National Trust for Nature Conservation

P.O. Box 3712, Khumaltar, Lalitpur , Nepal
Tel: 977-1-5526571,5526573
Fax: 977-1-5526570
E-mail: info@ntnc.org.np
Website: www.ntnc.org.np
PROJECT HEAD
Siddhartha B. Bajracharya, PhD
National Trust for Nature Conservation
STUDY TEAM
Astra Development Network, Tripureshwor, Kathmandu
Geospatial Systems Private Limited, Pulchwok, Lalitpur
Innovative Solutions Private Limited, Chakupat, Lalitpur
EDITORIAL TEAM
Mahesh Banskota, PhD
Prof. Pramod K. Jha
Kishore Thapa
Deependra Joshi (Editor)
Ratna Raj Timsina
CONTRIBUTORS
Mahesh Bahadur Basnet, Chairman, BCIDC
Krishna KC, Former Chairman, BCIDC
Anil Bhadra Khanal, Project Manager, BCIDC
Subrato Sinha, PhD (UNEP/ROAP)
Richard Luff (UNICEF Nepal)
Dipak Gyawali, Nepal Water Conservation Foundation, Kathmandu
Roshan Raj Shrestha, PhD, UN-Habitat, Nepal
Ngamindra Dahal, NTNC
EPLC/UNEP, South Korea
Local stakeholders and communities of Bagmati catchment area
NTNC Team
Published by : High Powered Committee for Integrated Development of the Bagmati Civilization
and National Trust for Nature Conservation
© 2009 Government of Nepal & National Trust for Nature Conservation
Jawlakhel, Lalitpur, Nepal
ISBN No: 978-993933933-702-8-4
Citation: GoN/NTNC (2009) Bagmati Action Plan (2009–2014). Kathmandu, Nepal.
Photos: Dr. Siddhartha B. Bajracharya, National Trust for Nature Conservation
Cover Photo: Dhap Area, Shivapuri National Park
BAGMATI ACTION PLAN
(2009–2014)
National Trust for Nature Conservation
PO Box 3712
Jawlakhel, Lalitpur, Nepal
Tel: (977-1) 5526571, 5526573
Fax: (977-1) 5526570
E-mail: info@ntnc.org.np
Web: www.ntnc.org.np
United Nations Environment Programme (RRC AP)
PO Box 4; Klongluang 12120, Bangkok, Thailand
Tel: (66-2) 5162124, 5245365
Fax: ((66-2) 5162125
E-mail: info@rrcap.unep.org
Web: www.rrcap.unep.org
BAGMATI ACTION PLAN
(2009–2014)
BAGMATI ACTION PLAN
(2009–2014)
Government of Nepal
High Powered Committee for Integrated
Development of the Bagmati Civilization
Guheshowori Phant, Kathmandu
Tel: (977-1) 4498619, 4479703
Fax: (977-1) 4482848
E-mail: info@bagmati.gov.np
Web: www.bagmati.gov.np
HPCIDBC
UN-HABITAT
Water for Asian Cities Programme
PO Box 107, Pulchowk Kathmandu
Tel: +977 1 5536699
Fax: +977 1 5539877
Web: www.unwac.org, www.unhabitat.org
ii
Message
Right Honorable Mr. Madhav Kumar Nepal
Prime Minister
Government of Nepal
Singhadurbar, Kathmandu,
Nepal
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+ =+= ·- = ~·- +=- =· c
iii
Message
Honorable Mr. Bijaya Kumar Gachhadar
Deputy Prime Minister & Minister
Ministry for Physical Planning and Works
Government of Nepal
The Bagmati river has significant ecological, cultural and religious importance. World famous religious and cultural heritages
are located along the banks of the river. Biodiversity of Bagamati is currently being lost at unprecedented rate due to human
activities. The activities like dumping of solid wastes and discharging of untreated liquid waste polluted the river heavily,
which made an assault to the sanctity of the rivers. The aggrevated environmental degradation of Kathmandu valley in
general and the Bagmati in particular has been an issue of concern for all.
The Bagmati Action Plan (2009-2014) envisages a strong commitment to conserve the Bagmati river system. In-order to
address the present challenges, the Government of Nepal has given high priority for the conservation of the Bagmati river
system.
However, it is clear that there remains a crucial task to revive the past glory of Bagmati. The scientific and articulated
internvention is a must. The roles and responsibilities of the key stakeholders are to be
defined. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders is essential to achieve the objectives. The Bagmati Action Plan is a milestone
in this direction.
I am confident that this plan will server as a guide to all the stakeholders. I hope that this plan will be a basis for all the
concerned organizations and institutions to contribute to restore and conserve Bagmati. I would like to appreciate all those
involved in preparation of the Bagmati Action Plan for their effort to come up with the present form.
Now, it is the time for cooperation and collaboration. It is time to translat our hopes and energies into action, for the sake
of overall environmental improvement of Kathmandu valley. In this Juncture I would like to call upon all the stakeholders to
join hand to make our dream come true.
iv
Hon. Deepak Bohara
Minister
Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation
and
Chairman
National Trust for Nature Conservation
Message
Ever since the existence of humankind in the Kathmandu Valley, the Bagmati river has remained as the cradle of our
civilization. The life of Bagmati is intertwined with the lives of millions of the Kathmandu dwellers. It has functioned as the
main artery of the city, nourishing the Valley and providing immense environmental and ecological services.
However, with the rapid population growth and haphazard urbanisation of the Kathmandu Valley, the Bagmati River and its
tributaries suffered the most. At present, the Bagmati River system is highly polluted. The problem is further aggravated by
continuous dumping of solid wastes, domestic sewerage and industrial waste along its bank and in the river directly.
Restoring the Bagmati river is ambitious, but success is vital. The Bagmati Action Plan has prepared a framework of actions
by zoning the river into five areas and commits to clean, green and enliven the Bagmati river. This Plan presents clear
objectives to give new life to Bagmati and its tributaries.
Each chapter of the Bagmati Action Plan has addressed a topical issue to contribute to the vision of a clean, green and
healthy river system that is full of life and valued by all. The objective of the Plan is to conserve the terrestrial and aquatic
biodiversity; cultural and heritage sites; and to develop and promote eco-tourism in the Bagmati river. Our increasing
knowledge must now spur on efforts to preserve what riches of Bagmati remain to us. I hope this Plan will stimulate
discussion and catalyse action on saving the Bagmati river.
The Government of Nepal would like to place on record its most sincere appreciation to the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP) and UN-HABITAT for the generous support offered to the preparation of the Plan.
Finally, I must assert that the government is committed to continue restoration efforts in the belief that we can ensure a
living Bagmati for our generations to come.
v
Message
Mr. Mahesh Bahadur Basnet
Chairman
High Powered Committe Integrated Development of the Bagmati Civilization
High Powered Committee for Integrated Development of Bagamti Civilization (HPCIDBC) is pleased to come up with the
Bagmati Action Plan as one of the measure acheivements of the collaboration with National Trust for Nature Conservation
(NTNC). This will be an important guiding conceptual framework document for scientifically and systematically restoring and
conserving the Bagmati river and its tributaries within the Kathmandu valley.
It is obvious that success of the Plan depends on effective implementation on the ground. HPCIDBC is committed to play its
role as a lead implementing agency and will coordinate and work with all the partners and stakeholders to restore and
conserve the river system. The Plan has clearly identified the issues and major partners and stakeholders for successful
implementation. Thus, I strongly feel that this Plan will be a milestone to move ahead in successfully restoring and coserving
the Bagmati River system.
I would like to extend my sincere thanks to UNEP and UN-HABITAT for their valuable financial support for the development
of the plan and NTNC for taking the lead to develop the Plan. I also like to thank the study team and other stakeholders who
have provided their valuable inputs for the development of the plan.
Finally, I would like to express my sincere thanks to Dr. Siddhartha B. Bajracharya, NTNC, Mr. Ram Chandra Devkota, Mr. Anil
Bhadra Khanal and all the staffs of HPCIDBC and NTNC for their valueable inputs to bring document in its present form.
vi
Message
Mr. Deep Basnyat
Secretary Ministry of Physical Planning & Works
The Bagmati River is the main cradle of the Kathmandu valley having very rich in cultural as well as aesthetic value. However,
unplanned urbanization as well as other anthropogenic activities adversely affected the physical condition of the river.
Realizing the deteriorating situation of the Bagamati and its tributaries, the Government of Nepal has setup an institution
namely "High Powered Committee for Integrated Development of Bagmati Civilization (HPCIDBC)" to overcome the existing
situation. The committee is the leading implementing agency. It is my pleasure to mention here that Government of Nepal
especially the Ministry of Physical Planning and Works is working to strengthen the committee with enforceable legal
provisions.
At this important juncture, the Bagmati Action Plan has been developed. I am very pleased to see this highly scientific,
innovative and comprehensive document to restore and coserve the Bagmati river system. The zoning concept assured the
effective implementation of the plan. I highly appreciate this effective collaboration between HPCIDBC and the National
Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC) to come up with the Plan. I wish this collaboration between HPCIDBC and NTNC will be
continued during the implementation of the Plan as well.
I would like to take this oppurtunity to thank to UNEP and UN-HABITAT for their support in the development of the plan. I
would also like to thank all the professionals involved in developing the Plan.
vii
Mr. Juddha Bahadur Gurung
Member Secretary
Natinal Trust for Nature Conservation
Foreword
It is our great pleasure to present you the Bagmati Action Plan, a most waiting comprehensive document prepared to
restore and conserve the Bagmati River system. This action plan identifies the key stakeholders and the potential partners
for the effective implementation of the Bagmati Action Plan. This plan also introduces a new concept of zonation of the river
system within the Kathmandu valley. The zonation of the river system has been proposed to effectively address the issues
at micro level.
National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC) has been working in the Terai and Mountain region since its establishment.
However NTNC presence in urban centre particularly in the Kathmandu valley is relatively low. The NTNC Board emphasized
our management to development programme for improving the urban environment. As we see that several organizations
are working in the Bagmati River, however due to lack of coordinated and effective intervention, the environmental
pollution in the Bagmati River is existed. Therefore we found that a comprehensive document is quite necessary to restore
and conserve this historically and culturally rich river.
This plan alone is nothing, but the effective implementation in an integrated approach is quite necessary to achieve the
vision of the Plan. A technical part is the main aspect of this plan therefore; the technical input from all concerned sides
should be consulted during the implementation of the Plan.
Lastly, I like to thank to Dr. Siddhartha B. Bajracharya for making a concluding end of preparation works of this precious
document. I also like to thank to the consultant team, editorial team and to all the stakeholders who have provide their
invaluable support and suggestions to prepare this document.
viii
Acknowledgement
The Bagmati Action Plan (BAP) is prepared with arduous efforts
and contributions of several organizations and individuals. On
behalf of NTNC, we would like to extend gratitude to all of
them. NTNC would like to take this opportunity to thank the
United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office of Asia
and the Pacific (UNEP/ROAP), Bangkok and UN-HABITAT Water
for Asian Cities Programme, Nairobi for their support to prepare
BAP. Mr. Surendra Shrestha, UNEP, Dr. Subrato Sinha, UNEP, Mr.
Andre Dzikus, UN-HABITAT, Dr. Roshan Raj Shrestha, UN-HABITAT,
Dr. Yeong-Wan Seo, UNEP-EPLC deserve special gratefulness for
their respective contributions.
Government of Nepal, the Ministry of Physical Planning and
Works, and the High Powered Committee for Bagmati
Civilization Integrated Development (HPCIDBC) deserve special
thanks for collaboration and coordination with the National
Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC) to prepare this Action
Plan. NTNC would like to sincerely acknowledge the
Government of Nepal for expressing their serious commitment
to restore and conserve the Bagmati River System by
endorsement and owning the Bagmati Action Plan.
Our conservation partners WWF, IUCN, UNDP and ICIMOD
extended their support and assistance right from the beginning
of this work. They not only provided us with precious
information but also with valuable comments and suggestions
on various issues pertinent to the Action Plan. The Trust would
like to thank independent reviewers Mr. Deepak Gyawali, Dr.
Roshan Raj Shrestha, and the review team member who has
contributed significantly in preparing the Bagmati Action Plan.
More precisely, Dr. Mahesh Banskota, Mr. Kishore Thapa, Prof.
Dr. Promod Kumar Jha and Mr. Deependra Joshi.
Mr Juddha Bahadur Gurung, Member Secretary, NTNC,
encouraged the team during the entire period of preparation.
I would also like to thank Mr. Ganga Jung Thapa, Executive
Officer, Mr. Jitendra R Onta, Director Finance, Mr. Deepak K Singh,
Director Administration, Dr. Shanta R Jnawali, Director Terai
Programme, Mr Ngamindra Dahal, Mr. Bidur P Pokharel and
the other NTNC staff for their cooperation. Mr. Ratna Raj Timsina,
Programme Officer deserves special thanks for his untiring
support during the preparation of the Plan. I would also take
this opportunity to thank Mr. Arup Rajouria, former Member
Secretary of KMTNC for his initiative to start our intervention in
the urban environment.
Finally, I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to the Bagmati
Action Plan team for the timely completion of the task with
their zeal and professional team spirit. I would particularly like
to thank Ms. Sangeeta Singh, Dr. Bhushan Raj Shrestha, Dr.
Kavita B. Shrestha, Dr. Suresh Das Shrestha, Dr. Bandana Pradhan,
Dr. Narendra Man Shakya, Mr. Padma Sunder Joshi, PhD, Mr.
Prakash Darnal, Dr. Raj B. Shrestha, Dr. Keshab Shrestha,
Mr. Bhusan Tuladhar, Mr. Bipin Chitrakar, Mr. Binod Sharma, Mr.
Amrit Man Shrestha, Ms. Shriju Pradhan, Ms. Mamata Sayami,
Ms. Sichu Shrestha, and other team members.
Siddhartha B. Bajracharya, PhD
Executive Officer
National Trust for Nature Conservation
ix
Background
The Bagmati river is one of the important river systems of
Nepal with high cultural and aesthetical values. However, in
the absence of planned and coordinated restoration and
conservation efforts, environmental degradation and cultural
erosion of the Bagmati river system has continued unabated.
The Bagmati Action Plan (BAP) has been formulated with the
aim to restore and conserve the Bagmati river and its tributaries
in an integrated and coordinated approach. BAP covers the
Bagmati river system from Shivapuri hill to Katuwal Daha. The
Bagmati river originates at Baghdwar about 15 km northeast
of Kathmandu in Shivapuri hill and its tributaries originate
from different parts of the Valley. It flows by several important
parts of Kathmandu, including the Pashupatinath temple. The
river is fed by natural springs and monsoon rainfall. The Bagmati
river system includes seven tributaries - Bagmati, Bishnumati,
Dhobikhola (Rudramati), Manahara, Nakkhu, Balkhu and
Tukucha (Ichhumati) rivers and the five sub-tributaries
Godavari, Hanumate, Sangla, Mahadev and Kodku Khola.
The environmental degradation of the river system has
accelerated due to increase in unplanned urbanization of the
Kathmandu valley. At present, the river has been used as
dumping sites for all types of wastes. To combat the present
situation, many organizations are working in Bagmati with
number of good programmes such as clean up campaigns,
plantation, awareness programmes etc. However, these
initiatives did not produce significant impacts except generating
public awareness to some extent. Therefore, National Trust for
Nature Conservation (NTNC) has taken the initiative for the
preparation of the Bagmati Action Plan. The plan is a
comprehensive document that includes all the programmes
and activities to be carried out at different locations and at
different time interval. This plan has also identified the potential
organizations working in the Bagmati river.
The issues related to the Bagmati river and its tributaries are
more or less of similar nature. Decrease in water discharge
Executive Summary
and the degradation of river ecosystems are the major issues.
Besides, narrowing and deepening of water way, degradation
of catchment quality and water quality, eroding aesthetic and
cultural values, riverside land use changes etc. are the critical
issues of the Bagmati river system. Previous studies have
given an account that water quality is not in same condition
in all river segments. The Bagmati river system has been
classified into four standard water quality classes based on
the saprobic approach (i.e. pollution level). These are: Class I:
Non-polluted; Class II: Moderately polluted; Class III: Heavily
polluted; and Class IV: Extremely polluted. It is clearly visible
that the river water quality in the Shivapuri National Park and
its surrounding hills are still in good condition and gradually
deteriorate as it flows towards the urban area. The water
extremely polluted mainly in the central part of the Valley.
The issues mentioned here do not have equal level of
significance in all river segments. An issue which is critical for
upstream may not be critical for downstream. To effectively
address the key issues at a micro level, a concept of zonation
of the river system within the Kathmandu valley has been
introduced. Zonation of the River system will also help in
developing and implementing the action plan more effectively
at the zone level. Therefore on the basis of the existing status
of the water quality in river segments and the population
density of the area, the whole river system of the Kathmandu
valley has been classified into five different zones i.e. Zone 1
to 5. They are Natural Conservation Core Zone (Zone 1), Rural
Zone (Zone 2), Peri-urban Zone (Zone 3), Urban Zone (Zone
4) and Downstream zone (Zone 5).
Zone 1 is the natural conservation core zone (323 sq km, i.e.
45.1% of targeted area) consisting of green hills surrounding
the Valley such as Phulchowki (2,800m), Shivapuri (2,453m),
Chandragiri (2,365m) and Nagarjun (2,100m). The major
catchment areas lies within this zone. The bordering area of
Zone 1 is classified as Zone 2 or Rural Zone (150 sq km, i.e.
21% of targeted area). The Bagmati River and its tributaries
flow through this zone. Population density in this zone is
x
higher than Zone 1. It is still being dominated by agricultural
land.
Zone 3 is the peri-urban zone of the Valley (113 sq km, i.e.
15.8% of total targeted area), and is located between rural
and core urban city of the Kathmandu Valley. Many urbanizing
VDCs are located in this zone. Population density here is
comparatively higher than Zone 2 and lesser than Zone 4. The
river ecosystem is in Class III (critically polluted) category. Zone
4 is the urban zone and is highly urbanized zone consisting of
five municipalities of the Valley—Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur,
Madhyapur Thimi and Kirtipur. Almost all major tributaries pass
through this zone and the confluences of the tributaries are
located in the central part of this zone. Water quality of the
river is worst with Class IV (extremely polluted) category. Zone
5 is situated in the southern part of the Kathmandu Valley
from Sundarighat to Katuwal daha. This zone is mainly
dominated by agricultural land with low population density.
The Bagmati River drains out of the Valley through this zone.
Despite low population density in this zone, water quality in
the river segment is extremely polluted.
The Action Plan has set the overall vision for restoration and
conservation of the Bagmati river system and defined goals,
objectives and activities for each zone. Certain key activities which
are valid in all the zones are included as cross cutting activities.
These activities are either common for all zones or their outputs
help to build the capacity of HPCIDBC and other agencies working
for the restoration and conservation of the Bagmati river and its
tributaries. Other activities identified for each zone are based on
the key issues identified in corresponding zones. This action plan
has given due recognition to the priority activities that have
been recommended by previous interventions. Action to be
undertaken for managing waste is one of the most challenging
tasks in developing this plan. Conventional waste water
management system recommended by previous projects is still
valid for city core (Zone 4). Therefore, actions recommended for
managing waste water for these areas are mainly based on the
same technology with some modification in some cases. The
action plan has recommended DEWATS as a new approach to
manage waste water, especially for Zones 2 and 3. On-site
sanitation is given higher priority at Zones 1 and 5. Managing
waste through managing faecal sludge is given high priority in
some areas. Similarly, afforestation program is given high priority
in Zone 1.
Monitoring is very critical to fulfil vision, goals and objectives
of the action plan. Regular monitoring is very essential from
the concerned authorities to identify how effectively and
efficiently the proposed activities were implemented. It also
provides the adequate correction on the implementing
activities before it is too late. The monitoring plan clearly
presents the activities of the respective zones and their means
of verification. It also identifies HPCIDBC as the key organization
responsible for carrying out the monitoring activities.
The total Plan outlay for five years is approximately NRs.
15,000,000,000 (Fifteen billion only). The budget has been
calculated considering all possible fixed and variable costs.
The projected budget also addresses the issues related to
empirical information, ground-based realities, population
projection, and inflation rate. The cost of DEWATS and faecal
sludge management involves complex calculation which is
based on the population projected for specific area suitable
for DEWATS. Of the total budget, 20.19% of budget is
allocated for first year, 26.21% in the second year, 21.80%
in the third year, 18.14% for fourth year and 13.63% for
final year. Similarly, among the zones, major investment
has been proposed for the Zone 4.
Successful implementation of the Action Plan could bring change
in the management paradigm in restoration and conservation
of the Bagmati river and its tributaries. The government must
ensure that adequate resources are forthcoming and the Action
Plan implementation process is smooth in reaching goals and
ultimately the vision. Substantial efforts should be made to
strengthen HPCIDBC in terms of technical capacity, financial
resources and legal back up. More importantly, the successful
implementation of the Action Plan not only brings the river
back to life but also enhances the overall urban environment
of the Kathmandu valley. However, this demands serious political
commitment at the national level.
xi
ASP Activated Sludge Process
BAP Bagmati Action Plan
BASP Bagmati Area Sewerage Construction/Rehabilitation Project
HPCIDBC High Powered Committee for Integrated Development of the Bagmati Civilization
BCN Bird Conservation Nepal
BOD Biological Oxygen Demand
BRCP Bagmati River Conservation Project
CBS Central Bereau of Statistics
CDM Clean Development Mechanism
CIUD Centre for Integrated Urban Development
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
DDC District Development Committee
DEWATS Decentralized Waste Water Treatment System
DoA Department of Agriculture
DoAr Department of Archaeology
DoPRM Department of Pesticides Registration and Management
DHM Department of Hydrology and Meteorology
DO Dissolved Oxygen
DUDBC Department of Urban Development and Building Code
DWIDP Department of Water Induced Disaster Preparedness
DWSS Department of Water Supply and Sewerage
ECCA Environmental Camps for Conservation Awareness
EFR Environment Flow Requirement
ENPHO Environment and Public Health Organisation
FoB Friends of Bagmati
FSM Fecal Sludge Management
GIS/RS Geographical Information System/Remote Sensing
GO Governmental Office
INGO International Non Governmental Organisation
IUCN The World Conservation Union
KAPRIMO Kathmandu Participatory River Monitoring
KEEP Kathmandu Environmental Education Project
KMC Kathmandu Metropolitan City
KUKL Kathmandu Upatayka Khanepani Limited
KVO Kathmandu Valley Outlook
MoAC Ministry of Agriculture and cooperatives
MFR Minimum Flow Requirement
MLD Million Liter per Day
NEFEJ Nepal Forum for Environmental Journalists
NEPCEMAC Nepal Pollution Control and Environment Management Centre
NGO Non Govermnental Organisation
NPC National Planning Commission
NRCT Nepal River Conservation Trust
NTNC National Trust for Nature Conservation
PADTA Pashupati Area Development Trust Act
SBR Squencing Bio Reactor
SEDC Sagarmatha Environment Development Centre
ShNP Shivapuri National Park
SME Small and Medium Enterprise
SWMRMC Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilisation Centre
ToR Terms of Reference
TSS Total Suspenended Solids
TSTP Teku Septage Treatment Plant
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme
VDC Village Development Committee
WECS Water and Energy Commission Secretariat
WEG Women Environment Group
WEPCO Women Environment Preservation Committee
Acronyms
xii
MESSAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................... ii-vi
FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................................................................... vii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......................................................................................................................................................... viii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................................................ ix
ACRONYMS ............................................................................................................................................................................ xi
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................................. xii
CHAPTER 1: CHAPTER 1: CHAPTER 1: CHAPTER 1: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. 1 11 11
1.1. BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................................................................ 1
1.2 KATHMANDU VALLEY .............................................................................................................................................. 2
1.3. RATIONALE OF THE BAGMATI ACTION PLAN .......................................................................................................... 5
1.4. PLAN FORMULATION PROCESS............................................................................................................................... 5
1.5. LIMITATIONS............................................................................................................................................................ 6
1.6 ORGANISATION OF THE PLAN................................................................................................................................. 6
CHAP CHAP CHAP CHAP CHAPTER 2: TER 2: TER 2: TER 2: TER 2: B BB BBA AA AAGMA GMA GMA GMA GMATI RIVER AND IT TI RIVER AND IT TI RIVER AND IT TI RIVER AND IT TI RIVER AND ITS TRIBUT S TRIBUT S TRIBUT S TRIBUT S TRIBUTARIES ARIES ARIES ARIES ARIES ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... 7 77 77
2.1. BAGMATI ................................................................................................................................................................. 7
2.2. BISHNUMATI ........................................................................................................................................................... 8
2.3. TUKUCHA (ICHHUMATI) ........................................................................................................................................... 9
2.4. DHOBIKHOLA (RUDRAMATI) ................................................................................................................................... 9
2.5. MANAHARA.......................................................................................................................................................... 10
2.6. BALKHU ................................................................................................................................................................ 10
2.7. NAKKHU................................................................................................................................................................ 10
2.8. SUB-TRIBUTARIES ................................................................................................................................................. 11
CHAP CHAP CHAP CHAP CHAPTER 3: KEY IS TER 3: KEY IS TER 3: KEY IS TER 3: KEY IS TER 3: KEY ISSUES OF B SUES OF B SUES OF B SUES OF B SUES OF BA AA AAGMA GMA GMA GMA GMATI RIVER TI RIVER TI RIVER TI RIVER TI RIVER ...................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................... 15 15 15 15 15
3.1. RIVER ECOSYSTEM AND WASTE WATER ............................................................................................................... 15
3.2. RIVER SIDE LAND USE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS ............................................................................... 20
3.3. CULTURE AND HERITAGE ....................................................................................................................................... 21
3.4 KEY CHALLENGES .................................................................................................................................................. 21
CHAP CHAP CHAP CHAP CHAPTER 4: Z TER 4: Z TER 4: Z TER 4: Z TER 4: ZONING OF KA ONING OF KA ONING OF KA ONING OF KA ONING OF KATHMANDU V THMANDU V THMANDU V THMANDU V THMANDU VALLEY RIVER S ALLEY RIVER S ALLEY RIVER S ALLEY RIVER S ALLEY RIVER SYS YS YS YS YSTEM TEM TEM TEM TEM ............................................................................ ............................................................................ ............................................................................ ............................................................................ ............................................................................ 23 23 23 23 23
4.1. NATURAL CONSERVATION CORE ZONE ................................................................................................................. 23
4.2. RURAL ZONE ......................................................................................................................................................... 24
4.3. PERI-URBAN ZONE ............................................................................................................................................... 24
4.4. URBAN ZONE ........................................................................................................................................................ 25
4.5. DOWNSTREAM ZONE ............................................................................................................................................ 25
CHAP CHAP CHAP CHAP CHAPTER 5: LE TER 5: LE TER 5: LE TER 5: LE TER 5: LEGISLA GISLA GISLA GISLA GISLATIVE ARRANGEMENT TIVE ARRANGEMENT TIVE ARRANGEMENT TIVE ARRANGEMENT TIVE ARRANGEMENTS SS SS .......................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................... 31 31 31 31 31
5.1. ACTS AND POLICIES .............................................................................................................................................. 31
5.6. STRATEGIES AND PLANS ...................................................................................................................................... 33
CHAPTER 6: CHAPTER 6: CHAPTER 6: CHAPTER 6: CHAPTER 6: ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. 35 35 35 35 35
CHAP CHAP CHAP CHAP CHAPTER 7: TER 7: TER 7: TER 7: TER 7: IMPLEMENT IMPLEMENT IMPLEMENT IMPLEMENT IMPLEMENTA AA AATION S TION S TION S TION S TION STRA TRA TRA TRA TRATE TE TE TE TEG GG GGY AND M Y AND M Y AND M Y AND M Y AND MONIT ONIT ONIT ONIT ONITORING PLAN ORING PLAN ORING PLAN ORING PLAN ORING PLAN .................................................................... .................................................................... .................................................................... .................................................................... .................................................................... 41 41 41 41 41
CHAPTER 8: CHAPTER 8: CHAPTER 8: CHAPTER 8: CHAPTER 8: BUDGET PLAN BUDGET PLAN BUDGET PLAN BUDGET PLAN BUDGET PLAN ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. 51 51 51 51 51
Table of Contents
xiii
List of Tables
Table 1.1: Population projection of Kathmandu Valley for 30 years ................................................................................... 2
Table 2.1: Details of Bagmati river and its tributaries (length, elevation and origin) ....................................................... 8
Table 3.1: Water quality parameters .................................................................................................................................. 17
Table 3.2: Waste generation in five municipalities ............................................................................................................ 17
Table 7.1: Monitoring Plan (Zone 1) .................................................................................................................................... 44
Table 7.2: Monitoring Plan (Zone 2) .................................................................................................................................... 45
Table 7.3: Monitoring Plan (Zone 3) .................................................................................................................................... 46
Table 7.4: Monitoring Plan (Zone 4) .................................................................................................................................... 47
Table 7.5: Monitoring Plan (Zone 5) .................................................................................................................................... 49
Table 7.6: Monitoring Plan (General Action Plan) ............................................................................................................... 50
Table 8.1: Five years budget for BAP .................................................................................................................................. 53
Table 8.2: Budget for Bagmati Action Plan (Cross cutting activities) ............................................................................... 54
Table 8.3: Budget for Bagmati Action Plan (Zone 1) .......................................................................................................... 56
Table 8.4: Budget for Bagmati Action Plan (Zone 2) .......................................................................................................... 58
Table 8.5: Budget for Bagmati Action Plan (Zone 3) .......................................................................................................... 60
Table 8.6: Budget for Bagmati Action Plan (Zone 4) .......................................................................................................... 62
Table 8.7: Budget for Bagmati Action Plan (Zone 5) .......................................................................................................... 64
List of Figures
Figure 1.1: Increasing trend of population growth in Kathmandu Valley ........................................................................... 2
Figure 2.1: Average BOD level at different locations of Bagmati ...................................................................................... 8
Figure 2.2: Average BOD level at different locations of Bishnumati .................................................................................. 9
Figure 3.1: Average discharge at Sundarijal (m
3
/s) .......................................................................................................... 15
Figure 4.1: Visitors’ trend in Shivapuri National Park ........................................................................................................ 24
Figure 8.1: Sectoral allocation of budget for 2008—2009 ................................................................................................. 51
Figure 8.2: Distribution of five-year budget ....................................................................................................................... 52
Figure 8.3: Budget allocation for general and zone-wise plans ........................................................................................ 53
List of Maps
Map 1: Location map of Upper Bagmati Basin ................................................................................................................... 3
Map 2: River networks of the Kathmandu Valley ................................................................................................................ 4
Map 3: Village Development Committees and Municipalities of the Kathmandu valley ................................................ 13
Map 4: Land use map of the Kathmandu Valley ................................................................................................................ 14
Map 5: Catchment area of the major rivers of Kathmandu Valley ................................................................................... 26
Map 6: Zonation of the Kathmandu Valley ......................................................................................................................... 27
Map 7: River water quality and population density in different zones ............................................................................ 28
Map 8: Water quality and different zones.......................................................................................................................... 29
Map 9: Waste water treatment system and population density ...................................................................................... 30
Map 10: Waste water management plan for the Kathmandu Valley (with zones) ......................................................... 40
REFERENCES REFERENCES REFERENCES REFERENCES REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... 67 67 67 67 67
ANNEX ANNEX ANNEX ANNEX ANNEX ........................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................... 69 69 69 69 69
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1.1.Background
The Bagmati is the principal river of the Bagmati basin in Nepal. The
river originates in the Kathmandu Valley, which comprises about
15% of the area of the Bagmati basin in Nepal. The Bagmati basin is
characterized as medium or dry basin fed by springs and monsoon
rainfall (WECS, 2008). Based on the morphology and land use, the
Bagmati basin can be divided into various sub-basins, viz. Upper
Bagmati, Upper Middle Bagmati, Lower Middle (Tarai) Bagmati and
the Lower Bagmati (Tarai) sub-basins. This Action Plan covers the
Bagmati river system from Shivapuri hills to Katuwal Daha, including
the Bagmati river and all its tributaries (Map 1).
The Bagmati river originates at Baghdwar, about 15 km northeast of
Kathmandu in Shivapuri hill and its tributaries originate from different
parts of the Valley (Map 2). This portion of the Bagmati river is part
of the Upper Bagmati basin and is a very important part of the basin
system. It flows by several important parts of Kathmandu, including
the Pashupatinath temple. The river is fed by natural springs and
monsoon rainfall. The average annual rainfall is 1900mm, of which
about 80% occurs during monsoon (June-September). Rivers in the
Valley also possess rich cultural and heritage values. As Bagmati
attaches spiritual and emotional significance to the Nepali people,
most of the important temples, shrines, ghats, etc. are located along
the river banks and are used for different cultural and ritual purposes.
Therefore, conservation of rivers is very important for the protection
of both natural resources and rich cultural heritage of the Valley.
The Bagmati river currently faces a number of serious environmental
and ecological challenges. Urbanization and industrialization of the
river’s headwaters at Kathmandu has deteriorated water quality
with consequences on the aquatic ecosystem and on the health of
the urban dwellers. Increasing population pressure on the fragile
mountain slopes has also resulted in rapid degradation of natural
resources. Consequently, deforestation, soil erosion, landslide,
siltation, etc. are occurring in and around the catchment area.
Urbanization of Kathmandu Valley has strongly influenced Bagmati
river. The direct impacts of present urbanization are especially
visible in the Bagmati river and its tributaries where they have
been used as dumping sites for all types of wastes. The rich cultural
heritage along the river and its tributaries such as traditional
monuments, ghats and temples, is gradually eroding. The river has
been widely used for different purposes ranging from sand extraction
INTRODUCTION 1
2
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The Bagmati catchment area at ShNP.
to land encroachment. It has been reported that more than half of
the fish species in the Bagmati river has disappeared. This indicates
that some parts of the river are biologically dead. In recent times,
the Kathmanduites have expressed deep concern over the plight of
the Bagmati river and its environment. Acute shortage of water
has forced certain sections of the society to use the polluted water
from the Valley rivers, which might have escalated water-borne
diseases.
In the absence of effective and coordinated conservation and
management of the Bagmati river, environmental degradation
and water pollution will continue unabated. There are several
organisations working in the conservation and management of
Bagmati river (Annex 1). Besides, the government has allocated
Rs. 11 million to clean rivers of the Kathmandu Valley and has
also included policies and programmes in the Three Year Interim
Plan (2007/08-2009/10). The Plan has adopted policies related
with conservation, promotion and sustainable use of biodiversity.
It has also sought to harness traditional knowledge through
research, development and institutional arrangements.
Although efforts have been made to conserve the fragile natural
resources of the Kathmandu Valley through the declaration of the
upper catchment area as the protected area (Shivapuri National
Park), achieving the objectives of conservation and management of
the resources in the catchment area remains a serious problem.
Besides, these efforts are scattered and impacts are insignificant for
conserving and restoring Bagmati. A scientifically planned
intervention to conserve and restore the Bagmati river has not yet
been started. In this context, the National Trust for Nature
Conservation (NTNC), jointly with the High Powered Committee for
Integrated Development of the Bagamti Civilization (HPCIDBC), has
initiated a project to study the Bagmati river environment and its
tributaries and develop a comprehensive plan of action for five years
through consultation with the major stakeholders.
1.2. Kathmandu Valley
The Kathmandu Valley lies between latitudes 27°32’13" and
27°49’10" north and longitudes 85°11’31" and 85°31’38" east. It is
surrounded by the hills of Mahabharat range forming a bowl-shaped
valley floor (Map 1). It consists of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur
districts with five municipalities and 99 Village Development
Committees (Map 3).
A temperate climate prevails in Kathmandu Valley. The mean annual
temperature in the Kathmandu Valley is 18
o
C. The coldest month is
January with the mean temperature of 10
o
C. The warmest months
are July and August, with an average temperature of 24
o
C. The
valley has an annual rainfall of 1,400mm. The wettest month is
July with an average rainfall of about 370 mm. November and
December are the driest months, the average rainfall is less than 6
mm (URBAIR -Kathmandu Valley Report, 1997).
Kathmandu Valley being the economic and administrative center
of Nepal is experiencing a very high population growth rate over
the decades. According to the population census carried out in 1981
the population was 7,66,345 which increase to 11,05,379 in 1991
census, with the annual growth rate of 4.2%. The population census
data for 2001 reveals that there are 16,56,951 people in the
Kathmandu valley by the end of 2001, with annual growth rate of
4.9% per annum. In the present trend of population growth rate in
Kathmandu valley it is estimated to reach 21,04,685 by the end of
2006 and 33,95,799 by the end of 2016. The population density of
Fig.1.1. Trend of population growth in
Kathmandu Valley
Year Population projection
1991 1,000,000
1998 1,500,000
2004 2,000,000
2009 2,500,000
2012 3,000,000
2016 3,800,000
Table 1.1. Population projection of the Kathmandu
Valley for 30 Years
Source: ESPS 2003
Projection of Population in Kathmandu Valley (1991-2016)
4000000
3500000
3000000
2500000
2000000
1500000
1000000
500000
0
'91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97 '98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11 '12 '13 '14 '15 '16
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Kathmandu valley was 852 people per square kilometer in 1981
and 1230 people per square kilometer in 1991, which has reached
1843 people per square kilometer in 2001. The population for
Kathmandu valley for 1991, 2001 and projection for coming 15
years presented in the figure below.
The Kathmandu Valley is highly rich in culture and heritage. The
Bagmati river has always remained an important part of this culture
and heritage in the Kathmandu Valley. It is widely believed that the
civilization of the Kathmandu Valley starts from the Bagmati river.
Majority of temples and ghats lie along the river bank. Kings and
commoners alike built pati, pauwa, stone spouts, temples, etc.
near the river bank in memory of the deceased member of their
family or for religious purposes. Most of the revered temples such
as Bajrayogini, Gokarna, Budhanilkantha, Tika Bhairav and Shobha
Bhagwati are located near river sides. Among the seven World
Heritage Sites of cultural importance of Nepal, the Pashupatinath
temple is situated along the bank of the Bagmati river and
Changunarayan lies near the Manahara river. The rivers and its
confluences are equally important for cultural rituals. There were
many traditional community institutions such as guthi for managing
these cultural heritage sites along the river banks.
1.3. Rationale of the Bagmati Action
Plan
The rapidly increasing population and related solid waste dumping
in the rivers, discharge of industrial effluents together with direct
discharge of domestic sewage have made the Bagmati river and
its tributaries excessively polluted in some parts of the Valley. The
river’s capacity to purify itself, by means of interaction between
biotic and abiotic characteristics of the river, has been slowly
declining. Structures around the ghats (where last rites are
performed) are rapidly deteriorating. Traditional community
institutions such as guthis have become non-functional. Many
archaeological and historical sites await immediate conservation
and management interventions.
A recent study (KAPRIMO, 2007) on water flow and water quality has
indicated a very alarming situation. It has classified most parts of
the rivers within the Kathmandu Valley as being excessively polluted.
Pollution of these rivers has considerable impacts on the overall
urban environment and human health. However, experiences from
elsewhere in the world demonstrate that it is possible to restore and
conserve polluted rivers such as the Bagmati river and its tributaries
(Box 1 Nanjing Qinhuai river, China).
The Bagmati river is currently used for different purposes: (i) major
source for municipal, industrial and irrigation water for the Kathmandu
Valley; (ii) cultural and religious practices; (iii) disposal of water-borne
effluents and deposition of solid waste along the banks; (iv) extraction
of sand; (v) space for public infrastructure, e.g. roads and water tanks;
and (vi) preferred zones for squatters and other encroachments. The
continuous process of degradation of the Bagmati river has damaged
the urban environment causing acute water scarcity for the city dwellers.
Several efforts have been made in past for the conservation of
the rivers in the Valley. Different studies and recommendations,
several plans and programmes, number of projects, several clean-
up campaigns, awareness programmes, and promulgation of
different policies and acts were initiated by various agencies for
the conservation of the Bagmati river but in isolated forms.
Previous interventions by different organisations and their key
functions on Bagmati protection has been given in Annex I. Various
organisations that have played a role in the past have been (i)
Friends of the Bagmati; (ii) Nepal River Conservation Trust; (iii)
Bagmati Sarokar Samiti; (iv) Environment and Public Health
Organisation and (v) Women Environment Preservation Committee.
However, inspite of these efforts, there has not been any success in
containing the increasing pollution, encroachment of the river bank
and its flood plains and deterioration of the cultural heritage. The
scale of the problem has been far too big for many of the genuine
efforts as clean-up campaigns and river festivals, the isolated efforts
have also not helped either (Annex IX). Hence, NTNC with the support
of UNEP and UN-HABITAT has agreed to support HPCIDBC to address
the complex issues of Bagmati conservation and develop a
comprehensive and realistic Bagmati Action Plan (BAP).
Thus, the Action Plan has been formulated for the conservation and
restoration of the Bagmati river and its tributaries in an integrated
and coordinated approach with appropriate management
interventions.
Flow Chart 1: BAP Planning Process
Analysis of existing
models
Literature review
Field survey
Community
consultations
Expert
consultations
GIS
Review
meeting
Bagmati
Action Plan
Review
meeting
Draft Bagmati
Action Plan
Peer review
6
1.4. Plan formulation process
The following processes were adopted for the
preparation of the Bagmati Action Plan:
i. Secondary data and information about the
Bagmati river and the Kathmandu Valley
available from different sources were
collected and analysed. Most of the major
reports related to urban development, rivers
and water resources, water, waste water and
solid waste management in the Kathmandu
Valley were reviewed. Gloabal case studies
on river restoration and conservation
programme including success and failure
studies were reviewed and documented.
ii. Intensive field surveys were conducted along
the rivers, protected area and surrounding
hills for potential water sources (Annex II);
iii. GIS and statistical tools were intensively utilised
for zoning and analysing data based on the data
collected from secondary sources and
information gathered from field observations;
iv. A series of meetings and discussions were
organised with governmental and non-
governmental organisations, CBOs,
stakeholders and experts of various thematic
areas;
v. Several community consultations and
interviews were organised with local
communities and stakeholders (Annex III);
vi. Several workshops, seminars and meetings were held by
involving different groups relating to Bagmati river aimed at
disseminating the process of developing action plan and receive
feedbacks.
vii. The draft BAP was shared and discussed in a series of meetings
held with the secretaries and high ranking officers of the
Government of Nepal at the PMs office, various ministries and
departments
1.5. Limitations
The Action Plan has been developed based on the qualitative
approach requiring subjective judgment in some cases. Limited
availability of database, decision support systems and knowledge
base also remained as a serious constraint in developing the plan.
1.6. Organisation of the Plan
The Bagmati Action Plan has been organised into eight chapters.
Chapter 1 introduces the Bagmati river, the Kathmandu Valley and
gives the rationale for the preparation of the Plan. It also highlights the
Once Qinhuai river used to be a highly polluted river of Nanjing in China. Illegal
slums and squatters along the river, filthy environment as well as the contaminated
smelly river had severely reduced the quality of human settlements, environment
and urban images. In 2002, the Nanjing Municipal Government (NMG) attempted
to rehabilitate Qinhuai river through a comprehensive programme, including water
replenishment, sewage interception, resettlement, riverbank restoration, and
construction of access roads.
By 2005, in the first phase, the Commission accomplished the achievement by
resettling 380,000 square metre area; relocating 4,365 households; shifting 94
companies; upgrading 20 km flood-preventing wall; laying 25 km sewer interception
pipeline; intercepting 550 urban sewer outlets; maintaining 5 km city wall; creating
more than 10 scenic spots; decorating 110 residential houses; and refurbishing 13
bridges with the total investment of USD 400 miliion.
In 2006, second phase of the rehabilitation work was anchored that include
rehabilitation of 18 km of river, construction of 7 bridges, and construction of
ecological wetland parks. Today, it is a flowing, picturesque, and prosperous river
area. The Nanjing-Qinhuai river has become a historical, cultural and tourism scenic
hub of China characterizing ancient human civilization of Nanjing. In view of the
great success achieved, UN-Habitat nominated Nanjing as a pilot city in water
environment improvement in the Asian Cities Water Program.
(Source: Nanjing Qinhuai River Rehabilitation Project)
Box 1: Nanjing Qinhuai River then and now
...then
...now
Then Now
plan formulation process and its limitations. Chapter 2 deals with the
Bagmati river, its associated tributaries and sub-tributaries, and is
aimed at providing status, problems and issues of each of the tributaries.
Chapter 3 identifies key issues of the Bagmati river, its implications on
the river ecosystems and waste water; river side land use patterns,
socio-economic scenario, existing culture and heritage, and key
challenges confronting the Bagmati river. Possible threats and
opportunities that rapid urbanisation and haphazard growth would
generate for the conservation of the Bagmati river and its sustainable
use are also identified and discussed. Chapter 4 discusses about the
strategic and systematic approach of zoning concept that classifies
the Bagmati river into five zones which set the framework for the
plan. Chapter 5 explains the existing legislative arrangements and
their inter-relationship with the Bagmati river.
Chapter 6 covers vision, goals, objectives and activities of the Action
Plan. Chapter 7 discusses the implementation strategy and monitoring
plan with various indicators that help in tracking the achievements
and impacts based on the Plan's objectives. Chapter 8 provides the
budget for the first five years with current budget allocation and
proposed plan.
2.1. Bagmati
The Bagmati river originates in Baghdwar of Shivapuri hills in the
north of the Kathmandu Valley (see photos below). The river is fed
by numerous tributaries originating from the Mahabharat and
Siwaliks range before it reaches the Terai at Karmaiya and to the
Gangetic plain. The total catchment area of the Bagmati river is
about 157 sq km (Map 5) with the length of 44 km from its origin at
an elevation of 2732m to Katuwal daha, which lies at an elevation
of 1140m (Topography Map, Department of Survey, 1998). The
Bagmati Action Plan focuses only in that part of the Bagmati river
and its tributaries that lies within the Kathmandu Valley. Major
tributaries of the Bagmati river in the Valley include Manahara,
Dhobikhola, Tukucha, Bishnumati, Balkhu and Nakkhu.
In the northernmost origin of the Bagmati river, there are many
small and large wetlands that exist inside the Shivapuri National
Park and the surrounding hills such as dhap, Panimuhan, Taudaha
and Basantigaun ponds. Such wetlands contribute to recharging
of the rivers. Syalmati and Nagmati streams join the Bagmati
near its source in the Shivapuri hills. Villages such as Okhreni,
Chilaune and Mulkharka are situated close to the source of the
Bagmati river. Sanitation system in these settlements is very
poor as open defecation is widely prevalent in these villages. A
large volume of water is diverted for the city water supply by the
Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) at Sundarijal.
Besides, water is also diverted into different locations for
irrigation, industrial and household use.
The quality of water at Sundarijal at the foothill is at the acceptable
level. The Dissolved Oxygen (DO) value at Sundarijal during monsoon
period ranges between 6 to 10 mg/l. The 5mg/l DO value is
assumed to be the threshold value of water, or higher the value of
DO, better the quality of water. The maximum desirable BOD level
for drinking, aquatic life, bathing and agriculture is 4mg/l, 6mg/l
and 10mg/l respectively as recommended by BBWMSIP (1994).
Direct disposal of untreated sewage has been prevalent in Jorpati,
Tilganga, Minbhawan, Sankhamul, Jwagal, Kupandole, Sanepa, Teku,
Balkhu, Sundarighat and Chobhar (Fig.2.1). Toilets in squatter
settlements are being directly discharged into the river. Heavily
polluted tributaries such as Dhobikhola, Bishnumati and Tukucha
BAGMATI RIVER AND ITS TRIBUTARIES
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join the Bagmati as it flows towards the Chobhar gorge. River
banks downstream is used as solid waste dumping sites of individual
houses and municipalities. Private organisations collecting waste
from households also dump wastes directly along the river banks at
locations such as Baneshwar, Gairigaun, Sinamangal, Jwagal and
Teku.
Both sides of river banks downstream from Gokarna have been
encroached for the collection of construction materials, cleaning,
dying and storing materials for small industries, workshops, roads,
squatter settlements, etc. Shantinagar, Bijaynagar, Jagritinagar,
Gairigaun, Chandani Tole, Pragati Tole, Kalimati Dole, Kimal Phant,
Bansighat, Kuriyagaun and Sankhamul are the major squatter
settlements along the river banks (Annex IV).
Major sand mining areas include Sundarijal, Guheshwari, Gairigaun,
Narayantar, Jwagal, Thapathali, Balkhu and Chobhar (BASP 2008).
In Sundarijal, bamboo weirs have been constructed across the river
to trap sand. About 50 trucks of sand is excavated daily during
monsoon period from Sundarijal area alone.
Many important cultural and heritage sites/shrines such as
Sundarimai at Sundarijal, Uttar Bahini and Gokarneswor at Gokarna,
Guheshwari and Pashupatinath temples at Pashupati, Sankhamul,
heritage sites along Thapathali—Teku stretch, and Chobhar Ganesh
at Chobhar are situated along the river. Similarly, important ghats
(cremation sites) Aryaghat, Chintamanighat, Sankhamulghat,
Kalmochanghat, Gokarneswar, Uttar Bahini and Sundarighats are
also located along the river bank. Most of these sites are in
deteriorating conditions simply because of inadequate management
interventions.
Outlet of Bagmati river at Katuwal Daha.
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Name Length (km) Elevation(m) Origin Name Length (km) Elevation (m) Origin
Bagmati 35.5 2732 Shivapuri Bagdwar Manamati 6.1 2000 Bhangari Danda
Bishnumati 17.3 2300 Shivapuri Tarebhir Manohara 23.5 2375 M a n i c h a u r
Danda
Bosan 6.1 1800 Pokhari Bhanjyang Matatirtha 5.0 2000 Matatirtha Danda
Dhobi Khola 18.2 2732 Shivapuri Danda Nagmati 7.9 2443 Shivapuri Danda
Godawari 14.8 2200 Phulchoki Danda Nakhu 17.6 2200 Bhardue Danda
Hanumante 23.5 2000 Mahadev Pokhari Samakhusi 6.4 1350 Dharampur East
Indrawati 16.8 1700 Dahachowk Danda Sangla 10.7 2000 Aale Danda
Indrayani 7.0 2000 Bhangari Danda Syalmati 4.8 2200 Shivapuri Danda
Kodaku 14.9 2000 Tleshwor Danda Tribeni 10.7 1700 Bhirkot
Mahadav 9.2 2000 Aale Danda Tukucha 6.4 1325 Maharajung
Source: Pradhan B. (2005)
Table. 2.1. Details of Bagmati River and its tributaries (length, elevation and origin)
Origin of the Bagmati river at Bagdwar.
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2.2. Bishnumati
Bishnumati river is a major tributary of the Bagmati river originating
at Bishnudwar (2300m) at Shivapuri and flowing southward. The
length of the Bishnumati river is 17.3 km with the total catchment
area of 109.3 sq km (Map. 5). The Bishnumati river merges with
the Bagmati river at Teku Dovan. Its major tributaries are
Chharchhare, Ludi, Sangla, Mahadev, Samakhushi, Bhachakhushi
and Manamati.
Large volume of water from Bishnumati is diverted for drinking
water and domestic use near the source close to the foothills (Annex
V). Diversion is also done from tributaries such as Sangla and
Mahadev Khola. In addition, pipes have been laid for pumping water
directly from the river to individual houses.
Water sewer discharge through storm water drains are common
in core areas such as Manamaiju, Nepaltar, Balaju, Mhepi, Khusibu,
Shobha Bhagwati, Dallu, Kankeswori and Kalimati. Squatter
settlements in different locations along the river have toilet outlets
directly into the river. Use of the river banks are almost similar to
the Bagmati river. Squatter settlements are located at Dhikure
Chauki, Kumaristhan, Buddhajyoti Marg, Balaju Jagriti Tole,
Sangam Tole and Ranibari in this river (Annex IV). The river banks
along the Gongabu Bus Park are being extensively used for
commercial purposes.
Most of the river banks are used for dumping solid wastes generated
from the city. Private organisations and municipalities are also
disposing wastes along the Kankeswori –Teku bridge stretch. The
study conducted by KAPRIMO (2007) has revealed the increasing
BOD levels as Bishnumati flows out of the core area of the city (Fig.
2.2). The level of DO (5.8 mg/l) at Thankot and Budhanilkantha
shows that the quality of water is at an acceptable level up to
Budhanilkantha.
Important religious and cultural sites such as Shobha Bhagwati,
Indrayani, Kankeshwori, Ram Mandir, Tankeshwori, Shivadev
Basaha and Budhanilkantha are located along the Bishnumati
river. Most of these sites are in deteriorating condition. There
are also many cremation sites located at the river confluences.
Shobha Bhagwati is historically significant because two
renowned martyrs were hanged to death during the autocratic
Rana regime. The local clubs have built small community parks,
shrines and installed water hand pumps from Shobha Bhagwati
to the Teku stretches of the river.
2.3. Tukucha (Ichhumati)
Tukucha, also known as Ichhumati, originates at Maharajgunj inside
the Valley. It is about 6.4 km long single channel without any tributary
(Pradhan, 1996). It joins the Bagmati at Kalmochan, Thapathali.
The total catchment area of Tukucha is about 8.94 sq km (Map 5).
It is the most polluted amongst all the tributaries. The BOD level
measured at Thapathali (KAPRIMO, 2007) was 119.68 mg/l. At
present, Tukucha has become an open sewage drain.
The river sides have been extensively encroached by squatters,
residential buildings and road construction. In some stretches such
as Durbar Marg and Kamaladi, the river flows underneath the
buildings. The entire stretch of the river has been used for dumping
solid waste and waste water into the river. Bhatbhateni temple,
Nil Saraswati and Tudal Devi are important religious sites located
along this river and these sites are well preserved.
2.4. Dhobikhola (Rudramati)
The Dhobikhola, also known as Rudramati river, originates from
the Shivapuri hills, and flows south to the heart of the city joining
the Bagmati river at Buddhanagar (Bijuli Bazar). Its length is 18.2
km (Pradhan, 1996) and the total catchment area is 31.2 sq km
(Map 5). Khahare Khola and Chakhuncha Khola are its tributaries.
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Fig. 2.2. Average BOD level at different locations of
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10
The upstream section that passes through agricultural land has
clear water, which is used for washing utensils, clothes and bathing
animals. The river is free from sewage along this stretch. The
discharge of raw sewage and solid waste dumping increases as it
flows downstream from Kapan, Mandikatar, Maitidevi, Anamnagar
and the junction of Dhobikhola and Bagmati are common dumping
sites. Severely polluted stretches are from Chabahil to Siphal,
Maitidevi to Baneswor, and from Anamnagar to Babarmahal. The
level of BOD (KAPRIMO, (2007) at Buddhanagar was 108.23 mg/l in
February 2007.
Squatters have extensively encroached the river banks. Sukumbashi
Tole (settlement upstream of Gopi Krishna Hall at Chabahil and
Anamnagar) is at greater risk of flood hazards as it is a flood plain.
The river has been severely channelized by a newly constructed
road (Neupane, 2007).
Limited sand mining occurs at Chunikhel but terrace mining is very
common along the river side. Large volume of sand is excavated
from the Baluwakhani and Adhikarigaon flood plains. Sand mining
activities have exposed piers of the Chabahil Ring Road Bridge.
2.5. Manahara
Manahara river meets the Bagmati river at Chyasal. It originates
from Manichaur danda in the north east and flows towards the
south-west. It is the longest tributary of the Bagmati, having a
length of 23.4 km (Pradhan, 1996). Total catchment area of the
Manahara river is 285.35 sq km (Map 5). The major tributaries are
Hanumante, Salinadi, Godavari Khola, Kodku Khola and Ghatte Khola.
Catchment areas like Sankhu, Thali and Mulpani are covered by the
agricultural land. According to Shrestha (2007), during the period 1978—
2002, forest area has reduced from 87% to only 17% while the cultivated
land has increased to 77% and urban settlements have increased from
0.002% to 5%. Agricultural water pumps are seen at different locations.
Riparain vegetation is still intact in upstream locations like Sankhu but
has decreased downstream (Bajracharya et. al., 2006).
The ecological status and water quality of Manahara gradually
deteriorates from upstream to downstream (Shrestha, 2008).
E.coli from sewer and solid waste (Barjacharya, 2006) is three
times higher at Sano Thimi compared to Sankhu. Sewage
connection lacking in upper reaches becomes prevalent
downstream. New sewer lines have been connected to discharge
waste water directly into the rivers in newly urbanizing
locations. A small collection chamber has been constructed near
Sano Thimi bridge to collect waste water from the Pepsicola
Planning Area. Existing outlets of sewer along the river bank are
in very poor condition. The BOD level at Balkumari in Lalitpur
district (KAPRIMO, 2007) was 30.09 mg/l. Dumping can be
observed at several locations along the Arniko Highway at
Jadibuti and Pepsicola Town Planning Area. Squatter settlements
are present near the bridge at Jadibuti and sand mining activities
are observed from Mulpani to Koteshwor. Bank erosion is also
common in some locations.
Culturally and historically important sites such as Bajrayogini,
Salinadi Tirtha and Changunarayan are situated along the banks of
this river and they are still in good condition.
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River water being used for various purposes.
2.6. Balkhu (Indramati)
Balkhu river originates in Chandragiri in the west. Also known as
Indramati, it meets Bagmati outside Ring Road at Balkhu. Thado Khola
is the major tributary. The total catchment area of the Balkhu river is
46.32 sq km (Map 5). Settlements like Thankot, Balambu, Tinthana
and Satungal lie in this catchment area. Population density is high
in Kalanki and Balkhu. The river is extensively used for washing
clothes, utensils and bathing animals.
Sewer drains are found in Thankot and Tinthana area further
downstream. Waste from Ranga Bazar at Satungal is discharged
directly into the river. Several small industries such as Sipradi and
Pet Bottles are located along this stretch of the river. Foaming
substances floating on the river indicate the possibility of chemical
pollution in the river. The BOD level measured at Balkhu (KAPRIMO,
2007) was 27.14 mg/l.
Large dumps of solid waste is found accumulated near industrial
areas. River banks near Tinthana and Kalanki are used for dumping
solid waste by the Kathmandu Metropolitan City and Kirtipur
Municipality. Some squatter settlements are seen at the confluence
of the Thado Khola and the Balkhu river near Khasi Bazar. Important
religious sites are Ikkchha Brisheshwor Mahadev, Bishnu Devi and
Bir Binayak temples.
2.7. Nakkhu
Nakkhu Khola flows from the south and meets Bagmati near the
Chobhar gorge. It originates from the ridge of Bhardeu and the
total catchment area of the watershed is 51.44 sq km (Map 5).
Nallu and Lele Khola meet at Tikabhairab to form Nakkhu Khola. The
river water is diverted from the upstream of Nallu Khola at Basuki
for drinking and irrigation. Rajkulo, an irrigation canal system
constructed during the Malla Period (mid-1600s) and fed by Nallu
Khola is no more functional in many areas. Water is also diverted for
irrigation at Chhampi. A water treatment and distribution plant has
been constructed near the confluence of Nakkhu Khola and Bagmati.
Sewage pipes are directly discharging household waste at Tamang
Gaun. The condition of the sewer pipe is generally poor. The BOD
level measured at Nakkhu (KAPRIMO, 2007) was 13.23 mg/l. Although
solid waste dumping is absent in the upstream areas, it has been
observed from Kusunti onwards. Industrial waste is relatively more
than household waste. Some medium scale sand mining activity is
observed near the confluence of Bagmati and Nakkhu Khola.
Culturally important temple of Tika Bhairab is located at the
confluence of Nakkhu. Three day of festival (jatra) is celebrated on
the occasion of Ram Navami. The Nakkhu river is also important for
Rato Machhindranath festival celebrated every twelve years
(Barabarse Mela).
2.8. Sub-tributaries
There are also several important sub-tributaries. Five major sub-
tributaries considered to be important for the restoration of the
Bagmati river are Godavari, Kodku, Hanumante, Sangla and
Mahadev Khola.
2.8.1. Godavari
Godavari river is the tributary of Manahara. It meets Hanumante at
Balkot, Bhaktapur. Freshwater fish recorded in the field survey
indicates good water quality in the river. Biodiversity and ecological
conditions of the riverside are still close to their natural state. Various
birds and insects like dragon fly, butterfly, grass hopper and many
bugs are indicators of high biodiversity in the surrounding riverside.
Water diversion for irrigation and drinking is seen in Godamchaur
and Godavari kunda. About 20-30 water tankers ferry drinking
water daily to the city from the kunda alone. Local communities
charge Rs. 200 for a truck, 50% of which is used for local
development and remaining 50% goes for the development of
kunda and surrounding temples. A portion of rajkulo still exists and
drains water from the Godavari river to the adjoining areas.
Sewer connections are rare but dumping of solid waste along the
river bank generates nuisance. Water turbidity is high due to marble
quarry at Godavari which is generating job opportunity for local
communities. Loss of natural vegetation in surrounding river sides
due to mining is clearly visible.
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Encroachment of river banks by squatters.
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2.8.2. Hanumante Khola
Hanumante Khola is the tributary of Manahara and originates
from Mahadev danda in the eastern part of the Valley. It joins
Manahara at Phidol. Untreated sewage of Bhaktapur is directly
discharged into the river at Hanuman Ghat. Hanuman Ghat is one
of the cremation sites of Bhaktapur. The banks of the river are
treated as dumping site of the municipality. The waste is strewn
everywhere at crematory, bridges and besides river banks.
Areas upstream and downstream of Bhaktapur and Thimi are
highly urbanized. Few squatter settlements exist along the river
banks with sand mining activities at the confluence of Hanumante
and Manahara rivers. Hanumanghat, the confluence of Tabyakhusi
and Chakhu Khola, is culturally very important as there exists the
Mahalaxmi temple.
2.8.3. Sangla Khola
Sangla Khola is a tributary of the Bishnumati river and originates
from Ale hill in the north-western part of the Valley. While the upstream
is relatively clean, areas beyond Tokha has been polluted. The
Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) has been diverting
water for city supply from this river. Construction of road and stone
quarry near its bank has accelerated erosion of the surrounding land.
Sand mining is the predominant occupation here. It has increased
sediment load in the river. In 2007, sand extraction from the area
was about 747.6 cu m (Sayami et al, 2007), and has concentrated
5km upstream from the confluence of the Sangla and Bishnumati
rivers. The river path is severely disturbed with lots of holes dug for
sand mining activities. Consequently, river beds have deepened
from 1 to 5m from its original level. While sand mining has improved
the economic status of the workers, it has generated negative
impacts on the environment, river ecosystem and agricultural land
(Sayami, 2007). The BOD level was 46.33 mg/l in Baniyatar.
2.8.4. Mahadev Khola
Mahadev khola also originates from Aale hill in the north-west. In
the upstream, the river is in natural state. However, impacts of
urbanization can be felt downstream from Phutung. River water
is polluted at Padmasala and Jaraku of Kabreshthai VDC.
Construction activities have degraded the river. Household sewage
is directly discharged to the river. Buildings away from the river
have septic tanks constructed for sewer collection. The average
BOD level (KAPRIMO, 2007) at Manmaiju was 36.23 mg/l.
River banks are protected by gabion walls. Riparian vegetation is
relatively sparse downstream resembling open drainage. River banks
are often used to stockpile sand and hume pipes. Recently constructed
road network along both sides of the river has narrowed its channel.
Continuous drop in river discharge with the lowering of the river bed
has made it unfeasible to directly pump water from the river.
2.8.5. Kodku Khola
Kodku Khola is 14.9 km long and flows north of the Manahara river. It
originates from the north facing slopes of the Tileswor danda and
Bhagwan danda, located southward. Its catchment area is 34 sq km.
The upstream water quality is very good (Maharjan 2006). Most of
the surrounding region is still used as agricultural field.
A housing colony has diverted the Kodku Khola between Gwarko
and Hattiban (Pathak et al, 2007). In addition, Little Angel’s School
and Guna Cinema have confined the river into a channel.
Downstream from Harisiddhi bridge, the river is channelized and
mixed with sewage. The BOD level of Kodku Khola (KAPRIMO, 2007)
was 185 mg/l with COD level being 131.5 mg/l.
The above discussions reflected that the Bagmati river system has
seven major tributaries and five sub-tributaries within the
Kathmandu valley. Large streams which directly join the Bagmati
river stretch from Sundarijal to Chovar is referred to as the major
tributaries of Bagmati river in the valley. The Bagmati river system
has been widely used for drinking, irrigation, industrial and other
purposes. The rivers in the valley also posses rich cultural and
ethnic values. The general analysis of the river system clearly
indicated that at present, the river degradation is correlated with
population density and urbanization. Degradation of the river water
quality and quantity is the major issues of the Bagmati river system.
All the rivers within the Kathmandu valley have more or less similar
issues of different intensity. Therefore the issues of the Bagmati
river system has been analysed in detail in the subsequent chapter.
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Many issues related to the Bagmati river have been identified and
analysed by previous studies and reports. The critical issues of the
Bagmati river and its tributaries are primarily related to water
discharge, water quality, aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity, river
side land use, preservation of culture and heritage, and related
institutional arrangements. Based on the ground truthing of these
issues during field observations, the following four primary issues
have been identified as critical for immediate restoration and
conservation of the Bagmati river:
3.1. River ecosystem and waste water
i. Decrease in water discharge;
ii. Degradation of river water quality;
iii. Degradation of catchment quality;
iv. Narrowing and deepening of water way; and
v. Depletion of aquatic biodiversity
3.2. River side land use and socio-economic conditions
i. Changes in riverside land use; and
ii. Eroding aesthetic values
3.3. Culture and heritage
i. Deteriorating culture and heritage; and
ii. Eroding cultural values and norms
3.4. Key challenges
i. Integrating conventional planning with ecosystem
management;
ii. Demand management, payment for services and
incentives for conservation; and
iii. Enforcement, coordination and stakeholder participation
3.1. River ecosystem and waste water
Decrease in water discharge
Decrease in water discharge exerts enormous impact in the overall
river ecosystem by damaging the habitat for aquatic life, exposing
the river banks and channeling of the flow. Discharge record from
the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) for 1975-
1999 at Sundarijal station reveals decreasing trend of water
discharge (Fig. 3.1). While there are frequent high discharges at the
time of flood in the Bagmati river, the overall trend is decreasing.
The tapping of water for drinking and irrigation purposes from
main sources of rivers is a root cause of decreasing water discharge.
Sundarijal, upstream Bagmati (Fig. 3.2), Bishnudwar of Bishnumati,
Sangla river, Chapagaun of Nallu river, Godavari river, Mahadev
KEY ISSUES OF BAGMATI RIVER
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Dhap in Shivapuri National Park.
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Khola and Dudh Pokhari are major locations where huge volume of
water has been diverted daily for drinking and irrigation purposes.
There does not exist any guideline or policy related to river water
diversion and extraction. According to KMTNC (2004), about 30
million litres of water is tapped everyday from rivers such as
Bagmati, Bishnumati and other small streams originating from the
Shivapuri hills. Water from rivers such as Manahara, Nakkhu and
Balkhu has been intensively utilised for agriculture, industries,
tourism and recreational activities.
Rajkulo (royal canal), one of the oldest irrigation canal systems in
the Valley built to fill up historical ponds irrigate farmlands en
route and provide water, is still serving a few settlements and their
agricultural areas in the southern part of the Valley. Local
communities have reported that a large volume of water is
transported to city centres by tankers for drinking purposes from
sources such as Godavari and Matatirtha. However, there are no
regulatory mechanisms and guidelines for managing the use of
these water resources. There is an urgent need to enforce the
provisions to regulate the Environment Flow Requirement (EFR) for
protecting water sources from haphazard water diversions.
There are potential water recharge areas and wetlands such as the
dhap in the Shivapuri National Park. There is also the possibility of
increasing groundwater recharging capacity by afforestation and
construction of low check dams in the sources of rivulets in the
Valley. However, such initiatives have not been explored by
concerned agencies.
Melamchi water supply project's plan of bringing water for drinking
into the Valley is a good initiative (Box 2). This project may help to
increase water discharge in the Bagmati river. Agencies working
for environmental improvement of the Bagmati river should
generate pressure for completing this project as soon as possible.
At the moment, this has remained the prime responsibility of the
Ministry of Physical Planning and Works. The Government of Nepal,
together with other concerned agencies, should also start exploring
other potential projects for inter-basin transfer of water to increase
the flow in rivers of the Valley.
Initiatives have been undertaken by various government and non-
government organisations to recharge groundwater through
rainwater harvesting in the Valley such as the recharging of
Ranipokhari through rainwater harvesting. Similar initiatives should
be promoted and expanded at households and institutional levels.
Altogether, 34 ponds have been identified for rehabilitation and
there is also the possibility of promoting rainwater harvesting in
larger number of households in the Valley.
Degradation of river water quality
Increasing trend of BOD and decreasing trend of DO at different
points in the rivers clearly indicate the degradation of water quality
in the rivers. Degradation increases significantly as rivers enter the
core area of the city. Studies by Pradhan (1998) and ICIMOD (2007)
have indicated that the river water in the majority of upstream
sources is still clean, while it is most polluted downstream within
the core area of the city (Table 3.1).
On the basis of Saprobic method, the quality of water has been
classified into four classes (Box 3). River segments in highly
urbanized area such as Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Lalitpur Sub-
Metropolitan City and surrounding VDCs have extremely poor quality
of water. For less densely populated parts of the city and rural
areas in the surrounding hills of the Valley and adjoining locations
such as Budhanilkantha, Sundarijal, Sankhu and Godavari, poor
sanitation, open defecation practice, disposing household solid
waste into the river banks, waste generated by tourists and
1
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1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1975 - 1979 1980 - 1984 1985 - 1989 1990 - 1994 1995 - 1999
Fig. 3.1. Average discharge at Sundarijal (m
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/s)
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Direct discharge of waste water into the Bagmati river
picnikers, chemical fertilizers and pesticides used for farming, are
important pollutants of river water. About 33,699 households (7.6%
of the total households) in the Kathmandu district, 13,244 households
(19.2%) in the Lalitpur district and 4,005 households (9.7%) in the
Bhaktapur district do not have toilet facilities (DWSS 2007).
With rapid urbanization of formerly small settlements such as Satungal,
Thankot, Baniyatar, Manamaiju, Phutung and Jorpati, haphazard
construction is taking its toll on the Bagmati river. Increasing growth of
industries, number of small industries such as poultry, piggery, concrete,
dying, saw mills, paper mills, etc. are very common in these areas.
There is no any systematic sewage treatment system. A huge volume
of waste water generated from the households and industries is directly
discharged into the rivers. Disposing municipal waste in the river banks
is also very common. Rampant use of river for washing clothes, utensils,
domestic animals, vehicles, vegetables; bathing and disposing remains
after rituals have also contributed to degrading the water quality in
the city outskirts.
Dumping of solid waste and sewage discharge is more acute as the
river moves towards the city core. Individual households as well as
VDCs and municipal authorities are responsible for these activities.
About 3000m
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of solid waste is estimated to have accumulated in
the Bagmati river during dry season (WECS, 2008). More than 70%
of the total municipal waste generated is organic. Industrial effluents
and waste from hospital are also increasing the river pollution.
Residents of Kathmandu and Lalitpur districts have become hesitant
to use the river water for irrigation purposes due to its poor quality.
Although there exists sewage network to carry waste water, there
does not exist any system in the city for treatment before discharging
the waste into the river. A treatment plant at Guheshwori treats only
the upstream waste water. Squatters along the banks at different
river segments discharge toilets directly into the river. Waste from
slaughter houses, mainly along segments of the Bishnumati river, is
discharged directly into river. Similarly, chemical wastes from
industries are also contributing to the river water pollution. Daily use
of water is 90MLD in dry season and 120 MLD in wet season. Of this,
70% is discharged as waste water (WMPA, 2000). This waste water
is discharged without any treatment.
Many initiatives have been undertaken in the past by different
government organisations to manage waste water in the Valley. Some
of these initiatives were the establishment of Dhobighat Waste Water
Treatment Plant (WWTP), Sallaghari WWTP, Hanumante WWTP, Kodku
WWTP and Guheswori WWTP. However, the only Guheswori WWTP is
The Melamchi Water Supply Project aims to bring 170 MLD water
in Kathmandu for drinking and plans to expand up to 510 MLD.
About 70% of total water supplied will be collected as waste
water, which is about 115,000-120,000 m3 per day. The waste
water after treatment will have direct and indirect implications on
the water quality of the Bagmati river. Evaluation of water quality of
the river will be based on (i) the suitability of water for human
utilization, particularly for irrigation, bathing, operation of mills/micro-
hydro power schemes; (ii) suitability of water for aquatic life,
particularly snow trout; (iii) importance of water (such as water
temperature) in maintaining the micro-ecology of the area; and
(iv) aesthetic and religious importance.
Source: MWSP (2000)
Box 2: Melamchi Project
Source: MWSP (2000)
Parameters Sundarijal Khokana
TSS mg/l 5 70
Chloride mg/l 1 24
Ammonia mg/l 0.03 11
BOD mg/l 1.3 65
Coliform counts per 100 ml 1000 1,000,000
DO mg/l 8.9 1.7
Table 3.1: Water quality parameters
Saprobic method describes the relationship between riverine
ecology and river water quality. The quality of the Bagmati river
water can be divided into four major classes ranging from best
(pri sti ne) to worst: Saprobi c Water Qual i ti es (SWQ) Cl ass I
(oligosaprobic—no to very slight pollution with a variety of species),
SWQ Class II (beta-mesosaprobic—moderate pollution rich in
individuals, biomass, and species’ number), SWQ Class III (alpha-
mesosaprobic–heavy pollution with tolerant macroforms), and SWQ
Class IV (polysaprobic—extreme pollution with macro benthic life
restricted to air-breathing animals). Three intermittent sub-classes
of these four major SWQ, viz. III, and II-III and III-IV can also be
identified. By doing so, the Bagmati river water shows a continuum
state of water qual i ty i n terms of macro-i nvertebrates. The
description of each water quality class is based on the abundance
and diversity of macro-zoobenthos present.
ICIMOD, 2007
Box 3: Bagmati water quality
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A variety of chemical effluents deposited along the river bank.
operational now. Various studies have proposed different interventions
but so far none have been implemented. These recommended designs
are conventional centralized system for addressing waste water
management for urban area and require significant funds for their
construction and operation. This type of technology is appropriate for
densely populated areas, but is not appropriate for scattered
settlements. There is a new approach known as Decentralized Waste
Water Treatment System (DEWATS) appropriate for small settlements
located away from the core city area. DEWATS has been recently
introduced in the Valley and so far only one small plant installed for
250 households in Thimi is operational.
In the past, the Kathmandu Metropolitan City used to collect waste from
septic tanks and treat it before discharging into the river. This approach
of faecal sludge management is not used any more now. Such system
has to be reinitiated in areas which may not be served by the existing
WWTP and where other options may not be immediately feasible.
Initiatives taken to promote ecological sanitation (ecosan) to
manage waste water in rural areas of Kathmandu Valley by different
government and non-government agencies since the last few years
have proved exemplary for on-site sanitation. Ecosan (implemented
in Khokana and Siddhipur by ENPHO; Tigni and Gamcha by CIUD), is
a successful example of waste water management. This is an
appropriate system for agricultural areas. Settlements in rural areas
are appropriate for the promotion of onsite sanitation. More
promotion and awareness raising activities are required.
Household, community and municipal levels of management of organic
waste have to be promoted in the Valley. For this, NGOs, local clubs,
committees and communities have an important role. Management
of organic waste at the local level reduces pressures on landfill sites
and also prevents river pollution. This can also be a source of income
for local organisations. Carbon financing under the Clean Development
Mechanism of Kyoto Protocol can be used to address solid waste
disposal in the Valley. Organisations working on waste management
should explore and develop CDM projects. The opportunity for developing
CDM projects to attract investment to improved waste management
infrastructure for each significant (Barton et al 2008). The Solid Waste
Management and Resource Mobilisation Centre, responsible for waste
and landfill site management in five municipalities of the Kathmandu
Valley, is planning to establish sanitary landfill site at Okharpauwa
with the support of JICA in addition to the existing landfill site in Sisdol.
Failure in operating WWTPs as well as the inefficiency of the only
operating the Guheswori WWTP emphasises the need to develop
more effective and efficient management of treatment plants.
Public-private partnership has been recognised as a viable approach
for efficient operation of these plants. Strong regulatory
mechanism, community awareness and resource mobilisation are
other important factors for future considerations.
Degradation of catchment quality
Maintaining and considering the catchment areas of the Bagmati
river and its tributaries are highly important. Continuous
Sources: KVO, 2006
Municipality Generation Collection Projected generation
(2004) (2004) (2015)
Table 3.2: Waste generation in five municipalities (tons/day)
Kathmandu 308.4 250 547.9
Lalitpur 75.1 52 135.4
Bhaktapur 25.5 19 46.2
Madhyapur Thimi 14.3 5 27.8
Kirtipur 11.6 4 18.1
Total 434.9 330 775.4
DEWATS is another approach for managing waste water. Its main
objective is to manage waste water at the local level. Sunnga
WWTP (Reed bed technology) in Thimi is a good initiation of ENPHO/
UNHABITAT for DEWATS. This is an appropriate approach for
managing waste in the developing countries and it is cost-effective
(BORDA 1998). DEWATS is appropriate for areas where waste
water flows from 1-1000 m
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per day, i.e, for settlements with the
population of 10,000—20,000. There is an assumption that 50-
100 litre of waste water is generated per person per day. Many
areas in the Valley possess clustered settlements mainly in rural
and outskirts of the city core with population of 10,000-20,000.
Area can have multiple settlements and multiple DEWATS can be
implemented to serve that area. This approach is good for reducing
volume of waste water before connecting main sewage line from
the institutes such as army barracks, schools, monasteries, etc.
that generate large amount of waste water and industries that
produce industrial effluents before connecting to main sewerage.
Requirement of land for treatment plant is a key factor for its
implementation.
Box 4: Managing waste
water through DEWATS
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A landscape view of Shivapuri National Park.
deforestation and land conversion to agriculture have seriously
degraded catchment quality of the Bagmati river system. Rapid
and unplanned urbanization, high demand for forest products, land
conversion to agriculture, unregulated and illegal quarries , animal
grazing etc are some of the key reasons. However, a study has
shown that forest area has significantly improved within the
Shivapuri National Park (KARNA 2008). Improvement in forest cover
in the Bagmati Watershed and Sundarijal sub-catchment has led to
a more steady flow of water downstream (KARNA 2008). However,
except ShNP, other catchments and sub-catchments areas are not
under protected status.
It was observed during field surveys that forest areas have been
converted to agriculture land and grazing areas in the boundaries
of ShNP, Sangla and Manahara catchment areas. In general, that
catchment quality is slowly degrading except within ShNP.
Degradation of these catchment areas will increase potentially
damaging peak flows and reducing base flows required for a more
steady flow of water downstream. Maintaining and conserving the
catchment areas are important in the scenario that increase in
good forest cover will increase the portion of water that is retained
within the watershed during the rainy season. There are 374
community forests with a total area of 16,359 hectares in
Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Therefore, there is an
oppurtunity to mobilize the community forest user groups to
effectively manage the forest of the catchment areas.
Narrowing and deepening of water way
Deepening of the river channel increases the flow velocity of the
river that damages the infrastructure (bridges) and settlements along
the river side. Lowering of water level in streams initiates
groundwater discharge into the rivers thus lowering groundwater
table in the vicinity.
Unplanned construction of gabion structures along the bank,
encroachment of river banks and extraction of huge volume of sand
from the river bed are major causes of narrowing and deepening of
the river bed in the Valley. Extraction of sand from the river in 2007
alone was estimated about 3103m
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or 60% of the total annual
demand of the Valley (Sayami 2007.). Previous studies have revealed
that the sand extraction rate is much higher than natural deposition
rate in these areas (IUCN, 1995). Such mining activities may also
lead to erosion of banks and scouring of the river beds. Consequent
lowering of the river bed has left piers of the bridges exposed at
many locations. Several bridges and cultural heritage sites like
ghats on the river banks are at high risk due to this factor. Black
clay layer, below the sand bed, were seen exposed in most of the
river beds (one to three metre depth) during field survey.
Narrowing and deepening of water way is a critical issue to the
rivers flowing north of the Valley. From the foothills to adjoining area
of the city core sand mining activities have escalated. Sudden changes
in river gradient have resulted in the deposition of high volume of
sediments from upstream to downstream areas. Construction of
infrastructures like gabion walls and check dams to channelize the
river water and roads to serve urbanizing areas, are other causes of
deepening of the water way in many downstream areas.
The problems of narrowing and deepening of the water way also
exist in the city core. Originally, Bagmati and other rivers in the
urban stretch were braided and it flowed over gravel and sand bed.
Now, the river is confined to a single deep channel. The river bed
between Teku and Thapathali is currently about 2.5 meters lower
than the old bed and this has adversely affected foundations of
ghats and other structures. The recent collapse of a bridge in the
Bagmati river at Sinamangal is believed to be due to excessive
sand extraction. Structures to protect private land, schools, squatter
settlements and roads constructed along the river banks in the
core urban areas are other reasons for river channelling.
The collapse of bridge in Thapathali in 1991 was attributed to heavy
sand extraction from the river bed. Since then, the government has
completely banned extraction of sand from the river bed but illegal
sand mining still goes on (Saudaula, 1993 ). Sand mining activities
also cause changes in river courses which generally lead to disputes
over land ownership (BBWMSIP, 1994).
Strong law enforcement and awareness campaigns are required to
control sand mining. Active participation of local residents, clubs, etc.
along the river sides will be essential. Restoration of river bed, mainly
the sand bed, is needed for natural purification and enhancing river flow.
Depletion of aquatic biodiversity
Aquatic flora and fauna species such as benthic, macro and micro
invertebrates, fish, amphibians and reptiles and birds are indicators of
water pollution. They can be used to determine the river water quality
(ICIMOD, 2007). The reduction in aquatic biodiversity results in increasing
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Common hoopoe
imbalance of ecosystem and the extinction of valuable species.
Different studies show that there has been significant decrease in
aquatic biodiversity due to highly polluted water especially along
the urban core area. The trend of decreasing aquatic biodiversity
increases as river flows down towards the urban core. Varieties
of clean river water species prevail in the headwater region but
only a few tolerant species dominate in the highly-polluted city
core area because of organic waste (Pradhan 1998). A fish survey
in 1980 recorded 23 species (Shrestha, 1980) whereas only 11
species were recorded by a survey in 1994 (BBWMSIP, 1994).
Freshwater fish species such as Asala (Schizothorax sp.) seen during
field survey in different rivers and streams in surrounding hills and
rural areas indicate the probability of existing good aquatic biodiversity.
Rivers before approaching urban city still have some species of fish
such as hile, but none are evident after the rivers approach the city.
Visits of migratory birds and the presence of some residential birds
such as Kingfisher, Cattle Egrets, Pond Herons, Siberian Ducks, etc. in
downstream areas after Chobhar indicate the presence of some aquatic
life. A bird survey conducted by Bird Conservation Nepal (BCN) in the
stretch from Chobhar gorge to the confluence of Bosan Khola recorded
29 species of birds within three hours (Annex V). A community
consultation in a settlement near the Kautwal daha revealed that
Danuwar ethnic group, whose major occupation was fishing, has
migrated to other location due to extinction of fish species in the river.
Vegetation along the riparian area has to be enhanced. It contributes
to increasing biodiversity. Eco-friendly measures should be
promoted to protect river banks from erosion which also helps in
protecting biodiversity. In several segments of the river such as
construction of dam at Gokarna and the weir under the bridge of
Thapathali, are unfriendly for aquatic animals.
Community-based awareness campaign for the protection of
Bagmati’s biological diversity is absolutely mandatory. Promoting
ecotourism, eco clubs in schools and seeking volunteers for
maintaining the biodiversity in the rivers should be encouraged.
3.2. River side land use and socio-
economic conditions
Changes in river side land use patterns
River side lands are very important for maintaining river ecosystem
as well the aesthetic value of rivers and their surroundings. Healthy
river ecosystem should have good riparian vegetation.
Rivers and streams in the National Park and forests upstream still
have good riparian vegetation, whereas riparian land along the
foothills has already been converted into agriculture. As river flows
down towards the city core, riparian lands have been converted to
other socio-economic use and infrastructure.
Some areas further away from urban core are being temporarily
used for the collection of construction materials, dyeing and cleaning
materials for cottage industries and small workshops. The condition
of river side land gets worse as river approaches downstream.
Many river sides have been encroached permanently for private
residence, schools, offices, business complex, squatter settlements,
public toilets, new temples and road construction. Bishnumati link
road (Paropakar— Gongabu Bus Park), Dhobikhola Link Road, Bagmati
Link Road are some of the examples of encroachment of river side
land for road construction.
Eroding aesthetic values
Aesthetic values of river and its surroundings have great
importance. It could be a popular destination for the national
and international tourists. However, the aesthetic value of rivers
and its surroundings is eroding rapidly due to changes in riverside
land use. In the hills and foothills surrounding the Valley, the
aesthetic values of the river is still fairly high. It starts
decreasing as the rivers flow towards the city core. Loss of
riparian vegetation, improper management of ritual and
cremation waste, hoarding boards along the river sides, solid
waste dumping, squatter settlements etc. are some factors
behind the decreasing aesthetic value of rivers and their
surrounding areas in the Kathmandu Valley.
Natural vegetation and trees can still be seen along the downstream
Chobhar gorge. However, these areas have also been highly polluted
by the municipal waste disposed upstream. Floating solid waste and
foul smell of polluted river water have significantly decreased the
aesthetic value of the river and its surroundings. Unmanaged
cremation waste disposed along the Jal Binayak Ghat is also
contributing to the pollution. Landscaping and plantation has to be
initiated in all parts of the river segments by mobilising local
communities along the river.
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Ground water being generated to quench urban thirst.
3.3. Culture and heritage
Deteriorating cultural and heritage sites
Rivers in the valley also have high cultural and heritage value.
Almost all major rivers have some important heritage sites. Many
important culture and heritage sites such as Gokarna, Pashupati,
Sankhamul, Teku Dovan, Shobha Bhagwati, etc. are located along
the river banks. Until 1960, ghats, sattals, temples, shrines and
other related monuments and structures were in relatively good
conditions. Uncontrolled pollution and environmental hazards have
destroyed the river, which has also severely affected the monuments
and structures (RGKV, 1995). The traditional management system
such as guthi has also eroded over the time.
The number of important cultural and heritage sites is higher in the
city centre as compared to its outskirts. Unplanned urbanization
and unregulated industrial growth have damaged the cultural
resources and have destroyed the aesthetic value of the monuments
(IUCN, 1995). Most of the important heritage sites along the rivers
are facing the risk of complete collapse.
Some of the major sites located outside city area are Shivadev
Basaha and Buddha sculpture, Taglung in Budanilkantha, Ghats
in Sundarijal area, Tokha Chandeswori, temples, sattals and
ghats near Gokarneswor Mahadev, Changunarayan Temple,
Sankha Daha south of Changunarayan, Mahalaxmi Temple at
Balambu, Bishnudevi Temple at Tinthana, JalBinayak Ganesh
at Chobhar, and ghats at Sundarighat. The condition of heritage
sites inside the city area is at high risks compared to the
monuments outside the core area. Major sites under risks
include Bombir Bikateswar at Teku, Ping Dyo at Kirtipur, Bishnu
Vikranta sculpture at Tilganga, Bhim Mukteswar at Kalimati,
sattal of Laxmiswar Temple, Purneswar Temple, statue of
Bishnu at Tripureswar, pati of Dallu bridge and Shobha
Bhagwati. IUCN (1995) has also indicated that many patis have
been encroached for shelter (see Annex VII).
Eroding cultural values and norms
The Kathmandu Valley highly rich in culture and heritage. The
Bagmati river has been an important part of this culture and
heritage. However, the rich cultural and heritage along the Bagmati
river is considered to be an auspicious act but this has become
impossible due to ever increasing polluiton level of water.
Urbanization and the pervading influence of other culture and
gradually eroding our cultural values. The tradition of maintaining
and keeping clean premises around ‘ghats’ and temples through
social system such as ‘guthi’ have slowly eroded. Moreover, the
tradition norm of respecting the rivers is slowly disappearing. That
led to wide misuse of the rivers for different purpose including
solid waste dumping, sand mining etc. The cost of lost cultures is
far outweighed by the benefit of enhanced welfare and prosperity.
For many people, their cultural values are their roots, without which
their souls, hearts and mind would lose meaning and any process
that uproots such values cannot be considered ‘creative’. Therefore,
in order to effectively restore and conserve the Bagmati river, the
unique culture must be preserved by raising awareness at the
local, national and international levels.
3.4. Key challenges
Sustainable management of the Bagmati river and its tributaries
within the Kathmandu Valley depends on the ability to
simultaneously and effectively address the issues of:
(i) Integrating ecosystem management with conventional urban
and rural land use planning and zoning;
(ii ) Implementing demand management for ecosystem services
and ensuring that appropriate payments are made; and
(iii) Enforcing laws, regulation and guidelines at various levels by
the governments.
Integrating conventional planning with
ecosystem management
The past history of the Bagmati river management is a story of
failure of concerned organisation to effectively tackle the problems.
Today, many of the problems appear almost insurmountable and
consequently might also require strong, across the board corrective
measures. Caught amidst a plethora of organizations chasing too
many priorities with too little resources, the Bagmati lacked
ownership at every level.
Ecosystem management seeks the restoration of all the living
and non living organisms as well as their interactions. A river
and its tributaries are unique ecosystems, providing different
types of valuable ecosystem services. Some of these services
may have markets while many may be considered free. Bagmati
river’s water used to be a free resource and in many upstream
areas it may still be relatively free. However, for many people
22
in the urban area water has to be either bought or what is free
is so polluted that it cannot be used.
Restoring the health of the ecosystem is both a scientific as well as
social judgment. Social issues are evident in the demand for the
ecosystem services as well as in their management. Natural
features do not submit easily for management along political
boundaries, requiring different layers as well as different
organizations to support each other. Bioregional perspective is
necessary for managing ecosystems by carefully understanding
the different flows of resources and services. Inter-disciplinary
issues need careful evaluation and consideration from different
scientific and social groups so as to arrive at solutions that are
scientifically valid and socio economically acceptable.
The Bagmati and its tributaries winds through a maze of rural and urban
zones, providing a rich variety of ecosystem services for the people. Its
rich cultural heritage as well as biodiversity resources, although heavily
degraded at present offers encouraging potentials for the future if it is
carefully managed. The guiding principle for sustainable management
for the future is to have a sound plan that has a strong ownership for
implementation by all the stakeholders concerned.
Demand management, payment for services
and incentives for conservation
Planning and management must be based on realistic assumptions
if the plan is to be successfully owned and implemented. Gone are
the days of mega-projects that are management nightmares, with
budget overruns and a perpetual burden on the society. This is also
true for the Bagmati where efforts to find solutions in terms of
new water projects are already facing severe problems.
First issue is demand management. The massive increase in
urban population has increased the supply and demand gap in
water supply. In the past, the approach taken has been to focus
more on the supply side without managing the demand side.
This neglect of the demand side has overlooked options for
more efficient use of water through control of losses, more
effective use of water charges, harnessing in situ solutions such
as rain water and promoting more decentralized management
systems. Least cost to water utility and the customer as well as
appropriate payments for the use of water has become critical
in the context of demand management.
Payment for the environmental services could provide incentives
to local commumity to protect and manage the natural resources.
Few recent studies have established the feasibility of piloting PES
as an innovative conservation financing tools in the catchment
areas which supplies substantial amount of water to the Kathmandu
valley for domestic purpose, hydro power and irrigation to agriculture
(KARN 2008). Without this incentive, simple regulation and policing
will not succeed in conservation.
Enforcement, coordination and stakeholder
participation
Institutional failures have been widespread behind the sad story of
deterioration of the Bagmati river. Overlapping jurisdictions, lack of
congruence between planned activities and their budgets, and political
unwillingness to enforce key decisions have been outstanding
institutional problems that have been left unresolved over the years.
On a positive side, there has been a pro Bagmati Supreme Court
that has been pushing the government to come up with the
necessary action and institutional structure. There are also several
NGOs that have lent their enormous enthusiasm in raising
awareness and supporting partial cleaning of Bagmati.
Apart from these, there are the municipalities, structure of the
local government, various line agencies of the central government
that have legal roles. In the past, there have been many duplication,
wastages, abandoned projects simply because of inadequate
coordination between different interest groups.
A major gap has been lack of an organization that have overall
management responsibility for restoration and conservation of the
Bagamati river. The organization role is to plan, manage, regulate
and monitor all the activities. Actual implementation of activities
should be encouraged to implement through other stake holders
such as municipalities, other local governmental organizations,
academic institutions, NGOs and local communities. There is and
opportunity to strengthen and legally empower HPCIDBC to fill the
present gap. HPCIDBC could act as a key organization with overall
management authority. However, the present institutional set of as
well as capacity of the organization needs a major reform. The role
of the coordinating agency would be to facilitate enforcement of
laws and guidelines, build capacity at the local level for decentralized
and participatory implementation, organize research and monitoring
activities and time and again bring all the stakeholders together to
review the outcomes and formulate new strategies.
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Different management interventions for the restoration of the
Bagmati river has been identified. As the issues are complex,
improvement of the river ecosystem is very challenging. Hence, a
strategic and systematic approach is essential to develop and
implement the Bagmati Action Plan.
The data and information analysed in previous chapters reveal that all
issues do not have equal level of importance in all river segments. An
issue which is critical for upstream may not be critical for downstream.
The water discharge and terrestrial biodiversity are very important
issues for the conservation of the surrounding hills. Narrowing and
deepening of river channels is a major issue in rural areas and the city
outskirts where intensive sand extraction exist. The quality of river
water due to haphazard sewage connection and dumping of solid
waste along the river banks is the major issue for rivers at the urban
core. However, water pollution at the downstream is the result of
the lack of environmental-friendly activities in the upstream
settlements.
Thus, the river ecosystem of the Valley can be observed in various
situations at different areas. As mentioned earlier, the Bagmati
river has been classified into four standard water quality classes
based on the Saprobic approach (Pradhan, 2005). These are:
Class I: Non-polluted;
Class II: Moderately polluted;
Class III: Heavily polluted; and
Class IV: Extremely polluted.
It is clearly visible that the river water quality in the Shivapuri National
Park and its surrounding hills is still in good condition and gradually
deteriorates as it flows towards the urban area. The water quality
worsens mainly in central part of the Valley. The categorization of
river as safe, unsafe and extremely unsafe (IUCN 1995) also indicates
that the river of the central part of the Valley is extremely unsafe.
The cross analysis of population density and the river water quality indicates
there is an inverse relationship between river water quality and population
density. The upper stream of the Bagmati river, i.e. Shivapuri National
Park and its surrounding hills are in good condition where the population
density is the lowest. As the river flows downstream, water quality worsens
with the increase of population density.
In order to address these issues at micro level according to their
relative importance, the rivers of the Kathmandu Valley have been
classified into five zones (Map 6) on the basis of the existing status
of the water quality in river segments and the population density of
ZONING OF BAGMATI RIVER
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the area. With high population density, it becomes difficult to restore
the river ecosystem. Consequently, zonation of the rivers will help
in developing and implementing effective action plan at the zone
level. Maps 6, 7 and 8 present zone-wise situation of the rivers in
the Kathmandu Valley.
1. Natural Conservation Core Zone
Zone 1 is the natural conservation core zone (323 sq km, i.e.
45.1% of targeted area) consisting of green hills surrounding
the Valley such as Phulchowki (2,800m), Shivapuri (2,453m),
Chandragiri (2,365m) and Nagarjun (2,100m). The Shivapuri
National Park (144 sq km) lies in this zone on the northern
fringe of the Valley and Shivapuri watershed is the recharge
zone of the Bagmati river as well as of the ground water of the
Valley. The origin of the Bagmati river and its tributaries:
Bishnumati, Manahara, Dhobikhola, Balkhu and Nakkhu are
located in this zone. Wetlands with high recharging potentiality
are located in this zone. The population density is very low and
hence the river water quality is in natural condition. Majority of
the river segments in this zone has Class I level of water quality.
Major issues of this zone to be addressed in the action plan are:
ƒ decreasing water discharge due to intensive water diversion
ƒ degrading terrestrial biodiversity due to increasing settlements;
trend of converting forest area into agricultural land; felling of
trees and other forest resources for fuel wood, building
construction and other commercial activities; new constructions
like monasteries, roads and other infrastructures; animal hunting
and use of pesticides for farming, etc.
ƒ degrading water quality due to poor sanitation and unmanaged
waste generated by households, tourists, picnickers and other
recreational activities; use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides
for farming; use of river household purposes
ƒ deteriorating culture and heritage due to new construction;
encroachment; use alteration, etc.
2. Rural Zone
The bordering area of Zone 1 is classified as Zone 2 or Rural Zone
(150 sq km, i.e. 21% of targeted area). The Bagmati river and its
tributaries flow through this zone. Population density in this zone is
higher than Zone 1. It is still being dominated by agricultural land.
River segments are moderately polluted in this area (Class II) and
can be restored into Class I with minimum effort. River meanderings
have taken place in this zone. Many important shrines and temples
such as Changunarayan, Gokarneshwar Mahadev (also known as
Uttar Gaya), Budhanilkantha, Ichangunarayan, Machhenarayan,
Bishankhunarayan, Kageshwori, Neelbarahi, Matatirtha, Tokha
Chandeswori and Indrayani are located in this zone.
Major issues of this zone to be addressed in the action plan are:
ƒ decreasing river water discharge due to river diversion for
drinking and irrigation purposes; tanker service for commercial
benefits of VDCs and local settlements
ƒ narrowing and deepening of water way due to excessive sand
mining; construction of structures such as gabion walls, check
dams, etc. for the protection of land and road construction
ƒ degrading water quality and aquatic biodiversity due to loss of
riparian vegetation; untreated sewage disposal from households
and industrial effluents; dumping of waste, chemical fertilizers
and pesticides
ƒ changes in river side land use for agriculture; dyeing and cleaning
materials for cottage industries; workshops; road construction
ƒ Eroding aesthetic values due to loss of riparian vegetation;
improper management of ritual and cremation waste;
commercial hoarding boards; solid waste dumped along the
river banks; waste blocked by weirs in the river, etc.
ƒ deteriorating culture and heritage due to replacement of original
architecture; encroachment; alteration of use; and lack of
responsiveness from concerned authorities
3. Peri-urban Zone
Zone 3 is the peri-urban area of the Valley (113 sq km, i.e. 15.8% of
total targeted area), and is located between rural and core urban
city of the Kathmandu Valley. Many urbanizing VDCs are located in
this zone. Population density here is comparatively higher than
Zone 2 and lesser than Zone 4. The river ecosystem is in Class III
(critically polluted) category. Restoration of river to Class I is
challenging in this zone. However, enhancement of the river
ecosystem to Class II can be achieved. Some important cultural
and heritage sites and temples such as Asoka Chaitya, Mahalaxmi
, Bishnudevi , Bajrabarahi, Karyabinayak and Harisiddhi temples
are located in this zone.
Major issues of this zone to be addressed in the action plan are:
ƒ decreasing water discharge due to excessive diversion of water
for drinking and irrigation
ƒ narrowing and deepening of water way due to excessive sand
mining; channeling of river by construction of walls and check
dams for the protection of land and buildings
ƒ depleting aquatic biodiversity due to loss of riparian vegetation;
increasing connection of untreated sewage directly from
households; unmanaged animal waste from piggery farms and
buffalo wholesale markets such as Ranga Bazar in Satungal;
solid waste dumped by municipalities, industries and
households; open defecation along the river banks and storm
water drainage; backflow from agricultural land affected by
chemical fertilizers and pesticides; vehicle washing, etc.
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ƒ changes in river side land use from agricultural to residential
and commercial use such as private institutions, animal farming,
schools; road construction, temporary sites for collecting
construction materials, etc.
ƒ Eroding aesthetic values due to loss of riparian vegetation;
commercial hoarding boards; solid waste dumped along the
river banks; floating and blocking of waste by weirs in the river,
etc.
ƒ deteriorating culture and heritage mainly due encroachments
and alteration of use
4. Urban Zone
Zone 4 is the highly urbanized zone consisting of five municipalities
of the Valley—Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Madhyapur Thimi
and Kirtipur. The rate of urbanization is very high and thus a very
few natural vegetation exists. Almost all major tributaries pass
through this zone and the confluences of the tributaries are located
in the central part of the zone. Water quality of the river is worst
with Class IV (extremely polluted) category. The river portrays its
completely deteriorated condition of river ecosystem. The
restoration of the river segments in this zone is very challenging.
Restoration can be done at different stages from Class IV to Class III
at the initial stage followed by Class III to Class II. This zone is the
origin of the civilization of the Kathmandu Valley with human
settlements mainly dominated by the Newar community. Major
historical places, cultural and heritage sites (ghats, tirtha, piths),
temples and stupas (Swoyambhunath Stupa, Boudhanath and
Pashupatinath) are located in this zone.
Major issues of this zone to be addressed in the action plan are:
ƒ narrowing and deepening of water way due to structures to
protect land and infrastructure along the river banks; high
encroachment of land by private as well as illegal settlements
such as squatters; excessive sand mining in the upstream zone
ƒ degradation of water quality and aquatic biodiversity due to
direct discharge of huge volume of untreated sewage into river
segments; leachate produced by huge volume of solid waste
dumped by municipalities and private organisations along the
river banks; waste deposited along the river banks by slaughter
houses; direct disposal of chemical waste produced by dyeing
and washing industries; direct discharge of sewage into the
river by squatter settlements; vehicle washing, etc.
ƒ change in river side land use from agricultural and natural
vegetation into residential and commercial use such as animal
farming, agriculture; public and private institutions; river side
road construction; temporary sites for collecting construction
materials, dyeing and cleaning materials used for small cottage
industries. Huge area of land is encroached and used by
squatters in several parts of the river segments in this zone
ƒ Eroding aesthetic values due to loss of riparian vegetation;
filthy and unhealthy environment of the river surroundings by
squatter settlements; waste produced by rituals and cremation;
construction of public toilets; slaughtering of animals along the
river banks
ƒ deteriorating culture and heritage; lack of conservation because
of unclarity in management authorities; encroachment;
alteration of use and alteration of architecture
5. Downstream Zone
Zone 5 is situated in the southern part of the Kathmandu Valley from
Sundarighat to Katuwal daha. This zone is mainly dominated by
agricultural land with low population density. The Bagmati river drains
out of the Valley through this zone. Despite low population density in
this zone, water quality in the river segment is extremely polluted.
Environmental situation of river in this zone is mainly dependent on
the environmental status of the upstream river rather than factors
linked to the zone itself. The existing level of BOD (88.83 mg/l) at
Khokana and the foul smell experienced at Katuwal daha, similar to
that of Thapathali crossing calls for immediate attention to restore the
Bagmati river to its original grandeur. Enhancement of the upstream
river ecosystem helps in enhancing the river ecosystem in this zone.
Some historical and heritage sites such as Taudaha, Jalbinayak,
Karyabinayak, Anandaghat and Sundarighat are located in this zone.
Major issues of this zone to be addressed in the action plan are:
ƒ depleting water quality and aquatic biodiversity due to highly
polluted water from the upstream zone
ƒ Eroding aesthetic values due to floating solid waste; floating
foams produced by chemical wastes and foul smell of the
polluted water
ƒ deteriorating culture and heritage along the river banks
(Refer to Annex VIII for details about physical features, human
settlements, land use pattern, important culture and heritage sites
and names of VDCs/municipalities located in different zones).
Fig. 4.1: Visitor’s trend in Shivapuri National Park
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Legislative arrangements are one of the key success factors for
efficient and successful implementation of the programmes and
policies. Improving river ecosystems, especially in rapidly urbanizing
centre such as the Kathmanudu Valley, must have very strong
legislative arrangements. There are several useful acts which could
help in halting environmental degradation of the rivers in the Valley,
if they are implemented effectively. These acts include issues
related to land use, building codes, waste management,
conservation and protection of natural resources and cultural
heritage. Some important acts identified during the process of
developing the Action Plan are presented below:
Acts and policies
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. Ancient Monuments Protection Act (1992): Ancient Monuments Protection Act (1992): Ancient Monuments Protection Act (1992): Ancient Monuments Protection Act (1992): Ancient Monuments Protection Act (1992): This Act defines
the "Ancient Monument" as Devalaya, Shivalaya, Math (religious
houses), Gumba, etc. The Act defines rights and duties of the
government to make proper arrangements for their protection
by preventing any misappropriation and misuse of such
historically and archaeologically important places.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. Aquatic Animal Protection Act (1961): Aquatic Animal Protection Act (1961): Aquatic Animal Protection Act (1961): Aquatic Animal Protection Act (1961): Aquatic Animal Protection Act (1961): This Act prohibits the
use of explosive and poisonous substances in any water body
for killing aquatic life. Study on the effects of development
projects on fishery resources and implementation of mitigative
measures has been made mandatory under this regulation
including regulating fishing gears, size of the fish and season of
fishing.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. Building Act (1998): Building Act (1998): Building Act (1998): Building Act (1998): Building Act (1998): The Building Act is formulated to form
standards regarding the construction of buildings within the
Kathmandu Valley and the municipalities. It is mainly related
with structural, electrical, sanitary and plumbing design
requirements. It also focused on the safety of occupant building
during earthquake, fire and other natural disasters.
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. Environment Protection Act (1996): Environment Protection Act (1996): Environment Protection Act (1996): Environment Protection Act (1996): Environment Protection Act (1996): This Act mainly focuses
on the protection of environment with proper use and
management of natural resources, taking into consideration
that sustainable development could be achieved from the
inseparable inter-relationship between the economic
development and environment protection. It also relates with
legal provisions in order to maintain clean and healthy
environment by minimizing, as far as possible, adverse impacts
likely to be caused from environmental degradation on human
beings, wildlife, plants and physical objects.
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. Forest Act (1993): Forest Act (1993): Forest Act (1993): Forest Act (1993): Forest Act (1993): This act has been enacted to conserve and
develop forest and properly utilise forest products. Policies
regarding conservation, development and extension of private
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areas, hunting reserve and buffer zones. It provides for the
conservation of protected areas and wildlife and regulates the
consumptive and non-consumptive use of biodiversity to sustain
the welfare of the people.
The act empowers the government to develop site-specific and
general regulatory mechanisms for their conservation, and
provides special protection to 38 endangered species (26 species
of mammals, 9 species of birds and 3 species of reptiles). The
act has duly incorporated the concept of buffer zones and to
facilitate public participation in the conservation, design and
management of these zones.
This act is supplemented by several other acts such as the Aquatic
Animal Protection Act (1961), Forest Act (1992) and Soil and
Watershed Conservation Act (1982). International conventions
like the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the Ramsar Convention for
Wetlands Conservation and the World Heritage Convention further
strengthens biodiversity conservation efforts in Nepal.
13. 13. 13. 13. 13. National Trust for Nature Conservation Act (1983): National Trust for Nature Conservation Act (1983): National Trust for Nature Conservation Act (1983): National Trust for Nature Conservation Act (1983): National Trust for Nature Conservation Act (1983): Under
this Act, the government has established the National Trust for
Nature Conservation. The NTNC is mandated as an autonomous
and non-profit organisation to work in the field of nature
conservation. It has been managing two conservation area-
Annapurna and Manaslu. The Act is supported by NTNC
regulation 1984. This act provides to conserve, promote and
manage natural resources; undertake the development of
national parks, wildlife reserves and carry out scientific studies
and research on natural resources.
14. 14. 14. 14. 14. Pashupati Area Development Trust Act (1987): Pashupati Area Development Trust Act (1987): Pashupati Area Development Trust Act (1987): Pashupati Area Development Trust Act (1987): Pashupati Area Development Trust Act (1987): This act
particularly focuses on the development and conservation of the
Pashupati area. Pashupati Area Development Fund is formed
under this act to manage, maintain and preserve the natural and
cultural heritage in the Pashupati area and prohibit the registration
of land within the area to any person or organisation.
15. 15. 15. 15. 15. Pesticide Act (1992): Pesticide Act (1992): Pesticide Act (1992): Pesticide Act (1992): Pesticide Act (1992): The act has the provision of appointing
inspectors. It mainly focuses on the registration of chemical
pesticides and also guides to give the prerequisites regarding
import, export, production and consumption of pesticides for
which the government approval is compulsory.
16. 16. 16. 16. 16. Plant Protection Act (1973): Plant Protection Act (1973): Plant Protection Act (1973): Plant Protection Act (1973): Plant Protection Act (1973): This act aims to protect plants
and plant products from entry, stay and spread of harmful
organisms during their import, export and transportation. It is
also related with the formation of legal framework to enhance
the trade of plant and plant product. Establishment of National
Plant Protection Organisation, appointment of the quarantine
inspectors, roles, duties and authorities of the inspector are
some of the salient features of the Act .
17. 17. 17. 17. 17. Privatization Act (1994): Privatization Act (1994): Privatization Act (1994): Privatization Act (1994): Privatization Act (1994): The act has been formed to increase
the productivity through the enhancement of efficiency of the
status owned enterprise of the government to mitigate the
forests by managing national forests in the form of government
managed forest, protected forest, community forest, leasehold
forest and religious forest are related with this act. Preparation
of action plan for the management and development of forest
and handing over of forest to user groups or communities for
the conservation, development, use and sale of forest products
is also emphasized by this act.
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. Guthi Sansthan Act (1977): Guthi Sansthan Act (1977): Guthi Sansthan Act (1977): Guthi Sansthan Act (1977): Guthi Sansthan Act (1977): The right to protect and maintain
ancient monuments and heritage is governed by this act. It also
authorizes Guthi Sansthan to administer and maintain records
of guthi land for the proper utilisation of guthi's property such
as land and buildings. Under this act, it needs to exercise
authority in coordination with the Department of the Land
Revenue and Land Reforms
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. Land Act (1964): Land Act (1964): Land Act (1964): Land Act (1964): Land Act (1964): This act (related to ownership and tenancy),
was enacted to implement land reform programmes of the
government. This act focuses on removing stagnant property
and population pressure and use it in other areas of economy so
as to contribute to the economic development of the country. The
act also emphasises to raise the living standards of land
dependent farmers through proper distribution of agricultural
land and easy accessibility of related knowledge and equipments.
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. Land Acquisition Act (1977): Land Acquisition Act (1977): Land Acquisition Act (1977): Land Acquisition Act (1977): Land Acquisition Act (1977): This Act has been developed to
amend and harmonize the law of land acquisition. Laws related
with substitution and acquiring land by giving them
compensation or for temporary use (return to owners after
stipulated time) fall in this act. This act is empowered not only
to acquire land but also building and forest, if necessary.
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. Land Revenue Act (1977): Land Revenue Act (1977): Land Revenue Act (1977): Land Revenue Act (1977): Land Revenue Act (1977): This act aims to increase land
revenue by land registration and management of overall lands
including government, public and others.
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. Local Self-Governance Act (1999): Local Self-Governance Act (1999): Local Self-Governance Act (1999): Local Self-Governance Act (1999): Local Self-Governance Act (1999): The act gives more
autonomy for the development of local bodies by providing
responsibility and power at the local level to formulate and
carry out plans. The Village Development Committees (VDCS),
District Development Committees (DDCs) and the municipalities
enjoy discretionary rights to formulate plans and policies for
their sustainable development. The DDCs formulate, implement,
operate, distribute and maintain projects. Municipalities prepare
annual budgets, plans and programmes on urban planning,
environment, sanitation and others.
11. 11. 11. 11. 11. Industri al Enterpri ses Act (1993): Industri al Enterpri ses Act (1993): Industri al Enterpri ses Act (1993): Industri al Enterpri ses Act (1993): Industri al Enterpri ses Act (1993): This act has been
promulgated to give due consideration to environmental and
pollution problems. It empowers the Ministry of Industries and
Supplies to withhold permission for the establishment of an
industry, which is deemed as likely to have an adverse impacts
on the environment.
12. 12. 12. 12. 12. National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act (1973): National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act (1973): National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act (1973): National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act (1973): National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act (1973): This
act is responsible for the management, protection and
development of the national parks, wildlife reserves, conservation
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financial administrative burden and to conduct economic
development of the country by broadening the participation of
private sector in the operation of private company. This
regulation also recommends the programmes and priorities of
privatization to the government.
18. 18. 18. 18. 18. Soil and Watershed Conservation Act (1982): Soil and Watershed Conservation Act (1982): Soil and Watershed Conservation Act (1982): Soil and Watershed Conservation Act (1982): Soil and Watershed Conservation Act (1982): This act
prioritises to develop, protect and demarcate watershed areas
and to control natural disasters like floods, debris flow and
landslide. Protection of land productivity by developing land
use system (Bhu Upayogita Pranili) and to form national
resource protection system and district soil and watershed
committee fall under this act.
19. 19. 19. 19. 19. Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilisation Act Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilisation Act Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilisation Act Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilisation Act Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilisation Act
(1987): (1987): (1987): (1987): (1987): The act primarily focuses on Kathmandu, Bhaktapur
and Lalitpur municipalities. It authorises to undertake action to
control haphazard waste disposal and to collect service fee.
Likewise, the act has provisions to take various punitive
measures against those engaged in activities detrimental to
the intentions of the act. It lays the foundation to formulate
policies for the implementation of the plan regarding solid waste
management and mobilise resources, provide necessary
training, technical advice and publicity, and to arrange space
for the disposal of solid waste.
20. 20. 20. 20. 20. Land Survey and Measurement Act (1962): Land Survey and Measurement Act (1962): Land Survey and Measurement Act (1962): Land Survey and Measurement Act (1962): Land Survey and Measurement Act (1962): The act aims to
carry out cadastral survey of Nepal to determine land types and
to keep records of land owners. This act has been amended to
incorporate provisions for other types survey like topographical,
geodetic and leveling surveys. It also makes provisions for re-
survey and revision of previously documented data.
21. 21. 21. 21. 21. T TT TTo oo oown De wn De wn De wn De wn Dev vv vvelopmen elopmen elopmen elopmen elopment Act (1988): t Act (1988): t Act (1988): t Act (1988): t Act (1988): The act provides legal basis
for implementing land reforms. It clearly states procedures
and conditions to secure land owner's agreement, government
approval and project implementation. It emphasises on the
mandatory procedures that need to be followed during the
preparation and implementation land reforms. Under it, the
Land Management Sub-Committee (LMSC) has been formed
which represents local land owners, various government line
agencies, CBOs and local NGOs.
22. 22. 22. 22. 22. Water Resources Act (1993): Water Resources Act (1993): Water Resources Act (1993): Water Resources Act (1993): Water Resources Act (1993): This act defines water resources
as the water that is available in Nepal in the form of surface
water, ground water or in whatsoever form. It prohibits other
acts that may pollute water resources and maintain that the
utilisation of resources should be made without causing any
considerable damage to the environment through soil erosion,
floods, landslides or other natural disasters. It also prioritises
water resources according to its utility such as drinking water,
domestic use, irrigation, animal husbandry, hydroelectricity, etc.
Setting of water quality standards and provision of license to use
water resources is governed by this act.
23. 23. 23. 23. 23. National Sanitation Policy (1994): National Sanitation Policy (1994): National Sanitation Policy (1994): National Sanitation Policy (1994): National Sanitation Policy (1994): The policy focuses on
safeguarding water supplies and environmental sanitation for
the protection of environment. It aims at creating awareness
and imparting knowledge on sanitation and hygiene among all
levels of community focusing on womens’ group and children
to bring attitudinal and behavioural changes within the
community. The overall objective is framed in terms of the
sanitation coverage to be achieved and the institutional
arrangements for implementing the same.
24. 24. 24. 24. 24. National Wetlands Policy (2003): National Wetlands Policy (2003): National Wetlands Policy (2003): National Wetlands Policy (2003): National Wetlands Policy (2003): The National Wetlands
Policy aims at conserving and managing wetlands with local
participation. The policy supports to formulate wetland
management plans and other legal and administrative
arrangements for the representation of local people and
organisations in the management committee.
Strategies and plans
1. National Water Resources Strategy (2002): The National
Water Resources Strategy of Nepal was formulated to guide
water sector activities towards sustainability of the resource,
while providing economic growth through water resources
development, hazard mitigation, environment protection and
minimization of water use conflicts (WECS, 2002). The strategy
has identified ten strategic outputs which are categorized into
water security, water use and institutional mechanisms. The
Strategy is based on the concept of Integrated Water Resource
Management(IWRM) as well as management of water resources
at the river basin level.
2. National Water Plan (2005): The National Water Plan of
Nepal has been prepared to operationalize the Water
Resources Strategy. It includes programmes in all strategically
identified outputs so that all these programmes in consonance
with each other , will contribute to maximizing the sustainable
benefits of water use( WECS, 2005). The Plan has set targets
i n i rri gati on, dri nki ng water, hydropower, fi sheri es
development, water- tourism and water-industry for the years
2007, 2017 and 2027.
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The Ganga Action Plan (GAP) was a programme launched by the Government of India in April 1985 in order to reduce the pollution load on
the river Ganga. The programme was launched with much fanfare, but it failed to decrease the pollution level in the river, after spending over
2,000 crore rupees over a period of 15 years. Ganga runs its course of over 2500 km from Gangotri in the Himalayas to Ganga Sagar in the
Bay of Bengal through 52 cities and about 48 towns.
The Department of Environment, in December 1984, prepared an action plan for immediate reduction of pollution load on the river Ganga.
The cabinet approved the GAP in April 1985 as a 100 percent centrally sponsored scheme. The GAP I envisaged to intercept, divert and treat
882 mld (million litres per day) out of 1340 mld of wastewater, generated in 25 class I towns in 3 States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West
Bengal. The National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD) had scheduled the GAP I for completion by March 1990, but extended it
progressively up to March 2000. While the GAP I was still in progress, the Central Ganga Authority decided in February 1991 to take up the
GAP II, covering the following pollution abatement works:
(a) On the tributaries of river Ganga, viz. Yamuna, Damodar and Gomati;
(b) In 25 class I towns left out in Phase I; and
(c) In the other polluting towns along the river.
The failure of the GAP is evident but corrective action is lacking. The plan itself was excellent. Had there been an honest implementation of
GAP, Ganga would have looked different. The enthusiasm waned with the passage of time and GAP became just one of the government
projects. One of the primary reasons for the failure of the GAP is the lack of realistic time-bound plans and commitment.
Source: http://www.ecofriends.org/main/eganga/images as of july 2009.
Box 5: Lessons from Ganga Action Plan
Several legislative arrangements exist to address issues related to land use, building construction standards, solid waste and waste water
management, and conservation of natural resources and cultural heritage. However, the existing arrangements are isolated and the
functions and jurisdictions are not clearly stated. A special Act with all legislative arrangements required in consolidated form should be
promulgated for the efficient implementation of the act. The HPCIDBC’s recently drafted Bagmati Sabhyata Ekikrit Bikash Parishad
(Bagmati Civilization Integrated Development Council) Act could fulfill the present gap.
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This chapter sets the overall vision for restoration and conservation
of the Bagmati river and its tributaries. It has defined goals,
objectives and activities for each zone which are based on the key
issues identified in corresponding zones. Many good initiatives have
been undertaken in the past in reversing the environmental
degradation and restoring the river system in the Kathmandu Valley.
While a few of them have been implemented, many of them have
either not been commenced or have been delayed and discontinued
for several reasons. Many works recommended by those initiatives
can still be implemented with some modifications. This action plan
has given due recognition to the priority activities that have been
recommended by previous interventions.
Actions to be undertaken for managing waste are one of the
most challenging tasks in developing this plan. Conventional
waste water management system recommended by previous
projects is still valid for city core (Zone 4). Therefore, actions
recommended for managing waste water for these areas are
mainly based on the same technology with some modification
in some cases. The action plan has recommended DEWATS as a
new approach to manage waste, especially for Zones 2 and 3.
On-site sanitation is given higher priority at Zones 1 and 5.
Managing waste through managing fecal sludge is given high
priority in some areas. Maps 9 and 10 present the systems
recommended to manage waste water and their service areas
in different parts of the Kathmandu Valley with their
appropriateness.
6.1. Natural Conservation Core Zone
6.1.1. Goal
To maintain and enhance the upstream river ecosystem
6.1.2. Objectives
i. To protect and enhance water resources and increase water
discharge into the river;
ii. To conserve terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity;
iii. To maintain and enhance the river water quality
ACTION PLAN
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VISION
Clean, green and healthy river system that
is full of life and valued by all.
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iv. To renovate and conserve the cultural and heritage sites; and
v. To promote eco-tourism
6.1.3. Activities
Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: Undertake various measures to protect and enhance
water resources and increase water discharge into the river;
i. Develop and implement regulatory mechanisms to minimize
water extraction by KUKL and commercial water vendors;
ii. Protect and manage wetlands in areas such as Phulchowki
and Shivapuri National Park;
iii. Construct embankments in dhap (Shivapuri National Park) to
increase water recharging capacity; and
iv. Implement bioengineering works for recharging rivulets of
ShNP
Activity 2: Activity 2: Activity 2: Activity 2: Activity 2: Undertake various measures to conserve catchment
area and aquatic biodiversity;
i. Carry out afforestation programmes in Shivapuri watershed
and other areas;
ii. Strengthen community forest user groups;
iii. Control deforestation and encroachment of the pubic lands
from grazing, agriculture, construction and other commercial
activities;
iv. Promote sustainable use of renewable energy resources;
v. Prepare and implement landscape plan of riparian land to
maintain green corridor;
vi. Update inventory of existing aquatic as well as terrestrial
resources and protect biodiversity; and
vii. Provide income generating opportunities to local communities
in reducing pressure on forest
Activity 3: Activity 3: Activity 3: Activity 3: Activity 3: To maintain and enhance the river water quality
i. Promote total sanitation (no open defecation), with best
available technologies such as ecosan, bio-gas etc. starting
from Sundarijal to other areas of Zone 1;
ii. Prevent disposal of solid waste in and around water bodies;
iii. Prevent pollution of river system from excessive use of agro-
chemicals; and encourage organic farming
iv. Establish systems for regular monitoring of river water quality
twice a year at eight locations
Activity 4: Activity 4: Activity 4: Activity 4: Activity 4: To renovate and conserve the cultural and heritage
sites
i. Prepare restoration plans of existing culture and heritage sites
and associated cultural activities; and
ii. Renovate and conserve temples such as Shivadev Basaha,
Buddha sculpture and ghats in Sundarijal
Activity 5: Activity 5: Activity 5: Activity 5: Activity 5: To promote tourism
i. Develop and enforce code of conduct;
ii. Diversify eco-tourism products such as adventure sports, bird
watching, sight seeing, etc.; and
iii. Designate trekking routes and develop tourism infrastructure
along the routes.
6.2. Rural Zone
6.2.1. Goal
To restore the river ecosystem through sustainable development
approach
6.2.2. Objectives
i. To enhance water flow in the river;
ii. To prevent discharge of waste water and solid waste into rivers;
iii. To conserve biodiversity and riparian landscape;
iv. To conserve and promote culture and heritage;
v. To promote sustainable agricultural practices; and
vi. To regulate urban growth and industrial activities
6.2.3. Activities
Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: Undertake various measures to enhance water flow in
the river
i. Promote rain water harvesting at household and community
level by constructing soak pits or through existing wells;
ii. Rehabilitate 17 existing ponds (Chapagaun 6, Chhampi 1, Sankhu
5, Balambu 1, Dadhikot 1 and Tokha 3) to recharge groundwater
through rainwater harvesting;
iii. Minimize water extraction with the support of local community;
and
iv. Develop and implement land use plan to regulate urban growth
and industrial activities
Activity 2: Activity 2: Activity 2: Activity 2: Activity 2: To prevent discharge of waste water and solid waste
into rivers
i. Promote on-site sanitation with best available technologies
such as ecosan, bio-gas, safety tank etc.
ii. Construct community managed DEWATS demonstration site in
Sankhu; and
iii. Promote DEWATS in institutions such as army and police barracks,
government offices, schools, colleges, housing colonies,
monasteries and industries.
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Activity 3: Activity 3: Activity 3: Activity 3: Activity 3: To conserve aquatic biodiversity and riparian landscape
i. Prepare and implement landscape plan of riparian land to
maintain green corridor;
ii. Carry out river bed restoration works such as check dams at
Sundarijal—Alapot Area, Changunarayan and Tokha;
iii. Carry out bank protection works using bioengineering (61 km
based on survey);
iv. Introduce fish ladder at Gokarna barrage;
v. Construct access roads/foot trails along both the banks of the
river
vi. Establish a system for regular monitoring of river water quality
twice a year at 17 locations; and
vii. Create awareness by forming eco-clubs
Activity 4: Activity 4: Activity 4: Activity 4: Activity 4: To renovate and conserve the cultural and heritage sites
i. Prepare an inventory of existing heritage sites in the zone;
ii. Prepare restoration plans of important heritage sites and
associated cultural activities; and
iii. Conserve and restore deteriorated temples (Tokha Chandeshwari
and Gokarna Mahadev)
Activity 5: Activity 5: Activity 5: Activity 5: Activity 5: Promote sustainable agricultural practices
i. Promote organic farming
ii. Promote scientific drainage system in order to reduce soil
erosion from the field
iii. Discourage use of pesticides and chemical fertilizer
iv. Introduce an integrated pest management system
v. Encourage to recycle crop wastage and use livestocks manure
Activity 6: Activity 6: Activity 6: Activity 6: Activity 6: Regulate urban growth and industrial activities
i. Prepare and implement land use plan
ii. Discourage water polluting and water consuming industries
iii. Ensure IEE/EIA studies for industries and other construction
activities in and around the river
6.3 Peri Urban Zone
6.3.1. Goal
To restore the river ecosystem through effective management of
urban growth
6.3.2. Objectives
i. To improve river water quality and quantity through proper
management of water and waste water;
ii. To protect river side land, aquatic biodiversity and aesthetic
value of rivers and its surroundings;
iii. To control and relocate squatter settlements from the river
banks; and
iv. To conserve and regenerate culture and heritage
6.3.3. Activities
Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: To improve river water quality and quantity through
proper management of water and waste water
i. Promote rain water harvesting at household and community
levels by constructing soak pits or through existing wells;
ii. Rehabilitate13 existing ponds (Thecho 3, Chapagaon 5,
Dhapakhel 1, Jharuwarasi 1 and Sunakothi 3) to recharge
groundwater through rainwater harvesting;
iii. Promote onsite sanitation at household and community levels
through measures such as septic tanks, fecals sludge
management and other appropriate technologies;
iv. Construct community managed DEWATS at various locations
such as Phutung, Sangla, Katunje and Satungal;
v. Promote DEWATS in institutions; such as army and police
barrages, government offices, schools, colleges, housing
colonies, monasteries and industries
vi. Construct intercepting sewerage system along both the banks
of the rivers; and
vii. Promote household and community level waste management
system
viii. Construct septage treatment plants for faecal sludge
management at locations such as Bhaktapur, Kirtipur, Harisiddhi
and Bungamati
Activity 2: Activity 2: Activity 2: Activity 2: Activity 2: Undertake various measures to protect rvierside lands,
aquatic biodiversity and aesthetic values of rivers and its
surroundings
i. Introduce fish ladder underneath the Seshmati Khola bridge of
Dharmasthali VDC;
ii. Prepare and implement landscape of riparian land to maintain
green corridor;
iii. Carry out bank protection works (80 km) using bioengineering
technique;
iv. Construct access roads/foot trails along both the banks of
the rivers; and
v. Establish a system for regular monitoring of river water quality
at 12 locations
Activity 3: Activity 3: Activity 3: Activity 3: Activity 3: Control and relocate squatter settlements from the
river banks
i. Verification and relocation of all squatters from the river banks
ii. Control the encroachment of the river banks by squatters
Activity 4: Activity 4: Activity 4: Activity 4: Activity 4: Conserve and regenerate cultural and heritage sites
i. Prepare an inventory of existing heritage sites;
ii. Prepare restoration plans of important heritage sites and
associated cultural activities; and
iii. Conserve and restore deteriorated religious sites such as
Mahalaxmi and Bishnudevi temples
6.4. Urban Zone
6.4.1. Goal
To upgrade the river ecosystem, conserve and regenerate tangible
and intangible heritage linked with the rivers
6.4.2. Objectives
i. To improve river water quantity and quality through proper
38
management of water and waste water;
ii. To improve the riparian landscape;
iii. To control and relocate squatter settlements from the river
banks;
iv. To renovate and conserve the cultural and heritage sites; and
v. To promote tourism
6.4.3. Activities
Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: To improve river water quantity and quality through
proper management of water and waste water.
i. Promote rain water harvesting at household level by
constructing soak pits or through existing wells;
ii. Rehabilitate 32 existing ponds (Lalitpur 7, Kathmandu 7, Thimi
7, Bhaktapur 6 and Kirtipur 5) for rainwater harvesting to
recharge groundwater;
iii. Rehabilitate Kodku WWTP at Balkumari to cater to waste water
from core Lalitpur area and Baneshwar based on FSDED (2003);
iv. Rehabilitate Hanumante WWTP ;
v. Construct additional WWTP at Guheshwari and upgrade the
existing WWTPs;
vi. Construct septage treatment plant at HPCIDBC, Guheshwari,
for fecal sludge management;
vii. Construct DEWATS at Hanumante and Manahara confluence;
viii. Rehabilitate Sallaghari WWTP;
ix. Rehabilitate and expand Dhobighat WWTP based on UN-Habitat
(2008);
x. Construct DEWATS at Thimi and Kirtipur municipalities;
xi. Promote DEWATS at institutional levels such as army and police
barrack, government offices, schools, colleges, housing colonies,
monasteries and industries;
xii. Construct, repair and manage intercepting sewerage system
along both the banks of the rivers
Construct waste water treatment plants with best available
technology at two sites of Bagmati river and one site each of
Bishnumati and Dhobikhola as demonstration plants
xiii. Promote on-site sanitation at household and community levels
through measures such as septic tanks;
xiv. Establish fecal sludge management systems; and
xv. Establish a system for regular monitoring of river water quality
twice a year at 20 locations
Take measures to protect river side land, aquatic
biodiversity and aesthetic value of rivers and their surroundings
i. Prepare and implement landscape of riparian land to maintain
green corridor;
ii. Carry out bank protection works (70 km) using bioengineering
technique;
iii. Construct access roads/foot trails along both the banks of
the rivers ensuring conservation of existing ghats and
heritage sites;
Initiate plantation at riparian land at Sankhamul, Pachali Bhairab,
confluence of Bagmati—Bishnumati and Sundarighat; and
Construct municipal composting plants targeted to Kalimati
vegetable market and Teku fruit market
Control and relocate squatter settlements from the
river banks
i. Verify and relocate the squatters from the river banks;
ii. Control encroachment of the river banks by squatter and others
Maintain and renovate heritage sites
i. Update the inventory of existing heritage sites;
ii. Prepare restoration plans of important heritage sites and
associated cultural activities; and
iii. Conserve and regenerate deteriorated temples (Bombir
Bikateshwar, Bishnu Bikranta, Bhim Mukteshwar, Laxmiswar) and
sattals and ghats in Sankhamul, Teku, Dallu and Shobha Bhagwati.
iv. Propare the inventory of intangible heritage
To promote tourism
i. Rehabilitate public space along Teku—Thapathali stretch as
recommended by the Teku Thapathali Research Group (1994)
and promote the area for tourism development
6.5. Downstream Zone
6.5.1. Goal
To restore healthy river ecosystem with the capacity for self-
purification
6.5.2. Objectives
To improve river water quantity and quality through proper
management of water and waste water;
ii. To improve the self-purification process of the river;
iii. To enhance riparian landscape for the conservation of terrestrial
habitat; and
iv. To conserve the cultural and heritage sites
v. To promote eco-tourism
ECO-SAN
Ecological sanitation, also known as ecosan or eco-san, is a new
sanitation system that recognizes human excreta and household
wastewater not as waste but as resources which needs to be
recovered, treated and reused, usually for agricultural purposes.
Ecosan systems enable the recovery of nutrients from human
faeces and urine for the benefit of agriculture, thus helping to
preserve soil fertility, assure food security for future generations,
minimize water pollution and recover bio-energy.
Various NGOs and government organizations such as ENPHO, D-
Net, Lumanti , CI UD, DWSS are worki ng i n desi gni ng and
constructing the ecosan toilets in Kathmandu Valley and exploring
for its potential use in Terai region. Till date, more than 500 ecosan
toilets have been designed and constructed in Nepal of which
93% are in the Kathmandu valley mainly in Khokana, Siddhipur,
Lubhu, Gundu which have become “Model Village for Ecosan”.
Beside Kathmandu Valley, the Ecosan toilets are being used in
Parsa, Gorkha, Makawanpur, and Surkhet. Majority of the users of
Ecosan toilets in Nepal are farmers (WAN, 2008).
39
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6.5.3. Activities
Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: To improve river water quantity and quality through
proper management of water and waste water
i. Promote on-site sanitation including ecosan;
ii. Construct DEWATS at Sainbu;
iii. Promote DEWATS at institutional levels such as army and police
barracks, government offices, schools, colleges, housing
colonies, monasteries and industries;
iv. Rehabilitate existing ponds (Khokana 2 and Bungmati 5) for
rainwater harvesting to recharge ground water;
v. Construct intercepting sewerage system at certain areas; and
Activity 2: Activity 2: Activity 2: Activity 2: Activity 2:
i. Design and implement weirs in the river bed to facilitate
aeration; and
ii. Construct floating waste collection ponds downstream of
Chobhar gorge
Activity 3: Activity 3: Activity 3: Activity 3: Activity 3:
i. Prepare and implement landscape plan of riparian land to
maintain green corridor;
ii. Carry out bank protection measures (70 km) using
bioengineering technique; and
iii. Construct access roads/foot trails along both the banks of the
river
Activity 4: Activity 4: Activity 4: Activity 4: Activity 4:
i. Prepare an inventory of existing heritage sites;
ii. Prepare restoration plans of existing heritage sites and
associated cultural activities; and
iii. Conserve and regenerate temples in Jal Binayak and Katuwal daha
Activity 5: Activity 5: Activity 5: Activity 5: Activity 5:
i. Construct trails for bird watching;
ii. Develop and promote the area for recreation; and
iii. Construct picnic spots
6.6. Cross-cutting activities
Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1: Activity 1:
Activity 2: Activity 2: Activity 2: Activity 2: Activity 2:
Activity 3: Activity 3: Activity 3: Activity 3: Activity 3:
Activity 4: Activity 4: Activity 4: Activity 4: Activity 4:
Activity 5: Activity 5: Activity 5: Activity 5: Activity 5:
Activity 6: Activity 6: Activity 6: Activity 6: Activity 6:
Activity 7: Activity 7: Activity 7: Activity 7: Activity 7:
Activity 8: Activity 8: Activity 8: Activity 8: Activity 8:
Activity 9: Activity 9: Activity 9: Activity 9: Activity 9:
Activity 10: Activity 10: Activity 10: Activity 10: Activity 10:
Activity 11: Activity 11: Activity 11: Activity 11: Activity 11:
Activity 12: Activity 12: Activity 12: Activity 12: Activity 12:
Activity 13: Activity 13: Activity 13: Activity 13: Activity 13:
Activity 14: Activity 14: Activity 14: Activity 14: Activity 14:
Activity 15: Activity 15: Activity 15: Activity 15: Activity 15:
Activity 16: Activity 16: Activity 16: Activity 16: Activity 16:
Activity 17: Activity 17: Activity 17: Activity 17: Activity 17:
Activity 18: Activity 18: Activity 18: Activity 18: Activity 18:
Activity 19: Activity 19: Activity 19: Activity 19: Activity 19: guthi
Activity 20: Activity 20: Activity 20: Activity 20: Activity 20:
40
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The Bagmati Action Plan is a holistic and integrated plan to restore,
enhance and manage the Bagmati river and its tributaries with
different agencies involved in the promotion of various components.
There are different governmental, non-governmental and civil society
organisations, and other stakeholders working in different zones.
They must be involved in an integrated and coordinated fashion both
during planning and implementation of activities. A strong mechanism
to establish coordination among these institutions has to be developed
for efficient and sustainable management of the Bagmati river.
7.1. Establish HPCIDBC as a key
coordinating and leading agency
An institution with strong legislative power to control and regulate
activities in the rivers of the Kathmandu Valley must own and
implement this plan. The plan envisages the HPCIDBC as the most
appropriate institution for planning, policy and decision-making
and also for controlling and regulating activities in the Bagmati
river and its tributaries. HPCIDBC should also be responsible for
monitoring activities taking place in and around the Bagmati river
and its tributaries. However, strengthening of HPCIDBC is important
to achieve this priority. The plan recommends to reform the existing
organisational structure of HPCIDBC to address the issues and
activities highlighted in the plan.
All the stakeholders and partners must take permission for any
activity to be carried out in and around the Bagmati river and its
tributaries aimed at maintaining consistency and avoiding
duplication of the activities, and to bring all the stakeholders
under one umbrella.
7.2. Partner agencies and their role
Roles of different agencies working for the improvement of
rivers in the Kathmandu Valley have to be clearly specified to
avoid conflict and duplication of work and optimise resources.
Agencies identified as potential stakeholders and their roles for
implementation of the action plan are discussed below:
7.2.1. User committees and community-based
institutions
Several user committees and clubs are working for the
improvement of the environmental status of the rivers at the
IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY AND
MONITORING PLAN
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The entrance of the UN Park located at Jwagal, Lalitpur.
community level (Annex VIII). Many good initiatives have been
undertaken by these communities which can be replicated in
different parts of the rivers. They include: creating awareness about
the importance of the river environment to the communities along
the river banks; conserving culture and heritage; promoting eco-
friendly practices such as river side plantation, rain water harvesting
and clean-up campaigns.
7.2.2. Municipalities and Village Development
Committees (VDCs)
The Local Self-Governance Act has identified the responsibilities
and functions of municipalities and Village Development
Committees (VDCs). Solid waste and waste water management in
VDCs/municipalities are some of the key responsibilities of local
government which have greater impacts on the river environment.
They should be responsible for effectively implementing laws,
bylaws and codes that could help conserve and restore the river
ecosystem of the Kathmandu Valley.
7.2.3. District Development Committees (DDCs)
The District Development Committees (DDCs) can play important
role in the successful implementation of the action plan. Many
legislative powers and activities discharged by DDCs can be integrated
which will help to address some of the activities identified by the
action plan. Reference to the resources allocated by the districts for
river bank restoration and river training works in DDC budget (2008)
are some of the examples of possible integration of activities related
to the restoration of the Bagmati river.
7.2.4. NGOs and Private Sector
The Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and private sector
can play significant role on awareness and clean-up campaigns,
community-based waste management, river side plantation and
protection, culture and heritage, and management of parks and
other public utilities along the river banks.
7.2.5. Shivapuri National Park (ShNP)
The role of the Shivapuri National Park should be to implement
activities identified by the action plan within its working area.
These activities are primarily related to water discharge increment,
protecting and maintaining biodiversity, managing waste produced
by tourists and picnikers and settlements inside the national park.
7.2.6. Kathmandu Valley Water Supply
Managerment Board
Kathmandu Valley Water Supply Management Board (KVWSMB) is
a public statuary entity, establishement under an Act, Water Supply
Management Board Act 2064. KVWSMB is responsible for developing
and overseeing service policies, and providing license to service
providers for the operation and management of water supply
system in Kathmandu Valley. It is responsible for providing sanitation
facilities and keeping pollution free rivers in the Kathmandu Valley.
Some of the other key responsibilities are preparing policy for the
use of ground water, regulating ground water extraction/issue
license and developing policies for water supply management.
7.2.7. Department of Water Supply and
Sewerage (DWSS)
The Department of Water Supply and Sewerage (DWSS) under
Ministry of Physical Planning and Works of the Government of
Nepal was established in 1972. This is the responsible government
agency for the drinking water supply and sanitation sector of Nepal.
It is working towards achieving the sector objective of Government
of Nepal to achieve government's goal of providing all the Nepalese
people access to drinking water supply and sanitation facilities by
the year 2017.
7.2.8. UN Park Development Committee
The United Nations, in collaboration with the Government of Nepal,
has developed a park along the Bagmati river from Sankhamul to Teku
to halt further degradation of the Bagmati river ecosystem. River
protection works, tree plantation, construction of tracks and trail road,
fencing and construction of jogging trails at Jwagal are some the major
development activities implemented by the UN Park Development
Committee and supported by Bird Conservation Nepal (BCN).
7.2.9. Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited
(KUKL)
The Kathmandu Upatkya Khanepani Limited (KUKL) should follow
the norms and regulations for using water from rivers and ground
water so that the impact of the use of such natural resources is
minimal in the river ecosystem. The KUKL should also manage
sewerage network and ensure that the waste water discharge into
the river should meet the national quality standards. It should also
develop, operate and maintain major waste water treatment
systems within the Kathmandu Valley.
43
7.3. Government line agencies
Many activities that help in protecting river ecosystem have already
been initiated in different ways by different government line agencies.
Some of the key government agencies working for the restoration of
Bagmati river system include: Ministry of Physical Planning and
Works, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, Ministry of
Forests and Soil Conservation, Ministry of Local Development,
Department of Urban Development and Building Construction,
Department of Water Supply and Sewerage,Department of Roads,
Kathmandu Valley Town Development Committee, Solid Waste
Management and Resource Mobilisation Centre, Department of Land
Survey-Cadastral Survey and Registration, Department of Land
Revenue, Department of Archaeology, Guthi Sansthan, Water and
Energy Commission Secretariat, Shivapuri National Park and the
Department of Water Induced Disaster and Preparedness. These
agencies should implement all their concerned activities as identified
by the action plan.
7.4. National Trust for Nature
Conservation
National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC), previously known
as King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation, is an NGO
established in 1982 by the legislative act as an autonomous, non-
profit and non-government organisation, mandated to work in the
field of natural resource conservation and environment protection
in Nepal. The Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP) is one
of its most successful projects.
The NTNC has recently started Bagmati Conservation Project for
the conservation and protection of rivers of the Kathmandu
Valley. The NTNC can play an important role to influence
stakeholders and help HPCIDBC in coordinating with partner
agencies for the effective implementation of the action plan,
monitoring, evaluate impacts and provide feedbacks of its
findings to the concerned line agencies and stakeholders.
Additionally, it can also play an important role in mainstreaming
environmental issues of rivers of the Kathmandu Valley during
the planning process. One of the major strengths of NTNC is to
garner national and international support and recognition for
the implementation of the plan and generating financial and
human resources, as required.
7.5. Monitoring plan
The plan has emphasised a monitoring system for the proposed
activities once these are implemented. Regular monitoring is
required from the concerned authorities and similarly
feedbacks to the implementers. Besides regular monitoring, a
participatory or joint monitoring system is required where
representatives from concerned stakeholders participate and
monitor the programme. For this, activity-wise indicators are
given in Chapter 8. In order to make it flexible, the plan has
not provided the procedures and monitoring plan. The plan
feels that the proposed monitors should prepare their own
action plan and procedures. However, for effective monitoring
commi tment from the authori ti es and the concerned
stakeholders is a pre-requisite.
ƒ HPCIDBC act should be in place before the implementation of the plan;
ƒ The Nepal Government should govern the Bagmati Action Plan;
ƒ Government and concerned organisations should incorporate the proposed activities in their respective work plans;
ƒ Roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders should be clearly defined and owned by them; and
ƒ Coordination and collaboration with local government agencies and private sector is a must.
ƒ Political commitment to achieve goal is a must.
Preconditions for successful implementation of BAP
44
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8.1. Current government budget
Several responsible agencies exist to address environmental issues
related to the Bagmati river system. Based on the consultation
with major stakeholders and review of the current fiscal year
budget, a detailed analysis was carried out to estimate the
allocation of the government budget in addressing the issues of
the Bagmati river and its tributaries. The government has allocated
a total sum of Rs. 694.24 million for the fiscal year 2008/09. This
amount includes the budget of four municipalities (Kathmandu,
Kirtipur, Bhaktapur, and Madhyapur Thimi), Ministry of Forests and
Soil Conservation, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology,
Department of Water Induced Disaster and Preparedness, Solid
Waste Management and Resource Mobilisation Centre, BASP,
Pashupati Area Development Trust, UN Park Development
Committee and Shivapuri National Park. In addition, the Japan
International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has committed to provide
financial assistance of Rs.1,500 million in 2009 for landfill site
development, and BASP is receiving 0.5% of the land revenue
which comes to the tune of Rs. 550 million for 2009. If these amounts
are included in the total budget for 2008/09, it would be Rs. 1,394.24
million.
BUDGET PLAN
8
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Waste water
management
52%
Solid waste
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Riparian land
management
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Other
1%
Fig 8.1: Sectoral allocation of budget for 2008—2009
Major sectors allocated for current expenditure are waste water
management (52%), solid waste management (36%), riparian land
management (10.8%), community forest conservation (0.8%), culture
and heritage (0.3%), and rain water harvesting (0.1%) (Figure 8.1).
Primary activities under waste water management are the construction
and maintenance of sewerage and slaughter house, biogas and
treatment plants. Landfill sites, transfer stations, recycling, composting,
52
0
20
40
60
80
1 2 3 4 5
incinerator, community mobilisation, training and capacity building
are other major activities under solid waste management.
8.2. Proposed budget plan
Budget has been calculated considering all possible fixed and
variable costs. The projected budget also addresses the issues
related to empirical information, ground-based realities, population
projection, and inflation rate. In some cases, the budget has been
estimated either on the basis of the cost mentioned by past projects
or based on the prevailing rates. In case of the activity which is
completely based on the recommendation made by previous
projects such as WWTP designed by FSDED (2003), the cost estimated
by the project is taken as reference. The estimated cost is adjusted
with inflation rate and some modification is required in the design.
The current market rate has also been taken into consideration.
The cost of DEWATS and fecal sludge management involves complex
calculation which is based on the population projected for specific
area suitable for DEWATS up to 1958.
The population of specific area required for DEWATS was estimated
using the population density of VDC/municipality and rural growth
rate (1.71%). Huge amount has been allocated for DEWATS and
squatter settlement mainly due to high cost for land acquisition.
This cost may be significantly lower if the land is available free of
cost from other sources. Details of cost estimation of each activity
are not presented and budget has not incorporated the contribution
required from public and private entities.
Usually, action plan and budget is projected for a longer period.
However, the budget for this plan has been projected only for five
years because of the changing political context of Nepal. Considering
this fact, activities and budgets have been planned accordingly.
Budget has been predicted in such a way that there is room for
predicting the budget to longer period after five years.
The required total estimated budget for five years is Rs 14,165
million (Table 8.1). Of the total budget, the huge amount (26.21%)
has been allocated for the second year and then third year (21.80%)
as most of the works have to be carried out in these years. Similarly
20.19% of budget is allocated for first year, 18.14% for fourth year
and 13.63% for final year (Figure 8.2).
Among the total, Zone 4 requires the maximum budget because
this zone covers municipalities where major activities have been
proposed. Similarly, Zone 1 requires less budget compared to other
zones (Fig. 8.3). Although this is the area where more inputs are
required to conserve river sources through wise management of
biodiversity and vegetation, more outputs are expected through
less but appropriate inputs.
The allocation of resources for Zone 3 and Zone 4 is comparatively
higher each year. The cross classification of total budget for five
years by the action plan is shown in Fig. 8.4. The detailed budgets
are presented in the following Table 8.2 up to Table 8.7.
Figure 8.2. Five years budget distribution
Figure 8.3. Budget allocated in different zones
Rapid growth of settlements in peri-urban zone.
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11.25%
Cross Cutting
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Zone 5
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Zone 1
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Zone 2
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Zone 3
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Zone 4
53
Table 8.1. Five years budget for BAP
YEARS
Budget Plan YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 YEAR 5 TOTAL
Cross Cutting 349,720,000 369,350,000 321,940,000 306,210,000 302,280,000 1,649,500,000
Zone 1 53,380,000 55,330,000 50,230,000 31,930,000 28,930,000 219,800,000
Zone 2 89,450,000 235,790,000 217,410,000 213,920,000 212,130,000 968,700,000
Zone 3 766,250,000 818,470,000 644,020,000 694,060,000 476,100,000 3,398,900,000
Zone 4 1,377,357,600 1,994,437,600 1,590,777,600 1,162,137,600 829,777,600 6,954,488,000
Zone 5 269,687,000 385,822,500 463,642,750 460,258,500 257,874,250 1,837,285,000
Total 2,905,844,600 3,859,200,100 3,288,020,350 2,868,516,100 2,107,091,850 15,028,673,000
54
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73
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49. -= ¤==- = -+ -–=·-= -- =«
50. ¤·=- =-=- = ··- = ¤ + ¤¡ - , - -·= - =,- += ¤- +- =·+= = +=·: =-, 2059
51. -¤-= --=a ·=- -==-=, -··- -¤ -¤-= -+= =¤ + + ·=- -==-=, -··- ¤i . +i et+it +i- -, -ºiº
+¤i e e-iº ·º4-¤i ¤-xi=º +i- - l++i+ ·º4-¤i el¤l+
52. == -¤ == ==¤·+ | -–-== =z = - -~·- --, ·---, += = =--¤ = ·=·+· -+-+- |-= ¤ -++-·== -
= =·-, ez +=-e-+i-- 4i +i= le4i+i -i …l«-+- t+- =ºziti
53. | - = = - = = ·+=-- |+ =+- (Comment on Acts with Precedent), -i:-- +i(i- t ¤ ·r + t4i + +in-
54. + + -+ = -==+·==¤·+ | -–-== =z = -, ez +=-e-+i-- 4i +i= le4i+i -i …l«-+- t+- =ºziti
55. - += | - =z = - ¤-: · + -·-·, ¤i . +i et+it +i- -, -ºiº +¤i e e-iº ·º4-¤i ¤-xi=º +i- - l++i+ ·º4-¤i el¤l+
56. - += | - =z = - + ·+ ¤:, -·- +, - +i= et+it +i- -, -ºiº +¤i e e-iº ·º4-¤i ¤-xi=º +i- - l++i+ ·º4-¤i el¤l+
57. - += | - =z = - ¤-: = ¤, -«.-, ¤i . +i et+it +i- -, -ºiº +¤i e e-iº ·º4-¤i ¤-xi=º +i- - l++i+ ·º4-¤i el¤l+
58. - += | - =z = - ¤-: = + -·--, ¤i . +i et+it +i- -, -ºiº +¤i e e-iº ·º4-¤i ¤-xi=º +i- - l++i+ ·º4-¤i el¤l+
59. - += | - =z = - + ·+ ¤-:, -·-¯ ¤, - +i= et+it +i- - -ºiº +¤i e e-iº ·º4-¤i ¤-xi=º +i- - l++i+ ·º4-¤i el¤l+
60. - += | - = = - ¤-: · ¤ -·-- ¤i . +i et+it +i- -, -ºiº +¤i e e-iº ·º4-¤i ¤-xi=º +i- - l++i+ ·º4-¤i el¤l+
61. - += | - = = - ¤-: · + -·--, ¤i . +i et+it +i- -, -ºiº +¤i e e-iº ·º4-¤i ¤-xi=º +i- - l++i+ ·º4-¤i el¤l+
62. - += | - = = - ¤-: · -·-·, ¤i . +i et+it +i- -, -ºiº +¤i e e-iº ·º4-¤i ¤-xi=º +i- - l++i+ ·º4-¤i el¤l+
63. ---·- +- -+ ·+· ¤, l4-i -+ ei- n¤i
74
Models reviewed
ƒ Yamuna Action Plan
ƒ Ganga Action Plan
ƒ Hood River Watershed Management Plan
ƒ Sammamish River Action Plan
ƒ Manistique River Management Plan
ƒ Yarra water shed management, Melbourne
ƒ Fraser River Action Plan
ƒ Carbunup River Action Plan
ƒ River front Development Master plan, City of Fargo
ƒ Om River Action Plan, Hungary
ƒ Mekong River Basin, AUSAID
ƒ Danube river basin, strategic action plan
ƒ Rhine river action plan
ƒ The Fu and Nan Rivers project, Chengdu, China
64. Functional indicators of river ecosystem health –an interim guide for use in New Zealand by Ministry for the Environment - Sustainable
Management Fund Contract 2208
65. Measuring River ecosystem health in Western Massachusetts-The Mill River by Instream Habitat Program,Department of Natural
Resources, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
And Massachusetts Cooperative Extension, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA
66. How to know the freshwater algae, Third Edition, G.W. Prescott, University of Montana, The Pictured Key Nature Series
67. Water harvesting Presents Great Potential for Increasing Agricultural and Fodder Crop
68. Production in Baluchistan by Syed Ghulam Muhammad
69. Urban Water Problem in Asian Big Cities Nepal.
70. Wastewater as a controversial, contaminated yet coveted resource in south Asia
71. Population pressure and land resources in Nepal: a revisit, twenty years later
72. Rural water supply and water quality status in Nepal
73. Surface Water Pollution in Three Urban Territories of Nepal, India, and Bangladesh
74. Integrated Development and Management of Water resources for productive and Equitable use in the Indrawati River Basin, Nepal,
Bhattarai, M. et. al.
75. Integrated catchment management in an urban context the great and little lotus rivers, cape town report no. 846/1/01
76. Project Report on “An Approach for Bagmati River Water Pollution Control”
75
Stakeholders working in the field of Bagmati conservation
Annex 1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
S.N. Name Address/contact person Key functions/activities
Bagmati Sarokar Samiti
Bagmati Sewa Samiti
Bishnumati Sarokar Samiti
Centre for Integrated Urban
Development (CIUD)
Damaichaghat Puspalal Tole
Sudhar Samiti
Development Centre (DC)
Nepal
Didi Bahini
Environmental Camps for
Conservation Awareness
(ECCA)
Environment and Public Health
Organisation (ENPHO)
Friends of Bagmati
Forum for Protection of Public
Interest (ProPublic)
27 local committees are formed
along the Bagmati river from
Sundarijal to Chobhar (each in one
kilometre)
Sankhamul, Lalitpur
Tamsipakha, Ward No. 18,
Kathmandu
Gusingal, Lalitpur
Ward No. 19, Kathmandu
Aditi Marg, Tinkune, Kathmandu
Anamnagar, Kathmandu
Jwagal, Lalitpur
Adarsha Marg, Baneshwor,
Kathmandu
Hotel Dwarika’s
Gautam Buddha Marg,
Anamnagar
Mobilise community level activities to conserve the
river and lobby for improvement of the Bagmati river
Involved in conserving the heritage sites along
Bagmati, particularly in Sankhamul area and
providing service to people who come to the ghats
Recently formed to coordinate activities along the
Bishnumati river. Clean-up campaigns from Balaju
to Teku Dovan
Involved in supporting urban planning and
community-based water and sanitation
programmes. Recently prepared a wastewater
management plan for Madhyapur Thimi
Municipality
Clean-up campaigns and tree plantation along the
Bishnumati River
Promoting ecological sanitation and solid waste
management in Mulpani, Gokarna, Bungamati and
Badikhel
Involved in a small Water and Sanitation project in
wards 7 and 8 (Dalit Basti) of Alapot VDC, funded
by Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Fund Board
Recently implemented KAPRIMO project with
support from EU. The project included:
y Legal analysis and recommendation concerning
environmental regulations/responsibilities
y River monitoring and GIS training
y Implementation of the river monitoring system in
two segments
y Awareness raising activities
y Create and develop a network and information
system on river quality
Monitoring river water quality
Community based sanitation in peri urban
communities
Training on household composting and solid waste
management
Promotion of decentralized waste water
management
Developing a project together with BORDA for
decentralized sanitation
Signed an agreement with BASP to manage 1 km
stretch of Bagmati below Jorpati bridge
Awareness raising programmes
Involved in promoting environmental justice and
Public Interest Litigation. Have filed the following
legal cases related to Bagmati:
y Cases against solid waste dumping along
Bagmati (Guheshwari, Gokarna and Balkhu)
y Case against construction of 20 metre road
along the Bagmati river without preserving
archaeological monuments
y Case against decision to construction of UN
Park in the Bagmati river bed
76
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
SN Name Address/contact person Key functions/activities
Indrabinayak Club
Kathmandu Environmental
Education Project (KEEP)
Kathmandu Tole Sudhar Samaj
Khadgi Sewa Samaj
Lions Club of Pashupatinath
Lumanti
Narayan Pariwar Club
National Trust for Nature
Conservation (NTNC)
Nepal Basobas Basti
Samrakchhan Samaj
Nepal Mahila Ekta Samaj
Nepal Pollution Control and
Environment Management
Centre (NEPCEMAC)
Nepal River Conservation Trust
(NRCT)
Nepal Forum for Environmental
Journalists (NEFEJ)
NGO Forum for Urban Water
and Sanitation
Nodan Club
Rotary Club of Yala
Sagarmatha Environment
Development Centre (SEDC)
Ina Tole, Kathmandu
Thamel, Kathmandu
Ward No. 19, Kathmandu
Indrasabha Tole, kathmandu
Tahachal, Kathmandu
Wande
Ward No. 12, Kathmandu
Jawalakhel, Lalitpur
Sankhamul, Kathmandu
Ekantakuna, Lalitpur
Thamel, Kathmandu
Thapathali, Kathmandu
Tripureshwor, Kathmandu
Basantapur, Kathmandu
Mangal Bazar, Lalitpur
Ratopul, kathmandu
Clean-up campaigns and tree plantation along the
Bishnumati river
Involved in occasional education and clean up
campaigns
Clean-up campaigns
Recently constructed a large bio-gas plant, with
support from World Vision and Kathmandu
Metropolitan City, along the Bishnumati river to
process waste from slaughtering activities
Lobbying for environmental improvement in
Pashupati area and establishment of a
crematorium at Aryaghat
Working with slum and squatter communities,
many of which are located along the Bagmati,
Bishnumati and Manahara rivers
Involved in mobilising local youths for the
conservation of Bishnumati river
Involved in preparing Bagmati Action Plan and pilot
projects for conservation of Bagmati
Advocacy for welfare of squatter communities
Advocacy for welfare of squatter communities,
particularly women
Collecting waste from about 12,000 households.
Operating small scale compost plants in Ward 5
Kathmandu and Central Zoo
Involved in promoting household composting and
vermi-composting, as well as regular clean-up
campaigns
Organised the annual Bagmati River Festival since
2001; festival activities include clean-up
campaigns; sporting events (Dunga Daud, Bagmati
Eco-Challenge); exhibitions, heritage walks, music
concerts, award ceremony, etc.
Environmental programmes on Radio Sagarmatha
Aankhi Jhyaal Television Programme
Hakahaki Magazine
Regular interaction programmes for journalists
Involved in lobbying for urban water and sanitation
issues
Organises cultural tours for youth as well as clean
up campaigns
Contributing towards the conservation of
Shankhamul ghat
Collecting waste from households; operating a
small compost plant along the Dhobikhola river at
Ratopul
77
List of community consultations
1. Badikhel: Kodku khola
2. Balkhu: Balkhu river
3. Bungmati, Lalitpur: Nakkhu river
4. Chapagaun: Nakkhu river
5. Chhampi Madhyamik Vidhyalaya, Chhampi
6. Chilaune Gaun, Sundarijal:Bagmati river
7. Ghattekulo Sudhar Samaj, Anamnagar: Dhobikhola
8. Gundu: Hanumante
9. HEMS School, Ratopul: Dhobikhola
10. Inatole, Bishnumati river
11. Jagat Sundar Bonekuthi, Dallu: Bishnumati river
12. Mulpani: Manahara river
13. Nayapati/Alapot, Sundarijal community: Bagmati
14. NEPCEMAC, Ekantakuna: Nakkhu
15. Okhreni, Sundarijal: Bagmati
16. Satungal, Matatirtha: Balkhu river
17. Siddhipur: Godavari river
18. Sundarighat: Bagmati river
19. Teku: Bagmati and Bishnumati
20. WEPCO, Kupondole: Bagmati river
Annex III
Field survey to various sites
1. Visit to Okhreni, Chilaune, Mulkharka of Shivapuri National Park;
Bagmati watershed
2. Visit to Bishnumati dwar—Bishnumati, Sangla and Manahara
rivers; Sankhu
3. Visit to Sundarijal—Gokarna corridor
4. Cultural walk along Bishnumati and Bagmati rivers (Shobha
Bhagwati—Gokarna)
5. Visit to waste water treatment plants of the Kathmandu Valley
6. Visit to ICIMOD demonstration site, Godavari
7. Visit to different sites, viz., Teku, Sundarighat, Sankhamul and
Chobhar for reorganisation of plantation sites
8. Visit to different mining sites of the Kathmandu Valley
9. Visit to different river stretches of the Kathmandu Valley, viz.,
Bagmati, Bishnumati, Manahara, Hanumante, Dhobikhola,
Godavari, Nakkhu, Balkhu, Sangla, Mahadev Khola, Tukucha and
Karmanasa
10. Visit from Chobhar to the confluence of Bosan Khola to learn the
existing condition towards the downstream and to survey local
and migratory birds of the area
11. Visit to Katuwal daha
12. Visit to different water diversion sites for hydrological surveys
such as Godamchaur, Tika Bhairab and Sangla chhap
13. Visit to the Dhap to know the possibility of water recharge area
during dry season and the condition of the wetland
Annex II
29.
30.
31.
SN Name Address/contact person Key functions/activities
Urban Environment
Management Society
Women Environment Group
(WEG)
Women Environment
Preservation Committee
(WEPCO)
Saugal, Lalitpur
Kopundole, Lalitpur
Kopundole, Lalitpur, Nepal
Improvement of well and other traditional water
sources; promotion of household composting
Waste collection from 300 households;
involved in river clean-up campaigns
Involved in solid waste management (waste
collection from 1,000 households, composting, bio-
gas generation and paper recycling). Also involved
in school education programmes in 43 schools and
other activities related to awareness campaigns.
78
Annex IV
List of squatters in different river segments
Bagmati river and its tributaries Name of squatters Number of households Population
Bagamati river Shantinagar 360 1,632
Bijaynagar 25 118
Jagritinagar 120 462
Gairigaun 46 207
Chandani Tole 48 222
Pragati Tole 11 56
Kalimati Dole 16 67
Bansighat 96 486
Kuriyagaun 10 46
Sankhamul 105 503
Kimal Phant 26 104
Bishnumati river Dhikure Chouki 26 112
Kumaristhan, Buddhajyoti Marga 73 320
Balaju Jagriti Tole 126 691
Sangam Tole 36 214
Ranibari 45 227
Tukucha Narayan Tole, Maharajgunj 30 108
Khadipakha, Maharajgunj 146 735
Dhobikhola Shanti Binayak 42 192
Devinagar 32 129
Bishalnagar 37 178
Kalopul 6 20
Pathibhara 154 728
Hanumante river Manahara, Bhaktapur 589 2,422
Other locations Palpakot 30 158
Anamnagar 17 79
Maijubahal 25 152
Kumarigal 11 52
Radhakrishna Chowk 16 97
Mulpani 12 60
Kapan, Dhungen 13 63
Subigaun 34 200
Ramhiti 122 668
Mahankal 15 77
Dhumbarahi, Sukedhara 14 69
Mandikhatar 78 362
Golfutar 24 123
Saranpur, Budhanilkantha 80 373
Hattigauda 6 33
Khadka Bhadrakali 33 181
T TT TTotal otal otal otal otal 2,735 2,735 2,735 2,735 2,735 12,726 12,726 12,726 12,726 12,726
79
Annex V
Discharge of surface water during wet
and dry seasons
Annex VI
Different bird species observed during
the field visits
Location Surface water (m
3
/day) Total
Wet season Dry season
Balaju 8,230 3,000 11,230
Bansbari 3,000 3,000
Bir Dhara 4,600 9,000 13,600
Sundarijal 46,000 18,000 64,000
Saibu 18,000 1,250 19,250
Dudh Pokhari 2,900 1,980 4,880
Chapagaun, Nallu 5,400 2,700 8,100
Sundarighat 3,000 2,500 5,500
Lunkot 500 200 700
Mahadev Khola 4,320 2,500 6,820
Thini Bada 4,320 2,500 6,820
Source: Shivapuri Management plan, 1995
SN Name Scientific Name
1. Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus
2. Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica
3. Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus
4. Black Kite Milvus migrans
5. Black-headed Munia Lonchura malacca
6. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis
7. Chestnut-tailed Starling Sturnus malabaricus
8. Common Myna Acridotheres tristis
9. Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos
10. Common Stonechat Saxicola torquatus
11. Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus
12. Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea
13. Grey-headed Lapwing Vanellus cinereus
14. Hodgson’s Bushchat Saxicola insignis
15. House Crow Corvus splendens
16. House Sparrow Passer domesticus
17. Indian Pond-Heron Ardeola grayii
18. Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius
19. Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach
20. Oriental Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis
21. Pied Bushchat Saxicola caprata
22. Red Avadavat Amandava amandava
23. Red-Rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica
24. Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer
25. Rock Pigeon Columba livia
26. Scaly Thrush Zoothera dauma
27. Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis
28. White Wagtail Motacilla alba
29. White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnesis
80
Annex VII
Cultural and heritage sites at risk along the Bagmati river
Shivadev Basaha and Buddha Sculpture,
Taglung in Budhanilkantha
Shivadev Basaha is located at Bishnu Budhanikantha VDC. It includes
the earliest inscription of Nepal, dating back to 4
th
/5
th
century. The
shivalinga is said to be built in the reign of King Mandev. At present,
the shivalinga is in vulnerable condition due to construction of new
houses in the premises. A traditional pati existed there before but
new construction made it extinct. Hence, there is urgent need of
attention and awareness.
Budha Sculpture is located to the east of Budhanilkantha, in the
upstream of Dhobikhola. It lies in an open field, in isolation. Its
history dates back to 5
th
/6
th
century. Immediate works for its
conservation is required.
Ghats in Sundarijal
The ghats are symbols of culture. Today, with the change in lifestyle,
the rituals associated with ghats are eroding fast and have been
encroached and used for various other purposes. In Sundarijal, the
ghats have been covered with vegetation. New ghat is built slightly
downward and used by the people due to unfeasible to utilize the
previous ghat. Documentation of all the monuments and temples of
the area are necessary and steps should be taken to conserve the
ghats.
Tokha Chandeswari
Tokha Chandeswari is a historically important temple and is popular
in the Newar community. As the old temple was totally dismantled,
a new monument has been constructed. The confluence where the
temple is located is known as Sapan Tirtha. Festival occurs on 1
st
Baishak in this tirtha.
Temples, sattals and ghats near
Gokarneswar Mahadev
Some temples located near Gokarneshwar Mahadev temple in
Gokarna are inaccessible, as surrounding lands have been encroached.
The artefacts of these temples are either already lost or if remain is
not in its original place. Most of the small artifacts are gather together
and kept at a corner. Another example is the temple being encroached
by new construction and used as a store.
Sattal beside VDC office is in poor state and another similar type is
dismantled. Sattal along the ghat built by Bhimsen Thapa is
maintained and is in use whereas the ghats in front of the sattals are
covered with vegetation. This area is not only important from cultural
point of view but also important from ritual perspective. Most of the
people visit this place during Father’s Day in memory of their late
father.
Changunarayan Temple along Manahara
river
It is one of the seven heritage sites of the Kathmandu Valley.
Religiously and culturally significant temple, its structures and doors
are in dilapidated state. Hence, it should be preserved.
Shankha Daha, south of Changu Narayan
Temple
It is one of the important components of Changunarayan premises.
It is in ruined state at present because of landslide and sand mining
in the Manahara river.
Mahalaxmi Temple, Balambu
Ancient Shiva sculpture and pati are found in the temple complex.
The heritage site is deteriorating and is at risk. There is also a small
primary school located in the premises. Hence, the norms of the
Department of Architecture should be strictly followed to save this
historical temple. The pati near the temple is awaiting renovation.
Vishnudevi Temple, Tinthana
The shrine is placed at the confluence of Balkhu khola and a small
stream. It consists of an open stone platform with patis and trees.
The open pit contains natural stone images of the Astamatrikas and
two carved stone images of Sinhini and Byagrihini. The images are
severely deteriorated. This holy shrine is now used a cremation site.
Mahadevsthan Naikap, a relatively new shrine, is built on the other
side of Balkhu Khola. It contains an image of the Ichcha Brinkeshwar
Mahadev, in the form of a four-faced linga dating back to the 6
th
century. Other stone images of Saraswati, Uma Maheshwar,
shivalingas, stone lion, etc. are also present.
81
People throng to this place for worship, particularly during Shivaratri
and Sripanchami, and Satungal Jatra, which is held every year.
Bombirbikateswor Mahadev of Teku
This temple, built during the middle of 19
th
century by prime minister
Bom Bahadur Kunwar Rana, has a unique architecture. Having a
rectangular plan with eight doorways, it has a single sanctum with
three towers. It is surrounded by two-storey buildings (sattals) on all
sides. At present, the temple is on the verge of collapse. The temple
and its complex is owned by guthi.
Ping dyo
This site is located near the Modern Indian School in Kirtipur. It is the
platform where Kalash is put bringing water from river for bath to
Adinath, one of the important Lokeshwars (Rato Machhindranath).
Adinath is said to be dated in fifteenth century but according to an
inscription, it was reconstructed in 1640. The site of ping dyo is in a
poor state, and preservation and awareness activities should be
carried out.
Vishnu Vikranta sculpture of Tilganga
The sculpture of Vishnu Vikranta is located near Tilganga,
Pashupatinath. It has King Mandev’s inscription dating back to 5
th
century. In today’s context, this sculpture is in an isolated place. It is
situated below the road level and has nothing to protect against the
weather conditions. It is one of the earliest inscriptions available
and hence steps should be taken to preserve the sculpture as well as
the inscription.
Bhim Mukteshwar Temple
This two-storey temple, built by Mathavar Singh Thapa in memory
of Bhimsen Thapa, has been built of brick with dome and gajura on
its top. The temple, although situated at the heart of the city in
Kalimati, is unknown to majority of the people. The main entrance
and the sattals surrounding the temple are on the verge of collapse.
Sattal of Laxmishwar Temple
Laxmishwar Mahadev temple was built in the middle of a paved
courtyard on the bank of the Bagmati river. It is a three-storey
temple constructed by King Rana Bahadur Shah and is surrounded by
sattals with some well carved windows. The sattals are under the
dilapidated condition and is awaiting renovation.
An example of heritage in danger can be seen in the pati in
Kankeshwari premises. The pati, with medieval architecture, has
been changed thus completeley losing its ancient ambience.
Purneshwar Temple, Tripureshwar
This temple is located in Tripureshwar on the way to Vishwa Niketan
Campus. Constructed during Rana Bahadur Shah’s period, the original
architecture of this temple has been changed and restored in new
form. This kind of work needs legal permission from the Department
of Archaeology and hence the offender should be punished according
to the Ancient Monument Preservation Act.
The Statue of God Bishnu
This statue is located in between Purneshwar temple and Vishwa
Niketan Campus, Tripureshwar. The statue is important as it has
different reincarnation of God Bishnu. Currently, it is in neglected
state and hence needs immediate protection.
Patis of Dallu bridge and Shobha
Bhagwati
The patis along the surroundings of Kankeshwari and Shobha
Bhagwati temples have been changed over time. The patis are either
in a dilapidated condition or has been changed using different modern
construction materials. Similarly, many areas are encroached and
the statues of gods and goddesses are stolen.
© BAP Study Team
82
Annex VIII (a)
Physical features of zones
Zone/Physical features Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5
Altitude (m) 2720—980 2080—1310 1620—1280 2020—1260 1760—1220
Total area Built up area 0.94 5.5 19.33 61.81 1.4
covered (sq.km) Cultivated land 92.64 73.49 71.69 28.63 22.22
Cultivated with settlement 29.13 40 15.85 1.72 3.04
Park and greenery area 0.07 0.24 0.29 0.98 1.9
Vegetation (Forest) 204.37 8.71 7.26 4.76 0.92
Water body (ponds) 0.75 0.43 0.9 2.16
Oxidation and treatment plant 0.28
Human settlements Population 50,719 231,337 283,499 995,966 34,687
Population density 1570 sq.km 1542sq.km 2512sq.km 9912 sq.km 1179 sq.km
Major river networks Sailmati, Suryamati Manahara, Nakhu, Bosan
Nagmati Khola Dobikhola,
Tukucha,
Bishnumati,
Balkhu
Zone/Physical features Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5
Urbanization
Cultural Heritage
urbanization
comparatively
negligible
Sundarimai,
Sankhu Bajrayogini,
Tika Bhairab,
Dakshinkali,
Sheshnarayan,
Champadevi,
Godavari Kunda,
Ichangunarayan
Slighty urbanized
Changunarayan,
Gokarneswar
Mahadev,
Uttar Gaya,
Budhanilkantha,
Machhenarayan,
Bishankhunarayan,
Kageshwari, Neel
Bode, Matatirtha
Moderately
urbanized
Ashok Chaitya,
Mahalaxmi temple,
Bishnudevi,
Bajrabarahi,
Karyabinayak,
Harisiddhi
Dominant of built-up
area
Pashupati,
Sankhamul,
Thapathali-Teku
stretch, Kankeswor,
Shovabhagwati,
Pachali, Bhatbateni,
Nil Saraswati, Tudal
Devi, Bagh Bhairab
comparatively less
than Zone 4
Jalbinayak,
Karyabinayak,
Anangaghat,
Sundarighat
83
Annex VIII (b)
Physical features of zones (List of VDCs and Municipalities)
Bad Bhanjyang (partial)
Badikhel (partial)
Bageshwari
Baluwa (partial)
Bhardeu
Bhimdhunga (partial)
Bishankhunarayan (partial)
Bishnu Budhanilkantha
(partial)
Chalnakhel (partial)
Chapagau (partial)
Chapali Bhadrakali (partial)
Chhaimale
Chhaling (partial)
Chitapol (partial)
Dahachok (partial)
Devichaur
Gagalphedi (partial)
Ghusel
Godavari (partial)
Goldhunga (partial)
Gundu (partial)
Ichangu narayan (partial)
Jhor (partial)
Jitpurphedi (partial)
Kabhresthali (partial)
Lamatar (partial)
Lapsiphedi
Lel e
Lubhu (partial)
Machchhegaun (partial)
Mahadevsthan (partial)
Matatirtha (partial)
Nagarkot
Nallu
Nangkhel (partial)
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5
Alapot
Bad Bhanjyang (partial)
Badikhel (partial)
Balambu (partial)
Baluwa (partial)
Bhadrabas
Bhimdhunga (partial)
Bishankhunarayan (partial)
Bishnu Budhanilkantha
(partial)
Changunarayan
Chapagaun
Chapali bhadrakali (partial)
Chhaling (partial)
Chhampi (partial)
Chitapol (partial)
Chunikhel (partial)
Dadhikot (partial)
Dahachok (partial)
Dharmasthali (partial)
Dukuchhap (partial)
Gagalphedi (partial)
Godamchaur (partial)
Godawari (partial)
Gokarneshwar
Goldhunga (partial)
Gundu (partial)
Ichangunarayan (partial)
Indrayani
Jhor (partial)
Jitpurphedi (partial)
Kabhresthali (partial)
Lamatar (partial)
Lubhu (partial)
Machchhegaun (partial)
Mahadevsthan (partial)
Balambu (partial)
Balkot
Chhaling (partial)
Chitapol (partial)
Chunikhel (partial)
Dadhikot (partial)
Dhapakhel (partial)
Dhapasi
Dharmasthali (partial)
Duwakot
Godamchaur (partial)
Goldhunga (partial)
Gongabu
Gothatar (partial)
Harisiddhi
Ichangunarayan (partial)
Imadol
Jharuwarasi
Jhaukhel
Jorpati
Kabhresthali (partial)
Kapan
Katunje (partial)
Khadka Bhadrakali
Machchhegaun (partial)
Mahankal
Manamaiju
Mulpani
Naikap Naya Bhanjyang
Naikap Purano Bhanjyang
Nangkhel (partial)
Phutung
Ramkot (partial)
Sangla (partial)
Satungal
Siddhipur
Kathmandu
Meteropolitan City
Madhyapur Thimi
Municipality
Lalitpur Sub-
metropolitan City
Bhaktapur Municipality
Kirtipur Municipality
Bungmati
Chalnakhel (partial)
Chhampi (partial)
Daksinkali
Dukuchhap (partial)
Khokana
Sainbu Bhainsepati
Saukhel (partial)
84
Nanglebhare
Nayapati (partial)
Ramkot (partial)
Sangla (partial)
Sankhu pukhulachhi
(partial)
Sankhu suntol
Sankhu Bajrayogini (partial)
Saukhel (partial)
Shesnarayan
Sipadol (partial)
Sudal (partial)
Sundarijal (partial)
Talku dudechaur
Tathali (partial)
Thankot (Partial)
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5
Matatirtha (partial)
Nangkhel (partial)
Nayapati (partial)
Ramkot (partial)
Sangla (partial)
Sankhu pukhulachhi
Sankhu Bajrayogini
Sipadol (partial)
Sirutar (partial)
Sudal (partial)
Tathali (partial)
Thaiba (partial)
Thali danchhi
Thankot (partial)
Tokha chandeshwari
(partial)
Sipadol (partial)
Sirutar (partial)
Sitapaila
Sudal (partial)
Sunakothi
Syuchatar
Tathali (partial)
Thaiba (partial)
Thecho
Tikathali
Tinthana
Tokha Chandeshwari
(partial)
Tokha Saraswati
85
Bagmati River Festivals
Annex IX
The Bagmati river festival was started in 2001 to provide a platform
for all interested individuals and organizations to express their
concerns and provide solutions to overcome the plight of the river.
The festival comprises several events, including clean-up campaign,
tree plantation programme, heritage walk, rafting, dunga daud,
corporate challenge, poetry, drama, essay and photography
competition at school levels, Bagmati eco challenge, training on
waste management to several groups of women living along the
bank of the Bishnumati/Bagmati river, school student’s kayak race,
professional down river kayak race, Bagmati friendship float,
student’s theatre programme, technical workshop on Bagmati/
Bishnumati river, sharing scientific findings about the river, public
exhibition on various activities done by partner organisations,
Bagmati conservation campaigns and rallies, anti-plastic campaigns,
women for Bagmati cycle rally, exhibition of environmental models
prepared by the students of high school, live music concerts, etc.
1 11 11
st st st st st
Bagmati River Festival Bagmati River Festival Bagmati River Festival Bagmati River Festival Bagmati River Festival: : : : : Nepal River Conservation Trust (NRCT),
in partnership with Friends of the Bagmati (FoB), organised the 1
st
Bagmati River Festival, a project that attempted to draw maximum
public attention to the critically degraded condition of the Bagmati
river, and provide a platform for action.
2 22 22
nd nd nd nd nd
Bagmati River Festival Bagmati River Festival Bagmati River Festival Bagmati River Festival Bagmati River Festival: : : : : NRCT and FoB jointly organised the 2
nd
Bagmati River Festival 2002. The festival was supported by All Nepal
River Guide Association, Bagmati Sewa Samiti and Rotary Club Yala
and was promoted by Nepal Tourism Board (NTB). The festival was
basically divided into three sessions: kayak race from Sundarijal to
Guheshwari; rafting from Tilganga to Shankamul; and
environmental/schools/music programme at Shankamul.
3rd Bagmati River Festival: 3rd Bagmati River Festival: 3rd Bagmati River Festival: 3rd Bagmati River Festival: 3rd Bagmati River Festival: NRCT in association with the Forum for
Management and Research Nepal (FERN), organised the 3
rd
Bagmati
river festival on August 23, 2003. Over 25 river guides and more
than 100 rafting enthusiasts, environmentalists, tourists, journalists
and satirists donned face masks and traveled through a section of
Bagmati river. The excursion was aimed at drawing the attention of
the river’s sorry state, and urged the community and government to
take immediate actions.
4 44 44
th th th th th
Bagmati River Festival: Bagmati River Festival: Bagmati River Festival: Bagmati River Festival: Bagmati River Festival: In association with over 50 co-organisers,
NRCT took the Bagmati river festival in 2004 to greater heights.
From a one-day festival the previous three years to a three-month
long 4
th
Bagmati river festival was a big leap. Starting from the
World Environment Day on June 5, the festival ended with a kayak
race and cultural programme on August 21, 2004. Over 50 river
guides and rafting enthusiasts, environmentalists, tourists, journalists,
school, college, university students, corporate houses and hundreds
of local people participated in the festival creating the much needed
awareness about the dismal state of the Bagmati river.
5 55 55
th th th th th
Bagmati River Festival: Bagmati River Festival: Bagmati River Festival: Bagmati River Festival: Bagmati River Festival: The World Environment Day was
the auspicious occasion chosen to inaugurate the 5
th
festival.
More than 100 participants from several schools, colleges, locals
and journalists gave hands to whip up the rubbish from the
heavily polluted Bagmati river. The Bagmati clean-up campaign
was from the Aryaghat-Pashupatinath to the Tilganga Eye
Hospital stretch. Series of conservation programmes, clean-up
campaigns, river rafting, kayaking, etc. were organised
throughout the festival.
6 66 66
th th th th th
B BB BBagma agma agma agma agmati Riv ti Riv ti Riv ti Riv ti River F er F er F er F er Fe ee ees ss sstiv tiv tiv tiv tival: al: al: al: al: NRCT, Sustainable Tourism Network
(STN) and Nepal Tourism Board (NTB) jointly organised the festival
awareness raising programmes. In 2006, NRCT added some new
programmes like fund raising concerts and started its course from
2
nd
June 2006.
©

S
i
d
d
h
a
r
t
h
a
/
N
T
N
C
Celebration of the Bagmati River Festival
86
©

N
T
N
C
PROJECT HEAD
Siddhartha B. Bajracharya, PhD
National Trust for Nature Conservation
STUDY TEAM
Astra Development Network, Tripureshwor, Kathmandu
Geospatial Systems Private Limited, Pulchwok, Lalitpur
Innovative Solutions Private Limited, Chakupat, Lalitpur
EDITORIAL TEAM
Mahesh Banskota, PhD
Prof. Pramod K. Jha
Kishore Thapa
Deependra Joshi (Editor)
Ratna Raj Timsina
CONTRIBUTORS
Mahesh Bahadur Basnet, Chairman, BCIDC
Krishna KC, Former Chairman, BCIDC
Anil Bhadra Khanal, Project Manager, BCIDC
Subrato Sinha, PhD (UNEP/ROAP)
Richard Luff (UNICEF Nepal)
Dipak Gyawali, Nepal Water Conservation Foundation, Kathmandu
Roshan Raj Shrestha, PhD, UN-Habitat, Nepal
Ngamindra Dahal, NTNC
EPLC/UNEP, South Korea
Local stakeholders and communities of Bagmati catchment area
NTNC Team
Published by : High Powered Committee for Integrated Development of the Bagmati Civilization
and National Trust for Nature Conservation
© 2009 Government of Nepal & National Trust for Nature Conservation
Jawlakhel, Lalitpur, Nepal
ISBN No: 978-993933933-702-8-4
Citation: GoN/NTNC (2009) Bagmati Action Plan (2009–2014). Kathmandu, Nepal.
Photos: Dr. Siddhartha B. Bajracharya, National Trust for Nature Conservation
Cover Photo: Dhap Area, Shivapuri National Park
BAGMATI ACTION PLAN
(2009–2014)
National Trust for Nature Conservation
P.O. Box 3712, Khumaltar, Lalitpur , Nepal
Tel: 977-1-5526571,5526573
Fax: 977-1-5526570
E-mail: info@ntnc.org.np
Website: www.ntnc.org.np

BAGMATI ACTION PLAN (2009–2014)
PROJECT HEAD Siddhartha B. Bajracharya, PhD National Trust for Nature Conservation STUDY TEAM Astra Development Network, Tripureshwor, Kathmandu Geospatial Systems Private Limited, Pulchwok, Lalitpur Innovative Solutions Private Limited, Chakupat, Lalitpur EDITORIAL TEAM Mahesh Banskota, PhD Prof. Pramod K. Jha Kishore Thapa Deependra Joshi (Editor) Ratna Raj Timsina CONTRIBUTORS Mahesh Bahadur Basnet, Chairman, BCIDC Krishna KC, Former Chairman, BCIDC Anil Bhadra Khanal, Project Manager, BCIDC Subrato Sinha, PhD (UNEP/ROAP) Richard Luff (UNICEF Nepal) Dipak Gyawali, Nepal Water Conservation Foundation, Kathmandu Roshan Raj Shrestha, PhD, UN-Habitat, Nepal Ngamindra Dahal, NTNC EPLC/UNEP, South Korea Local stakeholders and communities of Bagmati catchment area NTNC Team Published by : High Powered Committee for Integrated Development of the Bagmati Civilization and National Trust for Nature Conservation © 2009 Government of Nepal & National Trust for Nature Conservation Jawlakhel, Lalitpur, Nepal ISBN No: 978-993933933-702-8-4 Citation: GoN/NTNC (2009) Bagmati Action Plan (2009–2014). Kathmandu, Nepal.

Photos: Dr. Siddhartha B. Bajracharya, National Trust for Nature Conservation Cover Photo: Dhap Area, Shivapuri National Park

BAGMATI ACTION PLAN (2009–2014)
Government of Nepal High Powered Committee for Integrated Development of the Bagmati Civilization Guheshowori Phant, Kathmandu Tel: (977-1) 4498619, 4479703 Fax: (977-1) 4482848 E-mail: info@bagmati.gov.np Web: www.bagmati.gov.np

HPCIDBC

National Trust for Nature Conservation PO Box 3712 Jawlakhel, Lalitpur, Nepal Tel: (977-1) 5526571, 5526573 Fax: (977-1) 5526570 E-mail: info@ntnc.org.np Web: www.ntnc.org.np

United Nations Environment Programme (RRC AP) PO Box 4; Klongluang 12120, Bangkok, Thailand Tel: (66-2) 5162124, 5245365 Fax: ((66-2) 5162125 E-mail: info@rrcap.unep.org Web: www.rrcap.unep.org

UN-HABITAT Water for Asian Cities Programme PO Box 107, Pulchowk Kathmandu Tel: +977 1 5536699 Fax: +977 1 5539877 Web: www.unwac.org, www.unhabitat.org

/fli6«o k|sl[ t . Right Honorable Mr.“u .Lldttf nfO{ dfgj .+/If0f ug]{ x]tn] UNEP / ' UN-HABITAT sf] ./f]sf/ /x]sf] jfUdtL gbLsf] bL3{sfnLg .+/If0f sf]ifn] gbLsf] bL3{sfnLg .a}sf] Wofg cfs[i6 ug{ /fli6«o k|sl[ t .fd' /x]sf 5g\ .DaGwL kf“rjifL{o sfo{of]hgf @)^^–)&) tof/ kf/]sf] ljifon] dnfO{ xlif{t agfPsf] 5 .kmn /xf]. Nepal . .+/If0f .+/If0f sf]ifn] k|fs[lts ljljwtfsf] k|j4{g. dfgjLo cfjZostf k"lt{ ug]{ k|dv dfWodfsf ¿kdf /x]sf k|fs[lts Pjd+ h}ljs ljljwtfsf] ' .Dj4 .+/If0f / Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{ ub}{ cfPsf]df v'zL JoQm ub{5' . If]q.+/If0fsf] . cfly{s a[l4 / g}ltstf h:tf ljifoj:t' cfh dxTjk"0f{ d'2fsf ¿kdf xfdL. Kathmandu. wfld{s / k|fs[lts . k|sl[ tk|bQ j:t'sf] pkof]udf lbuf] ljsf.\ eGg] sfdgf ub{5' .ii Message /fli6«o k|sl[ t .+/If0fsf] pQ/bfloŒj k"/f ug{ / o. Madhav Kumar Nepal Prime Minister Government of Nepal Singhadurbar.xof]udf kf“rjifL{o sfo{of]hgf k'l:tsfsf] ¿kdf k|sfzg u/L afUdtL gbL .d'bfon] x]Ssf /fVg'kb{5 ..+/If0f sf]if .

The Bagmati Action Plan is a milestone in this direction. In this Juncture I would like to call upon all the stakeholders to join hand to make our dream come true. I am confident that this plan will server as a guide to all the stakeholders. The aggrevated environmental degradation of Kathmandu valley in general and the Bagmati in particular has been an issue of concern for all. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders is essential to achieve the objectives. However. Honorable Mr. The roles and responsibilities of the key stakeholders are to be defined. cultural and religious importance. Now. Biodiversity of Bagamati is currently being lost at unprecedented rate due to human activities. it is clear that there remains a crucial task to revive the past glory of Bagmati. for the sake of overall environmental improvement of Kathmandu valley. I hope that this plan will be a basis for all the concerned organizations and institutions to contribute to restore and conserve Bagmati. World famous religious and cultural heritages are located along the banks of the river. it is the time for cooperation and collaboration. In-order to address the present challenges. The scientific and articulated internvention is a must. the Government of Nepal has given high priority for the conservation of the Bagmati river system.iii Message The Bagmati river has significant ecological. I would like to appreciate all those involved in preparation of the Bagmati Action Plan for their effort to come up with the present form. which made an assault to the sanctity of the rivers. It is time to translat our hopes and energies into action. The Bagmati Action Plan (2009-2014) envisages a strong commitment to conserve the Bagmati river system. Bijaya Kumar Gachhadar Deputy Prime Minister & Minister Ministry for Physical Planning and Works Government of Nepal . The activities like dumping of solid wastes and discharging of untreated liquid waste polluted the river heavily.

green and healthy river system that is full of life and valued by all. The Government of Nepal would like to place on record its most sincere appreciation to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and UN-HABITAT for the generous support offered to the preparation of the Plan. Each chapter of the Bagmati Action Plan has addressed a topical issue to contribute to the vision of a clean. However. The objective of the Plan is to conserve the terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. and to develop and promote eco-tourism in the Bagmati river. Finally. with the rapid population growth and haphazard urbanisation of the Kathmandu Valley. the Bagmati river has remained as the cradle of our civilization. green and enliven the Bagmati river. Our increasing knowledge must now spur on efforts to preserve what riches of Bagmati remain to us. The life of Bagmati is intertwined with the lives of millions of the Kathmandu dwellers. the Bagmati River system is highly polluted. It has functioned as the main artery of the city. At present. cultural and heritage sites. Restoring the Bagmati river is ambitious. nourishing the Valley and providing immense environmental and ecological services. Hon. I must assert that the government is committed to continue restoration efforts in the belief that we can ensure a living Bagmati for our generations to come. I hope this Plan will stimulate discussion and catalyse action on saving the Bagmati river. The problem is further aggravated by continuous dumping of solid wastes. domestic sewerage and industrial waste along its bank and in the river directly. Deepak Bohara Minister Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation and Chairman National Trust for Nature Conservation . but success is vital. The Bagmati Action Plan has prepared a framework of actions by zoning the river into five areas and commits to clean. the Bagmati River and its tributaries suffered the most.iv Message Ever since the existence of humankind in the Kathmandu Valley. This Plan presents clear objectives to give new life to Bagmati and its tributaries.

Bajracharya. The Plan has clearly identified the issues and major partners and stakeholders for successful implementation. Mr. It is obvious that success of the Plan depends on effective implementation on the ground.v Message High Powered Committee for Integrated Development of Bagamti Civilization (HPCIDBC) is pleased to come up with the Bagmati Action Plan as one of the measure acheivements of the collaboration with National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC). I would like to express my sincere thanks to Dr. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to UNEP and UN-HABITAT for their valuable financial support for the development of the plan and NTNC for taking the lead to develop the Plan. NTNC. Mr. Thus. Ram Chandra Devkota. I also like to thank the study team and other stakeholders who have provided their valuable inputs for the development of the plan. Mr. I strongly feel that this Plan will be a milestone to move ahead in successfully restoring and coserving the Bagmati River system. Siddhartha B. Anil Bhadra Khanal and all the staffs of HPCIDBC and NTNC for their valueable inputs to bring document in its present form. Finally. HPCIDBC is committed to play its role as a lead implementing agency and will coordinate and work with all the partners and stakeholders to restore and conserve the river system. This will be an important guiding conceptual framework document for scientifically and systematically restoring and conserving the Bagmati river and its tributaries within the Kathmandu valley. Mahesh Bahadur Basnet Chairman High Powered Committe Integrated Development of the Bagmati Civilization .

The zoning concept assured the effective implementation of the plan. Mr.vi Message The Bagmati River is the main cradle of the Kathmandu valley having very rich in cultural as well as aesthetic value. I would like to take this oppurtunity to thank to UNEP and UN-HABITAT for their support in the development of the plan. It is my pleasure to mention here that Government of Nepal especially the Ministry of Physical Planning and Works is working to strengthen the committee with enforceable legal provisions. Realizing the deteriorating situation of the Bagamati and its tributaries. unplanned urbanization as well as other anthropogenic activities adversely affected the physical condition of the river. At this important juncture. innovative and comprehensive document to restore and coserve the Bagmati river system. I would also like to thank all the professionals involved in developing the Plan. the Government of Nepal has setup an institution namely "High Powered Committee for Integrated Development of Bagmati Civilization (HPCIDBC)" to overcome the existing situation. I highly appreciate this effective collaboration between HPCIDBC and the National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC) to come up with the Plan. I wish this collaboration between HPCIDBC and NTNC will be continued during the implementation of the Plan as well. However. Deep Basnyat Secretary Ministry of Physical Planning & Works . the Bagmati Action Plan has been developed. I am very pleased to see this highly scientific. The committee is the leading implementing agency.

vii Foreword It is our great pleasure to present you the Bagmati Action Plan. editorial team and to all the stakeholders who have provide their invaluable support and suggestions to prepare this document. Bajracharya for making a concluding end of preparation works of this precious document. This action plan identifies the key stakeholders and the potential partners for the effective implementation of the Bagmati Action Plan. I also like to thank to the consultant team. the technical input from all concerned sides should be consulted during the implementation of the Plan. Therefore we found that a comprehensive document is quite necessary to restore and conserve this historically and culturally rich river. Siddhartha B. the environmental pollution in the Bagmati River is existed. This plan alone is nothing. Mr. As we see that several organizations are working in the Bagmati River. The NTNC Board emphasized our management to development programme for improving the urban environment. However NTNC presence in urban centre particularly in the Kathmandu valley is relatively low. a most waiting comprehensive document prepared to restore and conserve the Bagmati River system. A technical part is the main aspect of this plan therefore. National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC) has been working in the Terai and Mountain region since its establishment. I like to thank to Dr. The zonation of the river system has been proposed to effectively address the issues at micro level. This plan also introduces a new concept of zonation of the river system within the Kathmandu valley. Juddha Bahadur Gurung Member Secretary Natinal Trust for Nature Conservation . Lastly. but the effective implementation in an integrated approach is quite necessary to achieve the vision of the Plan. however due to lack of coordinated and effective intervention.

the Ministry of Physical Planning and Works. Dr. Sichu Shrestha. Kavita B. Member Secretary. Mr. Shrestha. former Member Secretary of KMTNC for his initiative to start our intervention in the urban environment. UN-HABITAT. Deepak Gyawali. encouraged the team during the entire period of preparation. NTNC. Our conservation partners WWF. PhD. Raj B. Subrato Sinha. Mr. Bhushan Raj Shrestha. Roshan Raj Shrestha.viii Acknowledgement The Bagmati Action Plan (BAP) is prepared with arduous efforts and contributions of several organizations and individuals. NTNC would like to take this opportunity to thank the United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office of Asia and the Pacific (UNEP/ROAP). Mr. Ganga Jung Thapa. Narendra Man Shakya. Mr. Shriju Pradhan. Bhusan Tuladhar. Surendra Shrestha. UNEP. I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to the Bagmati Action Plan team for the timely completion of the task with their zeal and professional team spirit. Prof. UN-HABITAT. UNDP and ICIMOD extended their support and assistance right from the beginning of this work. Shanta R Jnawali. we would like to extend gratitude to all of them. Jitendra R Onta. PhD Executive Officer National Trust for Nature Conservation . Mr. Bipin Chitrakar. I would also like to thank Mr. Dr. Mr. Dr. Padma Sunder Joshi. Arup Rajouria. Mr Ngamindra Dahal. Bangkok and UN-HABITAT Water for Asian Cities Programme. Dr. Dr. Promod Kumar Jha and Mr. Director Finance. Amrit Man Shrestha. On behalf of NTNC. Dr. Mamata Sayami. Dr. UNEP. Ratna Raj Timsina. Andre Dzikus. Binod Sharma. and the High Powered Committee for Bagmati Civilization Integrated Development (HPCIDBC) deserve special thanks for collaboration and coordination with the National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC) to prepare this Action Plan. Dr. Keshab Shrestha. and the review team member who has contributed significantly in preparing the Bagmati Action Plan. Mr. Roshan Raj Shrestha. UNEP-EPLC deserve special gratefulness for their respective contributions. Bandana Pradhan. Ms. Programme Officer deserves special thanks for his untiring support during the preparation of the Plan. Deependra Joshi. Dr. Ms. Mr. Prakash Darnal. Bajracharya. Ms. Director Terai Programme. Suresh Das Shrestha. Dr. Mr. Shrestha. Bidur P Pokharel and the other NTNC staff for their cooperation. Kishore Thapa. Dr. Government of Nepal. and other team members. The Trust would like to thank independent reviewers Mr. Mr. Deepak K Singh. Finally. I would also take this opportunity to thank Mr. Mr. NTNC would like to sincerely acknowledge the Government of Nepal for expressing their serious commitment to restore and conserve the Bagmati River System by endorsement and owning the Bagmati Action Plan. Dr. Executive Officer. Sangeeta Singh. Director Administration. Nairobi for their support to prepare BAP. They not only provided us with precious information but also with valuable comments and suggestions on various issues pertinent to the Action Plan. Siddhartha B. Yeong-Wan Seo. Mr. I would particularly like to thank Ms. Mr Juddha Bahadur Gurung. IUCN. Mahesh Banskota. More precisely. Mr. Dr. Dr.

e. The river is fed by natural springs and monsoon rainfall. Zone 1 is the natural conservation core zone (323 sq km. Dhobikhola (Rudramati). Urban Zone (Zone 4) and Downstream zone (Zone 5). Zone 1 to 5.Bagmati. Sangla. Class II: Moderately polluted.100m). The issues mentioned here do not have equal level of significance in all river segments. in the absence of planned and coordinated restoration and conservation efforts. awareness programmes etc. i. including the Pashupatinath temple. To effectively address the key issues at a micro level. Nakkhu.e. Besides. The Bagmati river system includes seven tributaries . Previous studies have given an account that water quality is not in same condition in all river segments. The Bagmati river originates at Baghdwar about 15 km northeast of Kathmandu in Shivapuri hill and its tributaries originate from different parts of the Valley.ix Executive Summary Background The Bagmati river is one of the important river systems of Nepal with high cultural and aesthetical values. BAP covers the Bagmati river system from Shivapuri hill to Katuwal Daha. a concept of zonation of the river system within the Kathmandu valley has been introduced. degradation of catchment quality and water quality. Population density in this zone is The issues related to the Bagmati river and its tributaries are more or less of similar nature. plantation. The environmental degradation of the river system has accelerated due to increase in unplanned urbanization of the Kathmandu valley. At present. The Bagmati River and its tributaries flow through this zone. An issue which is critical for upstream may not be critical for downstream.453m).e. Decrease in water discharge . 45. many organizations are working in Bagmati with number of good programmes such as clean up campaigns. Hanumate. Mahadev and Kodku Khola. Shivapuri (2. and the degradation of river ecosystems are the major issues. Zonation of the River system will also help in developing and implementing the action plan more effectively at the zone level. The major catchment areas lies within this zone. riverside land use changes etc. However. National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC) has taken the initiative for the preparation of the Bagmati Action Plan. narrowing and deepening of water way. The bordering area of Zone 1 is classified as Zone 2 or Rural Zone (150 sq km. The plan is a comprehensive document that includes all the programmes and activities to be carried out at different locations and at different time interval. the river has been used as dumping sites for all types of wastes. environmental degradation and cultural erosion of the Bagmati river system has continued unabated. Therefore on the basis of the existing status of the water quality in river segments and the population density of the area. 21% of targeted area). i. eroding aesthetic and cultural values. To combat the present situation. This plan has also identified the potential organizations working in the Bagmati river. It is clearly visible that the river water quality in the Shivapuri National Park and its surrounding hills are still in good condition and gradually deteriorate as it flows towards the urban area. these initiatives did not produce significant impacts except generating public awareness to some extent. Chandragiri (2.1% of targeted area) consisting of green hills surrounding the Valley such as Phulchowki (2. Therefore. Balkhu and Tukucha (Ichhumati) rivers and the five sub-tributaries Godavari. Rural Zone (Zone 2). It flows by several important parts of Kathmandu. the whole river system of the Kathmandu valley has been classified into five different zones i. Peri-urban Zone (Zone 3). are the critical issues of the Bagmati river system. pollution level). Class III: Heavily polluted. However. Bishnumati. The Bagmati Action Plan (BAP) has been formulated with the aim to restore and conserve the Bagmati river and its tributaries in an integrated and coordinated approach. and Class IV: Extremely polluted.e. Manahara. The water extremely polluted mainly in the central part of the Valley. These are: Class I: Non-polluted. They are Natural Conservation Core Zone (Zone 1). The Bagmati river system has been classified into four standard water quality classes based on the saprobic approach (i.800m).365m) and Nagarjun (2.

Lalitpur. This zone is mainly dominated by agricultural land with low population density. It also identifies HPCIDBC as the key organization responsible for carrying out the monitoring activities. The projected budget also addresses the issues related to empirical information.14% for fourth year and 13. population projection. Despite low population density in this zone. major investment has been proposed for the Zone 4.000 (Fifteen billion only).19% of budget is allocated for first year. These activities are either common for all zones or their outputs help to build the capacity of HPCIDBC and other agencies working for the restoration and conservation of the Bagmati river and its tributaries. actions recommended for managing waste water for these areas are mainly based on the same technology with some modification in some cases. Zone 5 is situated in the southern part of the Kathmandu Valley from Sundarighat to Katuwal daha. ground-based realities.000. Bhaktapur. and inflation rate. Therefore. objectives and activities for each zone.000. The action plan has recommended DEWATS as a new approach to manage waste water. Zone 3 is the peri-urban zone of the Valley (113 sq km. Zone 4 is the urban zone and is highly urbanized zone consisting of five municipalities of the Valley—Kathmandu. Population density here is comparatively higher than Zone 2 and lesser than Zone 4. Water quality of the river is worst with Class IV (extremely polluted) category. i. Many urbanizing VDCs are located in this zone. Madhyapur Thimi and Kirtipur. Similarly. Managing waste through managing faecal sludge is given high priority in some areas. Other activities identified for each zone are based on the key issues identified in corresponding zones. 15. This action plan has given due recognition to the priority activities that have been recommended by previous interventions. The Bagmati River drains out of the Valley through this zone. afforestation program is given high priority in Zone 1. It is still being dominated by agricultural land. 15. Certain key activities which are valid in all the zones are included as cross cutting activities. . It also provides the adequate correction on the implementing activities before it is too late. and is located between rural and core urban city of the Kathmandu Valley.e. Of the total budget. More importantly. On-site The total Plan outlay for five years is approximately NRs. this demands serious political commitment at the national level. sanitation is given higher priority at Zones 1 and 5. The Action Plan has set the overall vision for restoration and conservation of the Bagmati river system and defined goals. However.80% in the third year.x higher than Zone 1. financial resources and legal back up. Substantial efforts should be made to strengthen HPCIDBC in terms of technical capacity. 18. 26. Similarly. The budget has been calculated considering all possible fixed and variable costs. Almost all major tributaries pass through this zone and the confluences of the tributaries are located in the central part of this zone. 21. Monitoring is very critical to fulfil vision. 20. Regular monitoring is very essential from the concerned authorities to identify how effectively and efficiently the proposed activities were implemented. water quality in the river segment is extremely polluted. The cost of DEWATS and faecal sludge management involves complex calculation which is based on the population projected for specific area suitable for DEWATS.8% of total targeted area). The government must ensure that adequate resources are forthcoming and the Action Plan implementation process is smooth in reaching goals and ultimately the vision. Action to be undertaken for managing waste is one of the most challenging tasks in developing this plan.63% for final year. Successful implementation of the Action Plan could bring change in the management paradigm in restoration and conservation of the Bagmati river and its tributaries. goals and objectives of the action plan. The monitoring plan clearly presents the activities of the respective zones and their means of verification. Conventional waste water management system recommended by previous projects is still valid for city core (Zone 4). The river ecosystem is in Class III (critically polluted) category. especially for Zones 2 and 3.21% in the second year. among the zones. the successful implementation of the Action Plan not only brings the river back to life but also enhances the overall urban environment of the Kathmandu valley.

Scientific and Cultural Organisation United Nations Human Settlements Programme Village Development Committee Water and Energy Commission Secretariat Women Environment Group Women Environment Preservation Committee .xi Acronyms ASP BAP BASP HPCIDBC BCN BOD BRCP CBS CDM CIUD COD DDC DEWATS DoA DoAr DoPRM DHM DO DUDBC DWIDP DWSS ECCA EFR ENPHO FoB FSM GIS/RS GO INGO IUCN KAPRIMO KEEP KMC KUKL KVO MoAC MFR MLD NEFEJ NEPCEMAC NGO NPC NRCT NTNC PADTA SBR SEDC ShNP SME SWMRMC ToR TSS TSTP UNEP UNESCO UN-HABITAT VDC WECS WEG WEPCO Activated Sludge Process Bagmati Action Plan Bagmati Area Sewerage Construction/Rehabilitation Project High Powered Committee for Integrated Development of the Bagmati Civilization Bird Conservation Nepal Biological Oxygen Demand Bagmati River Conservation Project Central Bereau of Statistics Clean Development Mechanism Centre for Integrated Urban Development Chemical Oxygen Demand District Development Committee Decentralized Waste Water Treatment System Department of Agriculture Department of Archaeology Department of Pesticides Registration and Management Department of Hydrology and Meteorology Dissolved Oxygen Department of Urban Development and Building Code Department of Water Induced Disaster Preparedness Department of Water Supply and Sewerage Environmental Camps for Conservation Awareness Environment Flow Requirement Environment and Public Health Organisation Friends of Bagmati Fecal Sludge Management Geographical Information System/Remote Sensing Governmental Office International Non Governmental Organisation The World Conservation Union Kathmandu Participatory River Monitoring Kathmandu Environmental Education Project Kathmandu Metropolitan City Kathmandu Upatayka Khanepani Limited Kathmandu Valley Outlook Ministry of Agriculture and cooperatives Minimum Flow Requirement Million Liter per Day Nepal Forum for Environmental Journalists Nepal Pollution Control and Environment Management Centre Non Govermnental Organisation National Planning Commission Nepal River Conservation Trust National Trust for Nature Conservation Pashupati Area Development Trust Act Squencing Bio Reactor Sagarmatha Environment Development Centre Shivapuri National Park Small and Medium Enterprise Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilisation Centre Terms of Reference Total Suspenended Solids Teku Septage Treatment Plant United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Educational.

.... KATHMANDU VALLEY .......................................................................................................................... 5 1 ............................ 2.. PLAN FORMULATION PROCESS ..................................................................................8....................................................... CULTURE AND HERITAGE ............................... 2...........................................3......... 4..........................................................................................................................1...................2............. NATURAL CONSERVATION CORE ZONE ...............6.................................. ORGANISATION OF THE PLAN ...................................................................................................................................................... 1 2 5 5 6 6 CHAPTER GMATI ITS TRIBUTARIES CHAPTER 2: BAGMATI RIVER AND ITS TRIBUTARIES ....................................................................................................................... 1...............................................................................................................................................................................................3....................... 3...................................................... 4.............................6....................... 2...................................................1............................................................2......................... xii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ... 2............................. 11 CHAPTER ISSUES BAGMATI CHAPTER 3: KEY ISSUES OF BAGMATI RIVER ............................................................................................................................................................................... vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......................................................................................................... 2...........................................................................................................................................1....................................................................4 RIVER ECOSYSTEM AND WASTE WATER ...... RURAL ZONE ........................................................... ACTS AND POLICIES ............................... 2 3 4................. ix ACRONYMS ....... 4............................................................................................................ 8 TUKUCHA (ICHHUMATI) ........................................................................................................ RIVER SIDE LAND USE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS ............................................................................................................. 33 CHAPTER 6: ACTION PLAN ........................................................................................................................... 9 MANAHARA ........................................................................................................................................................................................4.............................................................. 10 NAKKHU ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 DHOBIKHOLA (RUDRAMATI) ........................4........ 2..............1....................xii Table of Contents MESSAGES .............3...............5............................................................ 3 5 CHAPTER IMPLEMENTA STRATEG TRATE MONIT ONITORING CHAPTER 7: IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY AND MONITORING PLAN ....................................................5................................................................ 1 1...................................................... 1............................................. 3 1 5................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7 2................................................. ii-vi FOREWORD ...................................................................................... 10 SUB-TRIBUTARIES .......2.................................. BAGMATI ............................................................................................... KEY CHALLENGES ...................... DOWNSTREAM ZONE ............... 2....... xi TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................................................................................... 10 BALKHU ......................................... 4.................................................................................................................................................................. 3...........................................2 1................................... 15 20 21 21 CHAPTER ZONING KATHMANDU VALLEY SYS YSTEM CHAPTER 4: ZONING OF KATHMANDU VALLEY RIVER SYSTEM ................. 23 24 24 25 25 CHAPTER LEGISLA GISLATIVE ARRANGEMENTS CHAPTER 5: LEGISLATIVE ARRANGEMENTS ............................................................................. 5................... 1................. PERI-URBAN ZONE ........................................................................................... 7 BISHNUMATI ................1..................6 BACKGROUND ...................................................................................3......................................... 1 5 3............................................................................................... 4 1 CHAPTER 8: BUDGET PLAN .............................................................................5............................................... LIMITATIONS ................................. URBAN ZONE .......................4............................................................... RATIONALE OF THE BAGMATI ACTION PLAN .................................................................................................................................... viii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................... 1................................. 3.........................7..................................................................................................................... 31 STRATEGIES AND PLANS .........................

....................................3: Budget for Bagmati Action Plan (Zone 1) ................................................................. 17 Table 7.......................................................................................1: Average discharge at Sundarijal (m3/s) ......................... 29 Map 9: Waste water treatment system and population density ........................ 26 Map 6: Zonation of the Kathmandu Valley ........................................................................ 28 Map 8: Water quality and different zones ............................ 13 Map 4: Land use map of the Kathmandu Valley ..........................................................................................................................................................................................2: Waste generation in five municipalities .................................. 3 Map 2: River networks of the Kathmandu Valley ...................................................................................................... 6 9 List of Tables Table 1.........2: Budget for Bagmati Action Plan (Cross cutting activities) .................................................... 9 Figure 3.... 50 Table 8.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 27 Map 7: River water quality and population density in different zones ................................................................................................................................................................ elevation and origin) ....................... 15 Figure 4............................................................................................................................................1: Increasing trend of population growth in Kathmandu Valley ............1: Water quality parameters .................................................................................................................. 30 Map 10: Waste water management plan for the Kathmandu Valley (with zones) ........ 64 List of Figures Figure 1...............................................................................6: Monitoring Plan (General Action Plan) ..........................3: Monitoring Plan (Zone 3) ....4: Budget for Bagmati Action Plan (Zone 2) ..................................................................... 17 Table 3....................................... 8 Table 3.................................. 53 Table 8......................... 24 Figure 8......................5: Monitoring Plan (Zone 5) .......... 46 Table 7.......................... 62 Table 8................ 56 Table 8..............................1: Five years budget for BAP .......................................................... 52 Figure 8.......................................................... 40 ...............1: Monitoring Plan (Zone 1) .............................................1: Details of Bagmati river and its tributaries (length...2: Monitoring Plan (Zone 2) ..................................xiii REFERENCES ..................................... 2 Table 2.......................................................................... 49 Table 7........................ 60 Table 8... 2 Figure 2......................... 44 Table 7................................................................................................................................................. 58 Table 8......... 14 Map 5: Catchment area of the major rivers of Kathmandu Valley ....................1: Population projection of Kathmandu Valley for 30 years ................................................. 51 Figure 8............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8 Figure 2..........1: Visitors’ trend in Shivapuri National Park ....................... 6 7 ANNEX ..............................................................................................5: Budget for Bagmati Action Plan (Zone 3) ........ 47 Table 7...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 54 Table 8................ 45 Table 7.........................................................................................................................................................1: Sectoral allocation of budget for 2008—2009 .......................................................................................................2: Average BOD level at different locations of Bishnumati ..............................................7: Budget for Bagmati Action Plan (Zone 5) ................................................................................................................................................1: Average BOD level at different locations of Bagmati ..................................................................... 53 List of Maps Map 1: Location map of Upper Bagmati Basin ..............................................6: Budget for Bagmati Action Plan (Zone 4) ...............................4: Monitoring Plan (Zone 4) ...............................................................................................2: Distribution of five-year budget ............3: Budget allocation for general and zone-wise plans .................................................. 4 Map 3: Village Development Committees and Municipalities of the Kathmandu valley ..................................

xiv .

The Bagmati river currently faces a number of serious environmental and ecological challenges. The Bagmati river originates at Baghdwar. Consequently. are located along the river banks and are used for different cultural and ritual purposes. including the Bagmati river and all its tributaries (Map 1). conservation of rivers is very important for the protection of both natural resources and rich cultural heritage of the Valley. which comprises about 15% of the area of the Bagmati basin in Nepal. ghats and temples. etc. viz. This Action Plan covers the Bagmati river system from Shivapuri hills to Katuwal Daha. ghats. Upper Bagmati. Increasing population pressure on the fragile mountain slopes has also resulted in rapid degradation of natural resources. are occurring in and around the catchment area. The rich cultural heritage along the river and its tributaries such as traditional monuments. shrines. The river has been widely used for different purposes ranging from sand extraction 1. Upper Middle Bagmati. most of the important temples. Therefore. The Bagmati basin is characterized as medium or dry basin fed by springs and monsoon rainfall (WECS. The river originates in the Kathmandu Valley. Urbanization of Kathmandu Valley has strongly influenced Bagmati river. Rivers in the Valley also possess rich cultural and heritage values. about 15 km northeast of Kathmandu in Shivapuri hill and its tributaries originate from different parts of the Valley (Map 2). of which about 80% occurs during monsoon (June-September).1. etc. siltation. the Bagmati basin can be divided into various sub-basins.1 INTRODUCTION attaches spiritual and emotional significance to the Nepali people. Lower Middle (Tarai) Bagmati and the Lower Bagmati (Tarai) sub-basins. Urbanization and industrialization of the river’s headwaters at Kathmandu has deteriorated water quality with consequences on the aquatic ecosystem and on the health of the urban dwellers. is gradually eroding. The average annual rainfall is 1900mm. As Bagmati .Background The Bagmati is the principal river of the Bagmati basin in Nepal. including the Pashupatinath temple. deforestation. Based on the morphology and land use. It flows by several important parts of Kathmandu. soil erosion. This portion of the Bagmati river is part of the Upper Bagmati basin and is a very important part of the basin system. The river is fed by natural springs and monsoon rainfall. 2008). The direct impacts of present urbanization are especially visible in the Bagmati river and its tributaries where they have been used as dumping sites for all types of wastes. landslide.

the average rainfall is less than 6 mm (URBAIR -Kathmandu Valley Report. In recent times.04. which might have escalated water-borne diseases.000 2.000 2. The population census data for 2001 reveals that there are 16. There are several organisations working in the conservation and management of Bagmati river (Annex 1). with an average temperature of 24oC. achieving the objectives of conservation and management of the resources in the catchment area remains a serious problem.500.1. to land encroachment. Besides.1. Bhaktapur and Lalitpur districts with five municipalities and 99 Village Development Committees (Map 3). The Plan has adopted policies related with conservation. Trend of population growth in Kathmandu Valley Projection of Population in Kathmandu Valley (1991-2016) 4000000 3500000 3000000 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0 Number '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97 '98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11 '12 '13 '14 '15 '16 Year Kathmandu Valley being the economic and administrative center of Nepal is experiencing a very high population growth rate over the decades.500. A temperate climate prevails in Kathmandu Valley.000 3. In this context. This indicates that some parts of the river are biologically dead.799 by the end of 2016. these efforts are scattered and impacts are insignificant for conserving and restoring Bagmati.400mm.05. has initiated a project to study the Bagmati river environment and its tributaries and develop a comprehensive plan of action for five years through consultation with the major stakeholders. The mean annual temperature in the Kathmandu Valley is 18o C. It is surrounded by the hills of Mahabharat range forming a bowl-shaped valley floor (Map 1).379 in 1991 census.951 people in the Kathmandu valley by the end of 2001.9% per annum. 1997). the National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC). The valley has an annual rainfall of 1.345 which increase to 11. In the absence of effective and coordinated conservation and management of the Bagmati river. The warmest months are July and August. with annual growth rate of 4. The coldest month is January with the mean temperature of 10o C. Although efforts have been made to conserve the fragile natural resources of the Kathmandu Valley through the declaration of the upper catchment area as the protected area (Shivapuri National Park).000. Population projection of the Kathmandu Valley for 30 Years Year 1991 1998 2004 2009 2012 2016 Source: ESPS 2003 Population projection 1. According to the population census carried out in 1981 the population was 7.685 by the end of 2006 and 33. development and institutional arrangements. It has been reported that more than half of the fish species in the Bagmati river has disappeared.000 Fig.1.000. Besides.000 3.000 1. environmental degradation and water pollution will continue unabated.800. 11 million to clean rivers of the Kathmandu Valley and has also included policies and programmes in the Three Year Interim Plan (2007/08-2009/10).95. the government has allocated Rs.2%.2 1.56. It consists of Kathmandu. with the annual growth rate of 4. In the present trend of population growth rate in Kathmandu valley it is estimated to reach 21. The wettest month is July with an average rainfall of about 370 mm. the Kathmanduites have expressed deep concern over the plight of the Bagmati river and its environment. It has also sought to harness traditional knowledge through research.000. Acute shortage of water has forced certain sections of the society to use the polluted water from the Valley rivers. jointly with the High Powered Committee for Integrated Development of the Bagamti Civilization (HPCIDBC).2. promotion and sustainable use of biodiversity. Table 1. Kathmandu Valley The Kathmandu Valley lies between latitudes 27°32’13" and 27°49’10" north and longitudes 85°11’31" and 85°31’38" east. The population density of . A scientifically planned intervention to conserve and restore the Bagmati river has not yet been started. November and December are the driest months. © Siddhartha/NTNC The Bagmati catchment area at ShNP.66.

Map 1: Location map of Upper Bagmati Basin 3 .

4 Map 2: River networks of the Kathmandu Valley .

of sand. A recent study (KAPRIMO. 2001 and projection for coming 15 years presented in the figure below. Among the seven World Heritage Sites of cultural importance of Nepal. Tika Bhairav and Shobha Bhagwati are located near river sides. The Kathmandu Valley is highly rich in culture and heritage. inspite of these efforts. Budhanilkantha. stone spouts. Thus. Majority of temples and ghats lie along the river bank. and (vi) preferred zones for squatters and other encroachments. 2007) on water flow and water quality has indicated a very alarming situation. Various organisations that have played a role in the past have been (i) Friends of the Bagmati. NTNC with the support of UNEP and UN-HABITAT has agreed to support HPCIDBC to address the complex issues of Bagmati conservation and develop a comprehensive and realistic Bagmati Action Plan (BAP). discharge of industrial effluents together with direct discharge of domestic sewage have made the Bagmati river and its tributaries excessively polluted in some parts of the Valley. awareness programmes. The scale of the problem has been far too big for many of the genuine efforts as clean-up campaigns and river festivals. Pollution of these rivers has considerable impacts on the overall urban environment and human health. (ii) cultural and religious practices. Many archaeological and historical sites await immediate conservation and management interventions. the Action Plan has been formulated for the conservation and restoration of the Bagmati river and its tributaries in an integrated and coordinated approach with appropriate management interventions.g. Hence. there has not been any success in containing the increasing pollution. (ii) Nepal River Conservation Trust. encroachment of the river bank and its flood plains and deterioration of the cultural heritage. The population for Kathmandu valley for 1991. (iii) Bagmati Sarokar Samiti. temples. Traditional community institutions such as guthis have become non-functional. The river’s capacity to purify itself. roads and water tanks. several plans and programmes. (iii) disposal of water-borne effluents and deposition of solid waste along the banks. However. The continuous process of degradation of the Bagmati river has damaged the urban environment causing acute water scarcity for the city dwellers. The Bagmati river is currently used for different purposes: (i) major source for municipal. (iv) Environment and Public Health Organisation and (v) Women Environment Preservation Committee. China). The Bagmati river has always remained an important part of this culture and heritage in the Kathmandu Valley. The rivers and its confluences are equally important for cultural rituals.3. e. (iv) extraction Flow Chart 1: BAP Planning Process Analysis of existing models Review meeting GIS Literature review Draft Bagmati Action Plan Review meeting Peer review Field survey Community consultations Expert consultations Bagmati Action Plan . Rationale of the Bagmati Action Plan The rapidly increasing population and related solid waste dumping in the rivers. Most of the revered temples such as Bajrayogini. several cleanup campaigns.5 Kathmandu valley was 852 people per square kilometer in 1981 and 1230 people per square kilometer in 1991. the isolated efforts have also not helped either (Annex IX). industrial and irrigation water for the Kathmandu Valley. Kings and commoners alike built pati. number of projects. etc. It is widely believed that the civilization of the Kathmandu Valley starts from the Bagmati river. There were many traditional community institutions such as guthi for managing these cultural heritage sites along the river banks. by means of interaction between biotic and abiotic characteristics of the river. the Pashupatinath temple is situated along the bank of the Bagmati river and Changunarayan lies near the Manahara river. Gokarna. and promulgation of different policies and acts were initiated by various agencies for the conservation of the Bagmati river but in isolated forms. It has classified most parts of the rivers within the Kathmandu Valley as being excessively polluted. Previous interventions by different organisations and their key functions on Bagmati protection has been given in Annex I. Different studies and recommendations. Several efforts have been made in past for the conservation of the rivers in the Valley. which has reached 1843 people per square kilometer in 2001. However. experiences from elsewhere in the world demonstrate that it is possible to restore and conserve polluted rivers such as the Bagmati river and its tributaries (Box 1 Nanjing Qinhuai river. pauwa. (v) space for public infrastructure. has been slowly declining. 1. Structures around the ghats (where last rites are performed) are rapidly deteriorating. near the river bank in memory of the deceased member of their family or for religious purposes.

replenishment. construction of 7 bridges. CBOs. objectives and activities of the Action Plan. it is a flowing. Today. 1. Intensive field surveys were conducted along the rivers. and key held with the secretaries and high ranking officers of the challenges confronting the Bagmati river. Possible threats and Government of Nepal at the PMs office. river side land use patterns. The draft BAP was shared and discussed in a series of meetings socio-economic scenario.then Then Now and water resources. picturesque. areas.now . and prosperous river organised with governmental and nonarea. including water studies were reviewed and documented. and refurbishing 13 bridges with the total investment of USD 400 miliion. Organisation of the Plan The Bagmati Action Plan has been organised into eight chapters. its implications on feedbacks. plan formulation process and its limitations. decorating 110 residential houses.5.6 1. decision support systems and knowledge base also remained as a serious constraint in developing the plan. existing culture and heritage. seminars and meetings were held by Bagmati river. Chapter 2 deals with the vi. Box 1: Nanjing Qinhuai River then and now Secondary data and information about the Bagmati river and the Kathmandu Valley available from different sources were collected and analysed. In 2002. Limited their inter-relationship with the Bagmati river. cultural and tourism scenic governmental organisations. upgrading 20 km flood-preventing wall. Limitations strategic and systematic approach of zoning concept that classifies the Bagmati river into five zones which set the framework for the The Action Plan has been developed based on the qualitative plan. resettlement. Chapter 8 provides the budget for the first five years with current budget allocation and proposed plan. its associated tributaries and sub-tributaries. problems and issues of each of the tributaries. UN-Habitat nominated Nanjing as a pilot city in water stakeholders and experts of various thematic environment improvement in the Asian Cities Water Program.. waste water and solid waste management in the Kathmandu Once Qinhuai river used to be a highly polluted river of Nanjing in China. and is involving different groups relating to Bagmati river aimed at aimed at providing status. riverbank restoration.000 square metre area. collected from secondary sources and information gathered from field observations. and construction of iv. and construction of access roads. availability of database. rivers . Plan formulation process The following processes were adopted for the preparation of the Bagmati Action Plan: i..4. filthy environment as well as the contaminated Valley were reviewed. laying 25 km sewer interception iii. creating for zoning and analysing data based on the data more than 10 scenic spots. Chapter 7 discusses the implementation strategy and monitoring plan with various indicators that help in tracking the achievements and impacts based on the Plan's objectives. Chapter 6 covers vision. in the first phase. It also highlights the .365 households. goals. companies. The Nanjing-Qinhuai river has become a historical. environment on river restoration and conservation and urban images.6. Several workshops. intercepting 550 urban sewer outlets. Several community consultations and interviews were organised with local communities and stakeholders (Annex III). second phase of the rehabilitation work was anchored that include rehabilitation of 18 km of river.. In view of the great success achieved. sewage interception. Gloabal case studies smelly river had severely reduced the quality of human settlements. maintaining 5 km city wall. vii. the river ecosystems and waste water. Chapter 4 discusses about the 1. Chapter 1 introduces the Bagmati river. Illegal slums and squatters along the river. water. Most of the major reports related to urban development. hub of China characterizing ancient human civilization of Nanjing. Chapter 5 explains the existing legislative arrangements and approach requiring subjective judgment in some cases. GIS and statistical tools were intensively utilised pipeline. (Source: Nanjing Qinhuai River Rehabilitation Project) v. the Nanjing Municipal Government (NMG) attempted programme including success and failure to rehabilitate Qinhuai river through a comprehensive programme. the Kathmandu Valley and gives the rationale for the preparation of the Plan. A series of meetings and discussions were ecological wetland parks. relocating 4. the Commission accomplished the achievement by resettling 380. disseminating the process of developing action plan and receive Chapter 3 identifies key issues of the Bagmati river. protected area and surrounding By 2005. ii. various ministries and opportunities that rapid urbanisation and haphazard growth would departments generate for the conservation of the Bagmati river and its sustainable use are also identified and discussed. shifting 94 hills for potential water sources (Annex II). In 2006..

Syalmati and Nagmati streams join the Bagmati near its source in the Shivapuri hills. Panimuhan.2 BAGMATI RIVER AND ITS TRIBUTARIES Chilaune and Mulkharka are situated close to the source of the Bagmati river. Bishnumati. In the northernmost origin of the Bagmati river. bathing and agriculture is 4mg/l.1. Bishnumati and Tukucha 2.2. Department of Survey. Sanepa. The river is fed by numerous tributaries originating from the Mahabharat and Siwaliks range before it reaches the Terai at Karmaiya and to the Gangetic plain. Sundarighat and Chobhar (Fig. Besides. The quality of water at Sundarijal at the foothill is at the acceptable level. or higher the value of DO. Toilets in squatter settlements are being directly discharged into the river. Teku. Direct disposal of untreated sewage has been prevalent in Jorpati. Balkhu.1). water is also diverted into different locations for irrigation. Jwagal. which lies at an elevation of 1140m (Topography Map. there are many small and large wetlands that exist inside the Shivapuri National Park and the surrounding hills such as dhap. Dhobikhola. Sankhamul. Such wetlands contribute to recharging of the rivers. © Siddhartha/NTNC . industrial and household use. 6mg/l and 10mg/l respectively as recommended by BBWMSIP (1994). Bagmati The Bagmati river originates in Baghdwar of Shivapuri hills in the north of the Kathmandu Valley (see photos below). The 5mg/l DO value is assumed to be the threshold value of water. better the quality of water. Sanitation system in these settlements is very poor as open defecation is widely prevalent in these villages. aquatic life. 1998). The total catchment area of the Bagmati river is about 157 sq km (Map 5) with the length of 44 km from its origin at an elevation of 2732m to Katuwal daha. Balkhu and Nakkhu. Heavily polluted tributaries such as Dhobikhola. Kupandole. The Bagmati Action Plan focuses only in that part of the Bagmati river and its tributaries that lies within the Kathmandu Valley. Major tributaries of the Bagmati river in the Valley include Manahara. Villages such as Okhreni. The maximum desirable BOD level for drinking. Tilganga. Tukucha. The Dissolved Oxygen (DO) value at Sundarijal during monsoon period ranges between 6 to 10 mg/l. Taudaha and Basantigaun ponds. A large volume of water is diverted for the city water supply by the Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) at Sundarijal. Minbhawan.

and Chobhar Ganesh at Chobhar are situated along the river. About 50 trucks of sand is excavated daily during monsoon period from Sundarijal area alone. Gairigaun.2 Elevation(m) Origin Shivapuri Bagdwar Shivapuri Tarebhir Pokhari Bhanjyang Shivapuri Danda Phulchoki Danda Mahadev Pokhari Dahachowk Danda Bhangari Danda Tleshwor Danda Aale Danda Name Manamati Manohara Matatirtha Nagmati Nakhu Samakhusi Sangla Syalmati Tribeni Tukucha Length (km) Elevation (m) Origin 6. Chandani Tole.8 © BAP Study Team Origin of the Bagmati river at Bagdwar.8 10.0 7. River banks downstream is used as solid waste dumping sites of individual houses and municipalities. Bansighat. etc. Narayantar. Thapathali.4 2000 2375 2000 2443 2200 1350 2000 2200 1700 1325 Bhangari Danda Manichaur Matatirtha Danda Shivapuri Danda Bhardue Danda Dharampur East Aale Danda Shivapuri Danda Bhirkot Maharajung 2732 2300 1800 2732 2200 2000 1700 2000 2000 2000 Source: Pradhan B. Bijaynagar. heritage sites along Thapathali—Teku stretch. dying and storing materials for small industries. Similarly. Sinamangal. Jwagal and Teku. Balkhu and Chobhar (BASP 2008). Major sand mining areas include Sundarijal. workshops. Most of these sites are in deteriorating conditions simply because of inadequate management interventions. Uttar Bahini and Gokarneswor at Gokarna. Table. roads. Pragati Tole. In Sundarijal. Jwagal.8 23.1 18.7 4.9 17. Kalmochanghat. Sankhamul. Guheshwari. Jagritinagar. Many important cultural and heritage sites/shrines such as Sundarimai at Sundarijal. Kuriyagaun and Sankhamul are the major squatter settlements along the river banks (Annex IV).3 6. Gairigaun.8 7.5 5. Both sides of river banks downstream from Gokarna have been encroached for the collection of construction materials.1 23.9 9. Sankhamulghat.4 10. 2. (2005) join the Bagmati as it flows towards the Chobhar gorge. Uttar Bahini and Sundarighats are also located along the river bank. Kimal Phant.7 6. Shantinagar. Chintamanighat. Gairigaun.1. bamboo weirs have been constructed across the river to trap sand.0 14. cleaning.5 16.6 6. Private organisations collecting waste from households also dump wastes directly along the river banks at locations such as Baneshwar. Guheshwari and Pashupatinath temples at Pashupati. Outlet of Bagmati river at Katuwal Daha. Kalimati Dole.5 17. Details of Bagmati River and its tributaries (length. elevation and origin) Name Bagmati Bishnumati Danda Bosan Dhobi Khola Godawari Hanumante Indrawati Indrayani Kodaku Mahadav Length (km) 35. Gokarneswar. © BAP Study Team . squatter settlements. important ghats (cremation sites) Aryaghat.2 14.

Diversion is also done from tributaries such as Sangla and Mahadev Khola.9 Fig. The river sides have been extensively encroached by squatters. Ram Mandir. In addition.2). Nil Saraswati and Tudal Devi are important religious sites located along this river and these sites are well preserved.3.3 km with the total catchment area of 109. Tankeshwori. shrines and installed water hand pumps from Shobha Bhagwati to the Teku stretches of the river. originates at Maharajgunj inside the Valley. Kumaristhan. Balaju. In some stretches such as Durbar Marg and Kamaladi. Large volume of water from Bishnumati is diverted for drinking water and domestic use near the source close to the foothills (Annex V). It joins the Bagmati at Kalmochan. Samakhushi. The local clubs have built small community parks. 2. 2. also known as Ichhumati. Kankeshwori. Tukucha (Ichhumati) Tukucha. The length of the Bishnumati river is 17. 2. Most of these sites are in deteriorating condition. 2. Bishnumati Bishnumati river is a major tributary of the Bagmati river originating at Bishnudwar (2300m) at Shivapuri and flowing southward.94 sq km (Map 5). pipes have been laid for pumping water directly from the river to individual houses. Balaju Jagriti Tole. At present. Bhatbhateni temple. The study conducted by KAPRIMO (2007) has revealed the increasing BOD levels as Bishnumati flows out of the core area of the city (Fig. Most of the river banks are used for dumping solid wastes generated from the city. The level of DO (5. Average BOD level at different locations of Bishnumati 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 tha ar i niy ata ar r u ko t llu an aij kh az Ma m po ilk dh Bu Ma ch Na ya b Th an Ba ha Da Te k ar u . The entire stretch of the river has been used for dumping solid waste and waste water into the river. and flows south to the heart of the city joining the Bagmati river at Buddhanagar (Bijuli Bazar).3 sq km (Map. originates from the Shivapuri hills.1 Average BOD level at different locations of Bagmati 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 ija l Go ka rn a Jo rp ati Ga ur igh at Til ga ng Mi a nb ha wa n Sa nk ha mu Te l ku Do va n Ba lkh Su u nd ar igh at Ch ob ha r Su nd ar Important religious and cultural sites such as Shobha Bhagwati.2 km (Pradhan. 2. Mhepi. Sangam Tole and Ranibari in this river (Annex IV). Thapathali. residential buildings and road construction. The total catchment area of Tukucha is about 8.2 sq km (Map 5). 1996).68 mg/l. 5). Nepaltar. Bhachakhushi and Manamati. It is about 6. Squatter settlements in different locations along the river have toilet outlets directly into the river. The BOD level measured at Thapathali (KAPRIMO.4. also known as Rudramati river. Ludi. Squatter settlements are located at Dhikure Chauki. Fig. Shivadev Basaha and Budhanilkantha are located along the Bishnumati river. Khusibu. Water sewer discharge through storm water drains are common in core areas such as Manamaiju. It is the most polluted amongst all the tributaries. There are also many cremation sites located at the river confluences. Shobha Bhagwati is historically significant because two renowned martyrs were hanged to death during the autocratic Rana regime.2. Sangla. Kankeswori and Kalimati. Use of the river banks are almost similar to the Bagmati river. Khahare Khola and Chakhuncha Khola are its tributaries. Private organisations and municipalities are also disposing wastes along the Kankeswori –Teku bridge stretch. Indrayani.4 km long single channel without any tributary (Pradhan. Mahadev. 2007) was 119. Its length is 18. 1996) and the total catchment area is 31. Buddhajyoti Marg.8 mg/l) at Thankot and Budhanilkantha shows that the quality of water is at an acceptable level up to Budhanilkantha.2. Its major tributaries are Chharchhare. Shobha Bhagwati. The river banks along the Gongabu Bus Park are being extensively used for commercial purposes. Tukucha has become an open sewage drain. The Bishnumati river merges with the Bagmati river at Teku Dovan. Dhobikhola (Rudramati) The Dhobikhola. 2. the river flows underneath the buildings. Dallu.

. Large volume of sand is excavated from the Baluwakhani and Adhikarigaon flood plains. Mandikatar. The discharge of raw sewage and solid waste dumping increases as it flows downstream from Kapan. Severely polluted stretches are from Chabahil to Siphal. A small collection chamber has been constructed near Sano Thimi bridge to collect waste water from the Pepsicola Planning Area. Anamnagar and the junction of Dhobikhola and Bagmati are common dumping sites. Culturally and historically important sites such as Bajrayogini. Sand mining activities have exposed piers of the Chabahil Ring Road Bridge. The river is free from sewage along this stretch. clothes and bathing animals. Total catchment area of the Manahara river is 285. Riparain vegetation is still intact in upstream locations like Sankhu but has decreased downstream (Bajracharya et. Sukumbashi Tole (settlement upstream of Gopi Krishna Hall at Chabahil and Anamnagar) is at greater risk of flood hazards as it is a flood plain. during the period 1978— 2002. 2. Salinadi. Bank erosion is also common in some locations. It is the longest tributary of the Bagmati. Squatters have extensively encroached the river banks. Dumping can be observed at several locations along the Arniko Highway at Jadibuti and Pepsicola Town Planning Area. According to Shrestha (2007). having a length of 23. Maitidevi to Baneswor. al. Limited sand mining occurs at Chunikhel but terrace mining is very common along the river side. The ecological status and water quality of Manahara gradually deteriorates from upstream to downstream (Shrestha. 1996).23 mg/l in February 2007. 2006). Kodku Khola and Ghatte Khola. © BAP Study Team Catchment areas like Sankhu. It originates from Manichaur danda in the north east and flows towards the south-west. Thali and Mulpani are covered by the agricultural land. Maitidevi. New sewer lines have been connected to discharge waste water directly into the rivers in newly urbanizing locations. The river has been severely channelized by a newly constructed road (Neupane. 2008).10 The upstream section that passes through agricultural land has clear water. Manahara Manahara river meets the Bagmati river at Chyasal. The BOD level at Balkumari in Lalitpur district (KAPRIMO. 2007). which is used for washing utensils. forest area has reduced from 87% to only 17% while the cultivated land has increased to 77% and urban settlements have increased from 0. 2006) is three times higher at Sano Thimi compared to Sankhu. . The major tributaries are Hanumante.09 mg/l . Agricultural water pumps are seen at different locations. The level of BOD (KAPRIMO.5. E. (2007) at Buddhanagar was 108.35 sq km (Map 5). Existing outlets of sewer along the river bank are in very poor condition. Godavari Khola.002% to 5%. and from Anamnagar to Babarmahal. Squatter settlements are present near the bridge at Jadibuti and sand mining activities are observed from Mulpani to Koteshwor.4 km (Pradhan. 2007) was 30. Sewage connection lacking in upper reaches becomes prevalent downstream. Salinadi Tirtha and Changunarayan are situated along the banks of this river and they are still in good condition.coli from sewer and solid waste (Barjacharya.

Large dumps of solid waste is found accumulated near industrial areas. Culturally important temple of Tika Bhairab is located at the confluence of Nakkhu. Sewer connections are rare but dumping of solid waste along the river bank generates nuisance. Freshwater fish recorded in the field survey indicates good water quality in the river. 2. Nallu and Lele Khola meet at Tikabhairab to form Nakkhu Khola. The river water is diverted from the upstream of Nallu Khola at Basuki for drinking and irrigation. Several small industries such as Sipradi and Pet Bottles are located along this stretch of the river. Kodku. Local communities charge Rs. Biodiversity and ecological conditions of the riverside are still close to their natural state. Foaming substances floating on the river indicate the possibility of chemical pollution in the river.14 mg/l. Tinthana and Satungal lie in this catchment area. Rajkulo.1. Balkhu (Indramati) Balkhu river originates in Chandragiri in the west. Various birds and insects like dragon fly. It meets Hanumante at Balkot. Sewer drains are found in Thankot and Tinthana area further downstream. Balambu. Population density is high in Kalanki and Balkhu.8. The BOD level measured at Nakkhu (KAPRIMO. About 20-30 water tankers ferry drinking water daily to the city from the kunda alone. River water being used for various purposes. The BOD level measured at Balkhu (KAPRIMO.32 sq km (Map 5). The condition of the sewer pipe is generally poor. Some medium scale sand mining activity is observed near the confluence of Bagmati and Nakkhu Khola. Settlements like Thankot. Water turbidity is high due to marble quarry at Godavari which is generating job opportunity for local communities. Water is also diverted for irrigation at Chhampi. River banks near Tinthana and Kalanki are used for dumping solid waste by the Kathmandu Metropolitan City and Kirtipur Municipality. Rato Machhindranath festival celebrated every twelve years (Barabarse Mela). 50% of which is used for local development and remaining 50% goes for the development of kunda and surrounding temples. Five major subtributaries considered to be important for the restoration of the Bagmati river are Godavari. Three day of festival (jatra) is celebrated on the occasion of Ram Navami. Some squatter settlements are seen at the confluence of the Thado Khola and the Balkhu river near Khasi Bazar. 2007) was 27.11 2. 2. Important religious sites are Ikkchha Brisheshwor Mahadev. Sub-tributaries There are also several important sub-tributaries. Sewage pipes are directly discharging household waste at Tamang Gaun.6. © Siddhartha/NTNC .23 mg/l.44 sq km (Map 5). it has been observed from Kusunti onwards.8. Nakkhu Nakkhu Khola flows from the south and meets Bagmati near the Chobhar gorge. The river is extensively used for washing clothes. Sangla and Mahadev Khola.7. A portion of rajkulo still exists and drains water from the Godavari river to the adjoining areas. Also known as Indramati. Thado Khola is the major tributary. Bhaktapur. grass hopper and many bugs are indicators of high biodiversity in the surrounding riverside. butterfly. Godavari Godavari river is the tributary of Manahara. The total catchment area of the Balkhu river is 46. 200 for a truck. A water treatment and distribution plant has been constructed near the confluence of Nakkhu Khola and Bagmati. The Nakkhu river is also important for 2. It originates from the ridge of Bhardeu and the total catchment area of the watershed is 51. 2007) was 13. Industrial waste is relatively more than household waste. Loss of natural vegetation in surrounding river sides due to mining is clearly visible. Hanumante. an irrigation canal system constructed during the Malla Period (mid-1600s) and fed by Nallu Khola is no more functional in many areas. Although solid waste dumping is absent in the upstream areas. utensils and bathing animals. it meets Bagmati outside Ring Road at Balkhu. Water diversion for irrigation and drinking is seen in Godamchaur and Godavari kunda. Waste from Ranga Bazar at Satungal is discharged directly into the river. Bishnu Devi and Bir Binayak temples.

2007) was 185 mg/l with COD level being 131. 2. It has increased sediment load in the river. Kodku Khola Kodku Khola is 14. Most of the surrounding region is still used as agricultural field. It originates from the north facing slopes of the Tileswor danda and Bhagwan danda. Sand mining is the predominant occupation here. While the upstream is relatively clean. While sand mining has improved the economic status of the workers. 2. 2007) at Manmaiju was 36. river ecosystem and agricultural land (Sayami. Hanumanghat. impacts of urbanization can be felt downstream from Phutung. located southward. All the rivers within the Kathmandu valley have more or less similar issues of different intensity. The rivers in the valley also posses rich cultural and ethnic values.9 km long and flows north of the Manahara river. Construction of road and stone quarry near its bank has accelerated erosion of the surrounding land. The Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) has been diverting water for city supply from this river. is culturally very important as there exists the Mahalaxmi temple. The average BOD level (KAPRIMO. it has generated negative impacts on the environment. The upstream water quality is very good (Maharjan 2006). Riparian vegetation is relatively sparse downstream resembling open drainage. Sangla Khola Sangla Khola is a tributary of the Bishnumati river and originates from Ale hill in the north-western part of the Valley. It joins Manahara at Phidol. Large streams which directly join the Bagmati river stretch from Sundarijal to Chovar is referred to as the major tributaries of Bagmati river in the valley. 2007). The river path is severely disturbed with lots of holes dug for sand mining activities. Construction activities have degraded the river. Little Angel’s School and Guna Cinema have confined the river into a channel. In 2007. The Bagmati river system has been widely used for drinking. are often used to stockpile sand and hume pipes. Hanumante Khola Hanumante Khola is the tributary of Manahara and originates from Mahadev danda in the eastern part of the Valley.6 cu m (Sayami et al. In the upstream. Hanuman Ghat is one of the cremation sites of Bhaktapur. The general analysis of the river system clearly indicated that at present.4.8. Therefore the issues of the Bagmati river system has been analysed in detail in the subsequent chapter. Mahadev Khola Mahadev khola also originates from Aale hill in the north-west. The waste is strewn everywhere at crematory.8. 2007).3. River water is polluted at Padmasala and Jaraku of Kabreshthai VDC. industrial and other purposes.8. The above discussions reflected that the Bagmati river system has seven major tributaries and five sub-tributaries within the Kathmandu valley. Buildings away from the river have septic tanks constructed for sewer collection. Few squatter settlements exist along the river banks with sand mining activities at the confluence of Hanumante and Manahara rivers. the river degradation is correlated with population density and urbanization.12 2. Degradation of the river water quality and quantity is the major issues of the Bagmati river system. © Siddhartha/NTNC Encroachment of river banks by squatters. sand extraction from the area was about 747. The BOD level was 46. River banks are protected by gabion walls.23 mg/l. the river is in natural state. In addition. areas beyond Tokha has been polluted. the confluence of Tabyakhusi and Chakhu Khola.33 mg/l in Baniyatar. The BOD level of Kodku Khola (KAPRIMO. river beds have deepened from 1 to 5m from its original level. Its catchment area is 34 sq km. The banks of the river are treated as dumping site of the municipality.5 mg/l. bridges and besides river banks. the river is channelized and mixed with sewage.5.8. A housing colony has diverted the Kodku Khola between Gwarko and Hattiban (Pathak et al. However. Household sewage is directly discharged to the river. 2007). Untreated sewage of Bhaktapur is directly discharged into the river at Hanuman Ghat. Downstream from Harisiddhi bridge. Consequently. irrigation. Continuous drop in river discharge with the lowering of the river bed has made it unfeasible to directly pump water from the river. River banks . 2. Areas upstream and downstream of Bhaktapur and Thimi are highly urbanized.2. and has concentrated 5km upstream from the confluence of the Sangla and Bishnumati rivers. Recently constructed road network along both sides of the river has narrowed its channel.

Map 3: Village Development Committees and Municipalities of the Kathmandu Valley © NTNC 13 .

14 Map 4: Land use map of the Kathmandu Valley .

Decrease in water discharge. River ecosystem and waste water Decrease in water discharge Decrease in water discharge exerts enormous impact in the overall river ecosystem by damaging the habitat for aquatic life. and iii. exposing the river banks and channeling of the flow. and ii. The critical issues of the Bagmati river and its tributaries are primarily related to water discharge. Chapagaun of Nallu river. river side land use. Integrating conventional planning with ecosystem management. and ii. Key challenges i. Enforcement. Depletion of aquatic biodiversity 3. upstream Bagmati (Fig. 3. ii. iv. Degradation of river water quality. preservation of culture and heritage. 3. The tapping of water for drinking and irrigation purposes from main sources of rivers is a root cause of decreasing water discharge. Discharge record from the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) for 19751999 at Sundarijal station reveals decreasing trend of water discharge (Fig.1. While there are frequent high discharges at the time of flood in the Bagmati river. Deteriorating culture and heritage. and v. ii.1). Sangla river. coordination and stakeholder participation Many issues related to the Bagmati river have been identified and analysed by previous studies and reports. iii. Sundarijal. Eroding aesthetic values 3.3 KEY ISSUES OF BAGMATI RIVER 3. and related institutional arrangements. Culture and heritage i. Based on the ground truthing of these issues during field observations.3. Degradation of catchment quality. Godavari river. water quality. payment for services and incentives for conservation. Bishnudwar of Bishnumati. Narrowing and deepening of water way.1.2. the following four primary issues have been identified as critical for immediate restoration and conservation of the Bagmati river: 3. the overall trend is decreasing. River ecosystem and waste water i. Demand management. Changes in riverside land use. Eroding cultural values and norms © Siddhartha/NTNC .4. Mahadev 3.2). River side land use and socio-economic conditions i. aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity.

disposing household solid waste into the river banks. one of the oldest irrigation canal systems in the Valley built to fill up historical ponds irrigate farmlands en route and provide water. about 30 million litres of water is tapped everyday from rivers such as Bagmati. There is an urgent need to enforce the provisions to regulate the Environment Flow Requirement (EFR) for protecting water sources from haphazard water diversions. 3. Altogether. According to KMTNC (2004). Water from rivers such as Manahara. There are potential water recharge areas and wetlands such as the dhap in the Shivapuri National Park.6 1. such initiatives have not been explored by concerned agencies.16 Fig. Lalitpur SubMetropolitan City and surrounding VDCs have extremely poor quality of water. Similar initiatives should be promoted and expanded at households and institutional levels. should also start exploring © NTNC © Siddhartha/NTNC Dhap in Shivapuri National Park. This project may help to increase water discharge in the Bagmati river. Sankhu and Godavari. open defecation practice. Bishnumati and other small streams originating from the Shivapuri hills. On the basis of Saprobic method. Degradation of river water quality Khola and Dudh Pokhari are major locations where huge volume of water has been diverted daily for drinking and irrigation purposes.1 1 1975 . this has remained the prime responsibility of the Ministry of Physical Planning and Works. For less densely populated parts of the city and rural areas in the surrounding hills of the Valley and adjoining locations such as Budhanilkantha.1. River segments in highly urbanized area such as Kathmandu Metropolitan City. There is also the possibility of increasing groundwater recharging capacity by afforestation and construction of low check dams in the sources of rivulets in the Valley. Degradation increases significantly as rivers enter the core area of the city. Initiatives have been undertaken by various government and nongovernment organisations to recharge groundwater through rainwater harvesting in the Valley such as the recharging of Ranipokhari through rainwater harvesting.1979 1980 . However. industries. Studies by Pradhan (1998) and ICIMOD (2007) have indicated that the river water in the majority of upstream sources is still clean. Local communities have reported that a large volume of water is transported to city centres by tankers for drinking purposes from sources such as Godavari and Matatirtha. while it is most polluted downstream within the core area of the city (Table 3. Agencies working for environmental improvement of the Bagmati river should generate pressure for completing this project as soon as possible. there are no regulatory mechanisms and guidelines for managing the use of these water resources.1989 1990 . The Government of Nepal. together with other concerned agencies. Sundarijal.5 1. 34 ponds have been identified for rehabilitation and there is also the possibility of promoting rainwater harvesting in larger number of households in the Valley.2 1. the quality of water has been classified into four classes (Box 3). tourism and recreational activities. Average discharge at Sundarijal (m3/s) 1.1984 1985 . At the moment.1999 other potential projects for inter-basin transfer of water to increase the flow in rivers of the Valley. Increasing trend of BOD and decreasing trend of DO at different points in the rivers clearly indicate the degradation of water quality in the rivers.3 1. .1994 1995 . is still serving a few settlements and their agricultural areas in the southern part of the Valley. Nakkhu and Balkhu has been intensively utilised for agriculture. waste generated by tourists and Rajkulo (royal canal). Melamchi water supply project's plan of bringing water for drinking into the Valley is a good initiative (Box 2).4 1.1). poor sanitation. However. There does not exist any guideline or policy related to river water diversion and extraction.

particularly snow trout. III. piggery. Daily use of water is 90MLD in dry season and 120 MLD in wet season.3 1000 8. Three intermittent sub-classes of these four major SWQ.699 households (7. Source: MWSP (2000) © Siddhartha/NTNC Direct discharge of waste water into the Bagmati river picnikers. About 33. and species’ number).7 TSS mg/l Chloride mg/l Ammonia mg/l BOD mg/l Coliform counts per 100 ml DO mg/l Source: MWSP (2000) . etc. mainly along segments of the Bishnumati river. The waste water after treatment will have direct and indirect implications on the water quality of the Bagmati river. Individual households as well as VDCs and municipal authorities are responsible for these activities.9 Khokana 70 24 11 65 1.7%) in the Bhaktapur district do not have toilet facilities (DWSS 2007). The quality of the Bagmati river water can be divided into four major classes ranging from best (pristine) to worst: Saprobic Water Qualities (SWQ) Class I (oligosaprobic—no to very slight pollution with a variety of species). and II-III and III-IV can also be identified. About 70% of total water supplied will be collected as waste water. More than 70% of the total municipal waste generated is organic. which is about 115. Of this.005 households (9. With rapid urbanization of formerly small settlements such as Satungal. the Bagmati river water shows a continuum state of water quality in terms of macro-invertebrates. domestic animals. haphazard construction is taking its toll on the Bagmati river. the only Guheswori WWTP is . (iii) importance of water (such as water temperature) in maintaining the micro-ecology of the area. There is no any systematic sewage treatment system. By doing so. Box 3: Bagmati water quality Saprobic method describes the relationship between riverine ecology and river water quality. WWTP and Guheswori WWTP However. Similarly. Although there exists sewage network to carry waste water. Squatters along the banks at different river segments discharge toilets directly into the river. chemical wastes from industries are also contributing to the river water pollution. 2000). Sallaghari WWTP Hanumante WWTP Kodku . number of small industries such as poultry.17 Box 2: Melamchi Project The Melamchi Water Supply Project aims to bring 170 MLD water in Kathmandu for drinking and plans to expand up to 510 MLD. Baniyatar. Waste from slaughter houses.000 m3 per day.000. vegetables. SWQ Class III (alphamesosaprobic–heavy pollution with tolerant macroforms).000-120. paper mills. . This waste water is discharged without any treatment. The description of each water quality class is based on the abundance and diversity of macro-zoobenthos present. concrete. 70% is discharged as waste water (WMPA. Thankot. Dumping of solid waste and sewage discharge is more acute as the river moves towards the city core. saw mills.03 1. Phutung and Jorpati.6% of the total households) in the Kathmandu district. there does not exist any system in the city for treatment before discharging the waste into the river. ICIMOD. Manamaiju.2%) in the Lalitpur district and 4.1: Water quality parameters Parameters Sundarijal 5 1 0. A treatment plant at Guheshwori treats only the upstream waste water. utensils. Evaluation of water quality of the river will be based on (i) the suitability of water for human utilization. bathing and disposing remains after rituals have also contributed to degrading the water quality in the city outskirts.000 1. (ii) suitability of water for aquatic life. Residents of Kathmandu and Lalitpur districts have become hesitant to use the river water for irrigation purposes due to its poor quality. Many initiatives have been undertaken in the past by different government organisations to manage waste water in the Valley. 13. are important pollutants of river water. Some of these initiatives were the establishment of Dhobighat Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP). is discharged directly into river. dying. SWQ Class II (beta-mesosaprobic—moderate pollution rich in individuals. and SWQ Class IV (polysaprobic—extreme pollution with macro benthic life restricted to air-breathing animals). vehicles.244 households (19. Industrial effluents and waste from hospital are also increasing the river pollution. particularly for irrigation. Disposing municipal waste in the river banks is also very common. Rampant use of river for washing clothes. viz. bathing. are very common in these areas. chemical fertilizers and pesticides used for farming. Increasing growth of industries. 2008). About 3000m3 of solid waste is estimated to have accumulated in the Bagmati river during dry season (WECS. operation of mills/microhydro power schemes. biomass. 2007 Table 3. and (iv) aesthetic and religious importance. A huge volume of waste water generated from the households and industries is directly discharged into the rivers.

schools. community and municipal levels of management of organic waste have to be promoted in the Valley.5 Madhyapur Thimi 14. These recommended designs are conventional centralized system for addressing waste water management for urban area and require significant funds for their construction and operation. Settlements in rural areas are appropriate for the promotion of onsite sanitation. Tigni and Gamcha by CIUD). Many areas in the Valley possess clustered settlements mainly in rural and outskirts of the city core with population of 10. local clubs. DEWATS is appropriate for areas where waste water flows from 1-1000 m3 per day.18 Table 3. The Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilisation Centre. Continuous Box 4: Managing waste water through DEWATS DEWATS is another approach for managing waste water.9 operational now. This can also be a source of income for local organisations. Carbon financing under the Clean Development Mechanism of Kyoto Protocol can be used to address solid waste disposal in the Valley. community awareness and resource mobilisation are other important factors for future considerations. There is a new approach known as Decentralized Waste Water Treatment System (DEWATS) appropriate for small settlements located away from the core city area. responsible for waste and landfill site management in five municipalities of the Kathmandu Valley. Strong regulatory mechanism. 434. committees and communities have an important role. There is an assumption that 50100 litre of waste water is generated per person per day.3 Kirtipur 11.4 Kathmandu 308. Organisations working on waste management should explore and develop CDM projects. Household. Failure in operating WWTPs as well as the inefficiency of the only operating the Guheswori WWTP emphasises the need to develop more effective and efficient management of treatment plants. Ecosan (implemented in Khokana and Siddhipur by ENPHO.000.1 775.6 Total Sources: KVO. For this.000. is planning to establish sanitary landfill site at Okharpauwa with the support of JICA in addition to the existing landfill site in Sisdol.4 Lalitpur 75. Area can have multiple settlements and multiple DEWATS can be implemented to serve that area. Initiatives taken to promote ecological sanitation (ecosan) to manage waste water in rural areas of Kathmandu Valley by different government and non-government agencies since the last few years have proved exemplary for on-site sanitation. The opportunity for developing CDM projects to attract investment to improved waste management infrastructure for each significant (Barton et al 2008). Management of organic waste at the local level reduces pressures on landfill sites and also prevents river pollution.4 46.e. monasteries. This is an appropriate system for agricultural areas. Various studies have proposed different interventions but so far none have been implemented. Its main objective is to manage waste water at the local level. Requirement of land for treatment plant is a key factor for its implementation. This approach of faecal sludge management is not used any more now. the Kathmandu Metropolitan City used to collect waste from septic tanks and treat it before discharging into the river. This approach is good for reducing volume of waste water before connecting main sewage line from the institutes such as army barracks. i.9 135. Such system has to be reinitiated in areas which may not be served by the existing WWTP and where other options may not be immediately feasible. Sunnga WWTP (Reed bed technology) in Thimi is a good initiation of ENPHO/ UNHABITAT for DEWATS. that generate large amount of waste water and industries that produce industrial effluents before connecting to main sewerage. etc.8 18. Public-private partnership has been recognised as a viable approach for efficient operation of these plants.2: Waste generation in five municipalities (tons/day) Municipality Generation (2004) Collection (2004) 250 52 19 5 4 330 Projected generation (2015) 547. DEWATS has been recently introduced in the Valley and so far only one small plant installed for 250 households in Thimi is operational. This is an appropriate approach for managing waste in the developing countries and it is cost-effective (BORDA 1998). but is not appropriate for scattered settlements. is Degradation of catchment quality Maintaining and considering the catchment areas of the Bagmati river and its tributaries are highly important.000-20. © BAP Study Team A variety of chemical effluents deposited along the river bank. for settlements with the population of 10. More promotion and awareness raising activities are required.000—20.1 Bhaktapur 25. This type of technology is appropriate for densely populated areas. 2006 a successful example of waste water management. NGOs.2 27. In the past. .

Therefore. fish. etc. mainly the sand bed. Strong law enforcement and awareness campaigns are required to control sand mining. clubs. were seen exposed in most of the river beds (one to three metre depth) during field survey. From the foothills to adjoining area of the city core sand mining activities have escalated. land conversion to agriculture. Narrowing and deepening of water way is a critical issue to the rivers flowing north of the Valley.5 meters lower than the old bed and this has adversely affected foundations of ghats and other structures. the government has completely banned extraction of sand from the river bed but illegal sand mining still goes on (Saudaula.19 deforestation and land conversion to agriculture have seriously degraded catchment quality of the Bagmati river system. macro and micro invertebrates. below the sand bed. Maintaining and conserving the catchment areas are important in the scenario that increase in good forest cover will increase the portion of water that is retained within the watershed during the rainy season. Lowering of water level in streams initiates groundwater discharge into the rivers thus lowering groundwater table in the vicinity. Previous studies have revealed that the sand extraction rate is much higher than natural deposition rate in these areas (IUCN. a study has shown that forest area has significantly improved within the Shivapuri National Park (KARNA 2008). Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Active participation of local residents. are other causes of deepening of the water way in many downstream areas. there is an oppurtunity to mobilize the community forest user groups to effectively manage the forest of the catchment areas. except ShNP. Degradation of these catchment areas will increase potentially damaging peak flows and reducing base flows required for a more steady flow of water downstream. . that catchment quality is slowly degrading except within ShNP. Sudden changes in river gradient have resulted in the deposition of high volume of sediments from upstream to downstream areas. other catchments and sub-catchments areas are not under protected status. However. © Siddhartha/NTNC Narrowing and deepening of water way Deepening of the river channel increases the flow velocity of the river that damages the infrastructure (bridges) and settlements along the river side. The recent collapse of a bridge in the Bagmati river at Sinamangal is believed to be due to excessive sand extraction. Construction of infrastructures like gabion walls and check dams to channelize the river water and roads to serve urbanizing areas. 2007). Sangla and Manahara catchment areas. Several bridges and cultural heritage sites like ghats on the river banks are at high risk due to this factor. high demand for forest products. Sand mining activities also cause changes in river courses which generally lead to disputes over land ownership (BBWMSIP. Consequent lowering of the river bed has left piers of the bridges exposed at many locations. The problems of narrowing and deepening of the water way also exist in the city core. Bagmati and other rivers in the urban stretch were braided and it flowed over gravel and sand bed. Such mining activities may also lead to erosion of banks and scouring of the river beds. unregulated and illegal quarries . There are 374 community forests with a total area of 16. amphibians and reptiles and birds are indicators of water pollution. squatter settlements and roads constructed along the river banks in the core urban areas are other reasons for river channelling. along the river sides will be essential. Now. animal grazing etc are some of the key reasons. Improvement in forest cover in the Bagmati Watershed and Sundarijal sub-catchment has led to a more steady flow of water downstream (KARNA 2008). Originally. from the river bed are major causes of narrowing and deepening of the river bed in the Valley. It was observed during field surveys that forest areas have been converted to agriculture land and grazing areas in the boundaries of ShNP. The collapse of bridge in Thapathali in 1991 was attributed to heavy sand extraction from the river bed. Restoration of river bed. the river is confined to a single deep channel. The reduction in aquatic biodiversity results in increasing A landscape view of Shivapuri National Park.359 hectares in Kathmandu. 1994). Rapid and unplanned urbanization. Black clay layer. encroachment of river banks and extraction of huge volume of sand Depletion of aquatic biodiversity Aquatic flora and fauna species such as benthic. However. Extraction of sand from the river in 2007 alone was estimated about 3103m3 or 60% of the total annual demand of the Valley (Sayami 2007. In general. They can be used to determine the river water quality (ICIMOD. Unplanned construction of gabion structures along the bank. is needed for natural purification and enhancing river flow. The river bed between Teku and Thapathali is currently about 2. 1993 ). Since then. 1995). schools.). Structures to protect private land.

Natural vegetation and trees can still be seen along the downstream Chobhar gorge. solid waste dumping. The trend of decreasing aquatic biodiversity increases as river flows down towards the urban core. etc. Dhobikhola Link Road. Floating solid waste and foul smell of polluted river water have significantly decreased the aesthetic value of the river and its surroundings. improper management of ritual and cremation waste. these areas have also been highly polluted by the municipal waste disposed upstream. the aesthetic value of rivers and its surroundings is eroding rapidly due to changes in riverside land use. 1980) whereas only 11 species were recorded by a survey in 1994 (BBWMSIP. are some factors behind the decreasing aesthetic value of rivers and their surrounding areas in the Kathmandu Valley. offices. River side land use and socioeconomic conditions Changes in river side land use patterns River side lands are very important for maintaining river ecosystem as well the aesthetic value of rivers and their surroundings. Siberian Ducks. Promoting ecotourism. are unfriendly for aquatic animals. Healthy river ecosystem should have good riparian vegetation.) seen during field survey in different rivers and streams in surrounding hills and rural areas indicate the probability of existing good aquatic biodiversity. public toilets. new temples and road construction. Varieties of clean river water species prevail in the headwater region but only a few tolerant species dominate in the highly-polluted city core area because of organic waste (Pradhan 1998). Eco-friendly measures should be promoted to protect river banks from erosion which also helps in protecting biodiversity. business complex. A fish survey in 1980 recorded 23 species (Shrestha. whereas riparian land along the foothills has already been converted into agriculture. In several segments of the river such as construction of dam at Gokarna and the weir under the bridge of Thapathali. Rivers and streams in the National Park and forests upstream still have good riparian vegetation. eco clubs in schools and seeking volunteers for maintaining the biodiversity in the rivers should be encouraged. 3. However. The condition of river side land gets worse as river approaches downstream. Many river sides have been encroached permanently for private residence. squatter settlements. riparian lands have been converted to other socio-economic use and infrastructure. in downstream areas after Chobhar indicate the presence of some aquatic life.2. It starts decreasing as the rivers flow towards the city core. As river flows down towards the city core. Bagmati Link Road are some of the examples of encroachment of river side land for road construction. Some areas further away from urban core are being temporarily used for the collection of construction materials. Eroding aesthetic values Aesthetic values of river and its surroundings have great importance. squatter settlements etc. Cattle Egrets. has migrated to other location due to extinction of fish species in the river. It could be a popular destination for the national and international tourists. However. Freshwater fish species such as Asala (Schizothorax sp. but none are evident after the rivers approach the city. Rivers before approaching urban city still have some species of fish such as hile. dyeing and cleaning materials for cottage industries and small workshops. A community consultation in a settlement near the Kautwal daha revealed that Danuwar ethnic group.20 imbalance of ecosystem and the extinction of valuable species. Loss of riparian vegetation. Visits of migratory birds and the presence of some residential birds such as Kingfisher. A bird survey conducted by Bird Conservation Nepal (BCN) in the stretch from Chobhar gorge to the confluence of Bosan Khola recorded 29 species of birds within three hours (Annex V). whose major occupation was fishing. In the hills and foothills surrounding the Valley. © Sarbendra Pachhai Common hoopoe . schools. hoarding boards along the river sides. Vegetation along the riparian area has to be enhanced. It contributes to increasing biodiversity. Different studies show that there has been significant decrease in aquatic biodiversity due to highly polluted water especially along the urban core area. the aesthetic values of the river is still fairly high. Bishnumati link road (Paropakar— Gongabu Bus Park). Community-based awareness campaign for the protection of Bagmati’s biological diversity is absolutely mandatory. 1994). Pond Herons. Unmanaged cremation waste disposed along the Jal Binayak Ghat is also contributing to the pollution. Landscaping and plantation has to be initiated in all parts of the river segments by mobilising local communities along the river.

Uncontrolled pollution and environmental hazards have destroyed the river. However. the Bagmati lacked ownership at every level. Integrating conventional planning with ecosystem management The past history of the Bagmati river management is a story of failure of concerned organisation to effectively tackle the problems. Many important culture and heritage sites such as Gokarna. sattals and ghats near Gokarneswor Mahadev. The condition of heritage sites inside the city area is at high risks compared to the monuments outside the core area. Pashupati. The number of important cultural and heritage sites is higher in the city centre as compared to its outskirts. Almost all major rivers have some important heritage sites. (ii ) Implementing demand management for ecosystem services and ensuring that appropriate payments are made. Bishnudevi Temple at Tinthana. 1995). Urbanization and the pervading influence of other culture and gradually eroding our cultural values. without which their souls. Caught amidst a plethora of organizations chasing too many priorities with too little resources. © BAP Study Team Ground water being generated to quench urban thirst. Teku Dovan. ghats. which has also severely affected the monuments and structures (RGKV. Shobha Bhagwati. in order to effectively restore and conserve the Bagmati river. sattals. The tradition of maintaining and keeping clean premises around ‘ghats’ and temples through social system such as ‘guthi’ have slowly eroded. Today. IUCN (1995) has also indicated that many patis have been encroached for shelter (see Annex VII). The Bagmati river has been an important part of this culture and heritage. Ping Dyo at Kirtipur. the unique culture must be preserved by raising awareness at the local. for many people . Ecosystem management seeks the restoration of all the living and non living organisms as well as their interactions. JalBinayak Ganesh at Chobhar. pati of Dallu bridge and Shobha Bhagwati. Purneswar Temple. shrines and other related monuments and structures were in relatively good conditions. Bagmati river’s water used to be a free resource and in many upstream areas it may still be relatively free. Tokha Chandeswori. 1995). The cost of lost cultures is far outweighed by the benefit of enhanced welfare and prosperity. However. Some of these services may have markets while many may be considered free. and (iii) Enforcing laws. the rich cultural and heritage along the Bagmati river is considered to be an auspicious act but this has become impossible due to ever increasing polluiton level of water. Major sites under risks include Bombir Bikateswar at Teku. Key challenges Sustainable management of the Bagmati river and its tributaries within the Kathmandu Valley depends on the ability to simultaneously and effectively address the issues of: (i) Integrating ecosystem management with conventional urban and rural land use planning and zoning. Unplanned urbanization and unregulated industrial growth have damaged the cultural resources and have destroyed the aesthetic value of the monuments (IUCN. Bhim Mukteswar at Kalimati. temples. Some of the major sites located outside city area are Shivadev Basaha and Buddha sculpture. Taglung in Budanilkantha. For many people. That led to wide misuse of the rivers for different purpose including solid waste dumping. hearts and mind would lose meaning and any process that uproots such values cannot be considered ‘creative’. 3. Culture and heritage Deteriorating cultural and heritage sites Rivers in the valley also have high cultural and heritage value. 3. their cultural values are their roots. providing different types of valuable ecosystem services.4. are located along the river banks. Sankha Daha south of Changunarayan. temples. the tradition norm of respecting the rivers is slowly disappearing. etc. and ghats at Sundarighat.21 Eroding cultural values and norms The Kathmandu Valley highly rich in culture and heritage. Mahalaxmi Temple at Balambu. national and international levels. A river and its tributaries are unique ecosystems. sand mining etc. sattal of Laxmiswar Temple.3. Therefore. Sankhamul. Most of the important heritage sites along the rivers are facing the risk of complete collapse. many of the problems appear almost insurmountable and consequently might also require strong. Changunarayan Temple. regulation and guidelines at various levels by the governments. Bishnu Vikranta sculpture at Tilganga. The traditional management system such as guthi has also eroded over the time. Until 1960. statue of Bishnu at Tripureswar. Moreover. Ghats in Sundarijal area. across the board corrective measures.

manage. . harnessing in situ solutions such as rain water and promoting more decentralized management systems. various line agencies of the central government that have legal roles. Social issues are evident in the demand for the ecosystem services as well as in their management. hydro power and irrigation to agriculture (KARN 2008). there have been many duplication. HPCIDBC could act as a key organization with overall management authority. © BAP Study Team in the urban area water has to be either bought or what is free is so polluted that it cannot be used. Bioregional perspective is necessary for managing ecosystems by carefully understanding the different flows of resources and services. organize research and monitoring activities and time and again bring all the stakeholders together to review the outcomes and formulate new strategies. Least cost to water utility and the customer as well as appropriate payments for the use of water has become critical in the context of demand management. The guiding principle for sustainable management for the future is to have a sound plan that has a strong ownership for implementation by all the stakeholders concerned. more effective use of water charges. Apart from these. A major gap has been lack of an organization that have overall management responsibility for restoration and conservation of the Bagamati river. However. Few recent studies have established the feasibility of piloting PES as an innovative conservation financing tools in the catchment areas which supplies substantial amount of water to the Kathmandu valley for domestic purpose. Gone are the days of mega-projects that are management nightmares. Inter-disciplinary issues need careful evaluation and consideration from different scientific and social groups so as to arrive at solutions that are scientifically valid and socio economically acceptable. Natural features do not submit easily for management along political boundaries. On a positive side. with budget overruns and a perpetual burden on the society. simple regulation and policing will not succeed in conservation. There is and opportunity to strengthen and legally empower HPCIDBC to fill the present gap. The Bagmati and its tributaries winds through a maze of rural and urban zones. structure of the local government. First issue is demand management. coordination and stakeholder participation Institutional failures have been widespread behind the sad story of deterioration of the Bagmati river. Restoring the health of the ecosystem is both a scientific as well as social judgment. Overlapping jurisdictions. lack of congruence between planned activities and their budgets. although heavily degraded at present offers encouraging potentials for the future if it is carefully managed. academic institutions. providing a rich variety of ecosystem services for the people. regulate and monitor all the activities. the approach taken has been to focus more on the supply side without managing the demand side. abandoned projects simply because of inadequate coordination between different interest groups. other local governmental organizations. This is also true for the Bagmati where efforts to find solutions in terms of new water projects are already facing severe problems. Payment for the environmental services could provide incentives to local commumity to protect and manage the natural resources. and political unwillingness to enforce key decisions have been outstanding institutional problems that have been left unresolved over the years. requiring different layers as well as different organizations to support each other. NGOs and local communities. Actual implementation of activities should be encouraged to implement through other stake holders such as municipalities. there has been a pro Bagmati Supreme Court that has been pushing the government to come up with the necessary action and institutional structure. Demand management. In the past. there are the municipalities. The massive increase in urban population has increased the supply and demand gap in water supply. Without this incentive. the present institutional set of as well as capacity of the organization needs a major reform. The organization role is to plan. There are also several NGOs that have lent their enormous enthusiasm in raising awareness and supporting partial cleaning of Bagmati. Its rich cultural heritage as well as biodiversity resources. build capacity at the local level for decentralized and participatory implementation. wastages. payment for services and incentives for conservation Planning and management must be based on realistic assumptions if the plan is to be successfully owned and implemented.22 This neglect of the demand side has overlooked options for more efficient use of water through control of losses. In the past. Enforcement. The role of the coordinating agency would be to facilitate enforcement of laws and guidelines.

Thus. the river ecosystem of the Valley can be observed in various situations at different areas. The water quality worsens mainly in central part of the Valley. water quality worsens with the increase of population density. The water discharge and terrestrial biodiversity are very important issues for the conservation of the surrounding hills. The categorization of river as safe. unsafe and extremely unsafe (IUCN 1995) also indicates that the river of the central part of the Valley is extremely unsafe. Hence. improvement of the river ecosystem is very challenging. the Bagmati river has been classified into four standard water quality classes based on the Saprobic approach (Pradhan. Heavily polluted. Shivapuri National Park and its surrounding hills are in good condition where the population density is the lowest. Different management interventions for the restoration of the Bagmati river has been identified. The upper stream of the Bagmati river. In order to address these issues at micro level according to their relative importance. i. The cross analysis of population density and the river water quality indicates there is an inverse relationship between river water quality and population density. and Extremely polluted. a strategic and systematic approach is essential to develop and implement the Bagmati Action Plan. The data and information analysed in previous chapters reveal that all issues do not have equal level of importance in all river segments. Moderately polluted.e. As the issues are complex. the rivers of the Kathmandu Valley have been classified into five zones (Map 6) on the basis of the existing status of the water quality in river segments and the population density of © Siddhartha/NTNC . Narrowing and deepening of river channels is a major issue in rural areas and the city outskirts where intensive sand extraction exist. The quality of river water due to haphazard sewage connection and dumping of solid waste along the river banks is the major issue for rivers at the urban core. 2005). An issue which is critical for upstream may not be critical for downstream. These are: It is clearly visible that the river water quality in the Shivapuri National Park and its surrounding hills is still in good condition and gradually deteriorates as it flows towards the urban area. As the river flows downstream.4 ZONING OF BAGMATI RIVER Class Class Class Class I: II: III: IV: Non-polluted. As mentioned earlier. However. water pollution at the downstream is the result of the lack of environmental-friendly activities in the upstream settlements.

8% of total targeted area). i. solid waste dumped along the river banks. open defecation along the river banks and storm water drainage. 21% of targeted area). Bishankhunarayan. enhancement of the river ecosystem to Class II can be achieved. Matatirtha.453m). unmanaged animal waste from piggery farms and buffalo wholesale markets such as Ranga Bazar in Satungal. Major issues of this zone to be addressed in the action plan are: decreasing river water discharge due to river diversion for drinking and irrigation purposes. dyeing and cleaning materials for cottage industries. Shivapuri (2. 3. workshops. Tokha Chandeswori and Indrayani are located in this zone.365m) and Nagarjun (2. and lack of responsiveness from concerned authorities 1. and is located between rural and core urban city of the Kathmandu Valley. Bishnudevi .1% of targeted area) consisting of green hills surrounding the Valley such as Phulchowki (2. Manahara. However.24 the area. use of river household purposes deteriorating culture and heritage due to new construction. The river ecosystem is in Class III (critically polluted) category. Consequently. Ichangunarayan. tanker service for commercial benefits of VDCs and local settlements narrowing and deepening of water way due to excessive sand mining. waste blocked by weirs in the river. backflow from agricultural land affected by chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Wetlands with high recharging potentiality are located in this zone. it becomes difficult to restore the river ecosystem. trend of converting forest area into agricultural land. felling of trees and other forest resources for fuel wood. The Bagmati river and its tributaries flow through this zone. degrading water quality due to poor sanitation and unmanaged waste generated by households. Mahalaxmi . Machhenarayan. Majority of the river segments in this zone has Class I level of water quality. etc. Some important cultural and heritage sites and temples such as Asoka Chaitya. etc. 15. Peri-urban Zone Zone 3 is the peri-urban area of the Valley (113 sq km. encroachment. Dhobikhola. It is still being dominated by agricultural land. animal hunting and use of pesticides for farming. Major issues of this zone to be addressed in the action plan are: decreasing water discharge due to excessive diversion of water for drinking and irrigation narrowing and deepening of water way due to excessive sand mining. With high population density. new constructions like monasteries. Restoration of river to Class I is challenging in this zone. for the protection of land and road construction degrading water quality and aquatic biodiversity due to loss of riparian vegetation. use alteration. Chandragiri (2. 45. dumping of waste. Rural Zone The bordering area of Zone 1 is classified as Zone 2 or Rural Zone (150 sq km. Neelbarahi. 2. Bajrabarahi. chemical fertilizers and pesticides changes in river side land use for agriculture.100m). The origin of the Bagmati river and its tributaries: Bishnumati. channeling of river by construction of walls and check dams for the protection of land and buildings depleting aquatic biodiversity due to loss of riparian vegetation. Population density here is comparatively higher than Zone 2 and lesser than Zone 4. roads and other infrastructures. Gokarneshwar Mahadev (also known as Uttar Gaya). untreated sewage disposal from households and industrial effluents. Karyabinayak and Harisiddhi temples are located in this zone.800m). Maps 6. River segments are moderately polluted in this area (Class II) and can be restored into Class I with minimum effort. use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides for farming. commercial hoarding boards. Population density in this zone is higher than Zone 1. The Shivapuri National Park (144 sq km) lies in this zone on the northern fringe of the Valley and Shivapuri watershed is the recharge zone of the Bagmati river as well as of the ground water of the Valley. Many important shrines and temples such as Changunarayan. deteriorating culture and heritage due to replacement of original architecture. i. The population density is very low and hence the river water quality is in natural condition. vehicle washing. zonation of the rivers will help in developing and implementing effective action plan at the zone level. etc. Kageshwori. River meanderings have taken place in this zone. check dams. tourists.e. alteration of use. picnickers and other recreational activities. industries and households. solid waste dumped by municipalities. improper management of ritual and cremation waste. i.e. building construction and other commercial activities. increasing connection of untreated sewage directly from households.e. encroachment. construction of structures such as gabion walls. 7 and 8 present zone-wise situation of the rivers in the Kathmandu Valley. etc. road construction Eroding aesthetic values due to loss of riparian vegetation. Balkhu and Nakkhu are located in this zone. etc. Many urbanizing VDCs are located in this zone. Budhanilkantha. Natural Conservation Core Zone Zone 1 is the natural conservation core zone (323 sq km. . Major issues of this zone to be addressed in the action plan are: decreasing water discharge due to intensive water diversion degrading terrestrial biodiversity due to increasing settlements.

The Bagmati river drains out of the Valley through this zone. floating foams produced by chemical wastes and foul smell of the polluted water deteriorating culture and heritage along the river banks 4. waste produced by rituals and cremation.25 Fig. dyeing and cleaning materials used for small cottage industries. animal farming. Major issues of this zone to be addressed in the action plan are: narrowing and deepening of water way due to structures to protect land and infrastructure along the river banks. human settlements. Huge area of land is encroached and used by squatters in several parts of the river segments in this zone Eroding aesthetic values due to loss of riparian vegetation. piths). water quality in the river segment is extremely polluted. This zone is mainly dominated by agricultural land with low population density. Lalitpur. Eroding aesthetic values due to loss of riparian vegetation. Despite low population density in this zone. The restoration of the river segments in this zone is very challenging. Boudhanath and Pashupatinath) are located in this zone. similar to that of Thapathali crossing calls for immediate attention to restore the Bagmati river to its original grandeur. Anandaghat and Sundarighat are located in this zone. Urban Zone Zone 4 is the highly urbanized zone consisting of five municipalities of the Valley—Kathmandu. filthy and unhealthy environment of the river surroundings by squatter settlements. The rate of urbanization is very high and thus a very few natural vegetation exists. floating and blocking of waste by weirs in the river. important culture and heritage sites and names of VDCs/municipalities located in different zones). The existing level of BOD (88. The river portrays its completely deteriorated condition of river ecosystem. vehicle washing. Madhyapur Thimi and Kirtipur. solid waste dumped along the river banks. agriculture. temples and stupas (Swoyambhunath Stupa.1: Visitor’s trend in Shivapuri National Park segments.83 mg/l) at Khokana and the foul smell experienced at Katuwal daha. leachate produced by huge volume of solid waste dumped by municipalities and private organisations along the river banks. Some historical and heritage sites such as Taudaha. Water quality of the river is worst with Class IV (extremely polluted) category. temporary sites for collecting construction materials. slaughtering of animals along the river banks deteriorating culture and heritage. construction of public toilets. . high encroachment of land by private as well as illegal settlements such as squatters. change in river side land use from agricultural and natural vegetation into residential and commercial use such as animal farming. tirtha. etc. lack of conservation because of unclarity in management authorities. direct disposal of chemical waste produced by dyeing and washing industries. 4. Environmental situation of river in this zone is mainly dependent on the environmental status of the upstream river rather than factors linked to the zone itself. Restoration can be done at different stages from Class IV to Class III at the initial stage followed by Class III to Class II. alteration of use and alteration of architecture changes in river side land use from agricultural to residential and commercial use such as private institutions. commercial hoarding boards. encroachment. road construction. excessive sand mining in the upstream zone degradation of water quality and aquatic biodiversity due to direct discharge of huge volume of untreated sewage into river (Refer to Annex VIII for details about physical features. public and private institutions. schools. Major issues of this zone to be addressed in the action plan are: depleting water quality and aquatic biodiversity due to highly polluted water from the upstream zone Eroding aesthetic values due to floating solid waste. direct discharge of sewage into the river by squatter settlements. cultural and heritage sites (ghats. Downstream Zone Zone 5 is situated in the southern part of the Kathmandu Valley from Sundarighat to Katuwal daha. Jalbinayak. This zone is the origin of the civilization of the Kathmandu Valley with human settlements mainly dominated by the Newar community. Karyabinayak. land use pattern. Enhancement of the upstream river ecosystem helps in enhancing the river ecosystem in this zone. Bhaktapur. temporary sites for collecting construction materials. deteriorating culture and heritage mainly due encroachments and alteration of use 5. etc. etc. Almost all major tributaries pass through this zone and the confluences of the tributaries are located in the central part of the zone. Major historical places. river side road construction. waste deposited along the river banks by slaughter houses.

26 Map 5: Catchment areas of the major rivers in Kathmandu Valley .

Map 6: Zonation of the Kathmandu Valley 27 .

28 Map 7: River water quality and population density in different zones .

Map 8: Water quality in different zones 29 .

30 Map 9: Waste water treatment system and population density .

Ancient Monuments Protection Act (1992): This Act defines the "Ancient Monument" as Devalaya. must have very strong legislative arrangements. conservation and protection of natural resources and cultural heritage. Study on the effects of development 5. development and extension of private Legislative arrangements are one of the key success factors for efficient and successful implementation of the programmes and policies. adverse impacts likely to be caused from environmental degradation on human beings. size of the fish and season of fishing. Forest Act (1993): This act has been enacted to conserve and develop forest and properly utilise forest products. sanitary and plumbing design requirements. waste management. plants and physical objects. It is mainly related with structural. It also relates with legal provisions in order to maintain clean and healthy environment by minimizing. 2. 4. taking into consideration that sustainable development could be achieved from the inseparable inter-relationship between the economic development and environment protection. building codes. Building Act (1998): The Building Act is formulated to form standards regarding the construction of buildings within the Kathmandu Valley and the municipalities. The Act defines rights and duties of the government to make proper arrangements for their protection by preventing any misappropriation and misuse of such historically and archaeologically important places. Some important acts identified during the process of developing the Action Plan are presented below: 3. electrical. It also focused on the safety of occupant building during earthquake. © Siddhartha/NTNC .5 LEGISLATIVE ARRANGEMENTS projects on fishery resources and implementation of mitigative measures has been made mandatory under this regulation including regulating fishing gears. Acts and policies 1. if they are implemented effectively. wildlife. There are several useful acts which could help in halting environmental degradation of the rivers in the Valley. Policies regarding conservation. as far as possible. Improving river ecosystems. especially in rapidly urbanizing centre such as the Kathmanudu Valley. etc. fire and other natural disasters. These acts include issues related to land use. Math (religious houses). Gumba. Shivalaya. Environment Protection Act (1996): This Act mainly focuses on the protection of environment with proper use and management of natural resources. Aquatic Animal Protection Act (1961): This Act prohibits the use of explosive and poisonous substances in any water body for killing aquatic life.

It has been managing two conservation areaAnnapurna and Manaslu. The Village Development Committees (VDCS). promote and manage natural resources. hunting reserve and buffer zones. The act empowers the government to develop site-specific and general regulatory mechanisms for their conservation. 6. protection and development of the national parks. 9 species of birds and 3 species of reptiles). This act is empowered not only to acquire land but also building and forest. conservation areas. plans and programmes on urban planning. Pashupati Area Development Fund is formed under this act to manage. the Ramsar Convention for Wetlands Conservation and the World Heritage Convention further strengthens biodiversity conservation efforts in Nepal. Forest Act (1992) and Soil and Watershed Conservation Act (1982). Pesticide Act (1992): The act has the provision of appointing inspectors. Land Act (1964): This act (related to ownership and tenancy). it needs to exercise authority in coordination with the Department of the Land Revenue and Land Reforms 7. protected forest. duties and authorities of the inspector are some of the salient features of the Act . stay and spread of harmful organisms during their import. 9. The act has duly incorporated the concept of buffer zones and to facilitate public participation in the conservation. 16. the government has established the National Trust for Nature Conservation. implement. undertake the development of national parks. export and transportation. operate. It also authorizes Guthi Sansthan to administer and maintain records of guthi land for the proper utilisation of guthi's property such as land and buildings. Industrial Enterprises Act (1993): This act has been promulgated to give due consideration to environmental and pollution problems. National Trust for Nature Conservation Act (1983): Under this Act. use and sale of forest products is also emphasized by this act. 12. if necessary. and provides special protection to 38 endangered species (26 species of mammals. International conventions like the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). roles. community forest. Laws related with substitution and acquiring land by giving them compensation or for temporary use (return to owners after stipulated time) fall in this act. appointment of the quarantine inspectors. The DDCs formulate. export. leasehold forest and religious forest are related with this act. 11. It empowers the Ministry of Industries and Supplies to withhold permission for the establishment of an industry. It is also related with the formation of legal framework to enhance the trade of plant and plant product. 10. 14. wildlife reserves and carry out scientific studies and research on natural resources. Land Revenue Act (1977): This act aims to increase land revenue by land registration and management of overall lands including government. design and management of these zones. District Development Committees (DDCs) and the municipalities enjoy discretionary rights to formulate plans and policies for their sustainable development. Preparation of action plan for the management and development of forest and handing over of forest to user groups or communities for the conservation. The Act is supported by NTNC regulation 1984. development. wildlife reserves. This act is supplemented by several other acts such as the Aquatic Animal Protection Act (1961). 8. Guthi Sansthan Act (1977): The right to protect and maintain ancient monuments and heritage is governed by this act. This act focuses on removing stagnant property and population pressure and use it in other areas of economy so as to contribute to the economic development of the country. 15. The act also emphasises to raise the living standards of land dependent farmers through proper distribution of agricultural land and easy accessibility of related knowledge and equipments. Under this act. Privatization Act (1994): The act has been formed to increase the productivity through the enhancement of efficiency of the status owned enterprise of the government to mitigate the . production and consumption of pesticides for which the government approval is compulsory. which is deemed as likely to have an adverse impacts on the environment. Land Acquisition Act (1977): This Act has been developed to amend and harmonize the law of land acquisition. public and others. The NTNC is mandated as an autonomous and non-profit organisation to work in the field of nature conservation. maintain and preserve the natural and cultural heritage in the Pashupati area and prohibit the registration of land within the area to any person or organisation. 17. National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act (1973): This act is responsible for the management. distribute and maintain projects. Establishment of National Plant Protection Organisation. was enacted to implement land reform programmes of the government. Local Self-Governance Act (1999): The act gives more autonomy for the development of local bodies by providing responsibility and power at the local level to formulate and carry out plans.32 forests by managing national forests in the form of government managed forest. 13. It provides for the conservation of protected areas and wildlife and regulates the consumptive and non-consumptive use of biodiversity to sustain the welfare of the people. Municipalities prepare annual budgets. Pashupati Area Development Trust Act (1987): This act particularly focuses on the development and conservation of the Pashupati area. environment. It mainly focuses on the registration of chemical pesticides and also guides to give the prerequisites regarding import. Plant Protection Act (1973): This act aims to protect plants and plant products from entry. sanitation and others. This act provides to conserve.

will contribute to maximizing the sustainable benefits of water use( WECS. It lays the foundation to formulate policies for the implementation of the plan regarding solid waste management and mobilise resources.National 24. This regulation also recommends the programmes and priorities of privatization to the government. National Water Resources Strategy (2002): The National Water Resources Strategy of Nepal was formulated to guide water sector activities towards sustainability of the resource. technical advice and publicity. floods. Under it. The Strategy is based on the concept of Integrated Water Resource Management(IWRM) as well as management of water resources at the river basin level.Land 20. landslides or other natural disasters. hydropower. 2005). It prohibits other acts that may pollute water resources and maintain that the utilisation of resources should be made without causing any considerable damage to the environment through soil erosion.National 23. domestic use. water. 2. debris flow and landslide. government approval and project implementation. Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilisation Act (1987): The act primarily focuses on Kathmandu. It authorises to undertake action to control haphazard waste disposal and to collect service fee. Strategies and plans 1.tourism and water-industry for the years 2007. The Plan has set targets in irrigation. Setting of water quality standards and provision of license to use water resources is governed by this act. It includes programmes in all strategically identified outputs so that all these programmes in consonance with each other . hydroelectricity. Land Survey and Measurement Act (1962): The act aims to carry out cadastral survey of Nepal to determine land types and to keep records of land owners. 24. Bhaktapur and Lalitpur municipalities. etc.33 financial administrative burden and to conduct economic development of the country by broadening the participation of private sector in the operation of private company. The overall objective is framed in terms of the sanitation coverage to be achieved and the institutional arrangements for implementing the same. 22. Water Resources Act (1993): This act defines water resources as the water that is available in Nepal in the form of surface water. various government line agencies. 18. water use and institutional mechanisms. CBOs and local NGOs. 19. This act has been amended to incorporate provisions for other types survey like topographical. Protection of land productivity by developing land use system (Bhu Upayogita Pranili) and to form national resource protection system and district soil and watershed committee fall under this act. The policy supports to formulate wetland management plans and other legal and administrative arrangements for the representation of local people and organisations in the management committee. irrigation. Town Development Act (1988): The act provides legal basis for implementing land reforms. It aims at creating awareness and imparting knowledge on sanitation and hygiene among all levels of community focusing on womens’ group and children to bring attitudinal and behavioural changes within the community. Likewise. Soil and Watershed Conservation Act (1982): This act prioritises to develop. 23. ground water or in whatsoever form. 20. animal husbandry. It also makes provisions for resurvey and revision of previously documented data. National Wetlands Policy (2003): The National Wetlands Policy aims at conserving and managing wetlands with local participation. It clearly states procedures and conditions to secure land owner's agreement. protect and demarcate watershed areas and to control natural disasters like floods. the act has provisions to take various punitive measures against those engaged in activities detrimental to the intentions of the act. National Sanitation Policy (1994): The policy focuses on safeguarding water supplies and environmental sanitation for the protection of environment. It emphasises on the mandatory procedures that need to be followed during the preparation and implementation land reforms. 2017 and 2027. the Land Management Sub-Committee (LMSC) has been formed which represents local land owners. The strategy has identified ten strategic outputs which are categorized into water security. environment protection and minimization of water use conflicts (WECS.Soil 18. 2002).T Development 21. geodetic and leveling surveys. 21. National Water Plan (2005): The National Water Plan of Nepal has been prepared to operationalize the Water Resources Strategy. and to arrange space for the disposal of solid waste. drinking water. It also prioritises water resources according to its utility such as drinking water. fisheries development. hazard mitigation. .Solid 19. provide necessary training. while providing economic growth through water resources development.

Ganga runs its course of over 2500 km from Gangotri in the Himalayas to Ganga Sagar in the Bay of Bengal through 52 cities and about 48 towns. Several legislative arrangements exist to address issues related to land use.000 crore rupees over a period of 15 years. The National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD) had scheduled the GAP I for completion by March 1990. Had there been an honest implementation of GAP. (b) In 25 class I towns left out in Phase I. and conservation of natural resources and cultural heritage. after spending over 2. the existing arrangements are isolated and the functions and jurisdictions are not clearly stated. However. divert and treat 882 mld (million litres per day) out of 1340 mld of wastewater. in December 1984. Damodar and Gomati. The failure of the GAP is evident but corrective action is lacking. building construction standards. the Central Ganga Authority decided in February 1991 to take up the GAP II. prepared an action plan for immediate reduction of pollution load on the river Ganga. The GAP I envisaged to intercept. The Department of Environment. A special Act with all legislative arrangements required in consolidated form should be promulgated for the efficient implementation of the act. viz. The programme was launched with much fanfare. One of the primary reasons for the failure of the GAP is the lack of realistic time-bound plans and commitment. covering the following pollution abatement works: (a) On the tributaries of river Ganga.34 Box 5: Lessons from Ganga Action Plan The Ganga Action Plan (GAP) was a programme launched by the Government of India in April 1985 in order to reduce the pollution load on the river Ganga. The HPCIDBC’s recently drafted Bagmati Sabhyata Ekikrit Bikash Parishad (Bagmati Civilization Integrated Development Council) Act could fulfill the present gap. Yamuna. © Siddhartha/NTNC . Bihar and West Bengal. The plan itself was excellent. but it failed to decrease the pollution level in the river. but extended it progressively up to March 2000.ecofriends.org/main/eganga/images as of july 2009. Ganga would have looked different. and (c) In the other polluting towns along the river. Source: http://www. The enthusiasm waned with the passage of time and GAP became just one of the government projects. generated in 25 class I towns in 3 States of Uttar Pradesh. While the GAP I was still in progress. The cabinet approved the GAP in April 1985 as a 100 percent centrally sponsored scheme. solid waste and waste water management.

Many works recommended by those initiatives can still be implemented with some modifications. Actions to be undertaken for managing waste are one of the most challenging tasks in developing this plan. actions recommended for managing waste water for these areas are mainly based on the same technology with some modification in some cases. many of them have either not been commenced or have been delayed and discontinued for several reasons. On-site sanitation is given higher priority at Zones 1 and 5. especially for Zones 2 and 3.1.2. ii. To conserve terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. This chapter sets the overall vision for restoration and conservation of the Bagmati river and its tributaries. iii . © Siddhartha/NTNC . While a few of them have been implemented. It has defined goals. green and healthy river system that is full of life and valued by all. Natural Conservation Core Zone 6.1. Managing waste through managing fecal sludge is given high priority in some areas. To maintain and enhance the river water quality i.1. objectives and activities for each zone which are based on the key issues identified in corresponding zones. The action plan has recommended DEWATS as a new approach to manage waste. This action plan has given due recognition to the priority activities that have been recommended by previous interventions. Conventional waste water management system recommended by previous 6. Objectives To protect and enhance water resources and increase water discharge into the river. Maps 9 and 10 present the systems recommended to manage waste water and their service areas in different parts of the Kathmandu Valley with their appropriateness.6 VISION ACTION PLAN projects is still valid for city core (Zone 4).1. Clean. Goal To maintain and enhance the upstream river ecosystem 6. Therefore. Many good initiatives have been undertaken in the past in reversing the environmental degradation and restoring the river system in the Kathmandu Valley.

Buddha sculpture and ghats in Sundarijal Activity 5: To promote tourism i. To regulate urban growth and industrial activities 6. iii. starting from Sundarijal to other areas of Zone 1. etc. . ii. iv. sight seeing. and iii. Control deforestation and encroachment of the pubic lands from grazing. Prepare restoration plans of existing culture and heritage sites and associated cultural activities. and v. Protect and manage wetlands in areas such as Phulchowki and Shivapuri National Park. To conserve and promote culture and heritage. bird watching. To renovate and conserve the cultural and heritage sites. bio-gas etc. Promote on-site sanitation with best available technologies such as ecosan. To prevent discharge of waste water and solid waste into rivers. iv. and ii.36 iv. Activities Activity 1: Undertake various measures to enhance water flow in the river i.2. Construct embankments in dhap (Shivapuri National Park) to increase water recharging capacity.2.3.. Strengthen community forest user groups. ii. Promote rain water harvesting at household and community level by constructing soak pits or through existing wells. To promote sustainable agricultural practices. i. Carry out afforestation programmes in Shivapuri watershed and other areas. ii. with best available technologies such as ecosan. To conserve biodiversity and riparian landscape. Designate trekking routes and develop tourism infrastructure along the routes. i. housing colonies. Sankhu 5. Develop and enforce code of conduct. Promote sustainable use of renewable energy resources. vi. and vii. Rehabilitate 17 existing ponds (Chapagaun 6. and iv. colleges. Develop and implement regulatory mechanisms to minimize water extraction by KUKL and commercial water vendors. Update inventory of existing aquatic as well as terrestrial resources and protect biodiversity. Develop and implement land use plan to regulate urban growth and industrial activities Activity 2: To prevent discharge of waste water and solid waste into rivers i. ii. Promote total sanitation (no open defecation). Rural Zone 6. schools. Provide income generating opportunities to local communities in reducing pressure on forest Activity 3: To maintain and enhance the river water quality i. iii. iii. Establish systems for regular monitoring of river water quality twice a year at eight locations Activity 4: To renovate and conserve the cultural and heritage sites i.1. 6. ii. and iii. Chhampi 1. construction and other commercial activities. Goal To restore the river ecosystem through sustainable development approach 6. Prevent pollution of river system from excessive use of agrochemicals. ii. Prepare and implement landscape plan of riparian land to maintain green corridor. monasteries and industries.1. v.3. Promote DEWATS in institutions such as army and police barracks. Diversify eco-tourism products such as adventure sports. and vi. Implement bioengineering works for recharging rivulets of ShNP Activity 2: Undertake various measures to conserve catchment area and aquatic biodiversity.2. government offices. © Bird Conservation Nepal To enhance water flow in the river. agriculture. safety tank etc. Renovate and conserve temples such as Shivadev Basaha. Minimize water extraction with the support of local community. iii. iii. Dadhikot 1 and Tokha 3) to recharge groundwater through rainwater harvesting. Construct community managed DEWATS demonstration site in Sankhu. Activities Activity 1: Undertake various measures to protect and enhance water resources and increase water discharge into the river. v. and iv. ii.2. bio-gas. Balambu 1. To promote eco-tourism 6. Prevent disposal of solid waste in and around water bodies. and encourage organic farming iv.2. Objectives i.

Prepare restoration plans of important heritage sites and associated cultural activities. Promote scientific drainage system in order to reduce soil erosion from the field iii. ii. Promote rain water harvesting at household and community 6. Dhapakhel 1.1. fecals sludge management and other appropriate technologies. monasteries and industries vi. Encourage to recycle crop wastage and use livestocks manure Activity 6: Regulate urban growth and industrial activities i. To control and relocate squatter settlements from the river banks. Prepare restoration plans of important heritage sites and associated cultural activities. Sangla. Construct access roads/foot trails along both the banks of the rivers. Construct community managed DEWATS at various locations such as Phutung. and iii.3. schools. Ensure IEE/EIA studies for industries and other construction activities in and around the river levels by constructing soak pits or through existing wells. Discourage use of pesticides and chemical fertilizer iv. Carry out bank protection works (80 km) using bioengineering technique. aquatic biodiversity and aesthetic values of rivers and its surroundings i. 6. Prepare an inventory of existing heritage sites in the zone. Changunarayan and Tokha. Promote household and community level waste management system viii. ii. Objectives i. Carry out bank protection works using bioengineering (61 km based on survey). and iv. housing colonies. v. Promote organic farming ii. Carry out river bed restoration works such as check dams at Sundarijal—Alapot Area. Prepare an inventory of existing heritage sites. such as army and police barrages. Create awareness by forming eco-clubs Activity 4: To renovate and conserve the cultural and heritage sites i. Katunje and Satungal.3. Objectives To improve river water quality and quantity through proper management of water and waste water. Goal To upgrade the river ecosystem. Harisiddhi and Bungamati Activity 2: Undertake various measures to protect rvierside lands. Activities Activity 1: To improve river water quality and quantity through proper management of water and waste water i. Control the encroachment of the river banks by squatters Activity 4: Conserve and regenerate cultural and heritage sites i. iii. Establish a system for regular monitoring of river water quality at 12 locations Activity 3: Control and relocate squatter settlements from the river banks i. To improve river water quantity and quality through proper .3. and iii. and vii.2. Construct access roads/foot trails along both the banks of the river vi. iii.4. Establish a system for regular monitoring of river water quality twice a year at 17 locations. Prepare and implement landscape of riparian land to maintain green corridor. To protect river side land. Verification and relocation of all squatters from the river banks ii.4. Urban Zone 6. Promote onsite sanitation at household and community levels through measures such as septic tanks.3. Prepare and implement land use plan ii.1. ii. aquatic biodiversity and aesthetic value of rivers and its surroundings. iv. Introduce fish ladder at Gokarna barrage.3 Peri Urban Zone 6. iii. iv. Chapagaon 5. ii. iv. Conserve and restore deteriorated religious sites such as Mahalaxmi and Bishnudevi temples 6. v. iii. Promote DEWATS in institutions.2. Discourage water polluting and water consuming industries iii. and v. Prepare and implement landscape plan of riparian land to maintain green corridor. Rehabilitate13 existing ponds (Thecho 3. Construct intercepting sewerage system along both the banks of the rivers. ii. Goal To restore the river ecosystem through effective management of urban growth 6. government offices. Construct septage treatment plants for faecal sludge management at locations such as Bhaktapur. Kirtipur. Jharuwarasi 1 and Sunakothi 3) to recharge groundwater through rainwater harvesting. Introduce fish ladder underneath the Seshmati Khola bridge of Dharmasthali VDC. To conserve and regenerate culture and heritage i. conserve and regenerate tangible and intangible heritage linked with the rivers 6. Introduce an integrated pest management system v. and vii. Conserve and restore deteriorated temples (Tokha Chandeshwari and Gokarna Mahadev) Activity 5: Promote sustainable agricultural practices i. colleges.4. ii.37 Activity 3: To conserve aquatic biodiversity and riparian landscape i.

x. Beside Kathmandu Valley. xiv. iv. Construct access roads/foot trails along both the banks of the rivers ensuring conservation of existing ghats and heritage sites.5. Construct municipal composting plants targeted to Kalimati vegetable market and Teku fruit market Control and relocate squatter settlements from the river banks i. vii. Siddhipur. more than 500 ecosan toilets have been designed and constructed in Nepal of which 93% are in the Kathmandu valley mainly in Khokana. Rehabilitate and expand Dhobighat WWTP based on UN-Habitat (2008). usually for agricultural purposes. banks. Update the inventory of existing heritage sites. v. Construct. ii. Laxmiswar) and sattals and ghats in Sankhamul. Prepare and implement landscape of riparian land to maintain green corridor. aquatic biodiversity and aesthetic value of rivers and their surroundings i . Carry out bank protection works (70 km) using bioengineering technique. and To improve river water quantity and quality through proper management of water and waste water. Initiate plantation at riparian land at Sankhamul. Rehabilitate Sallaghari WWTP. repair and manage intercepting sewerage system along both the banks of the rivers Construct waste water treatment plants with best available technology at two sites of Bagmati river and one site each of Bishnumati and Dhobikhola as demonstration plants xiii. Lubhu. iii. Teku. ix. Rehabilitate Kodku WWTP at Balkumari to cater to waste water from core Lalitpur area and Baneshwar based on FSDED (2003). and iii. Kathmandu 7. iv. treated and reused. is a new sanitation system that recognizes human excreta and household wastewater not as waste but as resources which needs to be recovered. vi.5. Promote DEWATS at institutional levels such as army and police barrack. Gundu which have become “Model Village for Ecosan”.5. ii. To renovate and conserve the cultural and heritage sites. colleges. v. Bhim Mukteshwar. Establish a system for regular monitoring of river water quality twice a year at 20 locations Take measures to protect river side land. iv. iii. Various NGOs and government organizations such as ENPHO. To improve the self-purification process of the river. and v. Rehabilitate public space along Teku—Thapathali stretch as recommended by the Teku Thapathali Research Group (1994) and promote the area for tourism development 6. government offices. viii. To control and relocate squatter settlements from the river ECO-SAN Ecological sanitation. Promote on-site sanitation at household and community levels through measures such as septic tanks. xii. Majority of the users of Ecosan toilets in Nepal are farmers (WAN.1.3. assure food security for future generations. To promote tourism 6. housing colonies. Construct septage treatment plant at HPCIDBC. Activities Activity 1: To improve river water quantity and quality through proper management of water and waste water. minimize water pollution and recover bio-energy. Construct DEWATS at Hanumante and Manahara confluence. ii. Lumanti. Goal To restore healthy river ecosystem with the capacity for selfpurification 6. the Ecosan toilets are being used in Parsa. DWSS are working in designing and constructing the ecosan toilets in Kathmandu Valley and exploring for its potential use in Terai region. xi. ii. also known as ecosan or eco-san. iv. Promote rain water harvesting at household level by constructing soak pits or through existing wells. Construct additional WWTP at Guheshwari and upgrade the existing WWTPs. Objectives ii. Control encroachment of the river banks by squatter and others Maintain and renovate heritage sites i. Downstream Zone 6. for fecal sludge management. Prepare restoration plans of important heritage sites and associated cultural activities. Dallu and Shobha Bhagwati. and xv.38 management of water and waste water. Thimi 7. Verify and relocate the squatters from the river banks. Propare the inventory of intangible heritage To promote tourism i. and Surkhet. Construct DEWATS at Thimi and Kirtipur municipalities. Bishnu Bikranta. CIUD. Till date. confluence of Bagmati—Bishnumati and Sundarighat. To enhance riparian landscape for the conservation of terrestrial habitat. Bhaktapur 6 and Kirtipur 5) for rainwater harvesting to recharge groundwater.4. Rehabilitate Hanumante WWTP . schools. thus helping to preserve soil fertility. To improve the riparian landscape. and To conserve the cultural and heritage sites To promote eco-tourism . 2008).2. Rehabilitate 32 existing ponds (Lalitpur 7. Ecosan systems enable the recovery of nutrients from human faeces and urine for the benefit of agriculture. Pachali Bhairab. ii . monasteries and industries. Conserve and regenerate deteriorated temples (Bombir Bikateshwar. Makawanpur. i. DNet. Guheshwari. Gorkha. iii. iii. Establish fecal sludge management systems.

and iii. ii. and iii. colleges. iv. Construct intercepting sewerage system at certain areas. Activities Activity 1: To improve river water quantity and quality through proper management of water and waste water i. Conserve and regenerate temples in Jal Binayak and Katuwal daha Activity 5: i. Construct access roads/foot trails along both the banks of the river Activity 4: i. Activity 15: Activity 16: Activity 17: Activity 18: Activity 19: Activity 20: guthi . Prepare restoration plans of existing heritage sites and associated cultural activities. Cross-cutting activities Activity 1: Activity 2: Activity 3: Activity 4: Activity 5: 6. Rehabilitate existing ponds (Khokana 2 and Bungmati 5) for rainwater harvesting to recharge ground water. housing colonies. Design and implement weirs in the river bed to facilitate aeration.3. Construct picnic spots i. and iii.5. ii. iii. ii. schools. ii.6. Prepare an inventory of existing heritage sites. Construct trails for bird watching. Carry out bank protection measures (70 km) using bioengineering technique.39 6. government offices. Activity 6: © Siddhartha/NTNC Activity 7: Activity 8: Activity 9: Activity 10: v. monasteries and industries. and Activity 2: i. Construct floating waste collection ponds downstream of Chobhar gorge Activity 3: Activity 11: Activity 12: Activity 13: Activity 14: Prepare and implement landscape plan of riparian land to maintain green corridor. Promote DEWATS at institutional levels such as army and police barracks. Construct DEWATS at Sainbu. Develop and promote the area for recreation. Promote on-site sanitation including ecosan. and ii.

40 Map 10: Waste water management plan for the Kathmandu Valley (with zones) .

They must be involved in an integrated and coordinated fashion both during planning and implementation of activities.1. The plan recommends to reform the existing 7. enhance and manage the Bagmati river and its tributaries with different agencies involved in the promotion of various components. and to bring all the stakeholders under one umbrella. Agencies identified as potential stakeholders and their roles for implementation of the action plan are discussed below: 7. Establish HPCIDBC as a key coordinating and leading agency An institution with strong legislative power to control and regulate activities in the rivers of the Kathmandu Valley must own and implement this plan. A strong mechanism to establish coordination among these institutions has to be developed for efficient and sustainable management of the Bagmati river. However. HPCIDBC should also be responsible for monitoring activities taking place in and around the Bagmati river and its tributaries.1. strengthening of HPCIDBC is important to achieve this priority. The plan envisages the HPCIDBC as the most appropriate institution for planning. The Bagmati Action Plan is a holistic and integrated plan to restore. 7. User committees and community-based institutions Several user committees and clubs are working for the improvement of the environmental status of the rivers at the © Siddhartha/NTNC .7 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY AND MONITORING PLAN organisational structure of HPCIDBC to address the issues and activities highlighted in the plan. non-governmental and civil society organisations.2. and other stakeholders working in different zones. Partner agencies and their role Roles of different agencies working for the improvement of rivers in the Kathmandu Valley have to be clearly specified to avoid conflict and duplication of work and optimise resources.2. All the stakeholders and partners must take permission for any activity to be carried out in and around the Bagmati river and its tributaries aimed at maintaining consistency and avoiding duplication of the activities. policy and decision-making and also for controlling and regulating activities in the Bagmati river and its tributaries. There are different governmental.

4. Lalitpur. Municipalities and Village Development Committees (VDCs) The Local Self-Governance Act has identified the responsibilities and functions of municipalities and Village Development Committees (VDCs). 7. NGOs and Private Sector The Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and private sector can play significant role on awareness and clean-up campaigns.2. culture and heritage. Many good initiatives have been undertaken by these communities which can be replicated in different parts of the rivers.2. 7. 7. They include: creating awareness about the importance of the river environment to the communities along the river banks. This is the responsible government agency for the drinking water supply and sanitation sector of Nepal. establishement under an Act.6. © Siddhartha/NTNC The entrance of the UN Park located at Jwagal.9. fencing and construction of jogging trails at Jwagal are some the major development activities implemented by the UN Park Development Committee and supported by Bird Conservation Nepal (BCN). in collaboration with the Government of Nepal. 7. They should be responsible for effectively implementing laws. .3. 7.42 community level (Annex VIII). rain water harvesting and clean-up campaigns. Kathmandu Valley Water Supply Managerment Board Kathmandu Valley Water Supply Management Board (KVWSMB) is a public statuary entity. promoting ecofriendly practices such as river side plantation. Many legislative powers and activities discharged by DDCs can be integrated which will help to address some of the activities identified by the action plan. District Development Committees (DDCs) The District Development Committees (DDCs) can play important role in the successful implementation of the action plan. managing waste produced by tourists and picnikers and settlements inside the national park. regulating ground water extraction/issue license and developing policies for water supply management. It is working towards achieving the sector objective of Government of Nepal to achieve government's goal of providing all the Nepalese people access to drinking water supply and sanitation facilities by the year 2017.2. The KUKL should also manage sewerage network and ensure that the waste water discharge into the river should meet the national quality standards. It should also develop. Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) The Kathmandu Upatkya Khanepani Limited (KUKL) should follow the norms and regulations for using water from rivers and ground water so that the impact of the use of such natural resources is minimal in the river ecosystem.2. Department of Water Supply and Sewerage (DWSS) The Department of Water Supply and Sewerage (DWSS) under Ministry of Physical Planning and Works of the Government of Nepal was established in 1972. UN Park Development Committee The United Nations. These activities are primarily related to water discharge increment. Shivapuri National Park (ShNP) The role of the Shivapuri National Park should be to implement activities identified by the action plan within its working area. operate and maintain major waste water treatment systems within the Kathmandu Valley. KVWSMB is responsible for developing and overseeing service policies. 7. river side plantation and protection. Water Supply Management Board Act 2064.5.2. bylaws and codes that could help conserve and restore the river ecosystem of the Kathmandu Valley.2. Solid waste and waste water management in VDCs/municipalities are some of the key responsibilities of local government which have greater impacts on the river environment. community-based waste management. 7.2.2.7. It is responsible for providing sanitation facilities and keeping pollution free rivers in the Kathmandu Valley. conserving culture and heritage. and providing license to service providers for the operation and management of water supply system in Kathmandu Valley. Reference to the resources allocated by the districts for river bank restoration and river training works in DDC budget (2008) are some of the examples of possible integration of activities related to the restoration of the Bagmati river. has developed a park along the Bagmati river from Sankhamul to Teku to halt further degradation of the Bagmati river ecosystem. and management of parks and other public utilities along the river banks. 7.8. protecting and maintaining biodiversity. Some of the other key responsibilities are preparing policy for the use of ground water. construction of tracks and trail road. River protection works.2. tree plantation.

Roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders should be clearly defined and owned by them. Besides regular monitoring. Shivapuri National Park and the Department of Water Induced Disaster and Preparedness. The Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP) is one of its most successful projects. 7. activity-wise indicators are given in Chapter 8.5. the plan has not provided the procedures and monitoring plan. Science and Technology. One of the major strengths of NTNC is to garner national and international support and recognition for the implementation of the plan and generating financial and human resources. nonprofit and non-government organisation. The Nepal Government should govern the Bagmati Action Plan.Department of Roads. Guthi Sansthan. Monitoring plan The plan has emphasised a monitoring system for the proposed activities once these are implemented. National Trust for Nature Conservation National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC). Ministry of Local Development. Preconditions for successful implementation of BAP HPCIDBC act should be in place before the implementation of the plan.3. previously known as King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation. Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation. Government line agencies Many activities that help in protecting river ecosystem have already been initiated in different ways by different government line agencies. Kathmandu Valley Town Development Committee. Regular monitoring is required from the concerned authorities and similarly feedbacks to the implementers. Political commitment to achieve goal is a must. and Coordination and collaboration with local government agencies and private sector is a must. Department of Water Supply and Sewerage. Government and concerned organisations should incorporate the proposed activities in their respective work plans. Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilisation Centre. The plan feels that the proposed monitors should prepare their own action plan and procedures. Department of Urban Development and Building Construction. mandated to work in the field of natural resource conservation and environment protection in Nepal. In order to make it flexible. Ministry of Environment.4. The NTNC has recently started Bagmati Conservation Project for the conservation and protection of rivers of the Kathmandu Valley. for effective monitoring commitment from the authorities and the concerned stakeholders is a pre-requisite. monitoring. a participatory or joint monitoring system is required where representatives from concerned stakeholders participate and monitor the programme. Water and Energy Commission Secretariat. it can also play an important role in mainstreaming environmental issues of rivers of the Kathmandu Valley during the planning process. 7. Some of the key government agencies working for the restoration of Bagmati river system include: Ministry of Physical Planning and Works. The NTNC can play an important role to influence stakeholders and help HPCIDBC in coordinating with partner agencies for the effective implementation of the action plan. Department of Land Survey-Cadastral Survey and Registration. evaluate impacts and provide feedbacks of its findings to the concerned line agencies and stakeholders. is an NGO established in 1982 by the legislative act as an autonomous. as required. Additionally. . However. Department of Archaeology. Department of Land Revenue. For this. These agencies should implement all their concerned activities as identified by the action plan.43 7.

agriculture. awareness campaigns undertaken and enforced Number of eco-tourism sites identified. with best available technologies such as ecosan. developed and promoted in partnership with concerned groups Trekking routes designated and tourism infrastructure developed Prevent pollution of river system from excessive use of agrochemicals. bird watching. Prepare and implement landscape plan of riparian land to maintain green corridor Update inventory of existing aquatic as well as terrestrial resources and protect biodiversity Provide income generating opportunities to local communities in reducing pressure on forest Activity 3: To maintain and enhance the river water quality Promote total sanitation (no open defecation). Prevent disposal of solid waste in and around water bodies. their needs assessed along with programmes to strengthen their role in protection and conservation of the Bagmati river Location of deforestation and encroachment of pubic lands from grazing. construction and other commercial activities identified and local stakeholders mobilised for corrective action Landscape plan prepared and area landscaped Inventory of aquatic resources prepared and updated along with the institutionalization of a monitoring and feedback system Income generating opportunities provided to the local communities Number of households using ecosan and bio-gas ACTIVITIES Develop and implement regulatory mechanisms to minimize water extraction by KUKL and commercial water vendors Activity 1: Undertake various measures to protect and enhance water resources and increase water discharge into the river Protect and manage wetlands in areas such as Phulchowki and Shivapuri National Park Construct embankments in dhap (Shivapuri National Park) to increase water recharging capacity Implement bioengineering works for recharging rivulets of ShNP Carry out afforestation programmes in Shivapuri watershed and other areas Activity 2: Undertake various measures to conserve catchment area and aquatic biodiversity Strengthen community forest user groups. regulatory mechanism to minimize water extraction developed and implemented..1: MONITORING PLAN ZONE 1 MEANS OF VERIFICATION Water extraction formula worked out and agreed among stakeholders. Monitor and mobilise concerned groups for safeguarding the quality of water Mobilise concerned groups for preventing disposal of solid waste in water bodies Water quality monitoring systems at 8 locations established and operated Restoration plans of existing heritage sites and associated cultural activities prepared. etc. Buddha sculpture and ghats in Sundarijal Activity 5: To promote tourism Develop and enforce code of conduct. sight seeing. . and Designate trekking routes and develop tourism infrastructure along the routes. Promote sustainable use of renewable energy resources. starting from Sundarijal to other areas of Zone 1. and encourage organic farming Establish systems for regular monitoring of river water quality twice a year at eight locations Activity 4: To renovate and conserve the cultural and heritage sites Prepare restoration plans of existing culture and heritage sites and associated cultural activities. Control deforestation and encroachment of the pubic lands from grazing. organisations and bodies for their implementation identified after consultations with appropriate groups Number of temples renovated and heritage sites conserved Code of conduct developed. construction and other commercial activities. agriculture. and Renovate and conserve temples such as Shivadev Basaha. bio-gas etc. Important wetlands in areas such as Phulchowki and ShNP managed on a high priority basis jointly with local stakeholders completion of embankment in Dhap Number of bioengineering works needed in rivulets of ShNP identified and completed Areas for afforestation identified and afforestation activities carried out Community forestry user groups identified. Diversify eco-tourism products such as adventure sports.44 Table 7. Wetland inventory of Bagmati watershed initiated.

and Create awareness by forming eco-clubs Water quality monitoring systems at 17 locations established. Dadhikot 1 and Tokha 3) to recharge groundwater through rainwater harvesting. Carry out bank protection works using bioengineering (61 km based on survey). Encourage and support the development of land use plan of riparian land. Changunarayan and Tokha. Construct community managed DEWATS demonstration site in Sankhu. heritage sites conserved and monitored Number of areas promoted with organic farming scientific drainage system promoted and reduction in soil erosion Reduction in use of pesticides and chemical fertilizer Integrated pest management system introduced and adopted Crop wastage recycled and used Land use plan prepared and implemented Water polluting and water consuming industries discouraged IEE/EIA studies adopted for industries and other construction activities in and around the river Prepare an inventory of existing heritage sites in the zone. schools.Table 7. Introduce fish ladder at Gokarna barrage. and Conserve and restore deteriorated temples (Tokha Chandeshwari and Gokarna Mahadev) Activity 5: Promote sustainable agricultural practices Promote organic farming Promote scientific drainage system in order to redcue soil erosion from the field Discourage use of pesticides and chemical fertilizer Introduce an integrated pest management system Encourage to recycle crop wastage and use livestocks manure Prepare and implement land use plan Activity 6: Regulate urban growth and industrial activities Discourage water polluting and water consuming industries Ensure IEE/EIA studies for industries and other construction activities in and around the river 45 .2: MONITORING PLAN ZONE 2 MEANS OF VERIFICATION Number of households with rainwater harvesting increased Number of ponds rehabilitated ACTIVITIES Activity 1: Undertake various measures to enhance water flow in the river List of measures (incentives for conservation and payment systems for use) undertaken to minimize water extraction after discussion with local stakeholders Encourage. and Develop and implement land use plan to regulate urban growth and industrial activities Activity 2: To prevent discharge of waste water and solid waste into rivers Promote on-site sanitation with best available technologies such as ecosan. operated and monitored Eco club formed and awareness created Inventory of heritage sites prepared Restoration plans of existing heritage sites and associated cultural activities prepared jointly with concerned groups along with the facilitation of implementation Number of temples renovated. Balambu 1. bio-gas. monasteries and industries. Minimize water extraction with the support of local community. and Promote DEWATS in institutions such as army and police barracks. Sankhu 5. facilitate and support local government to prepare land use plan for regulating urban growth and industrial activities Number of households with toilet (ecosan) and facilitated with biogas increased DEWATS demonstrated Number of institutions adopting DEWATS increased by providing awareness and training Promote rain water harvesting at household and community level by constructing soak pits or through existing wells. colleges. Chhampi 1. housing colonies. Construct access roads/foot trails along both the banks of the river Establish a system for regular monitoring of river water quality twice a year at 17 locations. Activity 4: To renovate and conserve the cultural and heritage sites Prepare restoration plans of important heritage sites and associated cultural activities. Rehabilitate 17 existing ponds (Chapagaun 6. land use plan of riparian land prepared and area landscaped by appropriate units of local governments Restoration work in selected locations carried out River protection works in selected locations completed Fish ladder at Gokarna barrage introduced and impact monitored by an appropriate organisation Access roads/foot trails constructed Activity 3: To conserve aquatic biodiversity and riparian landscape Prepare and implement landscape plan of riparian land to maintain green corridor. government offices. Carry out river bed restoration works such as check dams at Sundarijal— Alapot Area. safety tank etc.

Number of households and area covered by DEWATS Number of institutions adopting DEWATS increased Promote DEWATS in institutions. Kirtipur. Katunje and Satungal. Construct community managed DEWATS at various locations such as Phutung. Construct access roads/foot trails along both the banks of the rivers. Harisiddhi and Bungamati Introduce fish ladder underneath the Seshmati Khola bridge of Dharmasthali VDC.46 Table 7. fecals sludge management and other appropriate technologies. monastries and industries Construct intercepting sewerage system along both the banks of the rivers. Prepare and implement landscape of riparian land to maintain green corridor. Rehabilitate 6 existing ponds (Thecho 3. Promote onsite sanitation at household and community levels through measures such as septic tanks. and Establish a system for regular monitoring of river water quality at 12 locations Verification and relocation of all squatters from the river banks Activity 3: Control and relocate squatter settlements from the river banks Control the encroachment of the river banks by squatters and other agencies Activity 4: Conserve and regenerate cultural and heritage sites Prepare an inventory of existing heritage sites. Inventory of heritage sites prepared Restoration plans of existing heritage sites and associated cultural activities prepared Number of temples renovated and heritage sites conserved Prepare restoration plans of important heritage sites and associated cultural activities. and Intercepting sewerage system constructed along both the banks of the rivers. such as army and police barrages. Jharuwarasi 1 and Sunakothi 3) to recharge groundwater through rainwater harvesting. Chapagaon 5. schools.3: MONITORING PLAN ZONE 3 MEANS OF VERIFICATION Number of household with rainwater harvesting Number of ponds rehabilitated ACTIVITIES Activity 1: To improve river water quality and quantity through proper management of water and waste water Number of households with toilet increased Promote rain water harvesting at household and community levels by constructing soak pits or through existing wells. Sangla. Septage treatment plants constructed in the specified areas Fish ladder at Seshmati Khola introduced Land use plan of riparian land prepared and area landscaped by appropriate local agencies Locations along the river protected by appropriate local agencies Access road/foot trails constructed along the banks of the river Water quality monitoring system established and operated by appropriate local agencies Number of squatter settlements verified and relocated from river banks River banks encroachment controlled Construct septage treatment plants for faecal sludge management at locations such as Bhaktapur. government offices. colleges. and Conserve and restore deteriorated religious sites such as Mahalaxmi and Bishnudevi temples . housing colonies. Dhapakhel 1. aquatic biodiversity and aesthetic values of rivers and its surroundings Carry out bank protection works (80 km) using bioengineering technique. Activity 2: Undertake various measures to protect rvierside lands.

monitoring of river water Establish fecal sludge management systems. housing colonies. for fecal sludge management. Activity 1: To improve river water quantity and quality through proper management of water and waste water. monasteries and industries. Construct DEWATS at Thimi and Kirtipur municipalities.4: MONITORING PLAN ZONE 4 MEANS OF VERIFICATION Number of households with rainwater harvesting increased Number of ponds rehabilitated Kodku Waste Water Treatment Plant rehabilitated Hanumante Waste Water Treatment Plan rehabilitated Existing WWTP at Guheshwari improved and additional unit constructed Faecal sludge treatment plant at Guheshwari constructed DEWATS at Hanumante/Manhara confluence constructed Sallaghari WWTP rehabilitated and upgraded Dhobighat WWTP rehabilitated DEWATS constructed at Thimi and Kirtipur municipalities Number of institutions adopting DEWATS increased ACTIVITIES Promote rain water harvesting at household level by constructing soak pits or through existing wells. Thimi 7. Construct access roads/foot trails along both the banks of Activity 2: Take measures to protect river side land. Rehabilitate Kodku WWTP at Balkumari to cater to waste water from core Lalitpur area and Baneshwar based on FSDED (2003). Construct. colleges. Promote DEWATS at institutional levels such as army and police barrack. Kathmandu 7. government offices. Construct DEWATS at Hanumante and Manahara confluence. Initiate plantation at riparian land at Sankhamul. Construct septage treatment plant at HPCIDBC. confluence of Bagmati—Bishnumati and Sundarighat. Construct additional WWTP at Guheshwari and upgrade the existing WWTPs. Rehabilitate Hanumante WWTP . and Construct municipal composting plants targeted to Kalimati vegetable market and Teku fruit market 47 . Rehabilitate 32 existing ponds (Lalitpur 7. aquatic biodiversity and aesthetic value of rivers and their surroundings the rivers ensuring conservation of existing ghats and heritage sites.Table 7. repair and manage intercepting sewerage system along both the banks of the rivers Intercepting sewerage system constructed and managed along both the banks of the river Waste water treatment plant constructed in specified locations of Bagmati and Bishnumati river Number of households with toilet increased Fecal sludge management system established Construct waste water treatment plants with best available technology at two sites of Bagmati river and one site each of Bishnumati and Dhobikhola as demonstration plants Promote on-site sanitation at household and community levels through measures such as septic tanks. Bhaktapur 6 and Kirtipur 5) for rainwater harvesting to recharge groundwater. Rehabilitate Sallaghari WWTP. and Establish a system for regular quality twice a year at 20 locations Water quality monitoring system established and operated Prepare and implement landscape of riparian land to maintain green corridor. Guheshwari. Rehabilitate and expand Dhobighat WWTP based on UN-Habitat (2008). Pachali Bhairab. Land use plan of riparian land prepared and area landscaped Length of river protected Access roads/foot trails constructed along both banks of the river Specified area planted Municipal composting plants constructed Carry out bank protection works (70 km) using bioengineering technique. schools.

48 Table 7. MEANS OF VERIFICATION Number of squatter settlements verified and relocated from the river banks River encroachment controlled ACTIVITIES Verify and relocate the squatters from the river banks. Laxmiswar) and sattals and ghats in Sankhamul. and Restoration plans of existing heritage sites and associated cultural activities prepared Number of temples renovated and heritage sites conserved in those specified locations Inventory of heritage sites prepared Public space along Teku to Thapathali stretch rehabilitated and promoted for tourism development Conserve and regenerate deteriorated temples (Bombir Bikateshwar. Teku.. Dallu and Shobha Bhagwati. Bhim Mukteshwar. Bishnu Bikranta. Activity 3: Control and relocate squatter settlements from the river banks Inventory of existing heritage sites updated Control encroachment of the river banks by squatter and others Activity 4: Maintain and renovate heritage sites Update the inventory of existing heritage sites.4 Contd. Prepare restoration plans of important heritage sites and associated cultural activities. Prepare the inventory of intangible heritage Activity 5: To promote tourism Rehabilitate public space along Teku—Thapathali stretch as recommended by the Teku Thapathali Research Group (1994) and promote the area for tourism development ..

Carry out bank protection measures (70 km) using bioengineering technique. government offices.5: MONITORING PLAN ZONE 5 MEANS OF VERIFICATION Number of households with increased toilets DEWATS demonstration site for Sainbu area constructed Number of institutions adopting DEWATS increased ACTIVITIES Promote on-site sanitation including ecosan. Locations for engineering structures identified. Activity 4: Maintain and renovate the cultural and heritage sites Prepare restoration plans of existing heritage sites and associated cultural activities. housing colonies. Develope and promote the area for recreation. Construct intercepting sewerage system at certain areas. and Construct picnic spots 49 . and Activity 3: Undertake various measures to protect river side land. colleges. Promote DEWATS at institutional levels such as army and police barracks. and Establish a system for regular monitoring of river water quality at 4 locations Activity 2: To improve the self-purification process of the river Design and implement weirs in the river bed to facilitate aeration. monastries and industries.Table 7. aquatic biodiversity and aesthetic value of rivers and their surroundings Construct access roads/foot trails along both the banks of the river Prepare an inventory of existing heritage sites. designed and operated by appropriate agencies Floating waste removing system at downstream of Chobhar gorge designed and operated Land use plan of riparian land prepared and area landscaped locations along the river protected Access roads/foot trails constructed along both the banks of the river Inventory of heritage sites prepared Restoration plans of existing heritage sites and associated cultural activities prepared Number of temples renovated and heritage sites conserved Length of trails for bird watching constructed Number of areas developed and promoted for recreation Number of picnic spots constructed Construct floating waste collection ponds downstream of Chobhar gorge Prepare and implement landscape plan of riparian land to maintain green corridor. Rehabilitate existing ponds (Khokana 2 and Bungmati 5) for rainwater harvesting to recharge ground water. Activity 1: To improve river water quantity and quality through proper management of water and waste water Number of ponds rehabilitated Intercepting sewerage system constructed Water quality monitoring system established and operated Construct DEWATS at Sainbu. and Conserve and regenerate temples in Jal Binayak and Katuwal daha Activity 5: Promte tourism and recreation Construct trails for bird watching. schools.

guthis revived Regular research carried out through the involvement of academic institutions ACTIVITIES Activity 1: Restructure existing HPCIDBC to implement the Bagmati Action Plan Activity 2: Formulate policies. legislations and regulatory mechanisms required for HPCIDBC Act Activity 3: Revise Waste Management Act and Rules and amendments of existing waste management policy Activity 4: Develop guidelines to prevent haphazard construction of local drains and discharging of waste water into rivers Activity 5: Demarcate river territories. with the level of vulnerability to low flow Activity 8: Develop a long term Bagmati Ecological Monitoring System by involving national and international academic institutions Activity 9: Establish municipal compost plants. water ways and flood plains (UN-Habitat 2008) Activity 6: Explore and assess possibilities for increasing water discharge in the river such as interbasin transfer of water to Bagmati through multi purpose Melamchi Project Activity 7: Prepare a water inventory GIS database including river networks.50 Table 7. public sector organizations and other stakeholders build up Number of advocacy campaigns and public awareness programmes carried out Database of guthis related to cultural heritage along the river sides prepared.6: MONITORING PLAN Cross-cutting Activities MEANS OF VERIFICATION HPCIDBC with new organization structure and successful implementation of BAP Number of newly formulated policies. explore and develop strategies to link with CDM to generate revenues Activity 10: Ensure IEE/EIA studies for industries and other construction activities in and around the rivers Activity 11: Establish short and long term sanitary landfill sites for waste disposal Activity 12: Promote household and community level waste management system including composting with the involvement of private sector Activity 13: Engage private sector for the management of solid waste in Kathmandu Valley Activity 14: Develop public-private-partnership for Faecal Sludge Management System Activity 15: Ensure the provision of waste water treatment system for all commercial buildings and housing colonies Activity 16: Plant and protect indigenous plant species along the river banks Activity 17: Build capacity of local communities. strategy prepared and revenue generated IEE or EIA study carried out Sanitary landfill sites established and operated Decreasing percentage of organic solid waste at landfill site Involvement of Private Sector for solid waste management of Kathmandu Valley PPP Feacal Sludge Management System developed Waste water treatment system ensured in all commercial buildings Number of monitoring carried out Indigenous plant species planted and protected Capacity of local communities. water source area. legislation and regulatory mechanisms Waste Management Act and Rules revised and existing waste management policy amended Guideline prepared for local development support to prevent haphazard construction of local drains and discharging waste water into rivers River areas and water source areas demarcated Possibility of increase in river water discharge in Bagmati explored Water inventory GIS database prepared A long term Bagmati Ecological Monitoring System developed Number of municipal compost plant established. public sector organisations and other stakeholders for implementation of BAP Activity 18: Initiate public awareness and advocacy campaigns for the conservation of natural resources and river ecosystem Activity 19: Support guthi traditions for maintenance and conservation of heritage sites Activity 20: Conduct regular research by involving academic institutions .

8%).394. transfer stations. Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation. If these amounts are included in the total budget for 2008/09.1%) (Figure 8. Science and Technology. and BASP is receiving 0. Primary activities under waste water management are the construction and maintenance of sewerage and slaughter house. 1. and rain water harvesting (0. Department of Water Induced Disaster and Preparedness.24 million.8 BUDGET PLAN Waste water management 52% Riparian land management 11% 8.1. Other 1% Solid waste management 36% Fig 8. the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has committed to provide financial assistance of Rs. 694. This amount includes the budget of four municipalities (Kathmandu. BASP. Kirtipur.24 million for the fiscal year 2008/09. Bhaktapur. culture and heritage (0. In addition. riparian land management (10. solid waste management (36%). community forest conservation (0. a detailed analysis was carried out to estimate the allocation of the government budget in addressing the issues of the Bagmati river and its tributaries. composting.5% of the land revenue which comes to the tune of Rs. Based on the consultation with major stakeholders and review of the current fiscal year budget. biogas and treatment plants. Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilisation Centre.1: Sectoral allocation of budget for 2008—2009 Major sectors allocated for current expenditure are waste water management (52%). UN Park Development Committee and Shivapuri National Park.1. recycling. The government has allocated a total sum of Rs. and Madhyapur Thimi). Current government budget Several responsible agencies exist to address environmental issues related to the Bagmati river system.3%). 550 million for 2009. it would be Rs. Ministry of Environment. © Siddhartha/NTNC .8%).1).500 million in 2009 for landfill site development. Pashupati Area Development Trust. Landfill sites.

and inflation rate. Zone 4 requires the maximum budget because this zone covers municipalities where major activities have been proposed.14% for fourth year and 13. The required total estimated budget for five years is Rs 14. 8. 8. 8.76% Figure 8. In some cases.7. Among the total. The projected budget also addresses the issues related to empirical information.83% Zone 4 43. Details of cost estimation of each activity are not presented and budget has not incorporated the contribution required from public and private entities. the budget has been estimated either on the basis of the cost mentioned by past projects or based on the prevailing rates.25% Zone 1 1. However. training and capacity building are other major activities under solid waste management.165 million (Table 8.55% Zone 5 12. 18. The estimated cost is adjusted with inflation rate and some modification is required in the design. Similarly. the budget for this plan has been projected only for five years because of the changing political context of Nepal.1). The cost of DEWATS and fecal sludge management involves complex calculation which is based on the population projected for specific area suitable for DEWATS up to 1958.63% for final year (Figure 8.64% Zone 3 23. Five years budget distribution Cross Cutting 11. In case of the activity which is completely based on the recommendation made by previous projects such as WWTP designed by FSDED (2003). more outputs are expected through less but appropriate inputs.71%). Zone 1 requires less budget compared to other zones (Fig. Usually.2). Of the total budget. Budget has been predicted in such a way that there is room for predicting the budget to longer period after five years.2.4.52 incinerator. activities and budgets have been planned accordingly. The current market rate has also been taken into consideration. 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 8. The allocation of resources for Zone 3 and Zone 4 is comparatively higher each year.21%) has been allocated for the second year and then third year (21.2.3. Considering this fact. The detailed budgets are presented in the following Table 8. the huge amount (26. © BAP Study Team Rapid growth of settlements in peri-urban zone.80%) as most of the works have to be carried out in these years.19% of budget is allocated for first year. ground-based realities. population projection. community mobilisation.3). 80 The population of specific area required for DEWATS was estimated using the population density of VDC/municipality and rural growth rate (1. Proposed budget plan Budget has been calculated considering all possible fixed and variable costs. the cost estimated by the project is taken as reference. Although this is the area where more inputs are required to conserve river sources through wise management of biodiversity and vegetation.2 up to Table 8. action plan and budget is projected for a longer period. The cross classification of total budget for five years by the action plan is shown in Fig. This cost may be significantly lower if the land is available free of cost from other sources. Similarly 20. Huge amount has been allocated for DEWATS and squatter settlement mainly due to high cost for land acquisition.95% Zone 2 6. Budget allocated in different zones .

53
Table 8.1. Five years budget for BAP
YEARS Budget Plan
Cross Cutting Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Total

YEAR 1
349,720,000 53,380,000 89,450,000 766,250,000 1,377,357,600 269,687,000 2,905,844,600

YEAR 2
369,350,000 55,330,000 235,790,000 818,470,000 1,994,437,600 385,822,500 3,859,200,100

YEAR 3
321,940,000 50,230,000 217,410,000 644,020,000 1,590,777,600 463,642,750 3,288,020,350

YEAR 4
306,210,000 31,930,000 213,920,000 694,060,000 1,162,137,600 460,258,500 2,868,516,100

YEAR 5
302,280,000 28,930,000 212,130,000 476,100,000 829,777,600 257,874,250 2,107,091,850

TOTAL
1,649,500,000 219,800,000 968,700,000 3,398,900,000 6,954,488,000 1,837,285,000 15,028,673,000

54

Table 8.2: BUDGET FOR BAGMATI ACTION PLAN Cross cutting Activities
YEAR 1 YEAR 3
11,490,000 MoPPW, NTNC MoPPW 150,000 1,500,000 7,660,000 3,830,000 76,600,000

ACTIVITIES PARTNER AGENCIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION
15,320,000 450,000 900,000 38,300,000

YEAR 2

YEAR 4

YEAR 5

TOTAL

Activity 1: Restructure existing HPCIDBC to implement the Bagmati Action Plan

Activity 2: Formulate policies, legislations and regulatory mechanisms required for HPCIDBC Act 500,000 100,000 400,000 1,000,000 SWMRMC

Activity 3: Revise Waste Management Act and Rules and amendments of existing waste management policy 500,000 500,000

Activity 4: Develop guidelines to prevent haphazard construction of local drains and discharging of waste water into rivers 7,500,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 7,500,000

SWMRMC/VDCs/ Municipalities Survey Department/KVTDC

Activity 5: Demarcate river territories, water ways and flood plains (UN-Habitat 2008)

15,000,000 10,000,000

Activity 6: Explore and assess possibilities for increasing water discharge in the river such as inter basin transfer of water to Bagmati through multi purpose Melamchi Project 2,500,000

WECS

Activity 7: Prepare a water inventory GIS database including river networks, water source area, with the level of vulnerability to low flow 400,000 200,000 400,000 200,000

2,500,000

WECS

Activity 8: Develop a long term Bagmati Ecological Monitoring System by involving national and international academic institutions 1,500,000 1,500,000 1,500,000

200,000

1,400,000

Academic institutions and research organizations

Activity 9: Establish municipal compost plants, explore and develop strategies to link with CDM to generate revenues 500,000 300,000

1,500,000

1,500,000

7,500,000

SWMRMC/VDCs/ Municipalities 200,000 100,000 100,000 1,200,000 MoEST, NTNC

Activity 10: Ensure IEE/EIA studies for industries and other construction activities in and around the rivers 200,000,000 20,000,000

Activity 11: Establish short and long term sanitary landfill sites for waste disposal

200,000,000 20,000,000

200,000,000 20,000,000

200,000,000 20,000,000

200,000,000 20,000,000

1,000,000,000 100,000,000

SWMRMC DWSS/NGOs

Activity 12: Promote household and community level waste management system including composting with the involvement of private sector

Table 8.2 Contd...

ACTIVITIES YEAR 3
100,000 100,000 100,000 1,800,000 MPPW/DDC/ VDCs/ Municipalities Municipality/ VDCs 1,000,000 500,000

YEAR 1

YEAR 2

YEAR 4

YEAR 5

TOTAL

PARTNER AGENCIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION

Activity 13: Engage private sector for the management of solid waste in Kathmandu Valley 30,000,000 30,000,000 20,000,000 10,000,000 10,000,000 100,000,000

Activity 14: Develop public-privatepartnership for Faecal Sludge Management System 500,000 500,000 500,000 300,000 200,000 2,000,000

Activity 15: Ensure the provision of waste water treatment system for all commercial buildings and housing colonies 30,000,000 30,000,000 30,000,000 30,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 3,000,000 30,000,000 150,000,000 10,000,000

VDCs, Municipalities

Activity 16: Plant and protect indigenous plant species along the river banks

MOF, NGOs/Local Communities NGOs/Local Communities

Activity 17: Build capacity of local communities, public sector organisations and other stakeholders for implementation of BAP 30,000,000 30,000,000 30,000,000 30,000,000 30,000,000

Activity 18: Initiate public awareness and advocacy campaigns for the conservation of natural resources and river ecosystem 1,050,000 1,050,000 700,000 350,000

150,000,000

Media/NTN/NGOs

Activity 19: Support guthi traditions for maintenance and conservation of heritage sites 3,000,000 3,000,000 3,000,000

350,000

3,500,000

Guthi Sansthan/NGOs

Activity 20: Conduct regular research by involving academic institutions 349,720,000 369,350,000 321,940,000

3,000,000

3,000,000

15,000,000

Universities/NTNC

TOTAL

306,210,000

302,280,000

1,649,500,000

55

000 2.000 15.500.000 4. 7.000 7.000 10. 4.000 2.000.500. 2.000 300.000 4.000 YEAR 2 YEAR 4 YEAR 5 TOTAL Develop and implement regulatory mechanisms to minimize water extraction by KUKL and commercial water vendors.500.000.000 VDCs/Local NGOs 2.000.000 1.400. SNP. agriculture.000.2 Strengthen community forest user groups. 1. and 7. 1.000 12. NTNC.000 SNP/MOF 2.000.1 Carry out afforestation programmes in Shivapuri watershed and other areas.3: BUDGET FOR BAGMATI ACTION PLAN ZONE 1 YEAR 1 YEAR 3 100.000 4.000.000 1.000 20.000 7.000 2.500.4 Implement bioengineering works for recharging rivulets of ShNP 6.000.000 7.000 3.500.5 Prepare and implement landscape plan of riparian land to maintain green corridor.300.000 SNP/MOF Community Forest User Groups Activity 2: Undertake various measures to conserve catchment area and aquatic biodiversity.4 Promote sustainable use of renewable energy resources.000.000 2.000.000 SNP/MOF/ Local Communities 2.000.000 2.000.000.000 1.500.000 500.000.000 2.000 500.000 7. DNPWC. construction and other commercial activities.000.000 SNP.000.1 Activity 1: Undertake various measures to protect and enhance water 1. 4.56 Table 8. Local Organizations Construct embankments in dhap (Shivapuri National Park) to increase water recharging capacity.3 Control deforestation and encroachment of the pubic lands from grazing.000 500.000 SNP/MOF 2.000 7.300.000 250.000.000 250.000 250.000 7.000 50.500.000 500.000 1.000 100.000 7.000.000.000.000.000 500.500. and 750.000 3.500.000.000. Local Organizations Protect and manage wetlands in areas such as Phulchowki and Shivapuri National Park.000 1.000 SNP/MOF/ MPPW 2.500.000.000.000 1.000 15.000 4.7 Provide income generating opportunities to local communities in reducing pressure on forest 4.000 4.000.000 20.000 4. MoPPW ACTIVITIES PARTNER AGENCIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION 400.500.000 SNP/MOF .000.000. 2.6 Update inventory of existing aquatic as well as terrestrial resources and protect biodiversity.000 KUKL.000 500.000 100.000 11. NTNC.000.000.000 2.000 25.000.500.000 35.000 2.000 7. 5.000.500.3 4.2 resources and increase water discharge into the river.

Table 8.3 Contd...
YEAR 1 YEAR 3
200,000 200,000 DWSS/VDC/NGO 200,000 2,000,000

ACTIVITIES PARTNER AGENCIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION
400,000 1,000,000

YEAR 2

YEAR 4

YEAR 5

TOTAL

Activity 3: To maintain and enhance the river water quality

3.1

Promote total sanitation (no open defecation), with best available technologies such as ecosan, bio-gas etc. starting from Sundarijal to other areas of Zone 1; 2,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 10,000,000 DWSS/VDC/NGO

3.2

Prevent disposal of solid waste in and around water bodies; 500,000 500,000 500,000 500,000 500,000 2,500,000

3.3

Prevent pollution of river system from excessive use of agro-chemicals; and encourage organic farming 2,880,000 480,000 480,000 480,000 480,000

VDCs/Local NGOs

3.4

Establish systems for regular monitoring of river water quality twice a year at eight locations 600,000 100,000 100,000 100,000

4,800,000

MOPE/NGOs

Activity 4: To renovate and conserve the cultural and heritage sites 500,000 500,000 500,000

4.1

Prepare restoration plans of existing culture and heritage sites and associated cultural activities; and

100,000

1,000,000

DOA/VDC

4.2

Renovate and conserve temples such as Shivadev Basaha, Buddha sculpture and ghats in Sundarijal 1,000,000 1,200,000 900,000

500,000

500,000

2,500,000

DOA/VDC

Activity 5: To promote tourism

5.1

Develop and enforce code of conduct;

1,000,000 300,000 300,000 300,000 3,000,000

VDCs VDCs/ Local Communities

5.2

Diversify eco-tourism products such as adventure sports, bird watching, sight seeing, etc.; and 2,000,000

5.3

Designate trekking routes and develop tourism infrastructure along the routes.

1,500,000

1,000,000

1,000,000

500,000

6,000,000

NTNC/MoTCA

TOTAL

53,380,000

55,330,000

50,230,000

31,930,000

28,930,000

219,800,000

57

58

Table 8.4: BUDGET FOR BAGMATI ACTION PLAN ZONE 2
YEAR 1 YEAR 3
5,800,000 NTNC/VDC/NGOs 2,900,000 2,900,000

ACTIVITIES

YEAR 2

YEAR 4

YEAR 5

TOTAL

PARTNER AGENCIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION

1.1

Promote rain water harvesting at household and community level by constructing soak pits or through existing wells; 3,000,000 7,500,000 1,500,000 1,500,000 15,000,000 1,500,000 VDC/NGOs/MPPW

Activity 1: Undertake various measures to enhance water flow in the river

1.2

Rehabilitate 17 existing ponds (Chapagaun 6, Chhampi 1, Sankhu 5, Balambu 1, Dadhikot 1 and Tokha 3) to recharge groundwater through rainwater harvesting; 750,000 4,000,000 4,000,000 4,000,000 750,000 13,500,000

1.3

Minimize water extraction with the support of local community; and 4,000,000 12,000,000 12,000,000 4,000,000 12,000,000

VDC/Local NGOs

1.4

Develop land use urban industrial 12,000,000 3,270,000 12,000,000 2,180,000

and implement plan to regulate growth and activities

44,000,000

MPPW/VDCs

2.1

Promote on-site sanitation with best available technologies such as ecosan, bio-gas, safety tank etc. 4,360,000 10,900,000 2,000,000

1,090,000

30,540,000

DWSS/NGOs

Activity 2: To prevent discharge of waste water and solid waste into rivers

2.2

Construct community managed DEWATS demonstration site in Sankhu; and 3,000,000 3,000,000

1,000,000

1,000,000

19,260,000

NGOs/VDC

2.3

Promote DEWATS in institutions such as army and police barracks, government offices, schools, colleges, housing colonies, monasteries and industries. 11,000,000

11,000,000

11,000,000

11,000,000

39,000,000

NGOs/VDC

Activity 3: To conserve aquatic biodiversity and riparian landscape

3.1

Prepare and implement landscape plan of riparian land to maintain green corridor;

11,000,000

1,000,000

1,000,000

1,000,000

25,000,000

HPCIDBC/VDC/local communities

Table 8.4 Contd...
YEAR 1 YEAR 3
20,000,000 20,000,000 62,000,000 20,000,000 MoPPW 1,000,000 1,000,000

ACTIVITIES

YEAR 2

YEAR 4

YEAR 5

TOTAL

PARTNER AGENCIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION

3.2

Carry out river bed restoration works such as check dams at Sundarijal—Alapot Area, Changunarayan and Tokha; 20,000,000 20,000,000 1,000,000 43,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000

3.3

Carry out bank protection works using bioengineering (61 km based on survey) 1,500,000 1,500,000 150,000,000 150,000,000 150,000,000 150,000,000 10,000,000 3,000,000 610,000,000

DWIDP/DDC/VDCs

3.4

Introduce fish ladder at Gokarna barrage;

DWIDP/DDC/VDCs DOR

3.5

Construct access roads/ foot trails along both the banks of the river 6,120,000 1,020,000 1,020,000 1,020,000

3.6

Establish a system for regular monitoring of river water quality twice a year at 17 locations; and by 500,000 120,000 20,000 20,000 500,000 500,000 500,000 20,000

1,020,000

10,200,000

MOPE/NGOs

3.7

Create awareness forming eco-clubs

500,000 20,000

2,500,000 200,000

School, Local Organizations VDC/DOA

4.1

Prepare an inventory of existing heritage sites in the zone; 600,000 100,000

Activity 4: To renovate and conserve the cultural and heritage sites

4.2

Prepare restoration plans of important heritage sites and associated cultural activities; and 4,000,000 4,000,000

100,000

100,000

100,000

1,000,000

DOA/VDC/Municipality

4.3

Conserve and restore deteriorated temples (Tokha Chandeshwari and Gokarna Mahadev) 1,000,000 800,000

4,000,000

4,000,000

4,000,000

20,000,000

VDC/DOA

5.1

Promote organic farming

1,200,000 1,000,000

1,500,000 1,500,000

1,000,000 800,000

800,000 500,000

5,500,000 4,600,000

DOA DOA, DOI

Activity 5: Promote sustainable agricultural practices

5.2

Promote scientific drainage system in order to reduce soil erosion from the field

59

4 Contd.000 2.000 500.500.2 Discourage water polluting and water consuming industries 1.000 213.4 Introduce an integrated pest management system 5.000 300.000 800.60 Table 8.000 ShNP/MOF/Local communities Activity 6: Regulate urban growth and industrial activities 200.3 Discourage use of pesticides and chemical fertilizer 600.000 300.000 .000 400.000 300.800.000 800. YEAR 1 YEAR 3 500.000 800.DoA. local organizations 6.700.000 300.000 800.000 200.000 MOEST.000 400..000 500.450.000 800.000 300.000 2.000 500.900.000 1.3 Ensure IEE/EIA studies for industries and other construction activities in and around the river 89.1 Prepare and implement land use plan 300.000 DoA.790.000 235.000 ACTIVITIES YEAR 2 YEAR 4 YEAR 5 TOTAL PARTNER AGENCIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION 5.000 6. NTNC TOTAL 212.000 400.000 300. MOEST 5.000.000 500.000 MoAC.000 500.920.130.500.000 300.000 300.000 217. DoPRM DoA.000 500.000 4.000 6.000 800.5 Encourage to recycle crop wastage and use livestocks manure 800.000 968.410.900.000 1. DoPRM 600..000 Media.

000.000 5. Katunje and Satungal. 2. fecals sludge management and other appropriate technologies. such as army and police barrages.000 5. Chapagaon 5.000 1.000.000.000.000 1. colleges.000 500. 1.000.000.000 5.000.5: BUDGET FOR BAGMATI ACTION PLAN ZONE 3 YEAR 1 YEAR 3 1.000 1.000 1.000.000. Jharuwarasi 1 and Sunakothi 3) to recharge groundwater through rainwater harvesting.000.000 1. government offices.000.000 500.000 80.000.000 250.000 SWMRMC 1.000.000.000 DWSS/ VDC/NGOs 1.000 6.000 400.000 VDCs/ NGOs/MPPW 650.000.3 Promote onsite sanitation at household and community levels through measures such as septic tanks.000.000 NGO's.000 1.5 Promote DEWATS in institutions.000 250.000.000 22.000.1 Promote rain water harvesting at household and community levels by constructing soak pits or through existing wells. 500.000 NGOs/ MoEST/VDCs 1.000.000.000. Harisiddhi and Bungamati 5.000.000.000 ACTIVITIES YEAR 2 YEAR 4 YEAR 5 TOTAL PARTNER AGENCIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION 1.Table 8.000.700.000.000 10.4 Construct community managed DEWATS at various locations such as Phutung.000 650.000 5.000.000 250.000 450.7 Promote household and community level waste management system 3.000. Sangla.000.000.000 1.000 1.000.000 1.000 VDCs/NGOs/ MPPW Activity 1: To improve river water quality and quantity through proper management of water and waste water 1. and 2.000 10.8 Construct septage treatment plants for faecal sludge management at locations such as Bhaktapur.000 50. Dhapakhel 1.000. housing colonies.000.000 100.000 1.000 3. monasteries and industries 50. 3.000 1.000 VDC 1.000.000 2.000. schools.2 Rehabilitate 6 existing ponds (Thecho 3.000.000.300. Kirtipur.000 NGOs/ VDC 1.000.000.000 1.000.000 1.6 Construct intercepting sewerage system along both the banks of the rivers. VDC's 61 .000 3.000 120.000.

000 48.000. Municipalities 4.000.960.000.3 Carry out bank protection works (80 km) using bioengineering technique.000 12. 48.000 20.000 200.000 3.800. aquatic biodiversity and aesthetic values of rivers and its surroundings 100.000.000 644.000 150.2 Prepare restoration plans of important heritage sites and associated cultural activities.000 7.000 7.250.000.900.000.000.000 1.000 47.000 VDC/DOA DOA/VDC Activity 4: Conserve and regenerate cultural and heritage sites 4.000 150.020.000 720.000.000 ACTIVITIES YEAR 2 YEAR 4 YEAR 5 TOTAL PARTNER AGENCIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION 2. YEAR 1 YEAR 3 2..200.000.000 64.62 Table 8.000 48.5 Establish a system for regular monitoring of river water quality at 12 locations 35.000 .800.800.000 20.500.000.500.000 720.000 DOR 2.000 119.000 MoH.000 2.5 Contd.000 150. and 1.000 2.250.000.500.000 720.000 694.000 900.000 750.000.000.320.000 1.000 11.000 3.800.000 DUDBC/ VDC/NGOs Activity 3: Control and relocate squatter settlements from the river banks 120.000 VDC/DOA TOTAL 818.000 750.000 48.000.000.000.000 200.2 Prepare and implement landscape of riparian land to maintain green corridor.1 Introduce fish ladder underneath the Seshmati Khola bridge of Dharmasthali VDC.000 150.000.000 5.000 160. DWIDP/DDC/VDCs 2.000 1.000.100.398.3 Conserve and restore deteriorated religious sites such as Mahalaxmi and Bishnudevi temples 766.1 Verification and relocation of all squatters from the river banks 200.000 720.000 20.4 Construct access roads/ foot trails along both the banks of the rivers.000 4.2 Control the encroachment of the river banks by squatters 200.000 1.000 476.000 MOPE/ NGOs 3.200.760..000 48.000 12. 20.920.000 200.000 200.000 12.000 2.000 1.000 VDC/local communities Activity 2: Undertake various measures to protect rvier side lands. 12.1 Prepare an inventory of existing heritage sites.000 100.060.800.000 1.680.000 800.000 240.000 17.000.000.000 DWIDP/DDC/VDCs 1. and 4.000 240.470.000 12.000 5.250.880.000 200.

000 400.000 KUKL/ Municipality KUKL/Municipality 1.000 225.000.000 45.060.030.000.000.000 400.000. 2.000 KUKL/ Municipality 1.10 Construct DEWATS at Thimi and Kirtipur municipalities.000. Bhaktapur 6 and Kirtipur 5) for rainwater harvesting to recharge groundwater.000 9.000 1.670.Table 8.000.000 45.670.000 KUKL/Municipality 1.000 1.000 Activity 1: To improve river water quantity and quality through proper management of water and waste water.000 1.000.000 45.500.000 1.2 Rehabilitate 32 existing ponds (Lalitpur 7.280. Municipalities 1. 350.000.280.000.150. 61.000 1.000 1.000.000 7. Kathmandu 7.000. 15.500.000. 2.000 2.000 200.7 Construct DEWATS at Hanumante and Manahara confluence. 1.6 Construct septage treatment plant at HPCIDBC.200.000 ACTIVITIES YEAR 2 YEAR 4 YEAR 5 TOTAL PARTNER AGENCIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION NGOs/ Municipalities/MPPW 1.550.840.670.5 Construct additional WWTP at Guheshwari and upgrade the existing WWTPs. 6.000 5.000 200. 1.000. for fecal sludge management.900.000 90. Guheshwari.000 3.030.000.000.000 362.000 37.000 400.000 26.000 1.800.000 1.700.000 400.1 Promote rain water harvesting at household level by constructing soak pits or through existing wells.000 75.000 200.000 KUKL/Municipality KUKL/ Municipality 1.4 Rehabilitate WWTP . Municipalities 63 . Sallaghari 800.000 NGO's. Thimi 7.000 2.3 Rehabilitate Kodku WWTP at Balkumari to cater to waste water from core Lalitpur area and Baneshwar based on FSDED (2003).000.000.9 Rehabilitate and expand Dhobighat WWTP based on UN-Habitat (2008).000.400.000 NGO's.000 400.000.000.000 93.000 306.000 400.8 Rehabilitate WWTP.340.500.000 400.000.550.030.000 7.000. Hanumante 78.000 1.000 156.060.6: BUDGET FOR BAGMATI ACTION PLAN ZONE 4 YEAR 1 YEAR 3 5.350.000 30.000.500.000.000 200.000 1.000 262.000 30.040.900.000 30.000.000.000 153.000 NGOs/ Municipalities/MPPW 1. 350.000 7.

500.000 10.64 Table 8.000 270.000.000.000 1.000 6.000. 30. 100.200.000 10.000 100.000.000. 200.000 80. repair and manage intercepting sewerage system a l o n g both the banks of the rivers 50.500.000 100.6 Contd.000.000.000 200.000.000.000 1.000.000.000 6.000 200.000 DWSS/ Municipalities/NGOs 1.000 52.000 700..000.000.000.000 NGOs/ MOPE/VDCs 1.000.000 VDC/Municipalities/NGO's MOEST/Municiapalities.000 2. 10.000.000.000.000 6.000. and 30.000 7.000.000 100.000 1.000.000.16 Establish a system for regular monitoring of river water quality twice a year at 20 locations 6.000 Municipality/local communities Carry out bank protection works (70 km) using bioengineering technique.000 80.12 Construct.000 200.500.200.000 6.000 KUKL.000.000 DOR . Municipalities 1.11 Promote DEWATS at institutional levels such as army and police barrack.000.13 Construct waste water treatment plants with best available technology at two sites of Bagmati river and one site each of Bishnumati and Dhobikhola as demonstration plants 1. NGO's 1.000 1.500.14 Promote on-site sanitation at household and community levels through measures such as septic tanks.000 1.000.000 ACTIVITIES PARTNER AGENCIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION 6.000 1.000.000 VDC/Municipalities 1. monasteries and industries.000 2. YEAR 1 YEAR 3 4.000.000.000.000 400.000 10. colleges.000 YEAR 2 YEAR 4 YEAR 5 TOTAL 1.000 50.500.000 12. housing colonies.000 100.000.000 80.000.1 measures to protect river side land. schools.000.200.000.000 1.000 30.200.000 18.000 10.000.000.000 50.000 DDC/Municipality/DWIDP Activity 2: Take 2.000 800.000. government offices. 2.000.000 6..000 1.000 Prepare and implement landscape of riparian land to maintain green corridor.000 7.2 aquatic biodiversity and aesthetic value of rivers 2.000.000.000 200.15 Establish fecal sludge management systems. 100.000.500.200.000.000.3 and their surroundings Construct access roads/ foot trails along both the banks of the rivers ensuring conservation of existing ghats and heritage sites.000.000 120.

000 50.000.4 Initiate plantation at riparian land at Sankhamul.000 16. Bhim Mukteshwar.000.357.000 500.000 10.000 500.3 Conserve and regenerate deteriorated temples (Bombir Bikateshwar.600 21.1 Rehabilitate public space along Teku—Thapathali stretch as recommended by the Teku Thapathali Research Group (1994) and promote the area for tourism development 4.000 40.000 10.800. and 8.000 3.000.000 16.880.000 ACTIVITIES PARTNER AGENCIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION 16..088.000 100.000 300.000.377. 1.200.000.590.000.000. confluence of Bagmati—Bishnumati and Sundarighat.000. Bishnu Bikranta.217.000 300.994.000.000 10.720. Pachali Bhairab.600 10.000 98.000 65 .000 8.954.600 4.000. 4. 500.000 300.000 DUDBC/Municipality/NGO Activity 3: Control and relocate squatter settlements from the river banks 600. Dallu and Shobha Bhagwati. and 10.000.000 3.000 300.000 80.1 Update the inventory of existing heritage sites.000.600 1.777. YEAR 1 YEAR 3 16.437.600 6.217.600 4.2 Control encroachment of the river banks by squatter and others 2.160.000 24.217.000.000 500.000.000 500.000 3.2 Prepare restoration plans of important heritage sites and associated cultural activities.000 100.000 247.5 Construct municipal composting plants targeted to Kalimati vegetable market and Teku fruit market 74.600 1.000 Municipality/NGO 2.000.000 12.600 4.000 37.000 4.000 MoH.000 1.488.080.217.500.000 DoA/Municipalities DoA/Municipalities Activity 4: Maintain and renovate heritage sites 4.000 100.1 Verify and relocate the squatters from the river banks.Table 8.600 829.000 100.000 DoA/Municipalities TOTAL 1. Laxmiswar) and sattals and ghats in Sankhamul. Teku.6 Contd.217.000.777.000 NGO's 16.Municipalities 4..000.000 24.360.162.600 1.000.000 DoA/Municipalities Activity 5: To promote tourism 5.137.000 YEAR 2 YEAR 4 YEAR 5 TOTAL 2.

200.2 Construct floating waste collection ponds downstream of Chobhar gorge 6.000 6.000 650.000 2.842.000 1.000.000.000.000 1.000 NGOs/VDCs/MPPW 1.000.000.000.000 100.500 2.000.000.000.700.190.000.000 650.000 30. 100.000 43.000.66 Table 8.000 43.000. and 720.1 Prepare and implement landscape plan of riparian land to maintain green corridor.000 1.685.000 650.4 Rehabilitate existing ponds (Khokana 2 and Bungmati 5) for rainwater harvesting to recharge ground water.000 10.000 KUKL.000.000.000.800.000 6.000. 1.750 2. housing colonies.3 Construct access roads/ foot trails along both the banks of the river 200.000 6.000 DWSS/VDC/NGO NGO VDCs/NGO 7.300. Municipalities 1.000 700. 43.000 3.000.000 DoR .000 200.000 200.250 47.000 2.000 1.500 2.800.800.000 2.000 219.000.537.000 200.000 200.000 ACTIVITIES YEAR 2 YEAR 4 YEAR 5 TOTAL PARTNER AGENCIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION 1.000 700.000 6.000 DWIDP Activity 2: To improve the self-purification process of the river 2.000.000 120.000.1 DEWATS at Promote on-site sanitation including ecosan.000 100. monastries and industries.2 Construct Sainbu.000.000 120.000 10.000 MoEST/VDCs/NGOs 2.000 800. and 43.000 3.000 6. schools.500.2 Carry out bank protection measures (70 km) using bioengineering technique. colleges.800.000 43.000.000.000.000 9.250.152.5 Construct intercepting sewerage system at certain areas.000 3.000 4.768.000. aquatic biodiversity and aesthetic value of rivers and their surroundings 100.000 120.000 1. 1.000 1.000.000.000.000. and 300.000 VDCs/local communities 3.000 3.000 DWIDP/DDC/VDCs Activity 3: Undertake various measures to protect river side land.1 Design and implement weirs in the river bed to facilitate aeration.6 Establish a system for regular monitoring of river water quality at 4 locations 510.000 100.000.7: BUDGET FOR BAGMATI ACTION PLAN ZONE 5 YEAR 1 YEAR 3 2. Activity 1: To improve river water quantity and quality through proper management of water and waste water 1.000 DWIDP 3.3 Promote DEWATS at institutional levels such as army and police barracks.000 1.384.000 120. government offices.000.000 23.000.800.

Table 8.000 100.000 400.000 400.000 600.000 DoA/VDCs 100.000.000 500.500.000 VDC/DOA 120.000 500.000.000 500.000 400.000 460. 4.000.000 2.285.3 Construct picnic spots TOTAL 257.000 ACTIVITIES YEAR 2 YEAR 4 YEAR 5 TOTAL PARTNER AGENCIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION Activity 4: Maintain and renovate the cultural and heritage sites 500.7: Contd.000 500.2 Develop and promote the area for recreation.1 Construct trails for bird watching.000 2.3 Conserve and regenerate temples in Jal Binayak and Katuwal daha 400.000 1.. NGOs/local communities NGOs/local communities NGOs/local communities Activity 5: Promote tourism and recreation 5.000 20.750 500.000 400.000 2.000 500.000 269.642.500 385.000 400.000 200.000 500.000 2.000 400. and 5.000 400.000 VDC/DoA 4..000 500.2 Prepare restoration plans of existing heritage sites and associated cultural activities.822.000 20.000 20.000 100.837.000 500.874.250 1.000 100.687.000 400.500 463.000 5. 4.000 400. YEAR 1 YEAR 3 20.1 Prepare an inventory of existing heritage sites.258.500.000 67 .

68 © Siddhartha/NTNC .

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+. 41.DaGwL P]g–lgod .g]kfn vfg]kfgL ./sf/ sfg"g. Ministry of Water Resources.ldlt | jftfj/0f sfg"gsf] ?k/]vf. March 2007. g]kfn ./sf/ sfg"g.+.pdf (Accessed on April 2008) 46. 2002.gov/msbasin/ (Accessed on March 2008) 48. WECS. 2002. 58. 51. National Water plan.ª\sng÷../sf/ sfg'g.bLo Joj:yf dGqfno sfg"g lstfa Joj:yf .ldlt | g]kfn P]g ./sf/ sfg"g. M. Urban Water Environment Treatment of Nanjing Cily. Ministry of Water Resources. @)^# -3_.. 1fOGb|afxfb'/ 52.ª|ux k"/s v-8. G.+. Feasible low cost sustainable options to maintain river quality: Case of Kathmandu Valley Rivers./2112_86354_women_and_urban_governance_policy_paper.ª\sng÷..DaGwL P]g–lgod .ª\ux v08 * -s_ @)^@. Gofo tyf . 2003 49. Gofo tyf . g]kfn .ª|ux v08 & -s_ @)^!. @)%^ tyf :yflgo lgsf. Water and Environment Sanitation Improvement Program.73 40. >L % sf] . 59.ª\ux v08 * -v_. Gofo tyf . Mississippi river. Regmi.bLo Joj:yf dGqfno sfg'g lstfa Joj:yf .ldlt | g]kfn P]g . ljgf]bk|. 60.R.ldlt | g]kfn P]g . 50.org/.R 45.bLo Joj:yf dGqfno sfg"g lstfa Joj:yf . Government of Nepal.bLo Joj:yf dGqfno sfg"g lstfa Joj:yf . Improving Physical Conditions of Urban Squatter settlements. Gofo tyf .ldlt | g]kfn P]g . 43.unhabitat. Gofo tyf .ª\ux ljleGg gLlt. CIUD/water Aid/UNHABITAT. @)^@. 44.fb zdf{ ./sf/ sfg"g. 55. >L % sf] .jfsf]6L …lrGtg' /tg e08f/L ] | g]kfn P]g . sfo{of]hgftyf u}/.epa. CIUD.bLo Joj:yf dGqfno sfg'g lstfa Joj:yf . Government of Nepal. Lubhoo Water & Sanitation Improvement Plan. -cfly{s k|zf. >L % sf] .bkof]u kmfpG8]. 53.bLo Joj:yf dGqfno sfg"g lstfa Joj:yf . Gofo tyf .Eotf . >L % sf] .bLo Joj:yf dGqfno sfg"g lstfa Joj:yf .g lgodfjnL. @)^$ -s_.+/If0f . UN-HABITAT Water for Asian Cities Program Nanjing.+.+ux d"n bkmf. >L % sf] .+ux v08 % -s_ @)^@.+. 2003 47.+:s[lt–dbgdf]xg ld> afUdtL . 42.ldlt | g]kfn P]g .Dkfbg uf]kfn l. Gofo tyf . @)%^ >L % sf] . China.ldlt | g]kfn P]g .+3if{sf afX jif{./sf/ sfg"g Gofo tyf .ª|ux. 62. Policy Plan on Women and Urban Governance www.bLo Joj:yf dGqfno sfg"g lstfa Joj:yf . 2059 :yfgLo :jfoQ zf. WECS. /0fgLlt. >]i7 k}/jL k|sfzg k|fs[lts ./sf/ sfg"g./sf/ sfg"g.+./sf/L ljlwljwfg Pjd\ 3f]if0ffkqx?.g.g_ lgodfjnL. 57.ldlt | g]kfn P]g .jfsf]6L …lrGtg /tg e08f/L P]g .+ux v08 % -v_ @)^@ >L % sf] .+ux v08 ! @)^!.ª\ux k"/s v08. 54.Dkfbg uf]kfn l. Gofo tyf .Dkbf.lxt Ps l6Kk0fL | " (Comment on Acts with Precedent). Gulf of Mexico watershed Nutrient Task Force www. xfd|f] afudtL .ldlt hn tyf pmhf{.+.+nUg. 63. Assessment of Ground Water Potential of Kathmandu Valley. 61. .bLo Joj:yf dGqfno sfg"g lstfa Joj:yf . . Ghimire.|ft.d]t | . Water Resources Act and Policy.+./sf/ sfg"g. 56. x't/fd j}B.+.

Surface Water Pollution in Three Urban Territories of Nepal.Sustainable Management Fund Contract 2208 65. Third Edition. Population pressure and land resources in Nepal: a revisit. contaminated yet coveted resource in south Asia 71. Amherst. Functional indicators of river ecosystem health –an interim guide for use in New Zealand by Ministry for the Environment . MA 66. The Pictured Key Nature Series 67. Urban Water Problem in Asian Big Cities Nepal. University of Massachusetts. Integrated Development and Management of Water resources for productive and Equitable use in the Indrawati River Basin. Project Report on “An Approach for Bagmati River Water Pollution Control” Models reviewed Yamuna Action Plan Ganga Action Plan Hood River Watershed Management Plan Sammamish River Action Plan Manistique River Management Plan Yarra water shed management. City of Fargo Om River Action Plan. Integrated catchment management in an urban context the great and little lotus rivers. Hungary Mekong River Basin. India. Cornell University. Measuring River ecosystem health in Western Massachusetts-The Mill River by Instream Habitat Program.W. al. Production in Baluchistan by Syed Ghulam Muhammad 69. 70. Ithaca. et.Department of Natural Resources. Melbourne Fraser River Action Plan Carbunup River Action Plan River front Development Master plan. Nepal. NY 14853 And Massachusetts Cooperative Extension. Chengdu. strategic action plan Rhine river action plan The Fu and Nan Rivers project. twenty years later 72. University of Montana. AUSAID Danube river basin. G. Rural water supply and water quality status in Nepal 73. cape town report no. 75. and Bangladesh 74. How to know the freshwater algae. M.74 64. Prescott. Wastewater as a controversial. 846/1/01 76. Bhattarai. China . Water harvesting Presents Great Potential for Increasing Agricultural and Fodder Crop 68.

6. Baneshwor. Friends of Bagmati Hotel Dwarika’s Gautam Buddha Marg. Damaichaghat Puspalal Tole Sudhar Samiti Development Centre (DC) Nepal Didi Bahini Ward No. Anamnagar 11. Lalitpur Key functions/activities Mobilise community level activities to conserve the river and lobby for improvement of the Bagmati river Involved in conserving the heritage sites along Bagmati. Bishnumati Sarokar Samiti Tamsipakha. Kathmandu 7. Anamnagar. Kathmandu Monitoring river water quality Community based sanitation in peri urban communities Training on household composting and solid waste management Promotion of decentralized waste water management Developing a project together with BORDA for decentralized sanitation Signed an agreement with BASP to manage 1 km stretch of Bagmati below Jorpati bridge Awareness raising programmes Involved in promoting environmental justice and Public Interest Litigation. Kathmandu 8. Tinkune. Recently prepared a wastewater management plan for Madhyapur Thimi Municipality Clean-up campaigns and tree plantation along the Bishnumati River Promoting ecological sanitation and solid waste management in Mulpani. The project included: Legal analysis and recommendation concerning environmental regulations/responsibilities River monitoring and GIS training Implementation of the river monitoring system in two segments Awareness raising activities Create and develop a network and information system on river quality Adarsha Marg. Environmental Camps for Conservation Awareness (ECCA) Jwagal. Bungamati and Badikhel Involved in a small Water and Sanitation project in wards 7 and 8 (Dalit Basti) of Alapot VDC. Bagmati Sewa Samiti 3. Centre for Integrated Urban Development (CIUD) Gusingal. 18. Gokarna and Balkhu) Case against construction of 20 metre road along the Bagmati river without preserving archaeological monuments Case against decision to construction of UN Park in the Bagmati river bed 75 2. Name Bagmati Sarokar Samiti Address/contact person 27 local committees are formed along the Bagmati river from Sundarijal to Chobhar (each in one kilometre) Sankhamul.Annex 1 Stakeholders working in the field of Bagmati conservation S. Kathmandu 4. Ward No. 1. Forum for Protection of Public Interest (ProPublic) . Clean-up campaigns from Balaju to Teku Dovan Involved in supporting urban planning and community-based water and sanitation programmes. particularly in Sankhamul area and providing service to people who come to the ghats Recently formed to coordinate activities along the Bishnumati river. Lalitpur 5. 19. funded by Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Fund Board Recently implemented KAPRIMO project with support from EU.N. Kathmandu Aditi Marg. Gokarna. Have filed the following legal cases related to Bagmati: Cases against solid waste dumping along Bagmati (Guheshwari. Lalitpur 9. Environment and Public Health Organisation (ENPHO) 10.

Nepal River Conservation Trust (NRCT) Thamel. Kathmandu . 22. 21. sporting events (Dunga Daud. 28. many of which are located along the Bagmati. Kathmandu Indrasabha Tole. as well as regular clean-up campaigns 23. Lalitpur Collecting waste from about 12. kathmandu Involved in lobbying for urban water and sanitation issues Organises cultural tours for youth as well as clean up campaigns Contributing towards the conservation of Shankhamul ghat Collecting waste from households. 12. NGO Forum for Urban Water and Sanitation Nodan Club Rotary Club of Yala Sagarmatha Environment Development Centre (SEDC) Tripureshwor. 20. 19. Lalitpur Sankhamul. festival activities include clean-up campaigns.000 households. Kathmandu 24. heritage walks. Lions Club of Pashupatinath 17. Kathmandu Jawalakhel. Lalitpur Ratopul. Kathmandu Ward No. Name Indrabinayak Club Kathmandu Environmental Education Project (KEEP) Kathmandu Tole Sudhar Samaj Khadgi Sewa Samaj Address/contact person Ina Tole. 19. Lumanti 18. music concerts. Environmental programmes on Radio Sagarmatha Aankhi Jhyaal Television Programme Hakahaki Magazine Regular interaction programmes for journalists 25. kathmandu Key functions/activities Clean-up campaigns and tree plantation along the Bishnumati river Involved in occasional education and clean up campaigns Clean-up campaigns Recently constructed a large bio-gas plant. Kathmandu Thamel. award ceremony. Narayan Pariwar Club National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC) Nepal Basobas Basti Samrakchhan Samaj Nepal Mahila Ekta Samaj Nepal Pollution Control and Environment Management Centre (NEPCEMAC) Wande Ward No. operating a small compost plant along the Dhobikhola river at Ratopul 16. Bagmati Eco-Challenge). particularly women Ekantakuna. 26. Kathmandu Basantapur. 15. with support from World Vision and Kathmandu Metropolitan City. Kathmandu Organised the annual Bagmati River Festival since 2001. Kathmandu Working with slum and squatter communities. 14. Nepal Forum for Environmental Journalists (NEFEJ) Thapathali. along the Bishnumati river to process waste from slaughtering activities Lobbying for environmental improvement in Pashupati area and establishment of a crematorium at Aryaghat Tahachal.76 SN 12. etc. 27. 13. Bishnumati and Manahara rivers Involved in mobilising local youths for the conservation of Bishnumati river Involved in preparing Bagmati Action Plan and pilot projects for conservation of Bagmati Advocacy for welfare of squatter communities Advocacy for welfare of squatter communities. exhibitions. Operating small scale compost plants in Ward 5 Kathmandu and Central Zoo Involved in promoting household composting and vermi-composting. Kathmandu Mangal Bazar.

Visit to waste water treatment plants of the Kathmandu Valley 6. Nepal Involved in solid waste management (waste collection from 1. Kupondole: Bagmati river Annex III . Chapagaun: Nakkhu river 5. viz. Mulpani: Manahara river 13. Chhampi 6. Chilaune Gaun. Teku. Sundarighat: Bagmati river 19. 30. Hanumante. NEPCEMAC. Sangla and Manahara rivers. Inatole. Balkhu. Siddhipur: Godavari river 18. Lalitpur Kopundole. Tukucha and Karmanasa 10. Name Urban Environment Management Society Women Environment Group (WEG) Women Environment Preservation Committee (WEPCO) Address/contact person Saugal. Bungmati. composting. Mulkharka of Shivapuri National Park. Bishnumati. Godavari. Ekantakuna: Nakkhu 15. Visit to Bishnumati dwar—Bishnumati. Visit from Chobhar to the confluence of Bosan Khola to learn the existing condition towards the downstream and to survey local and migratory birds of the area 11. Ghattekulo Sudhar Samaj. Manahara. Nakkhu. 31. Sangla.. Teku: Bagmati and Bishnumati 20. Visit to different water diversion sites for hydrological surveys such as Godamchaur. HEMS School. Annex II Field survey to various sites 1. Jagat Sundar Bonekuthi. Dhobikhola. promotion of household composting Waste collection from 300 households. Visit to Katuwal daha 12. Dallu: Bishnumati river 12. Bishnumati river 11. Nayapati/Alapot. Sankhu 3. biogas generation and paper recycling). Mahadev Khola. Visit to the Dhap to know the possibility of water recharge area during dry season and the condition of the wetland List of community consultations 1. Tika Bhairab and Sangla chhap 13. Visit to ICIMOD demonstration site. Also involved in school education programmes in 43 schools and other activities related to awareness campaigns. Sundarighat. viz. Sundarijal community: Bagmati 14. Satungal.77 SN 29. Gundu: Hanumante 9. Chilaune. Sankhamul and Chobhar for reorganisation of plantation sites 8. Lalitpur: Nakkhu river 4. Godavari 7. Sundarijal: Bagmati 16. Visit to different sites. Visit to different river stretches of the Kathmandu Valley. Badikhel: Kodku khola 2. Lalitpur. Balkhu: Balkhu river 3. Cultural walk along Bishnumati and Bagmati rivers (Shobha Bhagwati—Gokarna) 5..000 households. Bagmati watershed 2. Bagmati. involved in river clean-up campaigns Kopundole. Visit to different mining sites of the Kathmandu Valley 9. Visit to Okhreni. Sundarijal:Bagmati river 7. Visit to Sundarijal—Gokarna corridor 4. WEPCO. Lalitpur Key functions/activities Improvement of well and other traditional water sources. Ratopul: Dhobikhola 10. Anamnagar: Dhobikhola 8. Chhampi Madhyamik Vidhyalaya. Okhreni. Matatirtha: Balkhu river 17.

Sukedhara Mandikhatar Golfutar Saranpur. Maharajgunj Dhobikhola Shanti Binayak Devinagar Bishalnagar Kalopul Pathibhara Hanumante river Other locations Manahara. Dhungen Subigaun Ramhiti Mahankal Dhumbarahi. Bhaktapur Palpakot Anamnagar Maijubahal Kumarigal Radhakrishna Chowk Mulpani Kapan. Buddhajyoti Marga Balaju Jagriti Tole Sangam Tole Ranibari Tukucha Narayan Tole. Maharajgunj Khadipakha.735 Population 1.632 118 462 207 222 56 67 486 46 503 104 112 320 691 214 227 108 735 192 129 178 20 728 2.422 158 79 152 52 97 60 63 200 668 77 69 362 123 373 33 181 12.78 Annex IV List of squatters in different river segments Bagmati river and its tributaries Bagamati river Name of squatters Shantinagar Bijaynagar Jagritinagar Gairigaun Chandani Tole Pragati Tole Kalimati Dole Bansighat Kuriyagaun Sankhamul Kimal Phant Number of households 360 25 120 46 48 11 16 96 10 105 26 26 73 126 36 45 30 146 42 32 37 6 154 589 30 17 25 11 16 12 13 34 122 15 14 78 24 80 6 33 2. Budhanilkantha Hattigauda Khadka Bhadrakali Total .726 Bishnumati river Dhikure Chouki Kumaristhan.

26.320 8.320 4. 24.880 8.000 19. 3.100 5. Name Ashy Drongo Barn Swallow Baya Weaver Black Kite Black-headed Munia Cattle Egret Chestnut-tailed Starling Common Myna Common Sandpiper Common Stonechat Eurasian Tree Sparrow Grey Wagtail Grey-headed Lapwing Hodgson’s Bushchat House Crow House Sparrow Indian Pond-Heron Little Ringed Plover Long-tailed Shrike Oriental Magpie Robin Pied Bushchat Red Avadavat Red-Rumped Swallow Red-vented Bulbul Rock Pigeon Scaly Thrush Spotted Dove White Wagtail White-throated Kingfisher Scientific Name Dicrurus leucophaeus Hirundo rustica Ploceus philippinus Milvus migrans Lonchura malacca Bubulcus ibis Sturnus malabaricus Acridotheres tristis Actitis hypoleucos Saxicola torquatus Passer montanus Motacilla cinerea Vanellus cinereus Saxicola insignis Corvus splendens Passer domesticus Ardeola grayii Charadrius dubius Lanius schach Copsychus saularis Saxicola caprata Amandava amandava Hirundo daurica Pycnonotus cafer Columba livia Zoothera dauma Streptopelia chinensis Motacilla alba Halcyon smyrnesis Total Source: Shivapuri Management plan.230 3.250 4.980 2.000 18.500 2.000 1.79 Annex V Discharge of surface water during wet and dry seasons Location Surface water (m3/day) Wet season Dry season Balaju Bansbari Bir Dhara Sundarijal Saibu Dudh Pokhari Chapagaun. 16.250 1. 13.230 3. 27.000 500 4. 12. 22.000 13. Nallu Sundarighat Lunkot Mahadev Khola Thini Bada 4.900 5.600 64.500 200 2.400 3.500 11. 18. 1995 14. 6. 8. 4.820 Annex VI Different bird species observed during the field visits SN 1. 25. 19. 28.500 700 6.000 9. 9. 29.820 6. 21. 2. 23.700 2. . 7. 10.000 2.000 18.600 46. 20.000 3. 15. 17. 5. 11.

etc. Uma Maheshwar. Most of the small artifacts are gather together and kept at a corner. Festival occurs on 1st Baishak in this tirtha. Hence. is built on the other side of Balkhu Khola. sattals and ghats near Gokarneswar Mahadev Some temples located near Gokarneshwar Mahadev temple in Gokarna are inaccessible. A traditional pati existed there before but new construction made it extinct. Other stone images of Saraswati. Tinthana The shrine is placed at the confluence of Balkhu khola and a small stream. south of Changu Narayan Temple It is one of the important components of Changunarayan premises. a new monument has been constructed. It lies in an open field. Taglung in Budhanilkantha Shivadev Basaha is located at Bishnu Budhanikantha VDC. Documentation of all the monuments and temples of the area are necessary and steps should be taken to conserve the ghats. Changunarayan Temple along Manahara river It is one of the seven heritage sites of the Kathmandu Valley. in isolation.80 Annex VII Cultural and heritage sites at risk along the Bagmati river Shivadev Basaha and Buddha Sculpture. Balambu Ancient Shiva sculpture and pati are found in the temple complex. Religiously and culturally significant temple. Today. Vishnudevi Temple. Sattal beside VDC office is in poor state and another similar type is dismantled. the rituals associated with ghats are eroding fast and have been encroached and used for various other purposes. The open pit contains natural stone images of the Astamatrikas and two carved stone images of Sinhini and Byagrihini. a relatively new shrine. Sattal along the ghat built by Bhimsen Thapa is maintained and is in use whereas the ghats in front of the sattals are covered with vegetation. Another example is the temple being encroached by new construction and used as a store. with the change in lifestyle. It is in ruined state at present because of landslide and sand mining in the Manahara river. are also present. there is urgent need of attention and awareness. the shivalinga is in vulnerable condition due to construction of new houses in the premises. Budha Sculpture is located to the east of Budhanilkantha. Hence. The artefacts of these temples are either already lost or if remain is not in its original place. Ghats in Sundarijal The ghats are symbols of culture. Mahadevsthan Naikap. The heritage site is deteriorating and is at risk. This holy shrine is now used a cremation site. The confluence where the temple is located is known as Sapan Tirtha. stone lion. in the upstream of Dhobikhola. Shankha Daha. Mahalaxmi Temple. This area is not only important from cultural point of view but also important from ritual perspective. Temples. The images are severely deteriorated. At present. . the norms of the Department of Architecture should be strictly followed to save this historical temple. There is also a small primary school located in the premises. As the old temple was totally dismantled. It consists of an open stone platform with patis and trees. Most of the people visit this place during Father’s Day in memory of their late father. Hence. It contains an image of the Ichcha Brinkeshwar Mahadev. the ghats have been covered with vegetation. It includes the earliest inscription of Nepal. in the form of a four-faced linga dating back to the 6th century. its structures and doors are in dilapidated state. The pati near the temple is awaiting renovation. Immediate works for its conservation is required. Tokha Chandeswari Tokha Chandeswari is a historically important temple and is popular in the Newar community. The shivalinga is said to be built in the reign of King Mandev. shivalingas. Its history dates back to 5th/6th century. dating back to 4th/5th century. it should be preserved. New ghat is built slightly downward and used by the people due to unfeasible to utilize the previous ghat. as surrounding lands have been encroached. In Sundarijal.

It is a three-storey temple constructed by King Rana Bahadur Shah and is surrounded by sattals with some well carved windows. has a unique architecture. is unknown to majority of the people. with medieval architecture. Pashupatinath. An example of heritage in danger can be seen in the pati in Kankeshwari premises. It is one of the earliest inscriptions available and hence steps should be taken to preserve the sculpture as well as the inscription. built during the middle of 19th century by prime minister Bom Bahadur Kunwar Rana. this sculpture is in an isolated place.81 People throng to this place for worship. The statue is important as it has different reincarnation of God Bishnu. The patis are either in a dilapidated condition or has been changed using different modern construction materials. The sattals are under the dilapidated condition and is awaiting renovation. built by Mathavar Singh Thapa in memory of Bhimsen Thapa. has been built of brick with dome and gajura on its top. It is the platform where Kalash is put bringing water from river for bath to Adinath. it is in neglected state and hence needs immediate protection. and Satungal Jatra. Purneshwar Temple. Sattal of Laxmishwar Temple Laxmishwar Mahadev temple was built in the middle of a paved courtyard on the bank of the Bagmati river. Similarly. It has King Mandev’s inscription dating back to 5th century. although situated at the heart of the city in Kalimati. The pati. At present. The temple and its complex is owned by guthi. has © BAP Study Team . Bhim Mukteshwar Temple This two-storey temple. The temple. and preservation and awareness activities should be carried out. one of the important Lokeshwars (Rato Machhindranath). particularly during Shivaratri and Sripanchami. Tripureshwar This temple is located in Tripureshwar on the way to Vishwa Niketan Campus. The main entrance and the sattals surrounding the temple are on the verge of collapse. Tripureshwar. the temple is on the verge of collapse. which is held every year. The Statue of God Bishnu This statue is located in between Purneshwar temple and Vishwa Niketan Campus. This kind of work needs legal permission from the Department of Archaeology and hence the offender should be punished according to the Ancient Monument Preservation Act. been changed thus completeley losing its ancient ambience. Adinath is said to be dated in fifteenth century but according to an inscription. Having a rectangular plan with eight doorways. Bombirbikateswor Mahadev of Teku This temple. the original architecture of this temple has been changed and restored in new form. The site of ping dyo is in a poor state. It is surrounded by two-storey buildings (sattals) on all sides. many areas are encroached and the statues of gods and goddesses are stolen. Patis of Dallu bridge and Shobha Bhagwati The patis along the surroundings of Kankeshwari and Shobha Bhagwati temples have been changed over time. Ping dyo This site is located near the Modern Indian School in Kirtipur. Vishnu Vikranta sculpture of Tilganga The sculpture of Vishnu Vikranta is located near Tilganga. Currently. In today’s context. it was reconstructed in 1640. It is situated below the road level and has nothing to protect against the weather conditions. it has a single sanctum with three towers. Constructed during Rana Bahadur Shah’s period.

Anangaghat. Gokarneswar Mahadev.km Suryamati Khola 283. Sheshnarayan. Champadevi.966 9912 sq. Sankhamul.km) Built up area Cultivated land Cultivated with settlement Park and greenery area Vegetation (Forest) Water body (ponds) Oxidation and treatment plant Human settlements Population Population density Major river networks 50. Godavari Kunda.37 0.04 1. Karyabinayak.687 1179 sq.4 22. Bagh Bhairab Jalbinayak. Bishnudevi.64 29. Bishnumati.98 4. Nagmati 231. Machhenarayan.63 1. Thapathali-Teku stretch. Balkhu 34.92 Zone/Physical features Urbanization Zone 1 urbanization comparatively negligible Sundarimai. Matatirtha . Bajrabarahi. Tukucha.29 7. Pachali. Tika Bhairab.719 1570 sq.69 15.28 995.5 73. Sundarighat Cultural Heritage Changunarayan. Nil Saraswati.22 3. Bosan Zone 5 1760—1220 1.9 0.km Nakhu.km Sailmati. Bhatbateni.33 71.13 0.499 2512sq. Dakshinkali.49 40 0. Harisiddhi Zone 4 Zone 5 Dominant of built-up comparatively less area than Zone 4 Pashupati.71 0.94 92.16 0.km Manahara. Ichangunarayan Zone 2 Slighty urbanized Zone 3 Moderately urbanized Ashok Chaitya.85 0.km Zone 1 2720—980 0. Shovabhagwati. Bishankhunarayan.07 204. Kageshwari.75 Zone 2 2080—1310 5. Sankhu Bajrayogini.76 2. Uttar Gaya. Karyabinayak. Kankeswor.337 1542sq. Mahalaxmi temple.9 Zone 4 2020—1260 61. Budhanilkantha. Tudal Devi.82 Annex VIII (a) Physical features of zones Zone/Physical features Altitude (m) Total area covered (sq.26 0.43 Zone 3 1620—1280 19. Dobikhola.24 8.81 28. Neel Bode.72 0.

83 Annex VIII (b) Physical features of zones (List of VDCs and Municipalities) Zone 1 Bad Bhanjyang (partial) Badikhel (partial) Bageshwari Baluwa (partial) Bhardeu Bhimdhunga (partial) Bishankhunarayan (partial) Bishnu Budhanilkantha (partial) Chalnakhel (partial) Chapagau (partial) Chapali Bhadrakali (partial) Chhaimale Chhaling (partial) Chitapol (partial) Dahachok (partial) Devichaur Gagalphedi (partial) Ghusel Godavari (partial) Goldhunga (partial) Gundu (partial) Ichangu narayan (partial) Jhor (partial) Jitpurphedi (partial) Kabhresthali (partial) Lamatar (partial) Lapsiphedi Lele Lubhu (partial) Machchhegaun (partial) Mahadevsthan (partial) Matatirtha (partial) Nagarkot Nallu Nangkhel (partial) Zone 2 Alapot Bad Bhanjyang (partial) Badikhel (partial) Balambu (partial) Baluwa (partial) Bhadrabas Bhimdhunga (partial) Bishankhunarayan (partial) Bishnu Budhanilkantha (partial) Changunarayan Chapagaun Chapali bhadrakali (partial) Chhaling (partial) Chhampi (partial) Chitapol (partial) Chunikhel (partial) Dadhikot (partial) Dahachok (partial) Dharmasthali (partial) Dukuchhap (partial) Gagalphedi (partial) Godamchaur (partial) Godawari (partial) Gokarneshwar Goldhunga (partial) Gundu (partial) Ichangunarayan (partial) Indrayani Jhor (partial) Jitpurphedi (partial) Kabhresthali (partial) Lamatar (partial) Lubhu (partial) Machchhegaun (partial) Mahadevsthan (partial) Zone 3 Balambu (partial) Balkot Chhaling (partial) Chitapol (partial) Chunikhel (partial) Dadhikot (partial) Dhapakhel (partial) Dhapasi Dharmasthali (partial) Duwakot Godamchaur (partial) Goldhunga (partial) Gongabu Gothatar (partial) Harisiddhi Ichangunarayan (partial) Imadol Jharuwarasi Jhaukhel Jorpati Kabhresthali (partial) Kapan Katunje (partial) Khadka Bhadrakali Machchhegaun (partial) Mahankal Manamaiju Mulpani Naikap Naya Bhanjyang Naikap Purano Bhanjyang Nangkhel (partial) Phutung Ramkot (partial) Sangla (partial) Satungal Siddhipur Lalitpur Submetropolitan City Bhaktapur Municipality Kirtipur Municipality Zone 4 Kathmandu Meteropolitan City Madhyapur Thimi Municipality Zone 5 Bungmati Chalnakhel (partial) Chhampi (partial) Daksinkali Dukuchhap (partial) Khokana Sainbu Bhainsepati Saukhel (partial) .

84 Zone 1 Nanglebhare Nayapati (partial) Ramkot (partial) Sangla (partial) Sankhu pukhulachhi (partial) Sankhu suntol Sankhu Bajrayogini (partial) Saukhel (partial) Shesnarayan Sipadol (partial) Sudal (partial) Sundarijal (partial) Talku dudechaur Tathali (partial) Thankot (Partial) Zone 2 Matatirtha (partial) Nangkhel (partial) Nayapati (partial) Ramkot (partial) Sangla (partial) Sankhu pukhulachhi Sankhu Bajrayogini Sipadol (partial) Sirutar (partial) Sudal (partial) Tathali (partial) Thaiba (partial) Thali danchhi Tokha Saraswati Thankot (partial) Tokha chandeshwari (partial) Zone 3 Sipadol (partial) Sirutar (partial) Sitapaila Sudal (partial) Sunakothi Syuchatar Tathali (partial) Thaiba (partial) Thecho Tikathali Tinthana Tokha Chandeshwari (partial) Zone 4 Zone 5 .

school student’s kayak race. NRCT took the Bagmati river festival in 2004 to greater heights. corporate houses and hundreds of local people participated in the festival creating the much needed awareness about the dismal state of the Bagmati river. training on waste management to several groups of women living along the bank of the Bishnumati/Bagmati river. technical workshop on Bagmati/ Bishnumati river. 4th Bagmati River Festival: In association with over 50 co-organisers. university students. In 2006. and environmental/schools/music programme at Shankamul. Bagmati friendship float. The Bagmati clean-up campaign was from the Aryaghat-Pashupatinath to the Tilganga Eye Hospital stretch. The festival comprises several events. college. student’s theatre programme. Sustainable Tourism Network agmati River Fe tival: (STN) and Nepal Tourism Board (NTB) jointly organised the festival awareness raising programmes. From a one-day festival the previous three years to a three-month long 4th Bagmati river festival was a big leap. The festival was basically divided into three sessions: kayak race from Sundarijal to Guheshwari. including clean-up campaign. professional down river kayak race. Bagmati Sewa Samiti and Rotary Club Yala and was promoted by Nepal Tourism Board (NTB). The excursion was aimed at drawing the attention of the river’s sorry state. organised the 1st Bagmati River Festival. kayaking. Bagmati eco challenge. rafting from Tilganga to Shankamul. dunga daud. a project that attempted to draw maximum public attention to the critically degraded condition of the Bagmati river. the festival ended with a kayak race and cultural programme on August 21. 3rd Bagmati River Festival: NRCT in association with the Forum for Management and Research Nepal (FERN). 2003. 5 th Bagmati River Festival: The World Environment Day was the auspicious occasion chosen to inaugurate the 5th festival. rafting. environmentalists. etc. Starting from the World Environment Day on June 5. and urged the community and government to take immediate actions. etc. essay and photography competition at school levels. More than 100 participants from several schools. women for Bagmati cycle rally. live music concerts. exhibition of environmental models prepared by the students of high school. organised the 3rd Bagmati river festival on August 23. Over 25 river guides and more than 100 rafting enthusiasts.85 Annex IX Bagmati River Festivals The Bagmati river festival was started in 2001 to provide a platform for all interested individuals and organizations to express their concerns and provide solutions to overcome the plight of the river. anti-plastic campaigns. environmentalists. heritage walk. colleges. 1st Bagmati River Festival: Nepal River Conservation Trust (NRCT). journalists. Series of conservation programmes. and provide a platform for action. journalists and satirists donned face masks and traveled through a section of Bagmati river. clean-up campaigns. poetry. river rafting. tree plantation programme. public exhibition on various activities done by partner organisations. 6 th B agmati River Fes tival: NRCT. school. Over 50 river guides and rafting enthusiasts. tourists. © Siddhartha/NTNC Celebration of the Bagmati River Festival . in partnership with Friends of the Bagmati (FoB). NRCT added some new programmes like fund raising concerts and started its course from 2nd June 2006. The festival was supported by All Nepal River Guide Association. corporate challenge. locals and journalists gave hands to whip up the rubbish from the heavily polluted Bagmati river. tourists. sharing scientific findings about the river. 2004. drama. were organised throughout the festival. 2nd Bagmati River Festival: NRCT and FoB jointly organised the 2nd Bagmati River Festival 2002. Bagmati conservation campaigns and rallies.

© NTNC 86 .

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National Trust for Nature Conservation P. Khumaltar.ntnc.np . Box 3712.5526573 Fax: 977-1-5526570 E-mail: info@ntnc.O.np Website: www. Lalitpur .org. Nepal Tel: 977-1-5526571.org.

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