LEADERSHIP AND MOTIVATION HRM 608 Summer, 2011

MD. SHAHAJAHAN HOWLADER

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Leadership is an art of influencing a people by persuasion to follow a line of action. results a person can lose an argument but never a voice. each person is responsible for results and situations. frequent replace of a leader creates problem. In practice this means that each person takes personal accountability for the success and failure of the organizational unit. (Rauch & Behling) Leadership is “the process of making sense of what people are doing together so that people will understand and be committed. and enable others to contribute towards the effectiveness and success of the organization. Exchange of purpose: In a partnership every worker at every level should define vision and values. 1. a widely accepted vision would be considered by the leader. 2. The role of leaders affects organizational performance. Leadership Leadership is “the behaviour of an individual which directing the activities of a group towards a shared goal”. Four things are necessary for valid leadership. The impact of leadership on organizational performance Leaders bring change through their action and personal influence. Through dialogue with every level of people. Leadership is an act that causes of others to act or respond in a share direction. 4. One of the researcher’s 2 . Joint accountability: In a team. (Hempill & Coons) Leadership is “the process of influencing the activities of an organized group towards goal achievement.Leadership and Motivation HRM 608 Who is a leader? A leader is someone who leads/ guides/ inspires others. Usually he holds a dominant or superior position. motivate. Absolute honesty: Absolute honesty is required to reach the goal in team label of circumstances. 3. (Drath) Leadership is “the ability/capability of an individual to influence. A right to say no: The general believe people who express contrary opinion will be punished. Leadership as a partnership Leadership is to regard as long term partnership. A Leader is one of the most influential person who influences a group of people towards the achievement of a goal.

As a spokes person. spend some part of their time engaging in ceremonial activities. increasing competition. Upper level management Clients Labour unions Professional colleagues 3. Leadership roles are a sub set of the managerial roles. the managerial leader answering the inquiries and formally and formally reporting to individuals and group out side his organizational unit. Coach. equipment or any other required support Bargaining with other unit for the use of staff. Negotiator. Leaders. As an effective leader takes time to coach team members Inform team members concerning ineffective performance Ensure team members are informed relating improvement of their performance. 2. particularly high – ranking managers. 5. changing governmental regulations. Figurehead. technological advances. 1. A paramount import role as an effective leader to build a strong team. Leadership roles The various roles are carried out by leaders. Team Player. problem and concern 6. and changing worker attitudes a leader could successfully reorient the organization by changing strategies and organizational structure. Deals with other for necessary resources Bargaining with superior for funds. Spokesperson. facilities or any other form of support Bargaining with vendors or suppliers for services or schedules 4. or acting as a figurehead. Making oneself available to outsiders as a representative of the organization Serving as an official representative of the organization at gatherings outside the organization.opinion organizations required a higher level of leadership. A role in this context is an expected set of behaviour. Ensuring that the team members are recognized for their accomplishment Arranging activities that contributing group morale Holding periodic staff meetings to encourage team members to talk about their accomplishment. Play role as a team player maintain personal conduct 3 . Among the changes. Team builder. facilities.

An opportunity to control money and other resources: A leader often contributes to prepare a department budget and authorize expenses. leaders receive higher pay than team members. Teachnical problem. Such casual over time is not compensated. By and large. Easy information: A benefit of being a leader is that to receive inside information attending management meeting. A change to help others: A leader works directly with the people and has an opportunity to listening the problem lies with them. 2. 3. The satisfaction and frustration depends on his particular leadership position. 7. Sources of satisfaction are appended below 1. Dissatisfaction and Frustrations of Leaders Many individual contributors refuse to accept a leadership role because of the frustration. He enjoys higher status than the general people. 5. To help team members to solve the technical problem Serving as technical expert 8.- Cooperate with others units Showing loyalty to support superiors plan and decisions. 6. To be called a leader is better than to be called as a follower. such information is not passed along to individual contributor. 4. Effective or satisfied judgment on financial matters facilitates a leader to reach an expected goal. Enterprener. Leaders often train the team members and solve personal problem. Managers who works in a large organization have some responsibilities for improving the firm Keep in touch what is happening in the business world The satisfactions and frustration of being a leader The leader is generally satisfied with his title. Designation facilitates a person professional experience. Too much uncompensated over time: People in leadership jobs are usually expected to work longer hours than other employees. The various factors drive to be satisfied and frustrated. Respect and status: A leader is respected by the group members. As a leader his job is to help the people High income: Generally. A feeling of power and prestige: As a leader power comes automatically and prestige lies with the power. 7. 4 . Good opportunities for advancement: Obtaining a leadership position carrier advancement opportunity increases in many ways. If money is the key of motivator being a leader it could achieve without difficulty.

Not enough authority to carry out responsibility: People in managerial positions complain repeatedly that they are held responsible for things done but they have little control and authority. Passionate (Loving) Good leaders are not reactive people. Qualities of a good leader A leader is a dealer in hope" . As a leader you have to engage in politics from three directions: below. Political tactics such as forming alliances and coalitions are a necessary part of a leader’s role. Too much organizational politics: People of all level of organizations involve in politics. and crises come and go and a good leader takes these as part of the journey and keeps a cool head. Too many problems Involving people: A major frustration facing a leader is the number of human resources problems requiring action. The lower leadership position faces as problem. sideways. They do not just look at what things are. 5 . Too much paperwork and Electronic mail: A general complain comes from managers that abundance of from need to fill up. emotions. Being a good leader requires that the person is able to think. Common complain of a leader or manger is that too much paperwork and electronic mail take up too much time.Napoleon Bonaparte “A leader is a Source of inspiration” 1. It is easier to avoid politics as an individual contributor than a leader. “What’s next?” knowing that encourage change. Storms. He should be able to successfully convince his followers and make them understand the need for change.Too many headaches: Being a leader faces potential problem whether any thing go wrong all responsibilities include on his account. which will ultimately result in the achievement of their common goals. They are usually extremely passionate in whatever they're doing. growth and strategic thinking for an organization to remain healthy. It might be expected from a manager to produce high quality services with too small or unskilled staff but no authority to hire or fire. and upward. Vision Good leaders have vision and always thinking beyond today. Good leaders are tolerant of ambiguity and remain calm to the main purpose. Loneliness: Some people in leadership position feel lonely because they miss “on of the gang”. but at what things could be. 2. Government regulations over matters such as employee health and safety and equal employment opportunity compliance are another source of substantial paperwork. considering the future and giving it equal importance as the present.

Having the wisdom to make the right decision is extremely important in ensuring the success of the organization. 4. They are people who keep their promises and they don't play the two-faced political game that a lot of others do. At the same time. question. Good leaders can be depended on their professionalism and follow through. Confident: Believing in their own abilities is an essential trait (Characteristics) of a good leader. . A good leader is confident. In order to lead and set direction a leader needs to appear confident as a person and in the leadership role. Trustworthiness and honesty are the two important aspects of a leader's character. Wise. He should have the ability to listen. They mean what they say. competent and Skillful Being good leaders must be wise. not believing in his ways. Leaders do not need to complete the task but they have to ensure the job is done accordingly. The good leader not only maintains high standards. He should believe that actions speak louder than words. People will respond more openly to a person of passion and dedication. 3. A good leader is committed to excellence. Therefore. he should be willing to accept relevant suggestions from his subordinates. Communication: Effective communication is a vital leadership trait of a good leader. Often they need to make crucial decisions. and they say what they mean. Leaders need to function in an orderly and purposeful manner in situations of uncertainty. Leaders need to be able to be a source of inspiration. people find them trustworthy and they give their commitment to these leaders as a result. analyze and observe effectively. and be a motivator towards the required action or cause. 6 . Second best does not lead to success. A leader who conveys confidence towards the proposed objective inspires the best effort from team members. but also is proactive. He should be able to put across what needs to be done and how. Unless and until he has confidence in his abilities he will not be able to lead effectively. 5. Even a slight flaw in his character will lead to the followers. he should follow all the set leadership principles. knowledgeable and discerning (sharp). A leader's character plays a vital role in determining the effectiveness of his leadership. As such. Such a person inspires confidence in others and draws out the trust and best efforts of the team to complete the task well.A good leader is enthusiastic about their work and also about their role as leader. Integrity Good leaders have to have integrity. 6.

The attitude of a leader is an important determinant in the successful overcoming of leadership challenges. Attitude: Sporting a positive attitude. it also refers to the behaviour a person shows in a number of situations. even in the worst of situations is a characteristic of a good leader. Personal traits can be divided into groups: • General personality traits (self confidence) • Task – related traits ( initiative ) General personality: We define a general personality traits as a trait is observable both with in and outside the context of work. This could be a vital characteristic of a strong leader. he earns it. 3. Leaders themselves believe that honesty makes a difference in their effectiveness. 8. Motives and Characteristics of leader Certain personal characteristics and skills contribute to leadership effectiveness in many situations is the universal theory of leadership. This includes planning and organizing of team activities. etc. integrity and credibility: Group members consistently believe that leaders must display honesty. He should be able to instill the same in his followers. the team will follow undoubtedly. Respect: A good leader does not demand or command respect. There must consistency among what leader think. Respect should not be restricted only from the followers to the leader. Honesty. 10. 7 . Self confidence: It is important for the leader to be realistically self – confident. 4. Self confidence is not only a personality trait. to make a good leader. While most people would be easily distracted or discouraged. Strategic: This is an important aspect of and leadership skills. integrity and credibility. Characteristics associated with leadership can be classified into four broad categories: 1. Traits. 9. Disciplined Good leaders are extremely disciplined in their pursuit of their goals. effective time management. It is of the same kind to being cool under pressure. 2. allotment of tasks and responsibilities. good leaders discipline their flesh to keep focused and to keep steady despite the circumstances. All team players should be respected and if the leader sets an example for this. by appropriate motivation and problem solving techniques. it needs to be mutual. A person is self confident leader when he or she retains composure (calm) during crisis. His team should have zeal towards the achievement of their goals.7. it is necessary to be passionate towards the work he does. And most importantly. feel and do. Personality traits Motives Cognitive factors Physical and background factors.

Emotional stability is an important leadership trait because group members expect and need consistency in the way they are treated. it is desirable for the leader to be enthusiastic. A leader can express enthusiasm both verbally (“great job) and nonverbally. Assertiveness: Assertiveness refers to being forthright in expressing demands. Enthusiasm is also a desirable leadership trait because it helps to build good relationship with team members. Group members be inclined to respond positively to enthusiasm because enthusiasm may be perceived (obvious) as a reward for constructive behaviour. interest) In almost all leadership situations. keenness. It also refers to proactive side of leadership. 8 . Assertiveness helps leaders perform many tasks and achieve goals. a dominant leader is often seen as bossy. Rather than just reacting to events.Dominance: A dominant person imposes his or her will on others. • Warmth facilitates the establishment of rapport (relationship. Extraversion: Extraversion has been recognized for its contribution to leadership effectiveness because it is helpful for leaders in most situations to be gregarious and outgoing. Task related personality traits Initiative: Initiative refers to taking action without support and stimulation (inspiration & motivation) from others. Warmth: (Warmness) Warmth contributes to leadership effectiveness in several ways. One study found that executive leaders who are emotionally unstable handle pressure poorly and give inconsistent behaviour. understanding) with group members. Initiative is also related to problem – finding. This awareness enables them to capitalize (take advantage) upon their strengths and develop their weaknesses. Enthusiasm: (eagerness. Emotional stability: Emotional stability refers to the ability to control emotions. feelings. Because humor helps the leader dissolve tension and defuse conflict. it helps her or him exert (exercise) power over the group. and attitudes. Self. • The projection of warmth is a key component of charisma (charm. Sense of Humor: (comedy. Humor serves such functions in the workplace as relieving tension and boredom (monotony) and defusing (resolve) hostility (unfriendliness). personality & appeal) • It provides emotional (exiting) support to group members High tolerance for frustration: High tolerance for frustration or the ability to cope with situation helps of goal attainment. options.awareness and self – objectivity: Effective leaders are aware of their strengths and limitations. effective leaders make choices and take action that leads to change. As a consequence. funniness) the effective use humor is considered an important part of a leader’s role. This trait is important because a leader encounters (manage & handle) a great many frustration.

The following motives can be considered task related. Lack of sensitivity to others is to risk becoming a failed leader. Instated the leader tries to conduct business as usual. in fact. Power motive: Effective leaders have a strong need to control resources. their interests and attitudes. It therefore follows that a leader must be flexible and adaptable enough to cope with change. They spend much time in thinking about ways to alter the behaviour and thinking of others. Leadership motives Effective leaders. Courage: Leaders need courage to face the challenges of taking prudent risks and taking initiative in general. They care about their personal standing with those around them 9 . leaders have been intense desire to occupy a position of responsibility for others and to control them. it is instrumental for the leader to understand group member. Flexibility and adaptability: A leader is someone who facilitates change. An intensive study of executive leaders revealed that they do not even think about failure. Instead. the leader is often seen as having failed. and how to reach them. they bounce back quickly from setbacks such as budget cuts. They must also face up to responsibility. they rely on synonyms such as mistake. In practice this means that the leader sets an example for team members by not crumbling when something goes wrong. happy. demotions and being fired. has long been recognized as an important leadership characteristic. that they are resilient. It takes courage’s for the leader to suggest a new undertaking if the undertaking fails. In general. or successful again after difficult situation or event) An important observation about effective leaders.Sensitivity (compassion. understanding) to others and empathy (sympathy): In an effort to influence others. as well as manager in general. Resiliency: (the ability to become strong. as opposed to non leaders as well as less effective leaders have frequently been ditingushed by their motives and needs. Leaders with high power motives have three dominant characteristics: They act with determination to exert their power. and be willing to put their reputations on the line. Corporate leader must be able to adapt to changes such as when: Sophisticated technological advances have made it possible to speed up customers production. New services are constantly being offered and developed to attract and retain Customers demand the latest products in the latest amount of time Flexibility. or the ability to adjust to different situations. A strong internal locus facilitates self –confidence because the person perceives that he or she can control circumstances enough to perform well. Leaders who are flexible are able to adjust to the demands of different situations Internal Locus of control: An internal locus of control is closely related to self – confidence. they do not use the word.

In this context. As such leaders are more willing to accept expert advice. he or she is likely to provide more effective leadership. • Receive feedback on level of performance. it is much more difficult to influence others. Personalized power motive: Leaders with a personalized power motive seek power mostly to further their own interests. Traits : particular quality in your personality Particular quality in some one character Personality/ character traits a mental / a mental illness associated with particular personality Character: 10 . Without power. a firm belief in the dignity of work. As a result. Drive and achievement motive: Leaders are known for the strong effort they invest in achieving work goals. • Introduce novel. A person with a strong achievement motivation has a consistent desire to: • Achieve through one’s efforts and take responsibility fro success or failure. • Take moderate risks that can be handled through one’s own efforts. The importance of strong motivation for leadership is well accepted.The power motive is important because it means that the leader is interested in influencing other. innovative or creative solutions • Plan and set goals Strong work Ethic: Effective leaders typically have a strong work ethic. the term socialized means that the leader use power primarily to help others. It helps the organizational leader believe that the group task is worthwhile. Socialized power motives: Leaders with a socialized power motive use power primarily to achieve organizational goals or a vision. People with a strong work ethic are well motivated because they value hard work.