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EMERGENCY RESUSCITATION

THE

ABC
OF LIFE

DANGER RESPONSE AIRWAY

Check for the safety of yourself, bystanders and the casualty. Act only then if safe to do so. Check for responses: loudly shout and gently shake. If no response, proceed with A.B.C.
1. TURN THE CASUALTY ON THE SIDE AS FOR THE COMA

POSITION.

3.
2. OPEN PATIENTS MOUTH AND CHECK FOR ANY OBSTRUCTIONS. IF FOREIGN MATTER (IE. vomit, broken teeth etc) IS PRESENT CLEAR AIRWAY, THEN OPEN AIRWAY. 4.

CHECK BREATHING FOR 10 SECONDS

(i) LOOK: FOR CHEST MOVEMENT (ii) LISTEN: FOR BREATHING (iii) FEEL: FOR BREATHING ON YOUR HAND

BREATHING
A MOUTH TO MOUTH RESUSCITATION

IF NOT BREATHING TURN THE CASUALTY ON THEIR BACK AND GIVE: B MOUTH TO NOSE RESUSCITATION

1. 2. 3. 4.

Tilt head back and raise chin forward Pinch the nose Seal your mouth over casualtys mouth Blow into casualtys mouth

1. Close casualtys mouth 2. Lift chin 3. Blow into casualtys nose. GIVE 5 FULL QUICK BREATHS CHECK BREATHING AND CIRCULATION FOR 5 SECONDS PULSE PRESENT. NOT BREATHING CONTINUE EAR 1 BREATH EVERY 4 SECONDS UNTIL CASUALTY STARTS TO BREATH OR MEDICAL HELP ARRIVES. CHECK AFTER THE FIRST MINUTE AND THEN EVERY 2 MINUTES.

CIRCULATION
5. CHECK CAROTID PULSE FOR 5 SECONDS IF PULSE ABSENT

SINGLE OPERATOR

TWO OPERATORS

Carotid Artery

CHECK THE PULSE AFTER THE FIRST MINUTE and then every 2 minutes. When the pulse returns continue mouth to mouth until breathing returns.

Position hands on lower half of breast bone.

GIVE 15 HEART COMPRESSIONS FOLLOWED BY 2 FULL QUICK BREATHS. DEPRESS BREAST BONE TO 5 CM AT THE RATE OF 80 COMPRESSIONS A MINUTE.

GIVE 5 HEART COMPRESSIONS THEN 1 FULL QUICK BREATH WITHOUT INTERRUPTING THE RHYTHM. AT THE RATE OF 60 COMPRESSIONS A MINUTE.

When casualty recovers place into the coma position.

EMERGENCY ACTION
CHECK FOR DANGER & CHECK RESPONSE TO SHAKE & SHOUT
CONSCIOUS
Make Comfortable. Observe airway, breathing & circulation.

UNCONSCIOUS
Turn on side. Clear & open airway, check for breathing.

BREATHING
Leave on side. Observe airway, breathing & circulation. Call ambulance

NOT BREATHING
Turn on side. Clear & open airway, check for breathing.

PULSE PRESENT
Continue E.A.R.

PULSE ABSENT
Give C.P.R.

BABY/CHILD C.P.R SUMMARY BABY (under 1 year) Give PUFFS of E.A.R. with head LEVEL Compress with 2 fingers at 90-100 per minute. CHILD (1-8 years) Give SMALL breaths of E.A.R with head LEVEL Compress with one hand at 90 per minute.

Re-check breathing and pulse every 2 minutes. Se d someone for help. n

ADULT C.P.R SUMMARY ONE OPERATOR: 2 E.A.R AND 15 E.C.C at 80 per minute (4 cycles/minute). TWO OPERATORS: 1 E.A.R and 5 E.C.C at 60 per minute (12 cycles/minute).

E.A.R - Expired Air Resuscitation E.C.C - External Cardiac Compressions C.P.R - Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation

BLEEDING
Apply direct pressure over a firm pad Raise injured part Fix pad with a firm bandage Keep victim at rest

FOREIGN BODY IN WOUND


Press around the object Build up dressings to avoid pressure on the object Fix dressings with a diagonal bandage

NOSE BLEED
Tell victim to pinch the nose for 10 minutes Victim should sit with head forward

SEEK PROMPT MEDICAL ADVICE FOR WOUNDS AVOID CONTACT WITH BLOOD IF POSSIBLE

BURNS
Cool with cold running water for up to 10 minutes Gently remove tight clothing and jewellery Cover burn with a sterile non-stick dressing Fix with a light bandage

CHEMICAL BURNS
Flood with cold water for 15 minutes Carefully remove contaminated clothing Cover with a sterile non-stick dressing

BURNS TO EYES
Flood eye with cold water for up to 15 minutes Cover with sterile non-stick dressing

SEEK PROMPT MEDICAL ADVICE KEEP VICTIM AT REST

FRACTURES
IF VICTIM UNCONSCIOUS
Follow Emergency Action flow Chart

IF VICTIM CONSCIOUS
Apply sterile dressing to any wound Assist victim into position of greatest comfort

Support injured part with padding and splint if necessary Do not move victim unless in great danger

SEEK PROMPT MEDICAL ADVICE

POISONS
Wipe away any poison near mouth

IF VICTIM UNCONSCIOUS
Follow Emergency Action Flow Chart

IF VICTIM CONSCIOUS
Call Poisons Information Centre

Phone:
Follow their advice Do not make victim vomit unless told to do so

KEEP ANY VOMITED MATERIAL AND POISON CONTAINER

ELECTRIC SHOCK
HIGH VOLTAGE POWER
Stay more than six metres form victim Shout reassurance

LOW VOLTAGE POWER


Turn off electricity if possible

WHEN POWER IS OFF


IF VICTIM UNCONSCIOUS
Follow Emergency Action Flow Chart

IF VICTIM CONSCIOUS
Apply sterile non-stick dressings to entry and exit burns Fix dressings with a light bandage

SEEK PROMPT MEDICAL ADVICE

Shock may occur as a result of injury or sudden illness Do not move victim unnecessarily

IF VICTIM IS CONSCIOUS
Help victim to lie down, raise legs Loosen any tight clothing Stop any bleeding Treat any injuries Place blanket under victim Place light cover over victim Do not give any food or drink

IF VICTIM BECOMES UNCONSCIOUS


Follow Emergency Action Flow Chart