Linking Words for essays

Giving examples
For example For instance Namely The most common way of giving examples is by using for example or for instance. Namely refers to something by name. "There are two problems: namely, the expense and the time."

Adding information
And In addition As well as Also Too Furthermore Moreover Apart from In addition to Besides Ideas are often linked by and. In a list, you put a comma between each item, but not before and. "We discussed training, education and the budget." Also is used to add an extra idea or emphasis. "We also spoke about marketing." You can use also with not only to give emphasis. "We are concerned not only by the costs, but also by the competition." We don't usually start a sentence with also. If you want to start a sentence with a phrase that means also, you can use In addition, or In addition to this… As well as can be used at the beginning or the middle of a sentence. "As well as the costs, we are concerned by the competition." "We are interested in costs as well as the competition." Too goes either at the end of the sentence, or after the subject and means as well. "They were concerned too." "I, too, was concerned." Apart from and besides are often used to mean as well as, or in addition to. "Apart from Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer." "Besides Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer." 1

Moreover and furthermore add extra information to the point you are making. "Marketing plans give us an idea of the potential market. Moreover, they tell us about the competition."

Summarising
In short In brief In summary To summarise In a nutshell To conclude In conclusion We normally use these words at the beginning of the sentence to give a summary of what we have said or written.

Sequencing ideas
The former, … the latter Firstly, secondly, finally The first point is Lastly The following The former and the latter are useful when you want to refer to one of two points."Marketing and finance are both covered in the course. The former is studied in the first term and the latter is studied in the final term." Firstly, … secondly, … finally (or lastly) are useful ways to list ideas. It's rare to use "fourthly", or "fifthly". Instead, try the first point, the second point, the third point and so on. The following is a good way of starting a list. "The following people have been chosen to go on the training course: N Peters, C Jones and A Owen."

Giving a reason
Due to / due to the fact that Owing to / owing to the fact that Because Because of Since As 2

Due to and owing to must be followed by a noun. "Due to the rise in oil prices, the inflation rate rose by 1.25%." "Owing to the demand, we are unable to supply all items within 2 weeks." If you want to follow these words with a clause (a subject, verb and object), you must follow the words with the fact that. "Due to the fact that oil prices have risen, the inflation rate has gone up by 1%25." "Owing to the fact that the workers have gone on strike, the company has been unable to fulfil all its orders." Because / because of Because of is followed by a noun. "Because of bad weather, the football match was postponed." Because can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. For example, "Because it was raining, the match was postponed." "We believe in incentive schemes, because we want our employees to be more productive." Since / as Since and as mean because. "Since the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff." "As the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."

Giving a result
Therefore So Consequently This means that As a result Therefore, so, consequently and as a result are all used in a similar way. "The company are expanding. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result, they are taking on extra staff." So is more informal.

Contrasting ideas
But However Although / even though Despite / despite the fact that In spite of / in spite of the fact that Nevertheless Nonetheless While 3

Whereas Unlike In theory… in practice… But is more informal than however. It is not normally used at the beginning of a sentence. "He works hard, but he doesn't earn much.""He works hard. However, he doesn't earn much." Although, despite and in spite of introduce an idea of contrast. With these words, you must have two halves of a sentence. "Although it was cold, she went out in shorts.""In spite of the cold, she went out in shorts." Despite and in spite of are used in the same way as due to and owing to. They must be followed by a noun. If you want to follow them with a noun and a verb, you must use the fact that. "Despite the fact that the company was doing badly, they took on extra employees." Nevertheless and nonetheless mean in spite of that or anyway. "The sea was cold, but he went swimming nevertheless." (In spite of the fact that it was cold.) "The company is doing well. Nonetheless, they aren't going to expand this year." While, whereas and unlike are used to show how two things are different from each other. "While my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown." "Taxes have gone up, whereas social security contributions have gone down." "Unlike in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol." In theory… in practice… show an unexpected result. "In theory, teachers should prepare for lessons, but in practice, they often don't have enough time."

Academic writing Linking words
When writing academic essays you will be expected to present coherent arguments by linking ideas together. You will also be required to point out similarities; highlight differences; justify statements and provide examples and conclusions.

The following words are useful for developing linkage in your writing:
When you want to add to your argument or emphasise a statement

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...and, also, as well as, moreover, further, furthermore, in addition, additionally, next, secondly, thirdly. When you want to make comparisons ...similarly, likewise, in the same way, equally. When you want to highlight contrast ...although, for all that, however, on the contrary, conversely, otherwise, yet, but, even so, despite. When you want to show differences or similarities ...yet, even so, despite, notwithstanding. When providing reasons ...for this reason, to this end, for this purpose, because, since, so that. When explaining results ...as, as a consequence, as a result, hence, therefore, thus, inevitably, so. When providing examples ...for example, for instance, in other words, by way of illustration, such as, this demonstrates. When drawing conclusions ...as has been noted, finally, in brief, in short, to summarise, consequently, therefore, in conclusion, so, in other words, accordingly.

Reporting verbs
When introducing references into the text (citing) you should choose suitable 'reporting' verbs as these can:
• •

strengthen the arguments you are presenting help the reader understand why the source is relevant.

Some verbs are neutral:
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Smith (2004) describes... Jones (1999, p 3) states... 5

Green (2002) defines...

Some verbs draw attention to the author's viewpoint:
• • •

Harris (2001) argues... O'Neill (1997) disputed... Jackson (2003) conceded...

Some verbs give information about the author's work:
• • •

Holmes (2000) investigated... Church (1998) evaluated... McColl (2002) estimated...

Some verbs highlight the author's viewpoint:
• • •

Brown (2001) believes... McAllister (1996) recognised... Smith (2004) predicted...

Other useful reporting verbs (use present or past tense as appropriate)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

analyse/analysed compares/compared comments/commented concludes/concluded criticises/criticised demonstrates/demonstrated discusses/discussed illustrates/illustrated indicates/indicated notes/noted observes/observed points out/pointed out reports/reported shows/showed suggests/suggested validates/validated verifies/verified

Plagiarism
What is plagiarism?

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Plagiarism is defined in the Assessment Regulations as 'the deliberate and substantial unacknowledged incorporation in a student’s work of material derived from the work (published or unpublished) of another'. In other words it means passing someone else’s work off as you own. This includes material from books, journals and the web, as well as from your friends or others. The University regards plagiarism as a very serious offence and you’re strongly advised to study the Assessment Regulations in full. The regulations are summarised in the plagiarism guide. Examples of plagiarism include:
• • • • •

the extensive use of another person's material without reference or acknowledgement, the summarising of another person's work by simply changing a few words or altering the order or presentation without acknowledgement, the substantial and unauthorised use of the ideas of another person without acknowledgement of the source, copying the work of another student with or without that student's knowledge or agreement, deliberate use of commissioned material presented as the student's own work.

How is plagiarism detected?
The most common triggers are:
• • • • • •

Changes in writing style and syntactic (word arrangement) structure usually of a higher standard Undue relience on one source Use of sources not recognised by the (subject expert) marker References to sources not readily verifiable use of American spellings, phrases and contexts Overall level of language and argument and consequent mark much higher than expected from previous work (giving due consideration to any development in the writer's abilities over time)

PLATO
For more information on plagiarism view PLATO: Plagiarism Teaching On-line. This offers a basic introduction to plagiarism teaching on-line. If you are off campus (or using a browser other than Internet Explorer) you will need to log in to this tool using your domain login (caledonian\user id) and password.

How can I be sure what plagiarism is?

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Try this exercise. Adapted from A Guide for Writing Research Papers Based on Modern Language Association (MLA) Documentation (Capital Community College) Four students read the following text and used it in their essays in slightly different ways. Which would count as plagiarism? Elaine Tyler May's (1997, ‘Barren in the Promised Land : Childless Americans and the Pursuit of Happiness’ Harvard University Press ‘Because women's wages often continue to reflect the fiction that men earn the family wage, single mothers rarely earn enough to support themselves and their children adequately. And because work is still organized around the assumption that mothers stay home with children, even though few mothers can afford to do so, child-care facilities in the United States remain woefully inadequate’ Student A wrote: Verdict: Plagiarism. Since women's wages often continue to reflect the mistaken notion that men are the main wage earners in the family, single mothers rarely make enough to support themselves and their children very well. Also, because work is still based on the assumption that mothers stay home with children, facilities for child care remain woefully inadequate in the United States. Student B wrote: There is too much direct borrowing of sentence structure and wording. The writer changes some words, drops one phrase, and adds some new language, but the whole text closely resembles May's. There is no acknowledgment (citation) of May’s work. Even if May were acknowledged this is still plagiarising because the lack of quotation marks indicates that it has been put into the students's own words. Verdict: Plagiarism.

By and large, our economy still operates on It shows good paraphrasing of wording and the mistaken notion that men are the main sentence structure, but does not breadwinners in the family. Thus, women acknowledge May's original ideas. Some of continue to earn lower wages than men. This May's points are common knowledge means, in effect, that many single mothers (women earn less than men, many single cannot earn a decent living. Furthermore, mothers live in poverty), but May uses this adequate day care is not available in the to make a specific and original point. USA because of the mistaken assumption that mothers remain at home with their children. Student C wrote: Verdict: Borderline plagiarism. As Elaine Tyler May (1997, p.588) points out, ‘women's wages often continue to reflect the fiction that men earn the family wage’. Thus many single mothers cannot support themselves and their children adequately. Furthermore, since work is Although the writer now cites May, this still borrows too much language.

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based on the assumption that mothers stay home with children, facilities for day care in this country are still ‘woefully inadequate.’ Student D wrote: Verdict: No plagiarism. Women today still earn less than men — so much less that many single mothers and their children live near or below the poverty line. Elaine Tyler May (1997, p.588) argues that this situation stems in part from ‘the fiction that men earn the family wage’ May further suggests that the American workplace still operates on the assumption that mothers with children stay home to care for them. The writer makes use of the common knowledge in May's work, but acknowledges May's original conclusion and does not try to pass it off as his or her own. The quotation is properly cited, as is a later paraphrase of another of May's ideas.

Citing & referencing
Citing means acknowledging the source you have read by adding the name of the author and the year of publication in the text of your written work e.g. Smith (1998) argues... PLEASE NOTE: Glasgow Caledonian University does not use just one referencing system, different subject/professional areas use different systems and styles within these systems. Before deciding whether you are using Harvard or Numeric, you should consult your module handbooks and the tutor who set the work, as well as this website. If you are submitting an article to a journal/serial/periodical or writing a book you should take advice from the editor (often found in ‘notes for contributors’ in journals and on publishers’ websites). Once you have decided on the system, keep to it throughout.

What does referencing include?
• •

• •

Citing - When you use someone else's ideas you are required to acknowledge the source in your assignment. This is known as citing (or referencing). References - In your essays you will be required to provide a detailed description of your source using a Referencing System such as the Harvard or Numerical Referencing System. References should be provided within the text, immediately following information taken from another source. Additionally, references should be shown in the form of a Reference List or Bibliography. Reference Lists - include all the sources you refer to in your writing. Bibliography - a list of works you refer to plus any texts you have consulted.

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Why reference?
To do sound written research you need to cite references honestly and professionally. This lets the reader check quotations and data, and consult the sources used. Referencing makes sure that you avoid plagiarism and shows the reading you have done. You need to make references when you
• • • •

quote - use someone's exact words summarise - sum up someone else's arguments or ideas paraphrase - put another author's material into your own words copy - use illustrations such as: diagrams, tables, charts or maps

When you write academic assignments you are expected to refer to ideas and material produced by others. The kinds of information you use will vary and may include: theories, viewpoints, research, diagrams and statistics. You have to acknowledge the author of each source. There are two main parts to citing references: 1. how you acknowledge your sources in the text. 2. how you list your sources at the end of your work in the reference list or bibliography.

Referencing systems
There are two main systems of linking references in the text to the full bibliographical details at the end of your work.
• •

Numeric (sometimes called Vancouver or Footnote) Harvard

Numeric System – in the text
Cited publications are numbered in the order in which they are first referred to in the text. They are identified either in brackets or as a superscript number:
• •

‘In a recent study, Smith (5)...’ or ‘In a recent study, Smith5...'

Harvard System – in the text
Cited publications are referred to in the text by giving the author's name and year of publication, in either of the forms shown below (depending on the sentence structure):

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• •

In a recent study, Smith (2002) ... In a recent study (Smith, 2002) ...

Introducing quotations
When you use quotations you should use quotation marks and note the author, year and page number. Depending on your programme some use italics and some programmes do not use it. This example does not use italics. McIntosh (2001, p.23) noted that '...students' academic work was enhanced by citing sources correctly'. Try and avoid using quotations, as the lecturer wants to hear 'your voice' . If you do use quotations over 50 words, use single line spacing with no quotation marks and add the author's name and date at the end. Long quotations, however, should rarely be used. Modern education concentrates on teaching subjects, leaving the method of thinking, arguing and expressing one's conclusions to be picked up by the [scholars as they go along....Teachers] are doing for their pupils the work which pupils themselves ought to do. For the sole true end of education is simply this: to teach [people] how to learn for themseleves; and whatever instruction fails to do this is effort spent in vain. ( Sayers 1948, cited in Barrass, 2005, p3) When you use diagrams, graphs or illustrations, reference your sources in the same way as for quotations (author's name, date of publication).

Some rules for using quotations

• •

Quotes must be exact, including any grammatical or spelling errors. You can include the word 'sic' in square brackets [sic] after the quoted material if there is an error in the words you are quoting. This tells the reader that the error is the writer's and not yours. Quotes should be used sparingly to make significant points and should fit well with the rest of your text. If you leave words out of a direct quotation use three dots to mark the omitted words: e.g. You do not 'have to use complete quotations... any unnecessary words can be omitted'. You can add words [which help in] making the meaning clearer. When you do this put your own words in square brackets, as above. You can use this device to ensure that your writing stays grammatically correct when using quotations. When quoting from a secondary source the authour, year and page number should come from the text you have read e.g. Smith (1966, cited in Fletcher, 2005 p. 57) reported that '... there is no difference between multiplayer high compression...'

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Citing references in the text
Reporting verbs
When introducing references into the text (citing) you should choose suitable reporting verbs as these can:
• •

strengthen your arguments. help the reader understand why the source is relevant.

Ways of introducing references into text
You can introduce references into the text in various ways. Certain rules apply. You should cite all sources you refer to; ideally this should not break up the flow of the writing.

When the author's name occurs naturally in the sentence put the year in round brackets Piaget (1999) has argued that... When the author's name does not occur naturally in the sentence, put both the surnames with an ampersand (&) and publication date in brackets. The full stop should appear after the bracket: It is acceptable to use both short and long quotes in academic assignments (Harris & Jones, 2001). Note: When the names are part of the text use 'and': Harris and Jones (2001) have commented on... When the author is unknown use 'Anon': It has been argued (Anon, 1995) that... Note: Be careful of using work with unknown authors. When you read the source in another text and are paraphrasing refer to the primary source and link by using the words 'cited in': Burnham (1888 cited in Smith 2000) pointed out that... (In your references at the end, list both sources if possible) When there is no author, for example, in a newspaper article, then use the name of the paper instead. A recent study describes... (The Herald, 1998, p4) When there are three or more authors use: 'et al': An additional theory was developed (Hughes et al, 2002) supporting the teaching methods identified above. Note: For Psychology, all the authors' names are mentioned the first time they appear in the text there after they can be referred to using et al When you refer to different work by the same author in the same year make this clear by adding letters after the date: 'a' for first, 'b' for second and so on. In his first article Jones (1997a) suggests ... Jones (1997b) also argued that...

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Referencing at the end of your work
In both systems, the Harvard and Numeric, you have to identify the author(s), the date of publication, the name of the book or journal and so on. You may be asked to produce a reference list or a reference list and a bibliography. NB:
• •

References - a list (usually at the end of a piece of work) that includes all documents you refer to in your writing. Bibliography - a list of works you consulted, whether or not you referred to them in the text.

In the Numeric System:
• •

references are numbered in the order you quote them in the text the date of publication goes at the very end of a book reference. In journal references, it goes after the journal's title and before the volume or part number.

In the Harvard system:
• •

references appear alphabetically in order of authours' names underlining can be used instead of italics if bibliography is handwritten

The following examples are using the Harvard system: Book Walsh, M., 1998. Models and critical pathways in clinical nursing: conceptual frameworks for care planning. 2nd ed. London: Bailliere Tindall. Journal Dening, F., 1993. Patient controlled analgesia. British Journal of Nursing, Vol.2, (5), pp. 274-277. Websites The Business Continuity Institute ( 2006) Mission Statement [online]. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.thebci.org/about.htm [accessed 11 April, 2006].

RefWorks
For larger projects you might find RefWorks useful. (You need an Athens username and password.) This is a Web-based citation and bibliography management tool that lets you 13

import references directly from some online databases, as well as creating them manually. You can use these references in writing papers and to create a bibliography automatically. Changing your RefWorks account to your new Athens password.

Sample reference list
This is an example of a reference list using the Harvard System. Some of the details may vary in different interpretations of Harvard. Remember: In the Numeric System the date is placed
• •

(for books) right at the end of a reference (for journals) after the journal title.

Abbott, P. (2000) An analysis of efficiency, undergraduate frameworks, awards and progression regulations - modern universities in the UK. Glasgow, Glasgow Caledonian University. Baren-Cohen, S. (2003) The essential difference: men, women and the extreme male brain. London; Allen Lane. Barnes, S. (2001) Questionnaire design and construction. Bristol Institute of Learning and Technology. [online] http://www.cros.ac.uk/question_design.pdf#search=%22belief %20questions%20%20Barnes%202001%22 Accessed on 30 August 2006. Cottrell, S. (2001) Teaching study skills and supporting learning, London; Palgrave. Donovan, P. (2003) Insights into maternal health. In: Grandis, S., Long, G., Glasper E.A., Donovan, P. Foundation studies for nursing using enquiry based learning. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.15-47. Figg, K., McAllister, C., & Shapiro, A. (2006) Effective Learning service - a developmental model in practice. Journal of Access Policy and Practice. Vol. 4, number 1, Winter 2006 pp.39-52. Foster, J. Houston M. Knox, H. & Rimmer, R. (2002) Surviving first year access retention and value added. Lifelong Learning Research Group - Occasional Papers 1. University of Paisley, Paisley. Hart, C. (2001) Doing a literature search. London: Sage. Holzworth, R., & Wills, C. (1999) Nurses' judgements regarding seclusion and restraint of psychiatric patients: a social judgement analysis. Research in Nursing and Health. Vol.22, pp. 189–201. In: Lowe, T., Wellman, N., Taylor, R. (2003) Limit-setting and decision-making in the management of aggression. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Vol.41(2), pp 154-61.

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McAllister, C. Shapiro, A. (2004) Developing learners at Glasgow Caledonian University: the Effective Learning Service response. Paper presented at Forum for the advancement of Continuing Education Conference, 2- 4 July 2004. Scottish Executive. (2003) Supporting people, supporting independent living. Edinburgh HMSO, 2003. Walsh, N., Roe, B., Huntington, J. (2003) Delivering a different kind of Primary Care? Nurses working in personal medical service pilots Journal of Clinical Nursing [online], Vol.12 (3). Available from: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1046/j.13652702.2003.00744.x/full/ [Accessed 1st May 2003].

Further reading
• • • • • •

Excellent list of examples in Harvard, Numeric and NMHR from Leeds University Harvard and Numeric explanations, University of Sussex Guidelines on reference listing, the Harvard system, University of Thames Valley Guide to citing references, University of Birmingham Referencing – the Harvard System, Central Queensland University Citing References - The Harvard System, Bournemouth University

http://www.gcu.ac.uk/student/coursework/writing/linking.html

Transitional and Linking Words used in multiple paragraph essays

Add Information:
again besides moreover another for insurance together with and likewise as well furthermore additionally along with also for example equally important further

Conclude or Summarize:
in short finally consequently due to accordingly to sum up

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in summary in conclusion

all in all as a result

thus therefore

Contrast two things or show a difference:
but otherwise even though conversely even so yet however counter to on the other hand as opposed to in the meantime on the contrary nevertheless still

Emphasize a point:
again indeed to repeat truly in fact to emphasize for this reason with this in mind

Show similarities:
in the same manner in the same way also likewise like both as similarly

Clarify:
that is in other words put another way stated differently to clarify for insurance

Show location:

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above across against along alongside amid in front of

near among around away from back of behind below

inside off beneath beside between beyond by down

into onto on top of throughout outside to the right over under

Show time:
about after at first second third prior to subsequently until meanwhile today tomorrow before soon later afterward immediately finally during in conclusion next in the meantime as soon as then

TRANSITION WORDS

To improve your writing you need to make sure that your ideas, both in sentences and paragraphs, stick together or have coherence and that the gap between ideas is bridged smoothly. One way to do this is by using transitions words or phrases or techniques that help bring two ideas together. Transitional words and phrases represent one way of gaining coherence. Certain words help continue an idea, indicate a shift of though or contrast, or sum up a conclusion. Check the following list of words to find those that will pull your sentences and paragraphs together.

For continuing a common line of reasoning: consequently clearly, then furthermore additionally 17

and in addition moreover because besides that in the same way following this further also pursuing this further in the light of the... it is easy to see that

To change the line of reasoning (contrast): however on the other hand but yet nevertheless on the contrary

For opening a paragraph initially or for general use: admittedly assuredly certainly granted no doubt nobody denies obviously of course to be sure true undoubtedly unquestionably generally speaking in general at this level in this situation

For the final points of a paragraph or essay:

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finally lastly

Transitional chains, to use in separating sections of a paragraph which is arranged chronologically: first... second... third... generally... furthermore... finally in the first place... also... lastly in the first place... pursuing this further... finally to be sure... additionally... lastly in the first place... just in the same way... finally basically... similarly... as well

To signal conclusion: therefore this hence in final analysis in conclusion in final consideration indeed

To restate a point within a paragraph in another way or in a more exacting way: in other words point in fact specifically

Sequence or time after afterwards as soon as at first at last

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before before long finally first... second... third in the first place in the meantime later meanwhile next soon then

Linking Words for Essays, Reports, Papers, etc.

Listing: first, second, third ... ; firstly, secondly, thirdty ... ; one, two, three (esp. in academic and technical use); a, b, c, (esp. in academic and technical use); for one thing... (and) for another (thing); to begin with; to start with; in the first place, in the second place; next, then; finally; last(ly); to conclude; last but not least Adding/Reinforcing: also; too; furthermore; moreover,- then; in addition; above all; what is more Comparison/Similarity: equally, likewise; similarly; in the same way Summary/Conclusion: then; all in all; in conclusion; to sum up Exemplification: namely; for example (e.g.); for instance; that is (i.e.); that is to say Result: consequently; hence; so; therefore; thus; as a result Reformulation: or rather; to put it another way; in other words Alternative: alternatively; on the other hand Contrast: on the contrary; in contrast; by contrast; on the one hand..., on the other (hand) Concession: besides; however, nevertheless; still, though; in spite of that; on the other hand

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And In addition As well as Also Too Furthermore Moreover Apart from In addition to Besides Ideas are often linked by and. In a list, you put a comma between each item, but not before and. "We discussed training, education and the budget." Also is used to add an extra idea or emphasis. "We also spoke about marketing." You can use also with not only to give emphasis. "We are concerned not only by the costs, but also by the competition." We don't usually start a sentence with also. If you want to start a sentence with a phrase that means also, you can use In addition, or In addition to this… As well as can be used at the beginning or the middle of a sentence. "As well as the costs, we are concerned by the competition." "We are interested in costs as well as the competition." Too goes either at the end of the sentence, or after the subject and means as well. "They were concerned too." "I, too, was concerned." Apart from and besides are often used to mean as well as, or in addition to. "Apart from Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer." "Besides Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer." Moreover and furthermore add extra information to the point you are making.

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"Marketing plans give us an idea of the potential market. Moreover, they tell us about the competition."

Summarising
In short In brief In summary To summarise In a nutshell To conclude In conclusion We normally use these words at the beginning of the sentence to give a summary of what we have said or written.

Sequencing ideas
The former, … the latter Firstly, secondly, finally The first point is Lastly The following The former and the latter are useful when you want to refer to one of two points. "Marketing and finance are both covered in the course. The former is studied in the first term and the latter is studied in the final term." Firstly, … secondly, … finally (or lastly) are useful ways to list ideas. It's rare to use "fourthly", or "fifthly". Instead, try the first point, the second point, the third point and so on. The following is a good way of starting a list. "The following people have been chosen to go on the training course: N Peters, C Jones and A Owen."

Giving a reason
Due to / due to the fact that Owing to / owing to the fact that Because 22

Because of Since As Due to and owing to must be followed by a noun. "Due to the rise in oil prices, the inflation rate rose by 1.25%." "Owing to the demand, we are unable to supply all items within 2 weeks." If you want to follow these words with a clause (a subject, verb and object), you must follow the words with the fact that. "Due to the fact that oil prices have risen, the inflation rate has gone up by 1%25." "Owing to the fact that the workers have gone on strike, the company has been unable to fulfil all its orders." Because / because of Because of is followed by a noun. "Because of bad weather, the football match was postponed." Because can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. For example, "Because it was raining, the match was postponed." "We believe in incentive schemes, because we want our employees to be more productive." Since / as Since and as mean because. "Since the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff." "As the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."

Giving a result
Therefore So Consequently This means that As a result

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Therefore, so, consequently and as a result are all used in a similar way. "The company are expanding. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result, they are taking on extra staff." So is more informal.

Contrasting ideas
But However Although / even though Despite / despite the fact that In spite of / in spite of the fact that Nevertheless Nonetheless While Whereas Unlike In theory… in practice… But is more informal than however. It is not normally used at the beginning of a sentence. "He works hard, but he doesn't earn much." "He works hard. However, he doesn't earn much." Although, despite and in spite of introduce an idea of contrast. With these words, you must have two halves of a sentence. "Although it was cold, she went out in shorts." "In spite of the cold, she went out in shorts." Despite and in spite of are used in the same way as due to and owing to. They must be followed by a noun. If you want to follow them with a noun and a verb, you must use the fact that. "Despite the fact that the company was doing badly, they took on extra employees." Nevertheless and nonetheless mean in spite of that or anyway. "The sea was cold, but he went swimming nevertheless." (In spite of the fact that it was cold.) "The company is doing well. Nonetheless, they aren't going to expand this year."

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While, whereas and unlike are used to show how two things are different from each other. "While my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown." "Taxes have gone up, whereas social security contributions have gone down." "Unlike in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol." In theory… in practice… show an unexpected result. "In theory, teachers should prepare for lessons, but in practice, they often don't have enough time." http://www.english-at-home.com/grammar/linking-words/
To Show: Addition Comparison/similarity Concession Contrast/Exception Emphasis Example Generality Result/Cause and Effect Summary/Conclusion Time sequence Use these Expressions: In addition, also, too, besides, equally important, furthermore, moreover, additionally, further In the same way, likewise, similarly Granted, naturally, of course In contrast, however, instead, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, nevertheless, still, yet Of course, certainly, indeed, in fact, even so, truly For example, for instance, as an illustration, a case in point, namely, specifically, to illustrate, in fact In general, for the most part, as a general rule, on the whole, usually, typically As a result, consequently, hence, then, therefore, thus, accordingly, so, for this reason Finally, in conclusion, in short, in summary, in brief, in the end, on the whole, thus, in other words, therefore Today, tomorrow, yesterday, once, now, then, eventually, meanwhile, subsequently, finally, first, second, third, afterwards, at last

Useful Linking Words and Phrases For Essays To indicate a contrast: however on the other hand alternatively in contrast

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instead rather another possibility despite this for all that

conversley in comparison but in spite of yet

on the contary better/worst still nevertheless although

infact notwithstanding all the same

To provide an illustration for example that is in other words namely typical of this/such including cheifly on such especially mainly

that is to say such as a typical/particular/key example not least most importantly

To extend a point simirlarly equally furthermore Indeed besides above all

likewise in the same way as well

also in addition thus resulting from

To show cause and effect/conclusion: so therefore then in this/that case for this reason it follows that this in conclusion in short To show the next step: first(ly) second(ly) place first and foremost another next finally as result/consequence consequently owing to/due to the fact this suggests that it might be concluded from this to conclude to begin/start with first and most importantly then afterwards ultimately

accepting/assuming this implies in all in the first/second first after then lastly

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Linking words
Linking words are used to link ideas when writing. They enable the writing to flow from one idea to the next in a logical and cohesive way. There are three main types of linking words:
• • •

conjunctions sentence connectors subordinators.

Conjunctions
Conjunctions are the most common form of linking word. They are used to join two parts of a sentence together are generally in the middle of a sentence. There are seven coordinating conjuctions. These are:
• • • • • • •

and but so or for nor yet.

Example

Sentence connectors
Sentence connectors are used to link ideas from one sentence to the next and to give paragraphs coherence. Sentence connectors perform different functions and are placed at the beginning of a sentence. They are used to introduce, order, contrast, sequence ideas, theory, data etc. The following table lists useful connectors.

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Useful sentence connectors
Logical / sequential order
• • • • • •

Order of importance
• • • • •

Firstly, secondly, thirdly etc Next, last, finally In addition Furthermore Also At present / presently

Most / more importantly Most significantly Above all Primarily It is essential / essentially

Contrast
• • • • •

Result
• • • • • •

However On the other hand On the contrary By (in) comparison In contrast

As a result As a consequence Therefore Thus Consequently

Comparison
• • •

Hence Reason

Similarily Likewise

The cause of

• The reason for Also Activity 1 Time management skills are essential for study success. ---- there are several useful strategies that can be used to improve your time management skills. ---- have clear goals in mind. ---- plan your time by using a yearly and weekly planner. Careful planning will enable you to keep on top of your work and avoid stress. ---- reward yourself when the job is done.

Firstly,

Finally,

Secondly,

In fact.

Subordinators
Subordinators are linking words that are used to join clauses together. They are used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. A clause is a group of words that must contain a subject and predicate. There are two types of clauses:
• •

independent clauses - these can stand alone as a sentence by themselves dependent clauses - these make no sense by themselves.

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Example

Common subordinators
Below are some examples of commonly used subordinators. Comparison & Contrast
• • • • • • • • •

Cause / effect
• • •

Time
• • • • •

Although Though Even though While Whereas

Since So that Because

After When Until Whenever Before

Possibility if as if whether unless

Place & manner
• • •

Wherever Where How

Linking words and phrases
Although some of these words have already been mentioned as sentence connectors, they can also be used to develop coherence within a paragraph, that is linking one idea / argument to another. Print off this page to keep as a reference of useful linking words and phrases. Sequence

Result
• • • • • •

Emphasis So As a result As a consequence (of) Therefore Thus Consequently
• • • • • • •

• • • •

First / firstly, second / secondly, third / thirdly etc Next, last, finally In addition, moreover Further / furthermore Another

Undoubtedly Indeed Obviously Generally Admittedly In fact Particularly / in

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• • •

Also In conclusion To summarise

• •

Hence Due to
• • •

particular Especially Clearly Importantly For example For instance That is (ie) Such as Including Namely

Addition
• •

Reason
• • • • •

Example
• • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

And In addition / additionally / an additional Furthermore Also Too As well as

For Because Since As Because of

Contrast However Nevertheless Nonetheless Still Although / even though Though But Yet Despite / in spite of In contrast (to) / in comparison While Whereas On the other hand

Comparison
• • • • • • • • • • •

Similarly Likewise Also Like Just as Just like Similar to Same as Compare compare(d) to / with Not only...but also

On the contrary Activity 2 Click on the linking words/phrases in the following extract from an essay. There are 4 to identify. The ‘next’ button will appear when the answers are correct. Do teams in organizations need leaders? How and why the leader was selected also appears to affect the leader’s effectiveness. Addison (1996), for instance, asserts that if a leader is elected democratically by the team and from within the team, there is more likelihood of an effective working relationship between team members. However, Smith (1996) notes that more than 60% of 500 workplace teams studies operate with team leaders chosen by middle or upper management. Furthermore, in more than half of these, the team leaders did not have the confidence of the team members to the extent that effectiveness and efficiency was compromised. 30

Linkers Because While Next Importantly Consequently For instance Similarly Furthermore

Category reason contrast sequence emphasis result example comparison addition

Activity 2 Have you ever wondered how some people seem to learn and remember things effortlessly and others struggle? Are these students more intelligent than the others? They may well be. However apart from their intrinsic abilities, these students probably study intelligently. As well as the skills to study and learn intelligently, we also need the skills to become life long learners. While some people are more gifted than others, most of us can learn the skills to do things more intelligently by learning actively. Active learning means being aware of what we do not know and having the skills to find out. While also as well as however

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