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KAKUMANU 3rd year 6th sem-IT Email



ABSTRACT: Mobile Computing and comunication is keyword to achive the convergence of computing, communications and media technologies to meet the rising demand for health and social care.. 4G wireless networks has two important charecterestics

4G supports interactive multimedia services as teleconferencing wireless internet with wider band with's and higher bit rates. It is applicable in potential areas such as diagnosis. To build 4G network in future we may use: Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Low price points only slightly higher than alternatives More co-ordination among spectrum regulators around the world.thelemedicine.Some of the possible future applications are sensors in public require technology that implements newly found modulation meathods. More acedamic mobility and hybrid networks. The new concept of 4G are that it contains packet-switched networks with all network elements are digital and higher band width's with tight network and addition to voice. Integration across diffrent network topologies.first responder root selection and crisis management applications.Ø Ø End-to-End Internet Protocol Peer-to-Peer Networking The 4G wireless is the fourth ie"Next Generation" technology used by cellular phones to deliver superior quality video.We need to multiply incompatible standards. .comfort and efficiency.virtual navigation. 3G performance is insufficient to meet the future needs.mobility. Standardization of wirelsess.

Mobility is one critical aspect of 4G. we deal with three main issues: Ø Ø Ø Optimal choice of acess technology or how to be “Best connected”. Ericsson. in the context. Sun. 4G is the next generation of wireless networks that will replace 3G networks sometimes in future. In reality. 4G is a conceptual framework for or a discussion point to address future needs of a universal high speed wireless network that will interface with wireline backbone network seamlessly. The data transfer rate is expected to be in the range of 20-100 mbps in 4G networks which makes it almost 50 times faster than those offered by 3G links. In simplest terms. as of first half of and data transmission. depending on who you are talking to.There are several proposals to solve the different challenges faced by 4G networks. 4G is simply an initiative by academic R&D labs to move beyond the limitations and problems of 3G which is having trouble getting deployed and meeting its promised performance and throughput. NTT DoCoMo and other infrastructure vendors who must respond to the needs of MMS. In another context. multimedia and video applications if 3G never materializes in its full glory. The design of mobility enabled IP networking architecture. HP. INTRODUCTION: What is 4G : 4G takes on a number of equally true definitions. Qualcomm. . Nokia.4G is also represents the hope and ideas of a group of researchers in Motorola. Adaptation of multimedia transmission across 4G networks. 4G solves the non-standardization problems associated with 3G networks for voice.

Characteristics of 4G: 4G wireless networks have two important characteristics 1) End-to-End internet protocol (IP) 2) Peer-to-peer net working . However. we need global mobility and service portability 3G is based on primarily a wide-area concept. We need wider bandwidth Researchers have come up with spectrally more efficient modulation schemes that can not be retrofitted into 3G infrastructure History of 4G: The First generation wireless mobile communication systems were introduced in early eighties and second generations’ systems in the late 1980s was intended primarily for transmission of voice. these systems offer wide area network (WAN) coverage of 384 kbps peak rate and limited coverage for 2 Mbps. The third generation wireless systems which are just getting introduced in the world markets offer considerably higher data rates. We need hybrid networks that utilize both wireless LAN (hot spot) concept and cell or base-station wide area network design. We need a network technology that extends 3G capacity by an order of magnitude. 5. frequency division multiplexing (FDM) or the code division multiple access (CDMA). wireless teleconferencing. There are multiple standards for 3G making it difficult to roam and interoperate across networks. Hence providing broadband services would be one of the major goals of the 4G Wireless systems. The 3G Wireless systems were proposed to provide voice and paging services to provide interactive multimedia including teleconferencing and internet access and variety of other services. The initial systems used analog frequency modulation where as the second as well as the subsequent mobile systems use digital communication techniques with time division multiplexing (TDM).Motivation for 4G Research Before 3G Has Not Been Deployed: 3G performance may not be sufficient to meet needs of future high-performance applications media. and allow significant improvements over the 2G systems. full-motion video.

sub3G) 4G MajorRequirement Driving Architecture Predominantly voice driven . users will have access to different services. every devise is doth is transceiver and router/repeater for other devices in the network. increase4d coverage. 4g can be define as “Wireless Ad-Hoc Peer-to-peer networking”. End-to-End internet protocol (IP): This is an IP-based mobiles system that provides seamless roaming /handover and the best-connected served. combining multiple radio access interfaces (such as WLAN. It is expected to allow any mobiles device to seamlessly roam over different wireless technologies automatically using the best connection available for the intended use.5G. 2. 6. because the elimination of a single node does not disable the network. Bluetooth and GPRS) into a single network that subscribers nay use.Integration of Wireless LAN (WiFi.1. With this feature. anywhere anything” technology. Bluetooth) and wide area Speeds 384 Kbps to 2 Mbps 20 to 100 Mbps in mobile mode Frequency Band Dependent on country or continent (1800-2400 MHz) Higher frequency bands (2-8 GHz) . Comparison of 4G with 3G: Issues 3G (including 2. Peer-To-Peer net work: In this system. In other words. it would be “any time. and it eliminates the spoke-and-hub weakness of cellular architectures. the convenience of a single device one bill with reduced total access cost and more reliable wireless access even with the failure or loss of one or more was always add on Converged data and voice over IP Network Architecture Wide area cell-based Hybrid .

2G and 3G designations.1 Comparisons 7. 1/3 Concatenated coding scheme Component Design Optimized antenna design. 4G. the latest being 4G. Fig 7.1 shows the 4G cellular . including IP 5. 1xRTT. software multiband and wideband radios IP A number of air link protocols. multi-band adapters Smarter Antennas.0) Fig 6.Bandwidth 5-20 MHz 100 MHz (or more) Switching Design Basis Circuit and Packet All digital with packetized voice Access Technologies W-CDMA. Edge OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA) Forward Error Correction Convolutional rate 1/2. which is designed for high-speed data transmission.0 All IP (IP6.In cellular Technologies: The evolution of cellular communication systems is commonly known by 1G.

They were used for data like an ordinary telephone line is used with an analog modem. North America (CDMA2000) and Japan (NTT DoCoMo). These include GPRS and EDGE for GSM and TDMA systems and IS-95B for CDMA. Several so-called 2G+. technologies have provided e-mail and Internet access. 4G cell phones will support all the services of the 3G generation with the addition of movies and TV. 3G is also expected to provide advanced global roaming. Significance: In 4G networks. the first cellular systems were analog. DoCoMo's 4G service is based on WCDMA. users joining the network add mobile routers to the network infrastructure. or 2. 1G – Analog Introduced in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Defined by the ITU under the IMT-2000 global framework.S. which are GSM. and Europe are expected to offer 4G services at a later date and may use other technologies. cellular. however.1 4G cellular4G . 2G – Digital The second generation refers to digital voice cell phone systems deployed in the 1990s.. 8.Movies and TV Expected first from NTT DoCoMo in Japan in the 2006-2007 time frame. 3G is implemented regionally in Europe (UMTS). With an adapter.Fig 7. 3G . TDMA and CDMA. which means being able to travel anywhere and automatically be handed off to whichever wireless system is available (in house phone system. one could plug a laptop modem into some cell phone models and transfer data while traveling. Since users carry much of the network with them. Wherever the . satellite. carriers in the U. etc.). network capability and coverage is dynamically shifted to accommodate changing user patterns.Digital Multimedia The third generation is designed for high-speed multimedia data with speeds ranging from 128 Kbps to several megabits per second.5G.

However. They are just consumers computing for resources. and to overcome ISI a cyclic extension or guard band must be added to the data. the user devices act as routers. the service improves for all users.concentration of people is more in one area. It is a baseband process that uses parallel equal bandwidth channels to transmit network. In this dream network. 9. MCM increases the peak-to-average ratio (PAVR) of the signal. Need for 4G: • 3G performance insufficient to meet hi-p future needs. as the service gains popularity and the number of users increases. • Multiple incompatible standards. consumers actually sudsidise and help deploy the network for the carrier. Global mobility and service portability required. Physical and MAC Layer specifications One promising underlying technology to accomplish the divisiveness is multi-carrier modulation. however. a derivative of frequency division multiplexing. about 80 percent of the cost of the infrastructure is for site acquisition and installation. users contribute nothing to the network. But in wireless ad hoc peer. . thus enabling additional access to network capacity. about 80 percent of the cost is for technology and only 20 percent is for the installation. Users will automatically hop away from congested routes to less congested routes. and just 20 percent is for the technology. • Wider bandwidth. which are actually part of the network infrastructure. users cooperate rather than just compete for network resources. additional routers are created. This permits the network to dynamically and automatically balance capacity and increase network utilization. PDAs and laptops. with wireless peerto-peer networking. • Need for hybrid networks (both WLAN and cell n/w design). Thus. • Technology to utilize newly found modulation methods. Normally implemented with Fast Fourier transform (FFT) techniques. In the traditional cellular networks. 10. In the cellular infrastructure. MCM's advantages include better performance in the inter symbol interference (ISI) environment. So instead of carriers subsidizing the cost of user devices like handsets. and avoidance of single frequency interferers. MCM was earlier used in DSL modems and digital audio-video broadcasts. • Need for All IP n/w with converged voice and data capability.

while OFDM with TDMA could use more high-level modulations (HLM).Two different types of MCM are likely candidates for 4G as listed in the above table. 11. Space time codes. the users are multiplexed with orthogonal codes to distinguish users in MC-CDMA. Channel Access The allocation of the spreading codes or the time slots can be done in such a way that the throughput is maximized. MC-CDMA uses quadrature phaseshift keying (QPSK). Advances in fixed wireless broadband standards have enabled service providers to extend the reach and speed of their high-speed services. However. For example. to optimize overall system performance. where the level of QAM for all sub carriers is chosen based on measured parameters. Typically. each user can be allocated several codes. multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) (where M = 4 to 256). multiple antennas systems like the smart antennas can be used to further improve the data rates. the allocation should maintain certain amount of fairness while distributing the resources. How-ever. such as. Similar to single carrier CDMA systems. adaptive modulation can be used. Either way. 4G technologies impacting on traditional wireless networks To remain competitive. Error control coding In 4G systems rate-adaptive coding schemes can be used which can make use of the channel information from the measured parameters or feedback from the Mobile Terminal (MT). where the data is spread in time or frequency.. However. multiple users access the system simultaneously. In OFDM with TDMA. Differences between OFDM with TDMA and MC-CDMA can also be seen in the types of modulation used in each sub carrier. A Hybrid ARQ scheme can be used to minimize the overhead in case of retransmission. in MC-CDMA. the users are allocated time intervals to transmit and receive data. These are the multi-carrier CDMA and orthogonal FDM using TDMA. service providers must develop a wireless strategy that coordinates offerings and networks between their wire line and wireless broadband infrastructures. the . In addition. all the resources can be allocated to a user whose channel is very clean and users who have very noisy channels can be allocated little amount of bandwidth till their channel becomes better.

highlighting ways to retain customers while increasing profitability. and fixed services integration. portability. Broadband Wireless and WiMAX presents today's most viable broadband business models and market strategies.20. deployment status.1 shows 4G Networks. 802.11x (Wi-Fi) networks and WLANs.1 4G Network The features of this report are as follows: Ø Examines the impact of on fixed-line and traditional wireless infrastructures Ø Offers coherent strategies on how operators can coordinate their offerings and networks between their wire line and wireless broadband infrastructures Ø Explores the evolution of broadband wireless access technologies. and inter working of emerging wireless technologies Ø Discusses the use of fiber-optic components to support high-data-rate wireless access systems Ø Compares the performances of different wireless networks in transferring multimedia applications . and integrated wireless/wireline service offerings Fig 11. this report offers a knowledgeable and in-depth examination of 802. Authored by professionals currently at work in the industry.deployment of mobile broadband solutions such as 3G is inaugurating a new era in communications. highlighting their strengths and weaknesses Ø Assesses the technical capabilities. Fig 11. mobility.16x (WiMAX) and 802.

Ø Provides a comprehensive overview of the emerging WiMAX technology and all of its enhancements Ø Ø Analyzes the global market for WiMAX and broadband wireless access Provides a technical and market comparison of the Wi-Fi and WiMAX technologies Ø Presents an in-depth discussion of Wi-Fi networks in which 802. cost and revenue drivers are assessed.11b WLAN and 3G UMTS networks Assesses the use of UMTS 3G technology in broadband wireless applications Ø Examines the convergence of mobile or cellular networks with wireless enterprise networks Ø Outlines some of the technical challenges that must be met to allow full coexistence between cellular and WLAN modes of operation . and various business strategies are explored Ø Discusses the challenge of selecting an effective OSS infrastructure for offering a carrier-grade Wi-Fi service Ø Presents a general overview of today's WLAN world.11x is defined. assessing the challenges that are currently being faced and the latest developments Ø Ø Explores the internetworking of IEEE 802.