Variables that affect Pavlovian Conditioning: 1. Stimulus Pairing a.

Trace Conditioning- the unconditional stimulus is presented after the conditional stimulus has been terminated. b. Delayed Conditioning ² a classical conditioning procedure in which the conditional stimulus commences on its own and then terminates with presentation of the unconditional stimulus c. Simultaneous Conditioning ² a procedure in which the conditional stimulus and unconditional stimulus are presented at the same time. d. Backward Conditioning ² a classical conditioning procedure in which the conditional stimulus is presented after the unconditioned stimulus has occurred. It can lead to either no conditioning, conditioned excitation, or conditioned inhibition depending on the timing of the two stimuli. *Trace Conditioning is mostly effective while Backward Conditioning is less effective. :) 2. Contiguity ² proximity (shorter time-effective) 3. Contingency ² sometimes not achieve; ´if-then relationshipµ 4. Stimulus Features ² a. Compound stimulus ² 2 or more stimulus b. Overshadowing ² stronger stimulus shadows the other 5. Prior Experience ² 6. Number of Pairings ² more pairings the better the conditioning 7. Intertrial Interval ² between trials (trial 1, 2 and 3; CS ² US) 8. Other variables ² e.g. Age ( you cannot train a mature dog) 9. Temperament 10. Stress ² understress for survival (better to conditioned) Theories of Conditioning: STIMULUS SUBSTITUTION THEORY ² CS acts as a substitute for the UCS. PREPARATORY RESPONSE THEORY ² response that prepares the organism for the appearance of the UCS. (waking up before the clock alarms!) PAVLOVIAN APPLICATION: FEAR-function for survival - correlated with survival - a thought to be either the result of faculty of reasoning or a kind of instinctual reaction. >lower fear, lower chances of survival >fear so much, slim survival John B. Watson ² first person to study human emotions. Mary Cover Jones ² first to show that Pavlovian conditioning could help people overcome fears as well as acquire them. Systematic Desentization ² procedure in which a phobic person imagines a very weak form of frightening while relaxed. Counterconditioning ² Pavlovian procedures to reverse the unwanted effect of conditioning. Virtual reality ² an electronic simulation of an environment. According to Pavlov, fear can be conditioned and learned. Peter-Rabbit (white rabbit) *when he seesa white color, he fears it (any white) US-----------------------------CS-----------------------------------CR (crackers and milk) (rabbit) (fear extinguishes) (horror films) (scenes) (fear)

*survival and fear are related.

KINDS OF COUNTERCONDITIONING: 1. Systematic Conditioning/Desentization ² relaxed and gradually exposed to stimulus little by little. 2. Flooding ² exposed directly to the stimulus - to know that there·s nothing gonna happen to you. 3. In Vivo ² exposed to real-life situation 4. Virtual Reality ² gradually exposed to stimuli SEXUAL AROUSAL Physical contact US ------------------------> Arousal UR

PARAPHILIA 1. NON-HUMAN 2. NON-CONSENTIVE PEOPLE 3. CHILDREN SEXUAL DISORDER: caused by distress. ZEOPHILIA- sex with animals *everytime you see a chicken, you erect and for the next time you see chicken you erect automatically! (lol!) :D PREJUDICE ² negative evaluation of other people based solely on their membership in a particular group. - requires distinction between ingroups and outgroups ² that is, people who belong to the group and those who do not. Black race -------CS2 dark ------------- dislike CS1 CR ----- dislike CR black race CS ---------- dislike CR

Black doll --------- black race CS2 CS1

TASTE AVERSION ² occurs when the subject associates the taste of a certain food to illness. Garcia·s Study: US Radiation ---------------------NS Sweetened Water CS Sweetened water US Radiation UR Nausea UR nausea CR Nausea

*Facts on Taste Aversion -not an ordinary example of classical conditioning -develops after just one trial -something that many people experience at least once in their lives >>>novelty of the stimulus (food) is one of the factor.

PUNISHMENT : 1. Punisher vs. Aversive Stimulus Punishment- stimulus is presented behavior is decreases. *positive punishment- done through a presentation of a punisher who could be an aversive stimulus but not all punishers are aversive stimulus. Decrease in behavior ² global = add stimulus, behavior decreases Suppressed behavior ² ´cat is away, the mouse will playµ - there should be an immediacy, after behavior, give the punishment. >issue of contingency ² specify what behavior is being punished. Types of Aversive Stimuli: >Unconditional Stimuli ² e.g. spanking >Conditioned Aversive Stimuli ² stimulus associated with an unconditioned aversive stimulus Specific Types of Punishers: >Verbal Statement ² reprimands threats Advantages: easy to administer Convey meaning already without physical contacts. Disadvantages: overused that it cannot followed by others. Adverse long-term effect feeling of being worthless. >Electric shock ² seldom used >Presentation of the Real Thing 2. Removal of Positive consequence decreases (-) timeout *timeout- used in special children like ADHD (hyperactive) - should be short - don·t try if child is already socially withdrawn = detention Effectiveness of the Situation ² as misused as reinforcer rather than punisher 3. Overcorrection ² do certain behavior as a punishment in doing an inappropriate behavior. TYPES:  Restitutional ² done when you have to make a necessary changes in a certain inappropriate behavior. e.g. breaking a vase and replacing it with a new one  Positive Practice ² repeatedly doing the positive behaviors to compensate with negative behavior/actions. e.g. ´I will not lie again.µ---whole paper! FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PUNISHMENT: 1. DELAY 2. SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT >Intermittent Schedule- extinction of behavior will be slow. >Continuous- behavior extinguished at given time 3. SOURCE OF REINFORCEMENT- make sure that nobody reinforces that behavior during punishment. e.g. Don·t laugh and I will punish you also. >consistency in behavior 4. TIMING ² when to give the punishment >consider what the child feels DRIVE REDUCTION THEORY (HULL·S DRIVE) -states that strong stimulation of any sort is aversive to an organism and any reduction in this stimulation act as a reinforcer for the immediately preceding behavior. >reduced the drive *expense *beating the deadline *home bills

-cannot explain everything (some effects of secondary reinforcer) e.g. doubt on your boyfriend!! So how to reduce the drive? Get all his things like cellphone, wallet so that there will be no conflict! RELATIVE VALUE THEORY (PREMACK PRINCIPLE) -given a situation, some kinds of behavior have a greater likelihood of occurrence than others. Thus, different kinds of behavior have different values relative to one another at any given moment. It is this relative values that determine the reinforcing value or properties of behavior. e.g. behaviors related to jealousy low probability, acts of security high prob. *behaviors that are reinforcing ² high probability behavior RESPONSE DEPRIVATION THEORY (EQUILIBRIUM THEORY) Central idea behavior becomes reinforcing when the organism is prevented from engaging in it. a response is reinforcing to the extent that the organism has been prevented from performing that response at its normal level. predicts that the opportunity to engage in any behavior that has fallen below the baseline level will be reinforcing. *Baseline responses ² average rate of behaving. e.g depriving May of talking ---- she has to study hard in order to talk in 9 hours back not 3 hours anymore«

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