulb sink in the electrolyte while with strong sulphuric acid the bulb will come up. READING OF HYDROMETER 1. hence it gives reading.HIGH RATE DISCHARE CELL TESTER This is a tester which gives the correct terminal voltage at full load of the battery cell. The glass tube is filled with the small lead pieces and is fitted with scale on which specific gravity is written. The electrolyte is so filled that the hydrometer should be stick on the upper head or the bottom of the outer tube. One volt meter is connected to read the voltage. Dead 1280(specific gravity) 1260 1200 1180 . When the ball of the meter is pressed and released which keeping in this meter electrolyte of the cell. the electrolyte comes in the outer glass tube in which hydrometer bulb floats and gives reading with dil. The hydrometer is kept is another glass tube on one side of the tube rubber ball is fitted and on other side nozal is fitted. Full dischared 4. Half charged 3. so the cell will be discharged quickly. HYDROMETER This meter is used to test the specific gravity of liquids. This tester gives the reading to one cell only at the time. because it gives heavy load on the cell.

All the parts of motor are very heavy and strong so that the unit can be stand stress of developing and transmitting the cranking power. This circuit is not through the ammeter. The Electric motor used for cranking the Engine is a special over load D C series motor. is created pulls the plunger further into the core and the contact disc short circuits the two contacts and the circuit between the battery and cranking motor is completed. . so that the special type of switches with heavy contact enough to carry the high current without over heating or damage or used such as. is placed as shown in fig. the magnetic field. when the switch becomes on. CRANKING MOTOR CONTROL Cranking may draw several 100 amp from the battery during the cranking.. the winding is energized. It has got very heavy conductors both the field as well as armature winding and so it take very high current and also deliver a high horse power for its size for short period of time.Testing of Starting motor Alternator Theory STARTING MOTOR To start the engine so that it begins to operate under its own power it is necessary to rotate in the beginning. This can be done either by manually operated handle or by cranking motor. SOLENOID SWITCH In this switch the winding Is wrapped around a hallow core and a cylindrical iron plunger having a contact disc at one side .

Modern generators are having a fan assembled on the drive and under the generators drives the pulley for cooling of the generator.C. The output of the alternator converting into D. Mostly this alternators are mounted on the engine block.Do not operate the cranking motor more than 30 sec at a time without passing a few minutes to let it cool off.e lower set and upper set. also current regulators not required. because of resistance inserted or removed in the field circuit. field winding. A.C. For continuous operation of an automobile the battery has to remain in the automobile itself. The process adopted for this involve certain device which are alternator.it has primary winding of few hundred turns of relatively heavy wire and a secondary winding of many thousand turns of very fine wire both are wound on the same core the primary winding usually being wound on outside of the secondary winding the winding is sealed in a metal case to which a top made insulating material immersed in insulating compound or oil ignition coil function just like a transformer When interrupted DC is fed in the primary winding of the ignition coil High voltage is induced in the secondary winding.C. field relay. indicator lamp relay. Ignition coil : Ignition coil consist if two winding . So in this system there is no necessary to provide the cut off relay as the rectifying diode prevent the reverse current or discharge of the battery through the generators stator windings. But when current stop flowing in the primary. because the self limiting generators are used. .A battery supply Electric Energy to the entire Electrical system of the Automobile. ALTERNATOR A alternator are being used for charging of the battery. in such a way that the engine fan belt also drives the alternator. At intermediate speed the lower contact points open and close or vibrate. The voltage regulator has two sets of contact points i.C. by using three phase diode bridge. An alternator consists of a three phase stator winding and D. The indicator lamp relay operate the indicator lamp which remains ‘OFF’ when the generator sending current towards battery but ‘ON’ when the generator not charging the battery and the ignition switch is kept ‘ON’. Winding A very high voltage is produced in the secondary winding that voltage is enough to cause a spark to jump the spark plug gap. The field relay contacts of the generators field to the battery when the ignition is made ‘ON’. if goes therefore without saying that the battery charging should take place without being removed. this prevents over heating. three unit regulator consists of a voltage regulator. The surge then produces the spark and ignites the compressed air fuel mixture . IGNITION SYSTEM &FAULTS Theory Function of Ignition system: The ignition system supplies the High voltage surges to spark plug in the Engine cylinders at he exact instant just in the position near TDC on the compression stroke. voltage regulator. The working of voltage regulator is more or less similar to the D.

Testing of regulator &cut out Theory. The spark plug consists of metal shell to which is fastened a porcelain insulator and Electrode extending through the centre of the Insulator this metal shell has a short electrode attached to one side and bend in to words the centre electrode there are threads on the metal shell that allow it to be screwed into a tapped hole in the cylinder head the two electrode are of special heavy wire and there is a gap of up to0. REGULATOR& ITS NEED The regulator is an Electromagnetic device which operate just like a cut out relay it provides control or regulation of the generator out put and function just like a magnetic switch which open and closed magnetically this unit of voltage regulator which regulate the voltage in the electric system and prevents excessive voltage which would cause damage to the electric units and over charge of battery the current regulator regulates the current prevent the generator out put from increasing beyond the rated output of the generator the cut of relay close and open the circuit from generator to the current to flow in reverse direction from battery to generator when it is stopped. THREE UNIT CURRENT AND VOLTAGE REGULATOR 1.then when the points are opened as the same continues to rotate this Energy is unloaded from the coil in the form of High voltage surge and the same is transmitted to the proper spark plug (in cylinder ready to firing) by the Distribution cap as shown in Fig. The distributor consist of two separate devices in one a fast acting switch and the distributing mechanism The distributor shaft rotates which causes the contact point to close and open when the points are closed the Ignition coil connected to the battery and this loads the coil with Electric Energy . . SPARK PLUG.Ignition Distribution.040inch between them the electric spark jump this gap to ignite he air fuel mixture in the combustion chamber passing from the centre or insulated electrode to the grounded on the outer electrode the seals between the metal base porcelain and centre electrode as well as porcelain it self must be able to withstand the high pressure and temperature created in the combustion chamber during the power electrode. The current regulator has a single low resistance coil which carries the generator output and is thus responsive to current variations it function is to limit the generator output to its maximum value under heavy load condition when when for example the battery is in a low state of charge or a short circuit.

Its function is to limit the generator voltage to predetermined maximum 3. Head light consists of three elements the two filament reflector and lens the filament glows and gives off light and their reflector performs the job of directing the light in proper direction the reflector is made of polished curved surface which reflects the diverting the beam of lite in to one concentrated cylindrical beam and the lens help in such way that the maximum amount of road is illuminated with a fair degree of evenness the second filament provides the lower beam for city driving or for passing it is so placed with respect to the reflector that when it is lighted the light beam is directed some what more sharply downward then is the driving beam the road immediately ahead of the is thus illuminated and driver of any incoming car is not blinded. . Lighting circuits The lighting circuit of a Head light park light tail lamp stop light switch dimmer switch &Instruments switch 2.2. The cut out Relay is an automatic switch connected between generator and battery the cut contact are magnetically closed when generator voltage is high enough to charge the battery and open when the generator voltage falls below that of the battery so that the battery does not discharge through the generator at low speed. Study of Automobile wiring 1. Voltage regulator has a main high resistance coil which connected in parallel with the generator Armature and is thus responsive to generator voltage variations.

An alloy steel diaphragm is tightly fixed with this armature. The gear 2 again moves gear 3 to which a wiper is fitted. And this wiper wipes the glass. In this waty the diaphragm vibrates and produces sound. Tone disc C fixed to diaphragm and free from ends. Contact breaker which frequently makes and breaks the contacts. HIGH FREQUENCY HORN Following are the main parts of such type of horn: 1.Electrical Petrol gauge The quantity of petrol on the tank is indicated by this Instrument This instruments has two coil one current coil and other pressure coil these two coil are fixed between which the pointer is also placed due to the action of field produce by the coils the pointer moves over the scale indicating whether the tank is empty .full of petrol these coils are connected with the battery through an ammeter controlled with switch a variable resistance with gears adjustment and float is connected in the circuit the float in the petrol tank is attached with variable resistance the gauge fitted on the dash board. Spring B. yhe coil is energized and it attracts the armature inside which pushed the contacts to poen and the coil is de-energised and the circuit is broken. Electromagnet with an armature free to move in it. The . 3. With spring B the armature again comes to its original position and the contacts are again ‘ON’.half . 2. 4. WORKING When the circuit is made on. Screen wiper It works is to clean the front glass of the vehicle in rainy season it consists of 12v dC compound motor with gear system when the switch is the projected soft moves gear I which reduce the speed also moves gear 2.

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