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# PAMM · Proc. Appl. Math. Mech. 4, 384–385 (2004) / DOI 10.1002/pamm.

200410173

**Prediction of Yield-line Geometries for Arbitrary Simply Supported Slabs
**

¨ Jochen Wust∗1

1

Institut f¨ r Baustatik, Universit¨ t Karlsruhe, Kaiserstraße 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe u a

The calculation of limit loads of slabs using the yield-line theory requires the assumption of a kinematical collapse mechanism. In recent years several approaches concerning the optimization of predeﬁned mechanisms have been introduced. Usually they contain semi-automatic procedures which depend on user-deﬁned yield-line predictions. This paper presents a systematic approach and a numerical procedure to ﬁnd yield-line predictions for arbitrary all-side supported slabs.

© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

1

1.1

**Description of yield-line patterns
**

Introduction

Yield-lines are assumed to be straight without any breaks and without ending within the slab. As they have to form kinematical admissible collapse mechanisms they must run through the intersection point of two rotation axes. These principles were deﬁned by Johansen [1]. The corresponding planes form one common yield-line and the contact point of three planes is called branching point. Considering an all-side simply supported polygonal slab we ﬁnd that the number of branching points p depends on the number of edges n in the relationship p = n − 2. 1.2 Numerical encoding and admissible code combinations

For the description of yield-lines and branching points we use the numbering of the adjacent planes. In this way yield-lines will be encoded by two digits, branching points will be denoted by three digits. Fig. 1 illustrates that the two end points of

015 15 I 12 012 125 25 II 235 23 023 V 35 III 45 345 045 IV 34 034

Fig. 1 Encoded yield-line mechanism of a slab

a straight yield-line have to possess both of its numbers. This leads to the possibility to record the yield-line pattern exactly. Furthermore it is obvious that no more branching points with the same two digits may appear. For this reason the theoretical number of branching point code combinations C is calculable and we ﬁnd the principle of the Catalan numbers, e.g. in [2] C (p) = 2p 1 p+1 p = (2p)! p! (p + 1)!

where p signiﬁes the number of branching points.

2

2.1

**Algorithm of systematical generation
**

Analogy to polygon triangulations and binary trees

An application of the Catalan numbers is the triangulation of polygons. The example of a pentagon (see Fig. 2) shows the ﬁve different conﬁgurations given by the formula above. The conﬁgurations of binary trees can also be described depending on the depth of their vertices. Five binary trees are displayed below the according pentagon.

∗

Corresponding author: e-mail: jochen.wuest@bs.uni-karlsruhe.de, Phone: +49 721 608 2284, Fax: +49 721 608 6015

© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Sloan. Table 1 Decoding of binary trees 00 Put vertex root into memory Annex vertex to left 01 10 11 Put vertex root out of memory Annex vertex to left Annex vertex to right Annex vertex to right 2. 32(10). The next step would be to evaluate the most critical mechanism and to optimize the exact location of the branching point coordinates without changing the yield-line conﬁguration. The binary code is adopted to the requirements of the numerical code of yield-lines. Yield-line analysis by sequential linear programming. Int. Stuttgart. W. Studia Univ. Struct. 31-40 (2001) a ¸ D. Weinheim . In case of a furcation the related root point will be stacked (code: 00) and after the end of the left strand it will be taken to add a right vertex (code: 11). Johansen. Comput. In this way the tree digit numbering of branching points is recalculated and the theoretical admissible collapse mechanisms are recorded. Yield-line Theory (Cement and Concrete Association. J. Jennings. local effects like corner lever and fan mechanisms have to be considered in order to complete the problem analysis and to minimize the limit load factor.Section 8 1 2 5 2 1 5 2 1 5 2 1 5 2 1 5 385 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 0011 1 2 3 4 5 0110 1 2 4 3 1 5 4 2 3 4 5 1010 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 3 4 2 5 0101 1 4 3 5 1001 1 2 3 5 4 1 2 3 5 1 2 3 5 4 1 5 2 3 4 Fig. Since the coordinates of a theoretical possible branching point may be situated beyond the slap area. 601-612 (1998) © 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. The decoding instructions are shown in Table 1. Babes-Bolyai. Anwendungen der linearen Gruppentheorie (Klett.g. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] K. Furthermore. J. it is important to detect all possible mechanisms systematically. 1981) A. 2 Triangulated pentagon and analogous binary tree Bege and K´ sa [3] present a system to encode binary tree structures using binary code sequences where each two digits a describe the run of a vertex. Bege and Z. in the semi-automatic approaches by Johnson [4] and Thavalingam et al. Crossing yield-line patterns will also not be accepted. 1962) H. Therefore the calculation process has to be completed by an optimization as proposed e. Coding objects related to Catalan numbers. Finally the actually admissible initial yield-line assumptions remain for the adjacent collapse load calculation. In the next step the individual geometry of a given problem is analyzed. 1395-1404 (1994) A. Siemon. the corresponding yield-line conﬁgurations are discarded. KGaA. Thavalingam. Informatica 46(1). Johnson. London. J. 68. The four combinations of the digits 0 and 1 deﬁne the run of the vertices. [5]. A. K´ sa. Solids Struct. 3 Optimization process As the output of a yield-line theory calculation is affected by the assumed kinematical prediction. A computerised method for rigid-plastic yield-line analysis of slabs.2 Transfer to yield-line geometries Binary tree structures are conform to the theoretical admissible yield-line patterns of a polygonal slab. McKeown ans D. Initially the coordinates are derived from intersection points of yield-lines which are assumed to be bisecting lines.