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School of Environment and Technology Division of Engineering and Product Design Semester Two Examinations, May-June 2009

**B.ENG. HONOURS DEGREE COURSE MATHEMATICS AND CONTROL (XE220)
**

EXAMINERS: Dr. C. Garrett and Dr. S.S. Singh

Instructions to Candidates:

y Time allowed: TWO hours y Answer any FOUR questions y The total number of questions is SIX y Each question carries 25 marks

Special Requirements:

y Aide Memoir (candidates are allowed to consult their pre-prepared, approved,

**aide memoir sheet during the examination)
**

y Appendix 1 - Table of Laplace transforms (attached - pages 11 to 13) y Appendix 2 - Question 2 Answer Sheet (attached - page 14) y Appendix 3 - Question 5 Answer Sheet (attached - page 15)

May-June 2009

Page 1 of 15

shown in Figure Q1a below. y 1 + 3 3 s KV Figure Q1b QUESTION ONE CONTINUES ON THE NEXT PAGE Q 1 s o 100 Page 2 of 15 . the force exerted by the dashpot is proportional to the velocity of the plunger . represents an engineering system with two identical springs each having a spring constant K connected as shown to a dashpot with coefficient C. C K Springs Damper K Y(t) U(t) Displacement Displacement Figure Q1a Determine the transfer function Y (s) (s) of the system. The displacements U(t) and Y (t) represent the input and output respectively as the system is disturbed from the rest position.Mathematics and Control (XE220) Question 1 (a) The schematic diagram. It has two feed back loops. K V and the multiplication functional feedback of 100. (8 marks) (b) A servo-mechanism for angular position control is represented by the diagram in Figure Q1b below. the order of the system and the transient response time of the system with a unit step input .

(10 marks) (ii) The expression for the forward transfer function . (2 marks) (iii) The system¶s transfer function UO (s) U i (s) .Mathematics and Control (XE220) Question 1 (continued) (b) Determine: (i) The block diagram of the system with one forward transfer function and one feedback loop in which the only feedback is the multiplication function of 100. (5 marks) QUESTION TWO COMMENCES ON THE NEXT PAGE Page 3 of 15 .

2 s ) 1 0.5 5 Figure Q2 Time (seconds) (a) For the open-loop operation.5 2 2. The open -loop time response of the water flow rate.4 m3 Water Flow Rate ( 1. determine the followin g: (i) the damped natural angular frequency [ d (2 marks) (ii) the transient response time (1 mark) (iii) the s-plane pole plot and the position of the poles (6 marks) (iv) the system¶s forward transfer function (4 marks) QUESTION TWO CONTINUES ON THE NEXT PAGE Page 4 of 15 . is the measured flow rate from the water delivery pipe resulting from a unit step input demand for water. closed-loop control system.4 0.Mathematics and Control (XE220) Question 2 The water supply from a water -treatment plant is kept at a desired flow rate by means of an electromechanical valve operating with a unit -feedback.6 0.8 0.8 1.5 3 3.5 4 4. Unit Step Response 1.6 1.2 0 0 0. shown in Figure Q2 below.5 1 1.

s-1. (6 marks) QUESTION THREE COMMENCES ON THE NEXT PAGE ¡ (ii) the natural angular frequency n (2 marks) (2 marks) Page 5 of 15 . determine the following: (i) the system¶s forward transfer function (2 marks) (iii) the damping ratio ^ (iv) the steady error for a step demand change in flow rate of 20 m3.Mathematics and Control (XE220) Question 2 (continued) (b) For the closed-loop operation.

Mathematics and Control (XE220) Question 3 Two system block diagrams are shown below in Figures Q3a and Q3b. i (s ) 6 s+2 0. each with feedback.20 for a unit step demand change in input .5 ( Qs) 1 s Uo(s) Figure Q3 b (a) Formulate the system¶s closed-loop forward transfer function for the block diagram in Figure Q3a and show that it is given by: U o (s) 6 ! U i (s) s5 (8 marks) (b) Determine the transient response time of this system and show that the openloop steady-state error is 0.5 Figure Q3 a y ( Qs) y Ui(s) + 6 s+2 0. (10 marks) QUESTION THREE CONTINUES ON THE NEXT PAGE Page 6 of 15 .

(3 marks) (d) Determine the forward transfer function of the system shown in F igure Q3b. (4 marks) QUESTION FOUR COMMENCES ON THE NEXT PAGE Page 7 of 15 .Mathematics and Control (XE220) Question 3 (continued) (c) If the system¶s closed-loop forward transfer function for the block diagram in Figure Q3a is given by: U o (s) 6 ! U i (s) s5 redraw the functional block diagram of the system shown in Figure Q3b so that it has a single feedback loop.

U out(s) Tachogenerator Figure Q4 (a) If the transfer functions of the individual blocks in Figure Q4 are: Motor: U ( s ) K t ( JR ) out ! Vin ( s ) s .Mathematics and Control (XE220) Question 4 Figure Q4 below shows a velocity control system which uses a permanent -magnet DC motor driving a load whi ch has inertia and viscous friction. Vin(s) + Amplifier Motor .

b J .

k e k t ( JR ) Vout (s) ! Ka Vin (s) Vout ( s ) ! KT U ( s ) in Amplifier: Tachogenerator: Show that the transfer function for the closed -loop control system presented in Figure Q4 is: U ( s) K a K t ( JR ) out ! Vin ( s ) s .

b J .

k e k t ( JR ) .

and then the input voltage is suddenly raised to 12 Volts. Sketch the output-velocity versus time graph and label significant features.08 Vs/rad R=5 kt = 10 Nm/A b = 0. The parameters for the system above are: Ka = 20 J = 0. respond to a step -input change as the amplifier gain is increased? Page 8 of 15 .2 rad/Vs (13 marks) (c) How would the system. described in part (a).2 kgm2 ke = 0.03 Nms/rad kT = 0. use the transfer function derived in part (a) and the enclosed Laplace tables to show that the value of the output speed after one time constant is approximately 37 radians per second.K T K a K t /( JR ) (8 marks) (b) If the system is considered to be completely at rest with an input voltage of zero.

Clearly show on your Bode-plot how you have arrived at these values. (4 marks) (c) Comment on the stability of a system with a phase margin of 10 degrees. sketch the system Bode-plot (using piecewiselinear approximations) of an open -loop system with the following transfer function: H(s) ! 2000 s(s 20) (12 marks) (b) Determine the approximate gain and phase margins if H(s) above is to be used in a closed-loop system which possesses unit-gain feedback. (5 marks) Page 9 of 15 . with the aid of sketches. how such a compensator may be used to enhance the stability of a closed -loop unit-feedback system. (2 marks) (d) Comment on the stability of a system with a gain margin of -20 dB.Mathematics and Control (XE220) (4 marks) Question 5 (a) On the graph-paper provided. (2 marks) (e) Figure Q5 below shows the Bode -plot of a compensator network C(s): Gain of C(s) Phase of C(s) Figure Q5 Explain.

(8 marks) (c) Figure Q6 below shows the internals of a computer hard -disc unit: Spinning platters that hold the data in sectors Data readwrite heads Read-write head positioning arm Figure Q6 Explain the purpose of the control system connected to the movable arm which holds the read-write heads. Explain the purpose of each block in your diagram. Explain what the important parameters of this response are and explain how they are def ined. (5 marks) Page 10 of 15 . In particular.e. explain what requirement s the controlsystem engineer has to satisfy when designing the arm -control system. has some overshoot). Include in your diagram provision for the user to control manually the gain and the damping of the system. (12 marks) (b) Sketch the typical output versus time response of a second-order closed-loop control system which has been stimulated by a step input and is slightly under damped (i.Mathematics and Control (XE220) Question 6 (a) Sketch a block diagram of a position -control system which uses a DC-motor and contains a gearbox and tacho -generator feedback.

Mathematics and Control (XE220) APPENDIX 1 ± TABLE OF LAPLACE TRANSFORMS _ g x (s) ! ´e 0 st x(t)dt x(t) 1 s 1 or H(t) e at t 1 s a 1 s2 1 2 .

s a 1 te at .

s a .

s b 1 s.

s a e at e bt b a 1 .

1 e at a 1 sin( at) a 1 sinh( at) a 1 at e sin(bt) b 1 (b a )t .

e e(b a )t 2b 1 s a2 2 1 s a2 2 1 .

s a 2 b 2 1 .

s a s 2 b 2 2 .

s a s b .

1 at e at .

s a 2 ?(b a)t 1Aeat Page 11 of 15 .

Mathematics and Control (XE220) APPENDIX 1 (CONTINUED) _ g x (s) ! ´e 0 st x(t)dt x(t) ae at be bt ab (c a)e at (c b)e bt b a s .

s a .

s b sc s a .

s b .

(s b) s.

s a 1 b ( a b )e at a ? A s s a2 2 cos(at) 1 b 2 a 2 sin at tan 1 a b a 2 s b s a2 2 ? .

A s .

s a 2 b 1 a 2 b 2 e at sin bt tan 1 b a b t2 2 ? .

A 1 s3 1 .

s a 1 3 1 2 at .

t e 2 1 1 (1 at ) e at 2 a s.

s a 2 ? A 1 s .

s a 2 1 at t 1 e 2 a a a2 1 s.

s a 2 2 1 ? cos( at )A 1 a2 Page 12 of 15 .

Mathematics and Control (XE220) APPENDIX 1 (CONTINUED) _ g x (s) ! ´e 0 st x(t)dt x(t) dx dt Y (s) ! x(t ! 0) sX (s) y(t) ! Page 13 of 15 .

2 ut ut res onse to unit ste in ut 1 0.5 5 ime (seconds) Page 14 of 15 .4 0.2 0 0 0.ANSWER SHEET FOR QUESTION TWO Student Number: «««««««««««««««.5 nit Ste es onse 2 2.5 .4 1. 0.5 4 4. 0. 1.5 1 1.Mathematics and Control (XE220) APPENDIX 2 . S stem 1.

STUDENT NUMBER: ««««« «..Mathematics and Control (XE220) APPENDIX 3 ± QUESTION 5 ANSWER SHEET. 20 dB 0 dB 1 0r 1 -90r Page 15 of 15 .««««..

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