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SOLID65 3-D Reinforced Concrete Solid
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SOLID65 Element Description
SOLID65 is used for the 3-D modeling of solids with or without reinforcing bars (rebar). The solid is capable of cracking in tension and crushing in compression. In concrete applications, for example, the solid capability of the element may be used to model the concrete while the rebar capability is available for modeling reinforcement behavior. Other cases for which the element is also applicable would be reinforced composites (such as fiberglass), and geological materials (such as rock). The element is defined by eight nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions. Up to three different rebar specifications may be defined. The concrete element is similar to the SOLID45 (3-D Structural Solid) element with the addition of special cracking and crushing capabilities. The most important aspect of this element is the treatment of nonlinear material properties. The concrete is capable of cracking (in three orthogonal directions), crushing, plastic deformation, and creep. The rebar are capable of tension and compression, but not shear. They are also capable of plastic deformation and creep. See SOLID65 in the Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench for more details about this element. Figure 65.1 SOLID65 Geometry
SOLID65 Input Data
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 65.1: "SOLID65 Geometry". The element is defined by eight nodes and the isotropic material properties. The element has one solid material and up to three rebar materials. Use the MAT command to input the concrete material properties. Rebar specifications, which are input as real constants, include the material number (MAT), the volume ratio (VR), and the orientation angles (THETA, PHI). The rebar orientations can be graphically verified with the /ESHAPE command.
. M. PHI1. MAT2. Typical shear transfer coefficients range from 0. Temperatures and fluences may be input as element body loads at the nodes. Thus. THETA2. For any other input pattern. UY.1: "SOLID65 Geometry". If solution convergence is a problem. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. KEYOPT(5) and KEYOPT(6) provide various element printout options (see Element Solution). A rebar material number of zero or equal to the element material number removes that rebar capability. This specification may be made for both the closed and open crack.Page 2 of 9 The volume ratio is defined as the rebar volume divided by the total element volume. it is used for the element instead of the value from the TREF command. they default to T(I). But if MP.0 representing a rough crack (no loss of shear transfer). it can be suppressed with KEYOPT(8) = 1.0 representing a smooth crack (complete loss of shear transfer) and 1.08. as described in Table 65. a small amount of stiffness is added to the element for numerical stability. K. VR2. and defaults to 1. with 0.0E-6. PHI3. Similarly.1: "SOLID65 Concrete Material Data") The relaxation does not represent a revised stress-strain relationship for post-cracking behavior. If this warning is unwanted.. and compressive stresses are input in the data table. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. the modulus normal to the crack face is set to zero. J. When the element is cracked or crushed. After the solution converges to the cracked state. such as the shear transfer coefficients. use NROPT. KEYOPT(1) is used to include or suppress the extra displacement shapes. SOLID65 Input Summary Nodes I. THETA3. PHI2.0 to 1.REFT is defined for the material number of the rebar. CSTIF 31. the stiffness is zero normal to the crack face. Additional concrete material data.INCP. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. THETA1. (A multiplier for the amount of tensile stress relaxation can be input as constant C9 in the data table. Positive pressures act into the element. Use the BETAD command to supply the global value of damping. it is used instead of either the global or element value. The stiffness multiplier CSTIF is used across a cracked face or for a crushed element. The program warns when each unreinforced element crushes at all integration points. MAT3. VR1. UZ Real Constants MAT1. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 65.0. If MP. it is used for the element instead of the value from the BETAD command. If an unsymmetric matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects.2011 .DAMP is defined for the material number of the element (assigned with the MAT command). use the TREF command to supply the global value of reference temperature. If all other temperatures are unspecified. See the Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench for details. You can include the effects of pressure load stiffness in a geometric nonlinear analysis using SOLCONTROL.UNSYM. it is recommended to set KEYOPT(3) = 2 and apply the load in very small load increments. VR3. tensile stresses. If MP. Similar defaults occurs for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF. N. Pressure load stiffness effects are included in linear eigenvalue buckling automatically. The orientation is defined by two angles (in degrees) from the element coordinate system. L. for convenience. P Degrees of Freedom UX. O. see Table 65. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. A summary of the element input is given in "SOLID65 Input Summary".REFT is defined for the material number of the element. The stress relaxation associated with KEYOPT(7) = 1 is used only to help accelerate convergence of the calculations when cracking is imminent.1: "SOLID65 Concrete Material Data".
T(K). face 5 (L-I-M-P). face 4 (K-L-P-O). See the discussion in "SOLID65 Input Data" for more details. T(N). ALPX (or CTEX or THSX). FL(P) Special Features Plasticity (BISO. face 3 (J-K-O-N). VRn is volume ratio. T(J). FL(O).Page 3 of 9 (where MATn is material number. ANISO) Creep (CREEP) Swelling (SWELL) Elasticity (MELAS) Other material (USER) Concrete (CONC) Cracking Crushing Large deflection Large strain Stress stiffening Birth and death Adaptive descent Note Items in parentheses refer to data tables associated with the TB command. T(L). or may be assigned on a per rebar basis. and THETAn and PHIn are orientation angles for up to 3 rebar materials) Material Properties EX. T(M). T(P) Fluences -FL(I). MKIN. PRXY or NUXY. BKIN. T(O).2011 . FL(N). REFT may be supplied once for the element. KEYOPT(5) 31. KINH. face 2 (I-J-N-M).08. DENS (for concrete) EX. FL(K). FL(M). ALPX (or CTEX or THSX). FL(L). DENS (for each rebar) Supply DAMP only once for the element (use MAT command to assign material property set). MISO. Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I-L-K). FL(J). KEYOPT(1) Extra displacement shapes: 0 -Include extra displacement shapes 1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes KEYOPT(3) Behavior of totally crushed unreinforced elements: 0 -Base 1 -Suppress mass and applied loads. DP. and warning message (see KEYOPT(8)) 2 -Features of 1 and apply consistent Newton-Raphson load vector. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I).
2011 . Uniaxial tensile cracking stress.Page 4 of 9 Concrete linear solution output: 0 -Print concrete linear solution only at centroid 1 -Repeat solution at each integration point 2 -Nodal stress printout KEYOPT(6) Concrete nonlinear solution output: 0 -Print concrete nonlinear solution only at centroid 3 -Print solution also at each integration point KEYOPT(7) Stress relaxation after cracking: 0 -No tensile stress relaxation after cracking 1 -Include tensile stress relaxation after cracking to help convergence KEYOPT(8) Warning message for totally crushed unreinforced element: 0 -Print the warning 1 -Suppress the warning SOLID65 Concrete Information The data listed in Table 65. Data not input are assumed to be zero. 31. after each TBTEMP command. Uniaxial crushing stress (positive) under the ambient hydrostatic stress state (constant 6). Biaxial crushing stress (positive). Up to six temperatures (NTEMP = 6 maximum on the TB command) may be defined with the TBTEMP commands. Uniaxial crushing stress (positive).6). The constant table is started by using the TBcommand (with Lab = CONCR). Up to eight constants may be defined with the TBDATA commands following a temperature definition on the TBTEMP command. Biaxial crushing stress (positive) under the ambient hydrostatic stress state (constant 6).1: "SOLID65 Concrete Material Data" is entered in the data table with the TB commands. Shear transfer coefficients for a closed crack. used if KEYOPT(7) = 1 (defaults to 0. are: Table 65.08. Stiffness multiplier for cracked tensile condition.1 SOLID65 Concrete Material Data Constant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Meaning Shear transfer coefficients for an open crack. The constants (C1-C9) entered on the TBDATA commands (6 per command). except for defaults described below. Ambient hydrostatic stress state for use with constants 7 and 8.
FL(L). If constants 1-4 are input and constants 58 are omitted. T(O). In either the O or R columns. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. L. P Temperatures T(I). O.2 SOLID65 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT NREINF VOLU: PRES TEMP FLUEN XC. ESOL]. ZC Element number Nodes . T(P) Fluences FL(I). T(K).indicates that the item is not available. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. N. printout for the concrete is also at the integration points. If any one of Constants 5-8 are input. P.2 SOLID65 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. FL(O). A value of -1 for constant 3 or 4 also removes the cracking or crushing capability. J. P3 at J. Figure 65. the latter constants default as discussed in the Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench. N. K. N. and a . FL(K). K. P2 at I.OUT. Y indicates that the item is always available. FL(J).Page 5 of 9 Absence of the data table removes the cracking and crushing capability. If cracking or crushing is possible. T(J). M. T(M). Rebar printout appears only for the rebar defined. P6 at M. M.08. T(L). there are no defaults and all 8 constants must be input. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. I. J. The PLCRACK command can be used in POST1 to display the status of the integration points. N. respectively. P. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. P4 at K. L. M. O. FL(N). See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. YC. P5 at L.2: "SOLID65 Stress Output".I. L. T(N). K. since cracking or crushing may occur at any integration point. SOLID65 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution • Additional element output as shown in Table 65. The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. FL(P) Location where results are reported Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 6 Definition O Y R Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 31. Table 65. O. O. FL(M).2011 . Nonlinear material printout appears only if nonlinear properties are specified. I. P Material number Number of rebar Volume Pressures P1 at nodes J.2: "SOLID65 Element Output Definitions" Several items are illustrated in Figure 65.
The element status table (Table 65. • Open . XZ EPPL:EQV EPCR:X. Z.4: "SOLID65 Element Status Table") uses the following terms: • Crushed .solid is crushed. 31. XZ S:1.solid is cracked and the crack is open. Rebar nonlinear integration point solution (if KEYOPT(6) = 3 and the rebar has a nonlinear material) 6. Rebar solution item repeats for each rebar 4. XY. XZ EPEL:1. Y. Y. Z. Y. XY. XY. XZ EPCR:EQV NL:EPEQ NL:SRAT NL:SEPL NL:HPRES THETCR. YZ. YZ. Z. XZ EPTH:EQV EPPL:X. 3. Y.08. • Closed . Concrete nonlinear integration point solution (if KEYOPT(6) = 3 and the element has a nonlinear material) 5. Concrete solution item (output for each integration point (if KEYOPT(5) = 1) and the centroid) 2.2011 .solid is cracked but the crack is closed. 3 S:INT S:EQV EPEL:X. • Neither . 2. Z. 2. XY. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Z. Y. YZ.Page 6 of 9 Name S:X. PHICR STATUS IRF MAT VR THETA PHI EPEL S EPEL EPPL SEPL EPCR Stresses Principal stresses Stress intensity Equivalent stress Elastic strains Principal elastic strains Equivalent elastic strains  Average thermal strains Definition 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 O 1 1 1 1 1 R 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 2 5 5 5 5 Equivalent thermal strains  Average plastic strains Equivalent plastic strains  Average creep strains Equivalent creep strains  Average equivalent plastic strain Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface Average equivalent stress from stress-strain curve Hydrostatic pressure Element status Rebar number Material number Volume ratio Angle of orientation in X-Y plane Angle of orientation out of X-Y plane Uniaxial elastic strain Uniaxial stress Average uniaxial elastic strain Average uniaxial plastic strain Average equivalent stress from stress-strain curve Average uniaxial creep strain THETA and PHI angle orientations of the normal to the crack plane 1 1. YZ.solid is neither crushed nor cracked. 3 EPEL:EQV EPTH:X. XY. YZ.
5: "SOLID65 Item and Sequence Numbers": Name output quantity as defined in the Table 65.2011 . Table 65. Output at each node.5.4 SOLID65 Element Status Table Status 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Open Closed Open Open Closed Closed Open Closed Open Open Closed Closed Open Closed Neither Status in Direction 1 Crushed Status in Direction 2 Crushed Neither Neither Open Open Open Open Closed Closed Closed Open Open Closed Closed Closed Neither Status in Direction 3 Crushed Neither Neither Neither Open Open Neither Open Open Neither Closed Closed Neither Closed Closed Neither Table 65.. Y. for plastic and creep this value is set at 0.5 SOLID65 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name EPEL SIG EPPL EPCR SEPL SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item 1 2 41 42 43 Rebar 1 3 4 45 46 47 Rebar 2 5 6 49 50 51 Rebar 3 31.Page 7 of 9 7.3 SOLID65 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Nodal Stress Solution Names of Items Output TEMP. SINT.PRXY). S(X.2: "SOLID65 Element Output Definitions" Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command I. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. YZ. The following notation is used in Table 65.P sequence number for data at nodes I.. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Table 65.J..08.5: "SOLID65 Item and Sequence Numbers" lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.. XY.J.. Z...P IP sequence number for Integration Point solution items Table 65. XZ). See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. SEQV 1 O R - 1..
1: "SOLID65 Geometry" or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged.0. The extra shapes are automatically deleted for tetrahedron elements. This usually happens when excessive cracking strains are coupled to the orthogonal uncracked directions through Poisson's effect. This occurs most frequently when the elements are not numbered properly. the output plastic and creep strains are from the previous converged substep. at those integration points where crushing has occurred. The 31. the rebar are assumed to be "smeared" throughout the element. when cracking has occurred. Also. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements).08.2011 . Furthermore. the element may not be twisted such that the element has two separate volumes. • Whenever the rebar capability of the element is used. Also. The sum of the volume ratios for all rebar must not be greater than 1. A tetrahedron shape is also available.Page 8 of 9 Output Quantity Name SRAT Output Quantity Name P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 S:1 S:2 S:3 S:INT S:EQV FLUEN NMISC ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item 44 Rebar 1 48 Rebar 2 52 Rebar 3 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC Output Quantity Name 1 2 3 4 5 109 24 6 7 8 9 10 110 8 11 I 7 12 15 11 12 13 14 15 111 16 19 16 17 18 19 20 112 20 23 25 27 21 22 23 24 25 113 28 26 27 28 29 30 114 J 10 K 9 14 L M 13 18 29 31 32 33 34 35 115 17 22 21 26 30 36 37 38 39 40 116 N O P - ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 Integration Point 1 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 2 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 3 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 4 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 5 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 6 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 7 8 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 STATUS Dir 1 Dir 2 Dir 3 THETCR PHICR THETCR PHICR THETCR PHICR SOLID65 Assumptions and Restrictions • Zero volume elements are not allowed. • The element is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution. care must be taken to apply the load slowly to prevent possible fictitious crushing of the concrete before proper load transfer can occur through a closed crack. • A prism-shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L and duplicate O and P node numbers (see Triangle. • When both cracking and crushing are used together. • Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 65. • All elements must have eight nodes. the elastic strain output includes the cracking strain.
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