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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

I HC QUC GIA H NI TRNG I HC CNG NGH

Hong Hu Thnh

PHN TCH CHUYN GIAO TRONG MNG GSM

KHO LUN TT NGHIP I HC H CHNH QUY Ngnh: in T - Vin Thng

Cn b hng dn: Ths. Nguyn Quc Tun Cn b phn bin : PGS.TS Vng o Vi

H NI - 2008

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

MC LC
M U.......................................................................................................................4 Chng 1.......................................................................................................................6 TNG QUAN MNG GSM.........................................................................................6 1.1 M HNH KIN TRC CA GSM...................................................................6 1.1.1 Trm di ng MS (Mobile Station)................................................................6 1.1.2 Modul nhn dng thu bao SIM (Subscriber Identuty Module).....................7 1.1.3 Trm thu pht c s BTS (Base Transceiver Station)....................................7 1.1.4 B iu khin trm gc BSC (Base Station controller)..................................8 1.1.5 Trung tm chuyn mch cc dch v di ng MSC.......................................8 1.1.6 B ghi nh v thng tr HLR......................................................................8 1.1.7 B ghi nh v tm tr VLR...........................................................................8 1.1.8 B ng k nhn dng thit b EIR................................................................9 1.1.9 Qun l thu bao v trung tm nhn thc AUC............................................9 1.1.10 iu khin qun l v bo dng OMC......................................................9 1.1.11 Cc giao din trong mng GSM...................................................................9 1.2 M HNH MNG GSM....................................................................................11 1.3 MNG TRUY CP GSM.................................................................................12 1.3.1 Cc knh vt l............................................................................................12 1.3.2 Cc knh logic.............................................................................................18 1.4 X L TN HIU S TRONG GSM...............................................................22 1.4.1 M ho ting ni..........................................................................................23 1.4.2 M ho knh ...............................................................................................23 1.4.3 an xen........................................................................................................24 1.4.4 Mt m ho..................................................................................................26 1.4.5 iu ch.......................................................................................................27 Chng 2.....................................................................................................................31 GIAO THC BO HIU MNG GSM.....................................................................31 2.1 GIAO THC BO HIU..................................................................................31 2.1.1 Giao din A..................................................................................................32 2.1.2 Giao din Abis.............................................................................................36 2.1.3 Giao din Air/Um........................................................................................45 2.2 TH TC TRONG MNG GSM.....................................................................57 2.2.1 Bt tt my trm di ng..........................................................................57 2.2.2 Gn v tch IMSI.........................................................................................58 2.2.3 Cp nht v tr..............................................................................................58 a. Cp nht v tr trong BSS..................................................................................58 b. Cp nht v tr trong NSS..................................................................................62 2.2.4 Bt u cuc gi.........................................................................................63 a. Bt u cuc gi trong BSS..............................................................................63 b. Bt u cuc gi trong NSS..............................................................................70 2.2.5 Cuc gi t u cui di ng.......................................................................71 a. u cui di ng gi trong BSS.......................................................................71 b. u cui di ng gi trong NSS ......................................................................78

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Chng 3.....................................................................................................................80 CHUYN GIAO MNG GSM...................................................................................80 3.1 CC LOI CHUYN GIAO.............................................................................81 3.1.1 Trong BTS...................................................................................................81 3.1.2 Chuyn giao trong cng BSC......................................................................81 3.1.3 Chuyn giao trong cng MSC......................................................................82 3.1.4 Chuyn giao gia cc MSC ........................................................................82 3.1.5 Nhn xt......................................................................................................83 3.2 CC B NH THI........................................................................................83 3.3 CHI TIT CHUYN GIAO...............................................................................86 3.3.1 Trng hp thnh cng................................................................................87 3.3.2 Trng hp tht bi.....................................................................................90 3.3.3 Quay tr li BSS c....................................................................................91 3.3.4 Gii phng cuc gi.....................................................................................93 3.4 NG DNG SDL PHN TCH CHUYN GIAO.....................................94 3.4.1 Gii thiu v SDL........................................................................................94 3.4.2 Phn tch cc trng hp chuyn giao.........................................................95 3.5 THIT K M HNH .......................................................................................98 3.5.1 Thit k m hnh tng qut..........................................................................98 3.5.2 Cc bn tin...................................................................................................99 3.6 M T V M HNH CPN............................................................................102 3.6.1 Kha cnh ca m hnh..............................................................................103 3.6.2 Cc trang CPN...........................................................................................105 KT LUN...............................................................................................................117 CC THUT NG...................................................................................................118 TI LIU THAM KHO.........................................................................................120

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

M U
Ngy nay thng tin lin lc tr thnh mt nhu cu quan trng trong cuc sng ca chng ta. Ngoi cc dch v m cc in thoi c nh c nh: truyn thoi, nhn tin, Fax, d liu, vv. Thng tin di ng cn cung cp cc tnh nng u vit ca n cht lng dch v, tnh bo mt thng tin, thit b nh gn, linh hot trong vic di chuyn, v cc dch v ngy cng a dng nh truyn hnh di ng, truyn video cht lng cao, kt ni mng internet vi vic pht trin h thng thng tin di ng ln h thng thng tin di ng bng rng (3G) ...vv. Cng vi s pht trin ca ngnh thng tin lin lc th ngnh cng nghip vin thng pht trin mnh m v mang li nhiu li nhun cho cc nh khai thc. p ng nhu cu ca khch hnh cc nh cung cp dch v lin tc nng cp h thng mng, cht lng ng truyn, v a dng cc dch v, ng thi gim cc dch v, nhng iu ny mang li cho h mt s lng thu bao khng l v tng nhanh. Hin nay cc nh cung cp dch v nh viettel, vinaphone, mobilephone ang c nguy c chy s. Mt v d: Viettel c 5.555 trm BTS. T u nm 2007 n nay, Viettel xy dng thm hn 2.500 trm pht sng v n cui nm 2007 s trm BTS ca Viettel s l 7.000 trm. Mt cng ngh quan trng nht v c s dng ph bin nht khng ch Vit Nam m cn cc nc trn th gii l cng ngh GSM (Global System for Mobile communication-H thng thng tin di ng ton cu). Vit Nam hin nay nhng nh cung cp dch v vin thng ln nh: Vinaphone, MobiFone, Viettel u s dng cng ngh GSM. c pht trin t nm 1982 vi k thut a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian (TDMA) mt gii php tng dung lng h thng v m ho tn hiu m bo tnh an ton d liu ng thi m bo cht lng dch v p ng nhu cu ca hng triu khch hng. H thng GSM s dng SIMCARD c kch thc nh gn cm vo my di ng m ch c ngi ny mi c th s dng n ti mt thi im nh mt thit b nhn dng an ton. GMS l cng ngh truyn sng k thut s, cho php mt s ngi dng truy nhp vo cng mt knh tn s m khng b kt bng cch nh v nhng khe thi gian duy nht cho mi ngi dng trong mi knh. Song song cng tn ti v pht trin vi cng ngh GSM cn c cc cng ngh khc nh CDMA (cng ngh a truy cp theo m) cng l mt cng ngh tin tin v l i th ca GSM trong lnh vc cng ngh truyn thng di ng, hin Vit Nam cng ngh ny ang c cc nh khai thc dch v nh: S-Fone, H Ni Telecom, ETC. Cng ngh GSM i hi vn u t ban u t tn km hn CDMA. y cng chnh l l do CDMA cha c pht trin rng ri ti Vit Nam. Mt chc nng bo m cht lng truy cp ca mt cuc gi khi con ngi s dng in thoi di ng di chuyn l chuyn giao cuc gi. Chuyn giao c nh ngha l chuyn mt cuc gi trong sut hin thi t mt knh tn s ny ti mt knh tn s khc trong khi ngi s dng in thoi di ng di chuyn t ni ny sang ni khc. y l mt chc nng quan trng nht v th hin c c tnh khc bit gia mng di ng v mng in thoi c nh v th nghin cu th tc chuyn giao xy

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

dng mt m hnh chuyn giao trong thc t lm cho chc nng ny cng ti u v hiu qu l cn thit. V v Phn tch chi tit giao thc chuyn giao v xy dng m hnh chuyn giao trong mng GSM l mc ch chnh ca lun vn ny. Lun vn ny bao gm: Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v mng GSM. M hnh kin trc, m hnh mng v mng truy cp GSM Chng 2: Giao thc bo hiu iu khin cuc gi trong mng GSM. Th tc bt tt my di ng, vic cp nht v tr v cc th tc iu khin vic truy cp vo tin hnh mt cuc gi. Chng 3: Chuyn giao trong mng GSM. Gii thiu v cc loi chuyn giao c th xy ra trong mng. Cc giao din lin quan n chuyn giao, th tc chuyn giao bao gm cc bn tin c lin quan. Phn tch chuyn giao da trn ngn ng SDL, da trn ngn ng SDL thit k m hnh chuyn giao s dng CPN. Lun vn ny s tp trung vo xy dng m hnh chuyn giao trong mng GSM. Chng ta s i phn tch cc giao din c lin quan ti qu trnh chuyn giao v s dng mt ngn ng thng dng phn tch cc giao thc trong mng vin thng l SDL i su phn tch chi tit cc qu trnh th tc chuyn giao mt cuc gi. Sau l vic xy dng m hnh CPN ca cc qu trnh chuyn giao trong cng mt MSC. Cui cng khng th thiu l vic nh gi m tnh hiu qu ca m hnh, nhng cng vic lm c, nhng vn cn thiu st v hng pht trin trong tng lai. Em xin chn thnh cm n thy gio Nguyn Quc Tun, ngi nhit tnh hng dn, ch bo, cung cp cho em nhiu ti liu b ch gip em cng c thm kin thc v i ti hon thnh lun vn ny. Em xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c gio trong khoa dy d cho em nhiu kin thc c bn b ch cng nh cho em cc kin thc chuyn mn trong sut 4 nm hc ti trng i Hc Cng Ngh, cm n cc thy c gio to iu kin thun li v gip em hon thnh kho lun ny. Cui cng xin chn thnh cm n cc bn hc nhit tnh gip ti trong 4 nm hc v gip ti hon thnh kho lun ny.

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Chng 1

TNG QUAN MNG GSM


H thng thng tin di ng s s dng k thut a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian (TDMA) u tin trn th gii ra i u tin chu u v c tn l GSM. Ban u h thng ny c gi l nhm c trch di ng (Group Special Mobile) theo tn gi ca mt nhm c CEPT c ra nghin cu tiu chun. Sau tin cho vic thng mi ho GSM c gi l h thng thng tin di ng ton cu Global System for Mobile communication. 1.1 M HNH KIN TRC CA GSM H thng GSM bao gm 3 h thng c bn: h thng chuyn mch SS, h thng trm gc BSS v trm di ng MS. Mi h thng ny cha mt s chc nng khc nhau nh: chuyn mch, qun l nhn dng thit b, tnh cc .vv... to nn mt h thng mng di ng lin kt. Ngoi ra cn c tng i cng GMSC. GMSC lm vic nh mt tng i trung k giao din gia GSM v cc mng khc.

Hnh 1: S kin trc logic ca mng GSM

1.1.1 Trm di ng MS (Mobile Station) MS l cc thu bao, n l cc thit b m ngi dng s dng n thng tin vi nhau. MS c th l cc thit b cm tay nhin thoi di ng, my tnh c nhn, my Fax ...) MS cung cp cc giao din vi ngi dng gip cho vic khai thc cc dch v trong mng.

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Cc chc nng chnh ca MS: Thit b u cui thc hin cc chc nng khng lin qua n mng GSM, FAX ... Kt cui trm di ng thc hin cc chc nng lin quan n truyn dn giao din v tuyn. B thch ng u cui lm vic nh mt ca ni thng thit b u cui vi kt cui di ng. 1.1.2 Modul nhn dng thu bao SIM (Subscriber Identuty Module) H thng GSM s dng mt kho nhn dng thu bao c ct trong mt b nh nh gn gi l SIM-CARD. Thit b ny c cm vo my di ng thng tin trc tip v VLR v gin tip vi HLR. 1.1.3 Trm thu pht c s BTS (Base Transceiver Station) Trm thu pht c s bao gm cc b thu pht v x l tn hiu c th cho giao din v tuyn. BTS kt ni vi trm di ng thng qua giao din Abis. BTS nh mt ci Modem v tuyn phc tp m trong n c mt b phn quan trng l b chuyn i m v thch ng tc TRAU. TRAU thc hin vic m ho v gii m ting c th cho h thng di ng, vic thch ng tc cho vic truyn d liu. TRAU l mt b phn ca BTS nhng trn thc t n c th t cch xa BTS v c th t gia BSC v MSC.

Hnh 1.1: Kin trc logic ca BSS

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

1.1.4 B iu khin trm gc BSC (Base Station controller) BSC c nhim v qun l tt c giao din v tuyn thng qua cc lnh iu khin t xa ca BTS v MS. Cc lnh ny ch yu l cc lnhj n nh, gii phng knh v tuyn v qun l chuyn giao. BSC ni vi BTS thng qua giao din v tuyn cn ni vi MSC thng qua giao din A. Vai tr ca n ch yu l qun l cc knh giao din v tuyn v chuyn giao. Mt BTS trung bnh c th qun l c vi chc BTS ph thuc vo lu lng ca BTS ny. BSC v BTS cng c th kt hp trong mt trm gc. 1.1.5 Trung tm chuyn mch cc dch v di ng MSC MSC l trung tm chuyn mch chnh ca mng GSM. Nhim v iu phi vic thit lp cuc gi n cc ngi s dng mng thng tin di ng mt mt giao din vi BSC, mt khc giao din vi mng ngoi thng qua GMSC. thc hin vic kt ni MSC vi mng ngoi cn phi thch ng cc c im truyn dn. IWF l mt thit b thch ng giao thc v truyn dn s lm vic .

Hnh 1.2: Kin trc logic ca NSS

1.1.6 B ghi nh v thng tr HLR HLR l thit b lu c s d liu ca mng, cc thng tin lin quan n vic cung cp cc dch v vin thng. HLR cng cha cc thng tin lin quan n v tr hin thi ca thu bao, nhng khng ph thuc vo v tr hin thi ca thu bao. HLR thng l mt my tnh khng c kh nng chuyn mch m ch c kh nng qun l hng trm ngn thu bao. Mt chc nng con ca HLR l nhn dng trung tm nhn thc AUC. 1.1.7 B ghi nh v tm tr VLR VLR l c s d liu th hai trong mng. N c ni vi mt hay nhiu MSC v c nhim v lu tm thi s liu ca thu bao dang nm trong vng phc v ca

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

MSC tng ng v ng thi lu gi s liu v v tr hin thi ca thu bao ni trn mc chnh xc hn HLR. N ging nh chc nng ca b nh Catche. 1.1.8 B ng k nhn dng thit b EIR EIR c chc nng qun l thit b di ng, l ni lu gi tt c d liu lin quan n trm di ng MS. EIR c ni vi MSC qua ng bo hiu kim tra s c php ca thit b, mt thit b khng c php s b cm. 1.1.9 Qun l thu bao v trung tm nhn thc AUC AUC qun l vic hot ng ng k thu bao nh nhp hay xo thu bao ra khi mng. N cn c mt nhim v quan trng khc na l tnh cc cuc gi. Cc ph phi c tnh v gi ti thu bao. AUC qun l thu bao thng qua mt kho nhn dng b mt duy nht c lu trong HLR, AUC cng c gi vnh cu trong b nh SIM-CARD. 1.1.10 iu khin qun l v bo dng OMC OMC cho php cc nh khai thc mng theo di v kim tra cc hnh vi trong mng nh: ti ca h thng, s lng chuyn giao gia cc cell vv. Nh vy m h c th gim st c ton b cht lng dch v m h cung cp cho khch hng v kp thi x l s c. Khai thc v bo dng cng bao gm vic thay i cu hnh gim nhng s c xut hin, nng cp mng v dung lng tng vng ph sng, nh v sa cha cc s c hng hc vv. Vic kim tra c th nh mt thit b c kh nng pht hin mt s c hay d bo s c thng qua t kim tra nh tnh ton. Vic thay i mng c th thc hin mm qua bo hiu hay thc hin cng i hi can thip trc tip ti hin trng. Vic khai thc c th c thc hin bng my tnh t trong mt trm. 1.1.11 Cc giao din trong mng GSM

Hnh 1.3: Cc giao din trong mng GSM

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Gii thiu cc giao din trong mng GSM: BS n MSC: L giao din A m bo bo hiu v lu lng c s liu ln ting. Chi tit v giao din s c cp trong chng 3 BST n BSC: L giao din A-bis. L mt kt ni c nh bng cp thng thng bng thng khong 2Mbps. Chi tit v giao din s c trnh by trong chng 3. MSC vi PSTN: L giao din Ai. Giao din ny c nh ngha nh giao dinj tng t s dng hoc bo hiu a tn hai tng (DTMF) hay bo hiu a tn (MF). MSC vi VLR: L giao din B. MSC vi HLR: L giao din C. HLR vi VLR: L giao din D. y l giao din bo hiu gia HLR v VLR c xy dng trn c s bo hiu s 7. MSC vi ISDN: L giao din Di. y l giao din s vi mng ISDN. MSC vi MSC: L giao din E. y l giao din lu lng v bo hiu gia cc tng i ca mng di ng. MSC vi EIR: L giao din F. VLR vi VLR: L giao din G. N c s dng khi cn thng tin trao i gia cc VLR. HLR vi AUC: L giao din H. DMH vi MSC: L giao din I. y l giao din gia b x l bn tin d liu vi MSC. MSC vi IWF: L giao din F. MSC vi PLMN: L giao din Mi. L giao din vi cc mng thng tin di ng khc. MSC vi OS: L giao din O. y l giao din vi cc h thng khc. MSC vi PSPDN: L giao din Pi. y l giao din gia MSC vi mng chuyn mch gi. B thch ng u cui TA vi thit b u cui TE: L giao din R. L giao din c th cho tng loi u cui c kt ni vi MS. ISDN vi TE: L giao din S. N c nh ngha h thng ISDN. BS vi MS: L giao din Um. y l giao din mi trng v tuyn. PSTN vi DCE: L giao din W. N c nh ngha h thng PSTN.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

MSC vi AUX: L giao din X. Chng sau ta s i chi tit v cc giao din c lin quan ti qu trnh chuyn giao v y cng l cc giao din hot ng chnh trong mng GSM. 1.2 M HNH MNG GSM Mng GSM l mng vin thng phn cp c ni theo m hnh cy. Cc phn t cng cp l ngang hng (hnh 1.4). C th chia mng GSM thnh 3 cp tng ng:

Hnh 1.4: M hnh mng phn lp GSM

Tng i lin tnh: Cp lin tnh c hiu l cp cao nht trong mng GSM. Tng ng vi cp lin tnh l h thng NSS m c trng l trung tm chuyn mch MSC. Mt MSC c th qun l nhiu BSC v c phn nhnh theo hnh cy. Tng i ni ht: H thng BSS tng ng vi mt tng i ni ht. Trong mt BSS mt BSC qun l nhiu BTS. Gia BTS v BSC c th ni theo hnh cy hoc vng s dng. Mt BSC tng ng tng i host v cc BTS tng ng vi tng i v tinh.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 1.5: Kiu ni hnh cy v vng trong BSS

Tng i tp trung thu bao: L cc thu bao di ng, chng c th di chuyn t cell ny sang cell khc v v vy mt kt ni t tng i ni ht ti cc tng i v tinh l khng c nh, kt ni ny l kt ni v tuyn ng. 1.3 MNG TRUY CP GSM Mng GSM s dng a truy cp phn chia theo thi gian kt hp phn chia theo tn s cho php tn dng ti a bng tn c cp v tng dng lng h thng. Xu hng l tit kim bng thng, thi gian truy cp ngn v tr l nh nht. GSM bng tn 900MHz s dng phng php truy cp TDMA 8 knh vi rng bng tn sng mang 200kHz v s dng truyn dn c lin kt mt MS c th truy cp vo mng. 1.3.1 Cc knh vt l GSM s dng phi hp gia a truy cp phn chia theo thi gian (TDMA) v a truy cp phn chia theo tn s (FDMA). Phn chia theo tn s: Phn b tn s trong GSM c quy nh nm trong khong 890 - 960MHz vi s b tr cc knh tn s nh sau: Di tn s tuyn ln (t MS n BTS) 25MHz: 890 915MHz fL = 890MHz + (0,2MHz) x n trong n = 0,1,...,124 Di tn ng xung (t BTS n MS) 25MHz: 935 960 MHz fU = fL +45MHz

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Nh vy c 125 knh c nh s t 0 -> 124 ring knh 0 dnh cho khong bo v. H thng GSM m rng (E-GSM) c bng tn rng thm 10MHz c hai pha nh vy s knh tng thm 50 knh. Phn b tn s trong di ny nh sau: fL = 890MHz +(0,2MHz) x n; v fL = 890MHz +(0,2MHz) x (n 1024); fU = fL + 45MHz Nh vy cc knh b sung c nh s t 974->1023 c s dng knh thp nht 974 lm khong bo v. i vi h thng DCS-1800 bng tn cng tc 1710-1880 MHz phn b tn s nh sau: fL = 1710MHz + (0,2MHz) x (b-511); fU = fL + 95MHz Nh vy c 375 knh c nh s t 412 -> 884 Trong thng tin di ng s dng phng php lp li tn s trnh s nhiu cc knh ln cn v tng dung lng h thng. Mt phng php c bit na tng dung lng h thng l kt hp phn chia theo thi gian v phn chia theo tn s. Truyn dn v tuyn GSM c chia thnh cc cm (Burst) cha hng trm bit c iu ch. Mi cm c pht i trong mt khe thi gian c rng l 15/26ms~ 577us trong mt knh tn s c rng 200kHz ni trn. n= 512,513,...,885 n =0,1,...124 n=974,975,...,1023

Hnh 1.6: a truy cp kt hp TDMA v FDMA

Mi knh tn s cho php t chc cc khung truy cp theo thi gian c di 4,62ms, mi khung bao gm 8 khe thi gian t 0->7, mi khe gi l mt timeslots (TS0, TS1, ... , TS7).

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 1.7a: T chc mt khung TDMA

Tt c cc khung TDMA tt c cc knh tn s c ng ln ln ng xung u c ng b. Tuy nhin MS s dng cng mt khe thi gian cho c ng ln ln ng xung m khng phi thu pht ng thi th khi u ca khung TDMA ng ln tr 3 timeslots.

Hnh 1.7b: Phn khung TDMA

Cu trc mt cm (Burst): Mt cm l mt khe thi gian c di 577us. Trong h thng GSM tn ti 4 dng cm khc nhau. Ni dung cc cm (hnh 1.8) nh sau: - Cm bnh thng (NB: Normal Burst): cm ny c s dng mang thng tin v cc knh lu lng v cc knh kim tra. i vi knh la lng TCH cm ny cha 144 bit c m mt m, 2 bit c ly cp (ch cho knh TCH) trong 58 bit thng tin, 2 cp 3 bit ui 000 (tail bts) m bo rng b gii m viterbi bt u v kt thc trong mt trng thi bit, 26 bit hng dn (phn nh tng i ng tnh trng truyn sng cho my thu t b cn bng viterbi c th xy dng m hnh knh cc thi im

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

loi b nh hng ca nhiu pha nh a tia) v khong bo v 8,25 bit trnh nh hng ca knh ln cn. Tng cng c 156,25 bits. - Cm hiu chnh tn s (FB: Frequency Correction Bits): Cm ny c s dng ng b tn s cho trm di ng. Cm cha 142 bit c nh bng 0 to ra dch tn s +67,7kHz trn tn s nh danh, 2 cp 3 bit ui 000 chui bt khng ny sau khi sau khi iu ch GMSK cho mt sng hnh sin hon ton quanh tn s 68kHz cao hn tn s sng mang RF, 8.25 bit dng cho khong bo v. - Cm ng b (SB: Synchronisation Burst): cm ny dng ng b thi gian cho trm di ng. Cm cha 2*39 bit thng tin c mt m ha mang thng tin chi tit v cu trc khung (v s khung (FN)) ca khung TDMA v BSIC (Base Station Identity Code), 2 cp 3 bit ui 000 m bo bt u v kt thc ca khung mang thng tin cn thit, burst ng b l burst u tin m MS gii iu ch v l do ny m chui hng dn ko di 64 bit v n cng cho php ln hn rng tr a ng, thm khong bo v 8,25 bit. - Cm truy nhp (AB: Access Burst): cm ny c s dng bi MS truy nhp ngu nhin khi to mng v chuyn giao. N l burst u tin ca ng ln m BTS s gii iu ch t mt MS c th. Cng vi burst ng bcm cha 41 bit hng dn ko di thoi mi qu trnh gii iu ch, cm cha 36 bit thng tin, 8 bit ui u, 3 bit ui cui v khong bo v 68,25 bit b tr cho s lan truyn gia MS v BTS v cng ph hp vi cu trc mt cm cho mt khe thi gian.

Hnh 1.8: Khun dng cc burst trong GSM

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

- Cm gi (DB: Dummy Burst): Cm gi c pht i t BTS trong mt s trng hp lp kn nhng khe thi gian khng hot ng trn knh BCCH. Cm khng mang thng tin v c cu trc ging nh NB nhng cc bt mt m c thay th bng cc bit hn hp. T chc khung a khung siu khung: Mi khung TDMA cho mt sng mang. Mt khung c 8 khe thi gian c nh s t 0 n 7. Nguyn l mt m ho trong h thng GSM dng mt thng s l s khung TDMA. V vy trm thu pht gc phi nh s cc khung dng chu trnh (khng th nh s khung n v tn). S ny cn c s dng trong thut ton nhy tn. S c chn l 2715648 tng ng 3 gi 28 pht 53 giy 760 ms. Cu trc ny c gi l siu siu khung. Mt siu siu khung c chia thnh 2048 siu khung vi khong thi gian 6 pht 12 giy. Siu khung c chia thnh cc a khung. C hai loi a khung: a khung 26 khung, a khung ny s dng cho knh TCH, SACCH, FACCH v 51 a khung hp thnh mt siu khung. a khung iu khin 51 khung m bo bt k thu bao GSM no ( t bo phc v hay ln cn) c th nhn c SCH v FCCH t BCH m khng ph thuc vo vic n ang dng khung no v khe thi gian no. a khung ny s dng cho cc knh bo hiu logic BCCH, CCCH, FCCH v SACCH. (26 a khung thnh 1 siu khung). Cu trc khung cho knh lu lng ton tc (TCH/F) chim d mt khe thi gian trong mi khung TDMA (hnh 1.9a). 12 khe trong mi khung TDMA u tin ca a khung 26 c s dng cho knh TCH/F t khung 0 ti 11. khe thi gian tip (khe 12 trong a khung 26) theo khng c s dng cho truyn dn, l khong thi gian ri khe idle. 12 khe tip theo trong mi khung TDMA ca a khung c s dng cho TCH/F. Khe thi gian cn li ca a khung 26 c s dng cho knh SACCH. Hnh 1.9a c th c ng dng cho c ng ln v ng xung. Ch cu trc a khung th hin trong hnh 1.9a ch gn cho mt knh TCH/F chim gi nhng khe thi gian c nh s l. Trn khe thi gian c nh s chn v khe thi gian 0 l v tr ca khe thi gian ri v khe dnh cho knh SACCH c trao i.
Ch rng hnh 2.9a ch th hin nhng khe thi gian t cng knh vt l, cc khe thi gian t 7 knh vt l cn li b b qun.

Hnh 1.10b th hin ghp 2 knh lu lng bn tc TCH1&TCH0 ln cc khung TDMA ca a khung 26, khung th 13 v 16 dnh cho knh SACCH0 v SACCH1.

16

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 1.9a: Cu trc khung cho knh lu lng ton tc TCH/F trn khe thi gian 1

Cu trc khung cho knh iu khin t trn khe thi gian TS0 th hin trn hnh 1.9b. Trong trng hp a khung 51 khung vi thi gian 235ms. Ton b cc knh ngoi tr knh TCH u s dng cu trc a khung 51 khung. Mi a khung iu khin BCCH/CCCH c di l 235.4 ms(gm 51 khung TDMA) c mapping trn TS0 ca sng mang c cha knh BCCH/CCCH (khng phi sng mang no cng c cha t hp knh ny), a khung 51 ny c di 235.4 ms s c 5 TS dng pht thng tin trn knh SCH, c th TS0 ca khung th 1 (bt u tnh t khung th 0 n khung th 50), TS0 ca khung th 11, TS0 ca khung th 21, 31, 41. Tc l c sau 10 khung (10 x 4.615 ms) th thng tin trn SCH (c cha s hiu khung) li c pht 1ln. Knh logic FACCH c dng khi c yu cu chuyn giao khi ang hi thoi, n chim 20 ms trn chnh knh TCH c cp cho MS v v vy n c gi l "stealing". Thi gian ti a phi ch ca MS thu c s khung TDMA s l khong thi gian t sau TS0 cui cng trong a khung 51 ca knh vt l BCCH (TS0 trn sng mang BCCH ca trm BS) dnh cho knh logic SCH, cho ti ht TS0 dnh cho SCH u tin ca a khung 51 ca knh vt l BCCH tip theo. Do yu cu iu khin chuyn giao khi ang din ra m thoi cn phi nhanh m knh SACCH th li c tc qu chm (ch c 1 ln trong a khung 26 ca knh TCH, ch :

17

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

ng xung, BS gi yu cu iu khin cng sut v time alignment cho MS; ng ln, MS gi cc no co o lng cng sut cho BS phc v iu khin HO v tnh ton iu khin cng sut/time alignment). Do ngi ta "ly cp" knh TCH 2 chiu ang m thoi truyn tin tc iu khin HO (v lc ny th cht lng thoi lc cng qu km ri, c knh TCH th cng khng truyn thoi tip na). Vic ly cp c din ra nh sau: Ngt khng truyn tin tc cuc gi trn knh logic TCH; Truyn tn hiu iu khin chuyn giao trn knh . Vic phn bit khi no knh TCH l TCH, khi no l FACCH thc hin nh c ly cp l 1 bt nm sau on 56 bt m thng tin th nht trong burst TCH (nm ngay trc 26 bt training) v 1 bt nm u ngay trc on 56 bt m thng tin th hai trong burst TCH (ngay sau 26 bit training). Bt c n cp ny l 1 th knh TCH lc ang dng cho FACCH cn l 0 th ang l TCH (ang truyn cc d liu thoi ca cuc m thoi).

Hnh 1.9b: Cu trc khung cho mt nhm knh iu khin trn TS0

1.3.2 Cc knh logic

18

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Trong GSM c hai loi knh logic chnh l knh lu lng TCH v knh iu khin CCH.

Hnh 1.10a: S h thng cc knh logic trong mng GSM

Knh lu lng (TCH): Cc knh lu lng c phn thnh 2 loi: ton tc (13kbps) hay bn tc (6,5kbps). ch ton tc ngi dng chim hon ton mt khe thi gian cc khung lin tip, trong khi bn tc khe c phn cch khung. TCH khng c dng TS0 (khe ny dnh cho iu khin). 26 khung lin tip to nn a khung (trong khung th 13 lun cha d liu iu khin lin kt chm, khung th 26 l khung ri ch ton tc v cng cha iu khin lin tip chm ch bn tc).

Hnh 1.10b: T chc hai knh lu lng bn tc TCH0/H v TCH1/H ln a khung 26

Ting ni: ting ni c s ho ti tc 13kbps, thm m knh s c tc 22,8kbps. Vi bn tc tc s ho 6,5kbps khi b sung thm m knh cho tc 11,4kbps. D liu ton tc: 12kbps (cho tc lung c s 9,6kbps), 6kbps (cho tc lung c s 4,8kbps), 3,6kbps (cho tc lung c s b hn hoc bng 2,4kbps).

19

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Cc knh iu khin: C 3 loi knh iu khin chnh: Knh qung b BCH, knh iu khin chung CCCH, knh iu khin ring DCCH. Knh qung b BCH: c 3 loi knh tch bit Cc knh hiu chnh tn s FCCH: Cc knh ny mang thng tin hiu chnh tn s cho cc trm MS. Cha khung 0 v lp li sau 10 khung nhm ng b tn s ni ca my di ng MS vi tn s trm gc BTS. Knh iu khin qung b BCCH: Ch s dng ng xung. Knh ny ht qung b cc thng tin v t bo (Cell), mng v tnh trng hin ti ca t bo (cu trc iu khin, cc knh lu lng cn ri, ang s dng hoc nghn). T khung th 2 n khung th 5 trong mt a khung (4/51 khung) cha d liu BCCH trn khe TS0. Knh ng b SCH: Knh ny mang thng tin ng b khung cho trm di ng MS v nhn dng BTS, n ch s dng cho ng xung. Khung SCH cha ti cc khung ngay sau FCCH cho php my di ng xc nh trm c s phc v v ng b khung vi trm gc. S khung FN t 0>2715647 c gi cng m xc nh trm gc (BSIC) trong d liu SCH. V my di ng c th xa BS n 30Km nn n thng phi hiu chnh thi gian ng b ng h vi trm gc (tnh n thi gian truyn sng). BS pht lnh b sung thi gian n MS thng qua SCH.

20

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 1.10c: T chc cc knh iu khin qung b ln cc khe thi gian

Cc knh iu khin dng chung CCCH: C 3 loi Knh tm gi PCH: Cung cp tin nhn t BTS n MS tm gi MS, PCH pht IMSI ca thu bao v yu cu p li trn tuyn ln RACH. Ngoi ra PCH cng c th c dng cung cp cc bn tin qung b t bo dng ASCII. Knh truy cp ngu nhin RACH: Knh ny tuyn ln my di ng MS p li li tm gi hoc MS ngh khi pht cuc gi (cung cp mt knh). RACH dng s truy cp ALOHA v c th chim tt c cc khung nm TS0. Khi thit lp dch v BS phi tr li RACH bng cch phn knh v dnh mt knh iu khin dnh ring SDCCH bo hiu cuc gi. Kt ni ny (s hiu knh c phn) c thng bo qua AGCH. Knh tr gip truy cp AGCH: Hot ng trn tuyn xung, d liu c mang ch th cho MS chuyn sang mt knh vt l xc nh (mt khe trong mt ARFCN) vi mt knh iu khin ring. AGCH l bn tin CCCH cui cng gi t trm BS trc khi MS ngt khi knh iu khin (dng p li RACH gi ngc t khung trc ). Knh iu khin dnh ring DCCH: Dng cho mt cuc gi c th. Cng c 3 loi ging nh knh lu lng c chc nng, dng thc ging nhau trong c 2 chiu ng thi c th bt k khe no ngoi TS0, bt k ARFCN no. Knh iu khin dnh ring ng mt mnh SDCCH: mang d liu bo hiu v hiu chnh kt ni MS v BS ngay trc khi c phn TCH. SDCCH m bo rng MS v BS vn c kt ni trong lc BS v MSC kim tra thu bao v phn TCH. SDCCH c dng gi bn tin nhn thc, bo hiu cng nh ng b my di ng vi cu trc khung ch

21

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

TCH, chng c th l mt knh vt l khc hay chim TS0 ca BCH nu lc c yu cu chm lu lng BCH hoc CCCH. Knh iu khin lin kt chm SACCH: knh ny lin kt vi TCH hay SDCCH, tuyn xung chng mang thng tin iu khin n MS (mc cng sut, t li timing). tuyn ln chng mang thng tin v mnh tn hiu nhn c, cht lng knh TCH cng nh kt qu o mc BCH t t bo ln cn. D liu c mang 8 khe (khi c 8 ngi dng) trong khung th 13 hoc 26. Knh lin kt nhanh FACCH: mang thng tin khn cp (ging loi bn tin trong SDCCH) xen vo TCH bt k lc no (v d khi yu cu chuyn giao) bng cch thay th vo khe ca TCH v t li 2 bit c hiu - c ly ln). Knh qung b CBCH: Knh ny ch c s dng ng xung pht qung b cho cc bn tin ngn SMSCB. CBCH s dng cng knh vt l nh SDCCH. Cu hnh knh logic c th t vo mt knh vt l:

Hnh 1.10d: T hp cc knh logic ln knh vt l

1.4 X L TN HIU S TRONG GSM Hnh 1.11 l s miu t qu trnh thu pht tn hiu trong mng GSM.

22

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 1.11: X l tn hiu s v bin i vo sng v tuyn MS

1.4.1 M ho ting ni Ting ni c a qua b lc thng thp vo b bin i A/D c m ho PCM ng u vi tn s ly mu 8kHz v 13 bit m ho cho mt mu. Trc khi vo b m ho ting th tn hiu PCM ng u 13bit/8000mu/s c nhn mnh trc (Pre-emphasis) ri c chia thnh cc on (khung) 20ms/160mu/13bit a vo u vo ca b m ho. u ra ca b m ho ta c cc khi 20ms m ho 260 bit lm cho tc ca lung l 13kbps. Nu tn hiu u vo mng GSM ly t mng PSTN th trc ht tn hiu 8 bit PCM lut A c bin i thnh 13 bit PCM ng u ri sau a ra b m ho bin i thnh 13kbps. 1.4.2 M ho knh M ho knh trong GSM c s dng hiu chnh v pht hin li trong lung thu gim t s bit li BER. h thng thng tin di ng ngi ta s dng 2 loi m knh khc nhau: m khi tuyn tnh (Linear Block Code) v m xon (Convolutional Code). M khi c s dng pht hin li cn m xon sa li. M ho knh cho lu lng ting: Li ra ca b m ho ting c xp thnh nhm chng li da vo mc quan trng ca bit. 260bit/20ms c chia thnh 182 bit loi I (cc bit c bo v), 78 bit loi II (khng c bo v).Trong 128 bit c bo v phn ra 50 bit quan trong nht Ia s c bo v bng 3 bit chn l (CRC) pht hin li. Cc bit ny c to ra b m ho khi tuyn tnh c a thc to m: (x) = x3 + x +1. Cho php pht hin li trn mt khi 50 bit. 132 bit tip theo cng vi 53 bit trn li c b sung thm 4 bit zero vo cui theo hai a thc :g1(x) = 1 + x3 + x4 v g2(x) = 1 + x + x3 + x4 thnh

23

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

189 bit c m xon tc to nn dy 378 bit. 378 bit ny li c tch ra v xp an xen theo kiu chn l: cc bt chn bt d 0,d2 ...d180 xp u n 3 bt CRC ri ti d181,d179.....d1 tip theo l 4 bt zero (hnh 1.12). T hp cc bt ny cng vi 78 bit khng quan trng khng c chng li to thnh khi 456bit/20ms cho tc 22,8 kbps.

Hnh 1.12: M ho knh cho ting ton ton tc

M ho knh cho ting ton tc: M ho knh iu khin: Bn tin iu khin di 184 bit c m la dng a thc sinh: G4(x) = (x23 + 1)(x17 + x3 + 1) s cho 184 bit bn tin v 50 bit kim tra tip theo cng thm 4 bit ui ( ph hp vi m xon tip theo). Tng cng l 228 bit c cp cho b m xon kt qu cho 456 bit, tc 22,8kbps. 1.4.3 an xen gim nhiu cm trn d liu nhn c 456bit/20ms (tin ni hay bn tin) c t chc li v c ghp xen theo 8 na cm:

24

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

1 9 17 25 . . . 449

2 10 18 26 . . . 450

3 11 19 27 . . . 451

4 12 20 28 . . . 452

4 13 21 29 . . . 453

6 14 22 30 . . . 454

7 14 23 31 . . . 454

8 16 24 32 . . . 456

47bit

8 khung
Hnh 1.13a: an xen ting ton tc mc 1

an xen ting ton tc mc 1: Mi bn cm cha 47 bit. Sau cc bn cm ni trn c an xen mc hai. an xen mc 2: Gi s c 4 cm gi liu A, B, C, D c ghp an xen vi nhau nh hnh 1.13b. Ta thy 4 bn cm u ca mt lp (lp A) c t vo bn cm u cc v tr l, cc v tr chn c dnh cho ghp xen cc bt ca 4 bn cm sau ca khi trc ( khi D). Bn bn cm sau ca khi A c t vo cc v tr chn ca bn cm sau, cc v tr l an xen cc bn cm t khi B. Vi cch an xen ny nu ta mt hn mt cm th mt 12,5% thng tin ca mt khi bn tin v sau khi sp xp li cc bt li s phn tn cch nhau 8 bit. Nu b li mt cm lin tip 10 bit th khi sp xp li pha thu cc bit li s phn tn cch nhau 16 bit.

25

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

A1

A17

A33 ...

A9

A24

A41...

A4

A20

A36 ... A37...

A12

A28

A44...

B1 A5 B17 A21 B33

B9 A13 B25 A29 B41 A45...

B4 A8 B20 A24 B36 C1 B5 C17 B21 C33

A40... B37...

B12 A16 B28 A32 B44 A48... C9 B13 C25 B29 C41 B45...

C4 B8 C20 B24 C36

B40...

C12 B16 C28 B32 C44 B48...

Hnh 1.13b: an xen mc 2

1.4.4 Mt m ho Mc ch ca vic mt m ho d liu l chng s can thip ca ngi th 3, hay s xm phm tn hiu ngoi mun. Trong GSM mt m ha l khng ph thuc d liu, nhng ch p dng cho cm thng. Mt m ho tn hiu t c bng thao tc hoc loi tr (XOR) gia mt chui ngu nhin vi 114 bit ca cm bnh thng, ngha l vi tt c cc bit thng tin tr cc c ly cp:

Hnh 1.14a: Qu trnh mt m ho v gii m

gii m ngi ta thc hin thao tc hoc loi tr XOR gi tn hiu thu vi chui ngu nhin. Chui ngu nhin c to ra t s khung v kho mt m K c theo

26

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

thut ton A5. Thut ton A3 c dng nhn thc MS bng cch kim tra passcode trong SIM v cha kho m Ki ti MS ca thu bao. Mu tin c gi t mng ti MS l mt s ngu nhin 128 bit gi l RAND. C A3 ln Ki c lu trong SIM, n ch c c t SIM khi m c c nhn ho di s iu khin ca mng. K i kt hp vi RAND qua thut ton A3 cho SRES (13 bit).

Hnh 1.14b: Qu trnh nhn thc v mt m ha

1.4.5 iu ch Cng ngh iu ch c s dng trn knh v tuyn trong mng GSM l kho dch pha cc tiu GMSK. y l phng php bng hp da trn k thut iu ch dch pha vi tiu chun bng thng c s dng l BT =0,3 (B l rng bng tn, T khong thi gian ko di ca bit). GMSK l loi iu ch FM s c bit. Nn tang ca GMSK chnh l MSK. Mc logic 1 l nguyn nhn ca s dch pha sng mang tng 90o, cn mc logic 0 s l nguyn nhn ca s pha gim 90o. Hay ni cch khc bit 1 v 0 c biu din bng dch tn sng mang RF mt lng 67,708kHz. S dch pha l do chuyn dch tc thi ca tn s sng mang gia 2 gi tr khc nhau, f1v f2, do MSK l mt trng hp c bit ca FSK. Tn s f1 v f2 c cho bi:

Trong Rb l tc k hiu iu ch ~ 271kbps, fc l tn s sng mang. (tc knh) chnh bng 4 ln s dch tn ca sng mang. thu c ph tn s ca tn hiu iu ch lung bt a ln iu ch c a qua b lc Gauss. V th gi l iu ch GMSK.

27

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Cc bit d liu th i di, c m ho vi phn bi s biu din cng modul 2 ca bit hin ti v bit trc :

Trong l m ho vi phn ca bit th i, di c th mang gi tr 0 hoc 1. D liu iu ch ti u vo i ti b iu ch GMSK, c cho bi:

D liu iu ch i sau c cho qua b lc liner (tuyn) vi p ng xung h(t) cho bi:

T l chu k bit v B l bng thng ca b lc 3dB. BT trong GSM l 0,3 l mi bit c tri di 3 bit iu ch. Kt qu l ISI phi c tch ra ti ni nhn khi s dng mt b cn bng (v d b cn bng Viterbi). p ng xung h(t) v p ng tn s H(f) ca b lc c th hin hnh 1.12a.

28

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 1.15a: p ng xung h(t) v p ng tn s H(z) ca b lc Gauss c s dng trong GMSK

p ng xung ca b lc g(t) (hnh 1.12b), tn hiu u ra ca b lc khi mt xung c rng T c a vo: Trong :

29

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

p ng xung g(t) th hin trong hnh 1.12b ta nhn thy n ko di xp x 3 chu k bit T v bin ca g(t) l 1.

Hnh 2.15b: p ng xung ca b lc GMSK

Hnh 2.15c: u ra ca b lc bng c s

Tn hiu ti u ra ca b lc l tng ca p ng xung cho mi bit d liu vo. Hnh 1.12c l dy d liu 0010. Tn hiu ny c s dng iu ch tn s ca sng mang. Pha ca tn hiu c iu ch (t) c th c xc nh bi s tch hp cc tn hiu ti u ra ca b lc:

Trong m=1/2 ch s iu ch. S thay i ca pha gii hn l /2 (radians). Tn hiu sng mang c iu ch RF c th c biu din:

30

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Trong Ec l nng lng trn bit iu ch. f0 l tn s sng mang v 0 l b pha ngu nhin c duy tr lin tc trong khong thi gian ca 1 cm n TDMA.

Chng 2

GIAO THC BO HIU MNG GSM

Trong phn trn chng ta tng quan v mng GSM. Phn ny chng ta s tm hiu v cc giao thc bo hiu, th tc thit lp iu khin v kt thc mt cuc gi. Chng ta s i tm hiu chi tit v cc giao din hot ng ch yu trong qu trnh gi v chuyn giao trong mng. Cc giao din: A, Abis, Air c th hin trong hnh 3.0.

Hnh 2.0: Cc giao din lin quan ti vic chuyn giao trong GSM

2.1 GIAO THC BO HIU Nhim v chnh ca bo hiu l thit lp v xo kt ni cuc gi. Ngy nay cc ng dng mi lun lun c thm vo. Trong l vic t ng truy cp c s d liu hoc Cc dch v c m rng trn mt vng rng ln ca mng vin thng.

31

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM Hnh 2.1: Giao thc bo hiu trong mng GSM

2.1.1 Giao din A Trn lp vt l, giao din A bao gm mt hoc nhiu lin kt PCM gia MSC v BSC vi bng thng khong 2Mbps. t gia BSC v MSC l TRAU (Transcoder Adapter Rate Unit) l mt thit b thch ng tc , y cn c qu trnh m ho v gii m ting mt c th trong thng tin di ng c tin hnh. V th c th chia giao din A thnh 2 phn nh sau: Phn th nht gia BSC v TRAU, ni d liu ti trng truyn dn vn c nn. Hnh 3.1 th hin mt cu hnh knh c th cho 3 ng trung k. Nh trn giao din Abis, mt knh lu lng n ch chim 2 trong s 8 bit ca mt knh PCM. iu ny gii thch ti sao c th truyn 4 knh lu lng ton tc trn mt knh PCM. Khng k n cc TS ni thng tin bo hiu c mang. Thng tin bo hiu yu cu ton b 64Kbps ca knh. Phn th hai l gia TRAU v MSC, ti ni ton b d liu khng c nn. Bi v mi knh lu lng yu cu tt c 8 bit hoc chim ton b 64Kbps ca knh PCM. V tr ca knh bo hiu c th khc trc v sau TRAU (hnh 2.2).

Hnh 2.2: Cu hnh knh c th gia BSC v MSC

Giao din A l giao din gia BSC v MSC, n c xy dng trn chun giao tip ang tn ti l h thng bo hiu SS7 c s dng khp trong NSS. Chun bo hiu ny rt ph bin trong giao tip in thoi. Trong mng vin thng PSTN v ISDN. H thng bo hiu knh chung CSSN07 l tiu chun ton cu nh ngha truyn thng bng lin minh truyn thng quc t ITU. Phn tiu chun ho truyn thng ITU-T. Tiu chun ny c nh ngha th tc v giao thc bng phn t mng trong mng chuyn mch cng cng PSTN thng tin chuyn mch qua mng bo hiu s 7 ti t bo (lin kt v tuyn) v ng dy thit lp cuc gi nh tuyn v iu khin. CCSN7 ng bo hiu tch ring so vi ng ting. mng ny khng nht thit c mt knh bo hiu trn mi on ni, iu ny c ngha l cc bn tin bo hiu c th c cc on ni khc vi ng dn n c im nhn, trnh nhm ln ngi ta gn nhn cho tng bn tin. Knh bo hiu c th chim mt khe thi gian bt k trn cc ng truyn dn 2Mbps tr khe TS0 v c s dng

32

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

truyn tt c cc bo hiu ca cc knh thoi on ni tng ng. Cc giao thc c s dng trong SS7. Thit lp cuc gi c s, qun l v Haldown Dch v klhng dy nh dch v thng tin c nhn (PCS) chuyn giao khng giy v nhn thc thu bao di ng Di chuyn s nh v LNP Min thu cc v dch v ng dy tnh cc Tng c trng gi nh nh hng cuc gi, tn cuc gi v hin th s, kt ni ngi th 3 Truyn thng ton cu bo mt v hiu qu Cc phn quan trong nht trong giao thc bo hiu SS7 trong phm vi ca GSM, c minh ho trong hnh 2.3.

Hnh 2.3: M hnh phn lp h thng bo hiu SS7


Ch : Phn t mu xm lin quan ti cc bn tin bo hiu chuyn giao.

Lp thp hn ca ngn xp giao thc SS7 (OSI lp 1-3) c gi l phn truyn dn bn tin MTP. Phn SCCP c xem nh phn ngi s dng ca MTP n mnh mt t trong lp 3. SCCP cung cp dch v mng phi kt ni v kt ni nh hng, chuyn i tn ton cu qua mc ba ca MTP. Tn ton cu (GTT: Global Title Translation) l a ch c chuyn i bi SCCP thnh m a ch ch v s h thng con. Duy nht h thng con nhn dng ng dng ti im bo hiu ch. SCCP c s dng chuyn i lp cho dch v c s TCAP. c trng bo hiu GSM trong giao din A c thc hin bi phn ng dng h thng trm c s Base Station Subsystem Application Path (BSSAP). Phn ny c chia thnh 2 lp: BSSMAP v DTAP. BSSMAP iu khin, qun l bn tin RR cn DTAP qun l iu khin bn tin MM v CC. BSSMAP bao gm cc bn tin c trao i gia MSC v BSC m trn thc t th c tin hnh bi BSC. V d cc bn tin PAGING, HND_CMD v RESET. DTAP bao gm tt c cc bn tin trao i gia

33

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

h thng con ca NSS v MS. Cc bn tin ny c truyn trong sut qua BSS ngoi tr 3 bn tin ca MM l LOC_UPD_REQ, IMSI_DET_IND v CM_SERV_REQ. iu ny c minh ho di hnh 2.4.

Hnh 2.4: Mi lin h ca bn tin BSSMAP ti bo hiu trong mng GSM

Cu trc bn tin ca BSSAP: Hnh 2.5 m t cu trc chung ca cc bn tin BSSAP. Ton b bn tin BSSAP gn vo trong mt bn tin SCCP. 8 hoc 16 bit u tin ca BSSAP phn bit gia BSSMAP v DTAP. Phn u ca DTAP di 2 byte v bao gm tham s phn bit bn tin (01 = DTAP) v nhn dng kt ni lin kt d liu (DLCI). 3 bit Header ca DLCI nhn dng im truy cp dch v (SAPI), n c s dng trn giao din Air (SAPI = 0 cho RR, MM v CC; SAPI = 3 cho SMS v SS).

Hnh 2.5: nh dng bn tin BSSAP

Phn Header ca BSSMAP ch 1 byte v bao gm ch l tham s nhn dng bn tin (00 = BSSMAP). Trong BSSMAP khng c octet DLCI. 8 bit ch th di cho bit chiu di ca trng d liu, theo sau header trong c hai trng hp BSSMAP v DTAP. Hnh 2.6 th hin cu trc bn trong ca bn tin BSSMAP.

34

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 2.6: Cu trc bn trong ca cc bn tin BSSMAP

Trn thc t cc tham s theo sau kiu bn tin MT l tu , mi tham s lun bao gm trng nhn dng yu t thng tin IEI, trng ch th di, trng d liu. Mt s bn tin ca BSSMAP: HND_RQD, HND_REQ, HND_RQD_ACK, HND_REQ_ACK, HND_CMD, HND_CMP, HND_FAIL, HND_DET, CLR_CMD, CLR_REQ, CLR_CMP ...vv. Gii m bn tin BSSMAP: Hnh 2.7 th hin bn tin CLR_CMD c h hex v dng gii m. Nhng tham s ny l 2 yu t thng tin: Thng tin Header lp 3 v cause (l do):

Hnh 2.7: Gii m bn tin CLR_CMD

Phn thng tin Header ca lp 3 bao gm phn bit giao thc PD v nhn dng s giao dch TI chng c ngha l s dng trn giao din Air. Phn 2 Cause (l do ca bn tin) nhn bit l do ti sao ti nguyn v tuyn ring s c gii phng. Thng thng gi tr l 09 i din cho CC,

35

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

ch ra rng CC yu cu gii phng kt ni khi cuc gi kt thc v 0B ch ra rng chuyn giao thnh cng. 2.1.2 Giao din Abis Giao din Abis kt ni BTS vi BSC. Giao din l phn c nh ca mng v giao tip thng qua bi cp thng thng. in hnh l mt lin kt PSM 30 (cng nh ISDN 30) c s dng vi 32 knh mi knh 64kbps, cung cp bng thng 2Mbps. Cng ngh nn cho php GSM s dng cc gi ln ti 8 knh lu lng trn mt knh n 64kbps. iu ny cho php ti 10 TRXs trong BTS, nhng mt c th ci t l mt BTS c 1 n 4 TRXs. Khi s dng 2 lin kt ISDN 30, ti a 16 TRXs c th c ci t trn mt BTS. Theo m hnh tham chiu chun OSI th giao din Abis s c chia thnh 3 lp hnh 2.8: Lp 1 ca giao din Abis l knh D ca ng lin kt ISDN 30. ISDN 30 bao gm 30 knh B cho lu lng (mi knh 64 kbps) v mt knh D cho bo hiu.

Hnh 2.8: Ngn xp giao thc ca giao din Abis

Lp 2 Giao thc trn knh D mng ISDN c GSM s dng giao thc LAPD cho bo hiu trn giao din Abis. Cc nguyn tc chung c quy nh trong Q.920 (I.440) v cc th tc c quy nh trong Q.921 (I.441). Mc ch ca cc giao thc LAPD l to ra c ch truyn s liu vi kh nng m bo khng li. Hnh 2.9a v hnh 2.9b l nh dng ca khung LAPD kiu 8 v 128. Trng FLAG: 8 bit u tin v cui cng ca mi khung LAPD l trng c, c m v c ng. c im u tin ca trng ny l lun c t gi tr bng 01111110 (7EH). Trng ADDRESS: Tip theo c m l trng a ch c di 2 byte. Trng ny cha nhn dng im truy cp dch v SAPI v nhn dng im kt cui thit b TEI. y mi TEI tng ng vi mt TRX trong BTS. Trng CONTROL: C 3 kiu khung c nh ngha trong LAPD. Trng iu khin c nhim v thng bo cho thit b thu v kiu thng tin

36

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

ang c pht trong khung. Trng ny cng c h thng nh s khung pht v thu tip theo (NS v NR). di ca trng ph thuc kiu LAPD. LAPD module 8 trng ny s c di 8 bit, nu LAPD module 128 trng ny c di 16bit. Trng INFO: Trng thng tin l ni cha thng tin lp 3. Trng ny c di thay i ph thuc vo d liu. Trng FCS: 2 byte cui cng ngay trc trng c kt thc mt khung LAPD l trng dy kim tra khung.

Hnh 2.9a. nh dng khung LAPD module 128

37

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

C hai kiu LAPD c s dng trong mng GSM. LAPD Module 8 th trng iu khin ch c 8 bt trong 3 bit biu din cho mi N(R) hoc N(S), cn LAPD module 128 th trng iu khin di 16 bit v 7 bit dnh cho mi N(R) v N(S).

Hnh 2.9b : nh dng khung LAPD module 8

Trng FLAG Tt c cc khung LAPD bt u v kt thc bng trng FLAG, trng ny lun c t bng 01111110 hay 7E16, mc ch ng b l ch th v tr bt u v kt thc mt khung. V s liu trong trng thng tin c th thay i cha mu c 01111110 nn mt bit 0 c chn vo 5 bit 1 lin tip, ch c c ny khng c chn trnh vic nhm ln ng tic. Bn thu tm c, ton b s liu khng phi l mu c s c a qua b xo bit 0 khi phc li chui d liu ban u.

38

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Trng ADDRESS Trng ny c di 2 octet v cha cc tham s: SAPI, TEI, C/R v EA. Nhn dng im truy cp SAPI BSC phi c kh nng nh a ch cho mi TRX ring (hnh 2.11).

Hnh 2.11. Kt ni lin kt d liu trn knh D

nh a ch trong LAPD c thc hin trong 2 byte ca trng a ch. a ch c chia lm hai phn SAPI v TEI kt hp vi nhau nh hng khung i n im kt ni logic chnh xc. 6 bit nhn dng im truy cp dch v SAPI. Chc nng ca SAPI tng t nh chc nng ca h thng con SSN vi SCCP. SAPI c dng nh hng thng tin trong khung LAPD n phn thc th logic chnh xc. Mt phn thc th logic c th c xem nh l mt khi phn mm iu khin mt tp hp cc chc nng. V d v cc chc nng l khi to cuc gi, tr li cuc gi, kt thc cuc gi .... Tt c cc bn tin lin quan n iu khin cuc gi ca cc mch nh phi c cng mt SAPI nn nh hng bn tin n thc th logic chnh xc.GSM s dng 3 gi tr ca SAPI trong giao din Abis cho di hnh 2.12. SAPI cng ch ra u tin di chuyn ca mt bn tin. Gi tr SAPI_62 v SAPI_63 c c s u tin cao hn l SAPI_0.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 2.12. Cc gi tr SAPI

Bt lnh/p ng C/R : Bit C/R (lnh/p ng) ch ra khung l khung iu khin hay p ng. Bt ny s cho bit mt bn tin l lnh, tr li hay xc nhn ca mt lnh. Khung lnh do BSC gi n BTS v khung p ng do BTS gi n BSC c C/R = 1, ngc li khung lnh do BTS gi n BSC v khung p ng do BSC gi n BTS c C/R = 0 (hnh 2.13).

Hnh 2.13 : Bit C/R vi lnh v p ng

Nhn dng thit b u cui TEI : 7 bit TEI c dng phn bit gia cc TRX. Mt TEI c gn cho mi TRX cung cp kh nng phn bit gia cc TRX trong khi phn tch mt file xc nh. Do c 7 bit nn tng i c th phuc v 127 thit b. Cc bt trng a ch m rng : Trng a ch gm mi bit EA cho mi octet. Bit EA ca octet th nht c t bng 0,n ch ra rng octet theo sau n chnh l mt octet ca trng a ch v EA ca trng th 2 c t bng 1 n ch rng l octet cui cng ca trng a ch. Trng iu khin Chiu di ca trng iu khin ph thuc vo kiu khung. 8 hoc 16 bit. N bao gm cc thng tin sau: Bit u Polling (P), bit cui Final (F) v bit P/F:

40

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Thay cho cc kiu khung m c th c dng ch l lnh tng ng vi bit P hay ch l p ng tng ng vi bit F hay bit P/F l cho c hai. Thng tin bit P nhn mt bn tin lnh m bn gi mong ch mt cu tr li, cn nu kiu bn tin thng thng khng mun yu cu mt xc nhn. Trn thc t bit Polling trn giao din Abis c dng ch khi BSC v BTS trong trng thi ri v cn kim tra kt ni nh (v d trao i ca khung RR). Khi khung lnh c nhn th bit P c t bng 1, khung tr li cn c quay tr li bit F c t ln 1. LAPD cho php xc nhn ca khung I khi ny bit P c t bng 0 vi c khung I v khung S. Tuy nhin khung I, ni bit P c t bng 1 th c c xc nhn cng lc vi khung S. Bit P ca khung UI lun t bng 0. M ti sao khung mt khung UI mc d lnh theo nh ngha li khng c yu cu mt xc nhn. S tip theo gi N(S) v s tip theo nhn N(R): N(S) v N(R) phc v mc ch ca s tha nhn vic trao i v nhn ca khung I. Cch thc m c th l module 8 hay module 128. Trong trng hp module 8, 3 bit s c s dng cho b m, tnh n gi tr ca cc s khung gia 0 v 7. 7 bit s c s dng cho b m trong trng hp module 128, tnh n cc gi tr gia 0 v 127. Trn giao din Air (LAPDm) ch module 8 c s dng. Khi mt pha (BSC hoc BTS) gi mt khung I, b m N(S) bn gi s tng ln 1. N th hin rng gi tr N(S) trong khung I va mi gi vn c gi tr c, gi tr ch tng ln sau khung gi. Khi khung I n ni nhn n s c kim tra thy nu nh gi tr nhn c ca N(S) v N(R) ph hp vi nhng gi tr nhn c c lu trc . Gi tr N(S) cho khung I c nhn ph hp vi gi tr thc t ca N(R) bn nhn. Nu khung cng khng c li (FCS), bn nhn tng gi tr ca N(R) v gi gi tr mi trong khung RR tr li cho bn gi. Pha bn gi mong ch xc nhn trong mt khung thi gian c ghi r. Nu m chu k thi gian kt thc khng c xc nhn, khung I s gi li. Ch rng theo quy nh Q920 v Q.921, s xc nhn khng phi mang bi khung gim st S nhng cng c th mang bi khung I. Bi th s gi mt khung RR khng cn thit nu nh bn nhn cng gi mt khung I. Tuy nhin GSM khng to ra cch dng ca s la chn y. Tt c cc khung I u c xc nhn vi mt khung RR. Cho ti khi s xc nhn c nhn, bn gi ct khung I vo b m. V d di s minh ho iu ny. Chc nng ca N(S) v N(R): BTS gi mt khung I v tng b m N(S) ca n. BSC nhn khung I v tng b m N(R) v gi mt khung RR vi mt gi tr ca N(R) tr li cho BTS. BTS khng cn duy tr m khung I sau khi n nhn xc nhn t BSC.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Tip theo BSC gi mt khung I ti cho BTS v tng b m N(S) ca n ln 1. Mt ln na ch ra rng gi tr ca N(S) v N(R) trong khung I c truyn tng ng ngc li ti mt khung c lu trong BTS. Khi BTS kim tra tnh chc chn ca thng tin v nu mi th u ng, b m N(R) ca n c tng v gi p ng li BSC vi mt khung RR v mt gi tr mi ca N(R). Th tc ny c th hin trong hnh 2.14.

Hnh 2.14: Chc nng ca N(R) v N(S)

Khung RR cn c trao i gia BSC v BTS trong khong thi gian no v th c gi l trng hp ri, khi khng c d liu c truyn, gi tr ca N(R) v N(S) khng thay i trong qu trnh , ci m c gi l phn u.Tuy nhin chng phi tng ng vi chiu ngc li ti mi ci khc. Kiu khung: C 3 kiu ca trng iu khin khung LAPD (hnh 2.9) nh sau: - Khung thng tin (I): cc khung ny c th so snh c vi n v tn hiu bn tin MSU ca SS7. Khung ny c s dng truyn cc bn tin Q.931 (lp 3 bn tin lp mng) hoc X.25 trn knh D. Ch duy nht khung ny s dng trng NS v NR. NS l s th t ca khung ang truyn, cn NR l s th t ca khung ch i tip theo. Nh c ch ny m TE v LT gim st c cc khung b mt. - Cc khung gim st (S) : iu khin vic trao i cc khung I. N c dng xc nhn cc khung I, thng tin iu khin truyn, yu cu truyn li cc khung I b mt trn c s NS v NR. C 3 kiu khung S c xc nh bn cc bt S. Khung ny khng c trng thng tin v c th so snh vi nhng n v trng thi lin kt (LSSU) ca SS7. - Khung khng c nh s U : C 7 loi khung U, cc khung U c dng thit lp v gii phng cc kt ni logic, xc nh cc tham s lin

42

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

kt s liu v ch th cc li khng th sa cha sau khi truyn li. NS v NR khng c dng khung ny. Bt M ung xc nh kiu khung U. Ch khung UI duy nht trong nhm cc khung U l c trng thng tin, mang bn tin lp mng. Khung UI c TEI =127 mang thng tin qung b ti tt c cc TE trn ng DSL.

Hnh 2.15: Cc kiu khung ca LAPD

Hnh 2.15 l ton b cc khung ca LAPD cc gi tr h 16 i km nhn dng khung. kho lun ny chng ta ch quan tm ti hai khung c lin quan ti qu trnh chuyn giao l khung UA v khung SABME. Di y ta s i tm hiu chi tit hai khung ny.

Hnh 2.16: D liu cha h 16 cha trong khung LAPD ch th khung

Khung SABME: Khung ny c truyn yu cu mt kt ni lp 2.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 2.17: Trng iu khin ca khung SABME

Khung UA : Khung UA c s dng tr li khung SABME hoc khung DISC. N xc nhn mt kt ni lp 2 tn ti c thit lp.

Hnh 2.18: Trng iu khin ca khung UA

Trng kim tra tng (FSC): Trng lin tc kim tra khung FSC c s dung cho vic d tm li. Kim tra tng s c tnh ton, s dng d liu gia c bt u v trng FSC. Kt qu gi trong trng FSC. Qu trnh hot ng tng t c thc hin ti u nhn v gi tr ca cc FSC tng ng c so snh. Bn nhn s yu cu truyn li nu nh vic tnh ton FSC khng ph hp vi ci nhn c.

Hnh 2.19: Lin tc kim tra khung

Lp 3 chia thnh 4 lp con: qun l TRX (TRX Management), qun l knh chung (CCM), qun l lin kt v tuyn (RLM) v qun l knh chuyn dng (DCM). Lp con TRXM c s dng chim ly cc TRX vo trong v ngoi ca dch v v iu khin cc trng thi ca chng. CCM c s dng cho bn tin qung b cho s tn ti ca cell, v d nh mt MS (mng c gng kt ni ti MS, khi n c gi hoc mt bn tin SMS c nhn), SMS qung b, v thng tin v cell. RLM l cho iu khin lp 2 ca lin kt v tuyn gia MS v BTS. iu ny bao gm thit lp v gii phng k ni. DCM c s dng cho iu khin lp 1 ca giao din Air nh vic chuyn giao, o lng, phn/ly li knh v ci t m ho. RLM v DCM ch c s dng cho hot ng lin kt trn giao din Air, ni khng giao tip trn chng trong ch ri. Hnh 2.8 th hin ngn xp giao thc ca giao din Abis. Phn trn cng ca lp 3, d liu ti trng c chuyn ch. Giao din Abis c s dng hu ht cho s trao i ca cc bn tin RM, CC, v MM c miu t trong phn giao din Air. Giao din Abis ni r chi tit hn trong chng sau.

44

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

2.1.3 Giao din Air/Um Giao din khng kh l giao din v tuyn gia MS v BTS. Giao din ny c so snh khc nhiu vi cc giao din khc, bi v giao tip v tuyn l giao din m rt nhy cm vi s xm nhp t ngoi hn l vi cable, nhng i li c bng thng ln. Giao thc lp 2 trn giao din Um c gi l LAPDm (LAPD mobile). y l mt ci tin ca LAPD. S khc nhau gia LAPD v LAPDm l ch pht hin v sa li Um c thc hin chc nng lp 1. Mt im khc nhau na l cc khung LAPD c th di hn nhiu so vi cc bn tin ca LAPDm v khung ca LAPDm phi hiu chnh t va cc cm (burst).

Hnh 2.20: Cc lp giao thc ca giao din Air

Lp 1: Lp vt l Lp thp nht ca giao din v tuyn cung cp cc chc nng cn thit truyn cc lung bit trn cc knh vt l mi trng v tuyn, bao gm cc phn t c nh ngha cho truyn dn trn knh v tuyn nh: tn s, khe thi gian, nhy tn. giao din ny cc bn tin c gi i lin quan n n nh cc knh vt l (thm nhp ngu nhin) cng nh cc thng tin h thng vt l nh cc kt qu o kim. Lp ny c cc chc nng nh: M ho knh sa li FEC M ho knh pht hin li Sp xp cc knh l gic ln cc knh vt l Mt m ho Chon ch ri Thit lp cc knh vt l ring o cng trng ca cc knh ring v cng trng ca trm BTS xung quanh Thit lp nh trc thi gian v cng sut theo s iu khin ca mng

45

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Cng nh d liu ngi dng cc bn tin bo hiu c truyn qua giao din Abis gia BTS vi BSC, giao din A gia BSC vi MSC trn ng dy s vi tc d liu 2048Kbps(1544Kbps USA) hay 64Kbps (ITU G703, G704, G732). Giao din vi lp 3, y l mt giao din trc tip, RR thng qua nhng bn tin giao thc nguyn thu MPH (l nhng bn tin gia nhng giao thc trong mt im bo hiu c thng qua nhng yu t giao din c tiu chun ho nh l bn tin request, respose thng qua thng tin t giao thc lp cao ti giao thc lp thp v indications, confirmation thng qua thng tin trong hng i din ), nhng thay i bn lp RR lin quan ti chc nng nh gn knh v kt qu o kim tra knh, vic o y l do lp 1 m nhim o cht lng bo hiu ca knh BCCH cc trm BTS ln cn v cht lng bo hiu ca chnh BTS ang phc v. Thng tin o lng c a ti lp 3 trong c s dch v o lng lp 3. Trong ch ri, lp 1 la chn Cell (BTS) vi cht lng bo hiu tt nht hot ng cng c s lp con RR trn dch v ca BCCH/CCCH. Th tc bo hiu im - im GSM nh ngha v phn bit hai kiu vn hnh ca mt trm di ng: kiu ri v kiu d tm (hnh 2.21). kiu ri trm di ng c th tt ngun (trng thi NULL) hoc d tm o BCCH vi cht lng tt nht (trng thi SEARCHING BCH) hoc ng b ho BCCH ca trm c s c bit v sn sng thc hin th tc truy cp ngu nhin trn RACH yu cu knh d tm BCH trng thi.

Hnh 2.21: S trng thi lp vt l ca trm di ng

TUNING DCH trng thi ca kiu d tm, trm di ng thc hin knh vt l v c gng ng b n vi kt qu cui cng truyn ti DCH trng thi. trng thi ny, MS sn sng thit lp knh logic v chuyn mch chng, Trng thi truyn ca lp 1 c iu khin bi c s dch v MPH ca giao din RR.

46

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Giao din vi lp 2 (lp lin kt d liu) thng qua cc hm PH nguyn thu. V giao din vi cc khi chc nng khc trong MS v trong mng qua knh TCHs.

Hnh 2.22: Giao din ca lp vt l vi cc lp trn

im truy cp dch v (SAP: Service Access Point) ca lp ny c nh ngha nh l cc cng (Gates) truyn thng m qua lp ny cung cp dch v cho lp cao hn (lp 2). Tn ti cc cng khc nhau cho cc bn tin ngn v cho cc bn tin ca lp ng truyn. Trong GSM, SAP c nh ngha gia lp vt l v lp lin kt gi liu cho cc knh BCCH, PCH+AGCH, RACH, SDCCH, SACCH v FACCH. SAP c iu khin bi lp con RR ca lp 3 (lp qun l, thit lp v gii phng knh), xa hn bi th tc iu khin trong lp lin kt. iu khin SAP lp 1 bi RR bao gm: hot ng, khng hot ng, cu hnh, nh tuyn, khng kt ni ca lp vt l v knh logic. Lp 1 nh ngha cu trc khung ring cho truyn dn ca bn tin bo hiu thc hin nh khung LAPDm ti SAP ca knh logic tng ng hnh 3.23.

Hnh 2.23: Cu trc khung d liu LAPDm

47

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Khung RACH cha ng mt loi tiu giao thc mang mc cng sut ngun v gi tr tng thi gian nh thi. Tiu ny b b st trong knh logic khc (FACCH, SDCCH, CCCH, BCCH) v cha LAPDm PDU. Lp 2: lp lin kt d liu Mc ch chnh ca giao thc lp 2 l cung cp kt ni lin kt ti tng i bo hiu gia MS, BTS, MSC, VLR, HLR, v mng SSN 07. Trong GSM, c 3 kiu giao thc lp 2 c s dng nh trong hnh 1 l: LAPDm(giao thc truy cp cho knh bo hiu) trn giao din Um, LAPD trn giao din A-bis v MTP-2 cho cc giao din A,B,C,D ca knh bo hiu. LAPDm c xy dng trn c s giao thc LAPD ca ISDN. Tuy nhin c mt vi thay i cho ph hp vi mi trng truyn dn v tuyn v t c hiu sut cao hn trong vic tit kim ph tn. Khng s dng cc bit kim tra tng v m ho knh lp 1 thc hin chc nng ny. Do vy s hot ng ca lp ny l hon ton c ng b. Mt s khung iu khin khc nh SABM v UA c th mang thng tin lp 3 nh vy tit kim thi gian v ph. Th tc ny c gi l PiggBacking (cng nhau). Cc bn tin LAPD c th di ti 249 byte v th chng c phn on cho ph hp vi cu trc Bust. Chc nng chi tit ca lp 2 LAPDm c cho nh sau: Thit lp v gii phng kt ni bo hiu ca lp 2 Hp knh v phn knh ca mt vi kt ni bo hiu lp 2 trn mt knh iu khin chuyn bit v phn bit r gia chng bi bao gm s khc nhau ca SAPI (Service Access Point Identifiers). nh x ca dch v khi d liu bo hiu lp 2 trn giao thc khi d liu. S nh s ca giao thc khi d liu modul 8 bo tr th t lin tc Tm kim v sa li iu khin lung S thit lp v gii phng ca kt ni lp 2 trng vi s nh x, gii phng v thay i ca knh v tuyn chuyn bit. Kt ni bo hiu lp 2 thng xuyn c thit lp v gii phng chnh v th m thi gian tn ti ca mt kt ni l ngn. LAPDm l giao thc lin kt d liu cho knh bo hiu ti giao din khng kh. N tng t HDLD v cung cp 2 kiu vn hnh (hot ng): Vn hnh khng nhn bit (khng xc nhn) Vn hnh nhn bit (xc nhn)

48

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

C hai kiu u c s dng trn knh DCCH cn knh CCCHs th ch hot ng khng nhn bit l c dng. Vn hnh khng xc nhn, d liu c truyn trong khung UI khng c s xc nhn, y l iu khin khng hng hay sa li ng L2. Kiu vn hnh ny khng cho php tt c cc knh bo hiu, ngoi tr RACH c truy cp trong kiu truy cp khng dnh ring hay bo v. Vic truyn mt bn tin khng xc nhn s dng dch v ca lp 3 hm cho vic truyn thng tin l khng nhn bit bi lp lin kt d liu (lp 2), v vy kim tra li l khng cn thit phi cung cp. Truyn v nhn bn tin y s dng dch v nguyn thu ca lin kt d liu l: DL_DATA_REQUEST v DL_DATA_INDICATION. Kiu dch v khng xc nhn cung cp dch v bo v. D liu c truyn trong khung I vi xc nhn dng. Bo v li thng qua truyn ARQ v iu khin nh hng l c bit v tch cc trong kiu ny. Dch v ny c cung cp ti lp mng bi ch hot ng a khung. Khi bn tin nhn hoc truyn s li c thay i mt ln na gia lp 2 v lp 3 bng gi tr trung bnh nguyn thu DL_DATA_REQUEST v DL_DATA_INDICATION. Trong LAPDm, cc im kt ni (CEP: Connection End Poit) ca kt ni L2 c dn nhn vi nhn dng kt ni lin kt d liu (DLCI: Data Link Connection Identifier) bao gm cc phn t: Nhn dng im truy cp dch v lp 2 (SAPI: Service Access Point Identifer) c truyn trong tiu ca khung giao thc L2. Nhn dng knh vt l c kt ni ti lp 2 hoc c thit lp l nhn dng im cui kt ni (CEPI: Connection End Point Identifer) lp 2. CEPI c qun l v khng kt ni ti mi lp 2.

Khi mt bn tin lp 3 c truyn, bn gi chn la SAP v CEP thch hp. Khi n v d liu dch v (SDU: Service Data Uinit) c chuyn giao ti SAP, la chn CEP c gi ti lp 2 lp 2 CEPI tng thch c th c xc nhn t nhn dng knh vt l / logic v SAPI trong tiu ca khung.

49

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 2.24: Cu hnh mu ca lp lin kt d liu MS

Gi tr SAPI c bit c lu tr cho hai chc nng sau: SAPI = 0 cho bo hiu (CM, MM, RR) SAPI = 3 cho SMS Gi tr SAPI phc v bn tin bo hiu ring t nh hng gi d liu ngi dng (bn tin SMS). Gi tr mt SPAI mi cn thit cc chc nng c th nh ngha c, gii thch trong cho chun GSM trong tng lai.

Hnh 2.25: Cc knh logic, kiu vn hnh v SAPI lp 2

Mt LAPDm c thit lp mi knh vt l / logic thch hp. Knh / SAPI kt hp duy nht thit lp con ca giao thc LAPDm c cn nh vn hnh khng xc nhn. Vic phn on khung LAPD c khung LAPDm l thch hp vi mt khi vt l di 23 octets. LAPDm cho php th tc lin kt d liu nh chc nng ca lp 2 truyn thng im - im tng t c s dch v gia lp lin k. Mt khc th tc lp 2 l th tc phn bit (Distribution Procedure) v th tc truy cp ngu nhin (RA: Random Access). Th tc phn bit cn thit nu nhiu SAP lin kt vi knh vt l /

50

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

logic. N cho php phn bit cc khung lp 2 nhn c trn mt knh truy cp ngu nhin RACH. N gii quyt truyn li iu khin ngu nhin ca bus truy cp ngu nhin. Nhng n cho php bo v li trn RACH theo mt phng duy nht.

Hnh 2.26: Cc kiu nh dng khung LAPDm

Hnh 2.26 l cc kiu nh dng khc nhau ca khung d liu giao thc s dng cho truyn thng im - im lp 2 gia MS v BTS. nh dng khung A v khung B c s dng trn knh SACCH, FACCH, SDCCH ph thuc vo ni khung thng tin c trng kiu B hoc khng phi kiu A, y khung A khng c trng thng tin. nh dng khung B s dng trn CCCHs n c trng thng tin. Tri vi HDLC, LAPDm khng c c ch th bt u hay kt thc mt khung. S ln nht ca octet N201 trn trng thng tin ph thuc vo kiu knh logic. Kt thc ca trng thng tin cho bi di mt gi tr N201 it hn quy nh, khung phi b sung vi cc bit lm y chiu di khung. Trong trng hp mt knh SACCH, v d y l tin ch mt gi LAPDm chiu di c nh l 21 octet. Bao gm trng cho iu khin cng sut truyn v tng nh thi, mt khi SCCH lp 1 di 23 octets. Trng a ch c th c di thay i, tuy nhin s dng cho knh iu khin n gm mt octet (hnh 2.27).

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 2.27: inh dng v kiu khung LAPDm

Trng a ch: Bit 1 l bit m rng EA c t bng 1. Trong tng lai n c th s dng bit 0 cho dung lng a ch nhiu octet. Bit 2 bit C/R (Command/Response) c lnh/ tr li. MS s gi mt lnh vi bit C/R l 0 cn BTS tr li vi bit C/R l 1. Ba bit SAPI xc nh tin trnh mc 3 nu s dng 3 bit zero 000. SAPI l 011 th xc nh v trnh din truyn ca bn tin SMS. Hai bit LPD (Link Protocol Discriminator) c s dng xc nh mt khuyn ngh c bit ca LAPDm c s dng, trng hp ny LPD = 00. LPD = 01 c s dng cho giao thc lin kt d liu cho SMSCB. Bt 8 dnh ring cho tng lai.

52

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Trng iu khin: Trng iu khin Control s dng cho iu khin thng tin nh: kiu khung, s sp xp ca khung v s nhn bit khung. Trong LAPDm, m ho ca trng iu khin vi s th t gi v nhn m t biu trng thi th tc giao thc hoc nt ring lin quan ti HDLC. Chi tit trng iu khin c th hin trong hnh 2.27. Trng ny mang theo mt dy s v xc nh kiu ca khung, khng c C/R. i vi khung I th bao gm c hai b m N(R) v N(S) cn i vi khung gim sat S th ch c b m N(R). Kiu nh dng ca trng iu khin: Truyn thng tin khng nh s (nh dng khung I). nh dng khung I l c s dng thc thi v truyn thng tin gia thc th lp 3. Mi khung I c mt s th t gi N(R). Chc nng gim st (khung S). nh dng khung S l cho chc nng iu khin gim st lin kt d liu nh nhn bit khung I. Truyn thng tin khng nh s v chc nng iu khin (khung U). nh dng khung U c s dng cung cp chc nng iu khin lin kt d liu v khng xc nhn thng tin truyn.

Trng ch thi di: Trng ch th di xc nh d di khung, n qun l vic nhi bit. Mt vi thng s b sung c yu cu ti giao din dch v lp 3. Chi tit trng ch th di th hin trong hnh 2.27. Bit m rng EL bit ny lun c t bng 1. Tng lai c th s dng bit 0 ch dn mt di nhiu octet. Bit 1 bit M s dng ch bo khi thm d liu. Khi bit ny c dt bng 0 c ngha l khng c khung no c thm vo tip theo. V ngc li khung trnh din l khung trc ca d liu. 6 bit cn li ch th di thc t ca trng thng tin. Gi tr mng l t 0 n N201. Trng thng tin: C 3 nh dng khung ca trng thng tin mang d liu bo hiu chiu di ca trng ph thuc thng tin trong . Gii hn chiu di cu trng l N201 = 23 octet. S khc nhau gia LAPD v LAPDm: Di y l cc c im khc nhau gia LAPD v LADPm: Khung LAPDm ch tn ti nh dng module 8. Do trng iu khin ca n lun c chiu di l 1 octet. N(S) v N(R) trong mng t 0 ti 7.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Trng a ch ca LAPDm ch di 1 octet v khng bao gm TEI. L do l khi mt knh c n nh ri, kt ni trong giao din Air lun lun l kt ni im - im. V d mt vi ngi dng c th s dng ng thi cng lc. Trn giao din ny khng tn ti kiu kt ni im a im nn khng c TEI nh trong LAPD. Khung LAPDm khng tn ti FCS, bi v vic m knh v ghp xen ca lp 1 m bo vic bo mt ri. Khung LAPDm khng c trng flag nhn dng im bt u v kt thc ca mt khung. Chc nng c cung cp trn giao din Air bi lp 1, c bit bi tng on burst. Khc vi LAPD, khung SABME v UA ca LAPDm c th ngang hng vi d liu lp 3. Thi gian tit kim trong khi ci t kt ni. Chiu di gii hn ca LAPD v LAPDm l khc nhau. Trong khi LAPD c th truyn ti 260 octet thng tin bo hiu, th LAPDm ch c th l 23 octet. Nu tng s chiu di ca d liu cn c truyn vt qu 23 octet, th s phn on d liu truyn s c p dng. Khung LAPDm khng bo gm trng ch th di (lp 2). Trong LAPD, khng chim ht trong cc octet c dng khi vng d liu khng hon chnh vi d liu bo hiu. Cc kiu khung ca LAPDm cng tng t nh cc kiu khung ca LAPD. Lp 3 Phn bit giao thc (PD): B phn bit giao thc di 4 bit c s dng trn giao din Air phn bit tt c bn tin trong cc nhm.

Hnh 2.28a: Gi tr b phn bit giao thc trn giao din Air

Lp bo hiu m bo cc th tc bo hiu gia trm di ng v mng v c chia thnh 3 lp con: RR, MM v CM.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 2.28b: nh dng lp 3 trong giao din Air

Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn RR: Giao thc RR ny cung cp cc chc nng qun l iu khin cho hot ng ca knh chung v knh chuyn bit. Giao thc RIL-RR cung cp s thit lp v gii phng kt ni v tuyn gia MS v BSCs khc nhau cho sut mt cuc gi trong khi ngi dng vn di chuyn. Cc chc nng c lp ny thc hin bao gm: Thit lp ch m ho Thay i knh dnh ring khi vn c nh: t SDCCH n knh lu lng Chuyn giao t mt Cell ny n mt Cell khc. nh ngha li tn s (s dng cho nhy tn) H thng cung cp cc bn tin qung b, bn trong v bn ngoi Cell v s thay i ca knh v thit lp ch m ho. Giao thc RSM cung cp cc chc nng RR gia cc BTS v BSC. Giao thc DTAP cung cp bn tin RR gia MS v MSC. S phn bit gia DTAP v BSSMAP c cung cp bi mt bn nh giao thc phn phi. mng cc bn tin ca lp ny c t trong BSC. Cc bn tin ny c truyn trong sut qua BTS. Qun l di ng MM: Lp n cha cc chc nng lin quan n di ng ca thu bao nh: Nhn thc. n nh li TMSL.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Nhn dng trm di ng bng cch yu cu IMSI hay IMEI.

Hnh 2.29a: nh dng IMSI

Hnh 2.29b: nh dng IMEI

Trm di ng c th thc hin di mng IMSI thng bo rng khng th t ti trm ny v th cc cuc gi vo s c mng chuyn hng hoc chn ch khng tm gi trm di ng ni trn. Cc bn tin ti t lp CM c truyn trong sut bi MM. CM pha pht yu cu thit lp MM v MM li yu cu thit lp u ni RR. Qun l ni thng CM: Lp ny bao gm 3 phn t: iu khin cuc gi CC cung cp cc chc nng v th tc iu khin cuc gi ISDN, cc chc nng v th tc ny c ci tin ph hp vi mt trng truyn dn v tuyn. Vic thit lp li cuc gi hay thay i trong qua trnh gi cc dch v mng chng hn thay i t tin sang s liu l hai th tc c bit mi trong CC. CC cng cha cc chc nng cho cc dch v b sung c bit nh: bo hiu gia nhng ngi s dng. Phn t m bo cc dch v b sung SS x l cc dch v b sung khng lin quan n cuc gi nh: chuyn hng cuc gi khi khng c tr li, i gi ... Phn t m bo dch v bn tin ngn SMS cung cp cc giao thc truyn cc bn tin ngn gia mng v mt trm di ng. Ngoi cc giao thc trn cn c cc giao thc khc nh MTP3, SCCP, TCAP. TCAP h tr nhiu cho vic gii quyt gia hai node mng. TCAP qun l s gii quyt trn mt c s kt thc-kt thc. Giao thc MAP c s dng gia MSC, VLR, HLR, v AUC bn trong khung cu hi v bn tin tr li. Giao thc ny c thit k nh MAP/B thng qua MAP/H.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

2.2 TH TC TRONG MNG GSM Nhiu s thch thc trong thit k ca mng di ng c quan tm vi s di ng ca nhng MS. Trong phn ny chng ta mang mt s th hin thn thin ca mt vi th tc quan trng nht ch ti tnh di ng trong mng. Th tc c gii thiu theo trt t: m ngun Power ON, gn v tch ra IMSI, cp nht v tr v chuyn giao. Gi thiu v chuyn giao bao gm nhiu chi tit hn nhng ci cn li ca th tc. 2.2.1 Bt tt my trm di ng Khi MS mi bt ngun n phi thc hin ng k ln u nhp mng. Qu trnh c thc hin nh sau: Trc ht trm MS qut tm c tn s ng knh FCCH (Knh hiu chnh tn s) Sau tm n knh ng b SCH nhn c khung TDMA cho ng b. Cui cng n thc hin cp nht v tr thng bo cho VLR ph trch HLR v v tr ca mnh. Cc c s d liu ny s ghi li LAI hin thi MS. Ging nh cp nht v tr bnh thng thng tin v LAI c MS nhn t knh BCCH. Bt u t lc MSC/VLR cng nhn l MS tch cc v nh du c truy nht tch cc vo trng d liu ca mnh. C ny gn vi mt s nhn dng thu bao: IMSI. Khi tt ngun mt trm MS hoc ly SIM ra s xy ra qu trnh ri b IMSI. Cc trao i bo hiu trong trng hp ny c thc hin nh sau: MS yu cu mt knh bo hiu pht i bn tin thng bo cho mng rng MS chun b vo mng trng thi khng tch cc. iu ny c ngha rng mng khng th t n MS na. MSC s gi bn tin IMSI n VLR, bn tin ny khng c tr li cng nhn v MS s khng nhn c tr li ny, VLR s thit lp c ri b IMSI v t chi cc cuc gi n trm MS ny. Thng tin ri b IMSI c th c lu gi ti VLR tu chn c ri, mng c th cng c thit lp HLR v xc nhn c gi tr li VLR.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

2.2.2 Gn v tch IMSI Khi MS tt, th tc tch ly IMSI phi c thc hin. T im nhn ca MS, th tc tch ly IMSI c thc hin bng cch gi mt bn tin tch ly IMSI khng c xc nhn ti BSS. Nu bn tin c nhn, MS b v khng ti c HLR. Khi MS c gi, lc khng cn lin h vi BTS c (t LA nhn bit trong HLR) ch tm thy rng MS khng th ti c. Th tc tch ly IMSI c th cng c thc hin ngm bi mng nu MS tht bi khi cp nht nh k. N khng bt buc s dng th tc tch ly IMSI nhng hu ht cc b iu khin chn vic ny. Th tc cng c th c thc hin trong hon cnh khc. Mt MS phi s dng th tc ny ri khi nng GSM khi tham gia mng khc. Th tc gn IMSI c s dng bo tin cho mng, rng MS c th c s dng tr li. Thc t bo hiu ch l vic cp nht v tr v n l khng thng xuyn c coi nh mt th tc c thc. Gn IMSI s c trnh by phn di. 2.2.3 Cp nht v tr a. Cp nht v tr trong BSS MS thc hin vic cp nht v tr (LU) vi mt vi nguyn nhn. Cp nht v tr xy ra khi trm di ng ang trng thi ri nhng n di chuyn t mt vng nh v ny sang vng nh v khc. Khi ny trm di ng phi thng bo cho mang v v tr mi ca n mng ghi li v tr mi vo VLR hoc nu cn thit vo HLR (khi chuyn sang vng phc v MSC mi). Thng tin thc hin cp nht v tr da trn LAI c thng bo thng xuyn t BCCH ca mi .

Hnh 2.30a: Cp nht v tr trong BSS

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

u tin MS yu cu mt knh iu khin t BSC bng cch gi bn tin CHAN_REQ ti BTS, BTS s m ho bn tin tnh ton khong cch gia MS v BTS (da vo thi gian xut) v chuyn tip tt c thng tin ti BSC bao gm c thng tin ban u ca MS v c thng tin m BSC thm vo. Tip theo BTS s gi mt bn tin CHAN_RQD ti BSC sau khi bn tin ny c nhn v x l, BSC s truyn cho BTS thng tin v kiu knh, s knh c n dnh ring cho bng bn tin CHAN_ACT. BTS xc nhn v x l bn tin CHAN_ACT ri p li bng bn tin CHAN_ACT_ACK BSC s gi mt bn tin IMM_AS_CMD bn tin ny kch hot knh dnh ring trc . BTS gi thng tin ny qua knh AGCH cho MS. MS tm thy IMM_ASS_CMD ca n bi nhng yu cu tham chiu m n cha sn trong bn tin CHAN_REQ. lp 2 kt ni LAPDm sn sng c kch hot. MS s gi mt bn tin SABM ti BTS, trng hp ny l bn tin LOC_UPD_REQ. y l mt bn tin yu cu cp nht v tr.

Hnh 2.30b: Cp nht v tr trong BSS

BTS xc nhn mt kt ni LAPDm c thit lp bng cch gi mt bn tin UA tr li MS bn tin mang ni dung ca bn tin MS yu cu. ng thi n chuyn bn tin ny ti BSC. y l mt thng bo MM trong sut nhng BSC vn x l v BSC khc vn yu cu lp thng tin k hiu ny t BS. Sau khi x l xong BSC ng gi LOC_UPD_REQ v LAC hin thi vi

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

CI vo trong mt bn tin c nhn l CL3I (Ch l trong LOC_UPD_REQ t BS vn cha LAC, CI c), sau gi n cng vi bn tin SCCP (y l mt thng ip yu cu thnh lp mt kt n) (bn tin CR) ti MSC. Nu MSC c kh nng p ng kt ni SCCP th yu cu CR c p li bng bn tin CC (Connection Confirmed). V k t thi im ny mt kt ni logic c thnh lp t MS ti MSC/VLR. MSC/VLR tr li LOC_UPD_REQ bng mt bn tin AUTH_REQ. Bn tin ny chuyn ti BSC thng qua kt ni SCCP c thit lp v tip tc chuyn ti BTS ri ti MS. Ni dung bn tin l nhng tham s ngu nhin, nhng tham s quan trong nht i vi qu trnh cp nht v tr. MS (chnh xc hn l SIM) sau khi nhn c bn tin RAND (s ngu nhin 128bit) t mng v kt hp vi kho m Ki c lu trong SIM thng qua gii thut A3 cho ta SRES 13bit v MS dng n gi trong bn tin AUTH_RSP ti MSC/VLR, y l mt bn tin trong sut. VLR s so snh SRES vi gi tr c cung cp bi HLR.

Hnh 2.30c: Qu trnh nhn thc trong GSM

Hnh 2.30d: Cp nht v tr trong BSS

60

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

MSC/VLR s kim tra thng tin SRES nu chng thc n s gi thng tin ti MS v BTS. BTS sau khi nhn c bn tin s gii phng mt phn bn tin ENCR_CMD (n l kho m Kc), bn tin ny sau c thut ton A4 bin thnh chui ngu nhin v gi cc bn tin CIPH_MOD_CM ti MS. MS xc nhn bng cch gi bn tin CIPH_MOD_COM ti BSC v c BSC x l chuyn thnh bn tin CIPHER_MODE_CMP ti MSC/VLR m ho kch hot. Nu thit b kim tra l tch cc th MSC/VLR s gi bn tin IDENT_REQ trong sut qua BTS v BSC ti MS yu cu MS cung cp IMEI. MS nhn c yu cu v gi IMEI ca n cho MSC/VLR trong bn tin IDENT_RSP. Bn tin ny cng trong sut vi BTS v BSC. IMEI ca MS c EIR kim tra s chng thc l tch cc hay khng. MSC/VLR gn TMSI (y l thng tin c s dng thay cho IMSI theo di nhng thu bao kh hn). TMSI c s dng xc nh tm thi mt thu bao vo bn tin TMSI_REAL_CMD, mt bn tin trong sut vi BTS v BSC v gi ti cho MS. Ch vic n nh mt TMSI mi c th xy ra vo lc cui bn trong LOC_UPD_ACC.

Hnh 2.30e: Cp nht v tr trong BSS

MS xc nhn bng bn tin TMSI_REAL_COM, thng bo l mt TMSI mi nhn c v c lu tr. y cng l mt bn tin trong sut qua BTS v BSC ti MSC/VLR. MSC/VLR p li bng bn tin trong sut LOC_UPD_ACC cho MS rng lu gi v tr vng LAI mi. n y mt tin trnh cp nht v tr l

61

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

hon thnh. Knh chim gi trn giao din Air c th c gii phng nhng cho vic cp nht mi. gii phng MSC gi mt bn tin CLR_CMD ti BSC, BSC x l v chuyn ti BTS trong bn tin CHAN_RE v qua MS. ng thi BSC cng gi mt gi tin DEACT_SACCH yu cu BTS ngng gi bn tin SACCH. MS phn ng p li bng bn tin DISC (LAPDm) ti BTS yu cu gii phng kt ni ti lp 2. BTS xc nhn bng bn tin UA v xc nhn gii phng kt ni ca giao din khng kh Air bng bn tin REL_IND v BSC chuyn tip ti MSC bng bn tin CLR_CMP. BSC yu cu TRX trong bn tin RF_CHAN_REL gii phng ngun chim gi trn giao din Air cho BTS. MSC gi bn tin RLSD yu cu gii phng ngun SCCP. BTS gi bn tin RF_CHAN_REL_ACK cho BSC xc nhn gii phng trn giao din Air, ng thi BSC cng gi cho MSC bn tin RLC xc nhn vic gii phng ca ngun SCCP. b. Cp nht v tr trong NSS Khi cp nht v tr lm thay i VLR th lun phi truy cp vi thng tin trong HLR, cn nu nh vic cp nht v tr m khng lm thay i VLR th khng cn truy cp thng tin HLR. Trong HLR lun ch c thng tin v vng VLR ca thu bao, n khng c thng tin c th v vng nh v. Mi trng thi ca MS lun c EIR kim tra.

Hnh 2.31a: Cp nht v tr trong NSS

VLR mi yu cu chng thc d liu (SRES, RAND, Ki) t VLR c sau khi nhn c bn tin LOC_UPD_REQ t BSC qua giao din A. VLR mi gi thng tin nhn dng d liu TMSI c cho VLR c nh HLR (d liu ban u), s chng thc d liu s c p li cho VLR mi.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Sau khi gi bn tin LOC_UDP_ACC, VLR mi xc nhn vi HLR rng MS chuyn vng VLR mi. V gi bn tin cha IMSI v LMSI mi cho HLR cp nht. HLR gi bn tin yu cu VLR c xo d liu v thu bao cp nht d liu v v tr mi ca thu bao, v c VLR c p tr bng bn tin tng t thng bo hu. Cng lc ny VLR mi nhn c t HLR tt c d liu thu bao trong mt bn tin insertSubcriberData. VLR mi p tr bn tin tng t thng bo l cp nht v HLR gi bn tin updataLocation ti cho VLR mi thng bo th tc cp nht c th khp li c hai bn. Vic cp nht v chng thc v tr mt MS cn nhm mc ch lm gim n trm thit b vin thng. H thng NSS l c s d liu ca thu bao cn EIR cha mt kho nhn dng b mt IMEI nhm kim tra chng thc thu bao trong mng GSM. Vic kim tra c th tin hnh qua cc bc nh sau:

Hnh 2.31b: Kim tra IMEI

Khi thit b kim tra l tch cc, MSC/VLR mi yu cu m nhn dng thit b IMEI t MS bng mt bn tin IDENT_REQ thng qua BSC v BTS nh trnh by. V vic p ng yu cu l iu tt nhin bng mt bn tin IDENT_RSP cha IMEI cho MSC/VLR mi chng thc. chng thc MSC/VLR gi n thng qua bn tin yu cu kim tra IMEI cho EIR thng qua bn tin checkIMEI, v vic kim tra s c EIR tin hnh. Mt kt qu chng thc s c gi tr li MSC/VLR, nu IMEI khng bao gm trong back list. 2.2.4 Bt u cuc gi a. Bt u cuc gi trong BSS Cuc gi c khi xng t trm di ng MOC:

63

Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Khi trm MS trng thi tch cc v ng k MSC/VLR phc v, MS c th thc hin cuc gi. Qu trnh thc hin cuc gi c cho nh sau:

Hnh 2.32a: Bt u cuc gi trong BSS

Bng knh truy cp ngu nhin RACH, MS gi yu cu knh bo hiu n BTS. BTS gii m yu cu CHAN_REQ tnh ton khong cch t MS ti BTS (thi gian xut) chuyn tip thng tin hon chnh cho BSC trong bn tin CHAN_RQD. Sau khi nhn v x l CHAN_RQD, BSC thng bo cho BTS v kiu knh v s knh s c cp bng bn tin CHAN_ACT. BTS xc nhn bng bn tin CHAN_ACT_ACK Tip BSC s gi IMM_AS_CMD kch hot knh c dnh ring trc . BTS s gi thng tin trn knh AGCH ti cho MS. MS tm IMM_AS_CMD bng vic tham chiu yu cu nhng ci m c trong CHAN_REQ.

Hnh 2.32b: Bt u cuc gi trong BSS

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Mt bn tin cha thng tin xc nh thu bao (ISMI hay TMSI) v xc nh yu cu dch v s c gi trong bn tin CM_SERV_REQ trong khung SABM (LAPDm) ca lp 2. BTS xc nhn lp 2 c thit lp bng vic lp li bn tin CM_SERV_REQ cha trong khung UA ng thi chuyn tip thng tin ny ti BSC. BSC x l mt phn bn tin v thm LAC + CI vo ri ng gi trong CR (SCCP) ging nh CL3I (BSSM). Bn tin ny cng nh mt yu cu cho mt kt ni SCCP ti MSC. MSC nhn v tr li bng khung CC nu nh n c kh nng cung cp mt kt ni SCCP. T thi im ny mt kt ni logic c hnh thnh t MS ti MSC/VLR. ng thi n cng tr li cho MS thng qua BSC trn kt ni SCCP c thit lp v qua BTS, bn tin ny trong sut vi c BTS v BSC. Thng tin bao gm chui 13bit ngu nhin RAND v s chui kho mt m CKSN cha trong VLR. MS (chnh xc hn l SIM) sau khi nhn c bn tin RAND (s ngu nhin 128bit) t mng v kt hp vi kho m Ki c lu trong SIM thng qua gii thut A3 cho ta SRES 13bit v MS dng n gi trong bn tin AUTH_RSP ti MSC/VLR, y l mt bn tin trong sut vi BTS v BSC. VLR s so snh SRES vi gi tr c cung cp bi HLR. S chng thc l thnh cng, nu c hai l ph hp. Khi MSC/VLR xc nhn yu cu dch v trong bn tin trong sut CM_SERV_ACC ti MS.

Hnh 2.32c: Bt u cuc gi trong BSS

MSC/VLR s kim tra thng tin SRES nu chng thc n s gi thng tin ti MS v BTS. BTS sau khi nhn c bn tin s gii phng mt phn bn tin ENCR_CMD (n l kho m Kc), bn tin ny sau c thut ton A4 bin thnh chui ngu nhin v gi phn cn li ca bn tin CIPH_MOD_CMD ti MS. MS xc nhn bng cch gi bn tin

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

CIPH_MOD_COM ti BSC v c BSC x l chuyn thnh bn tin CIPHER_MODE_CMP ti MSC/VLR m ho kch hot. Nu thit b kim tra l tch cc th MSC/VLR s gi bn tin IDENT_REQ trong sut qua BTS v BSC ti MS yu cu MS cung cp IMEI. MS nhn c yu cu v gi IMEI ca n cho MSC/VLR trong bn tin IDENT_RSP. Bn tin ny cng trong sut vi BTS v BSC. IMEI ca MS c EIR kim tra s chng thc l tch cc hay khng. MSC/VLR gn TMSI mi (y l thng tin c s dng thay cho IMSI theo di nhng thu bao kh hn).TMSI c s dng xc nh tm thi mt thu bao vo bn tin TMSI_REAL_CMD, mt bn tin trong sut vi BTS v BSC v gi ti cho MS. Ch vic n nh mt TMSI mi c th xy ra vo lc cui bn trong LOC_UPD_ACC. MS xc nhn vi bn tin TMSI_REAL_COM rng TMSI mi c lu tr. Nh vy vic cp nht v tr xong v vic thit lp cuc gi bt u

Hnh 2.32d: Bt u cuc gi trong BSS

Sau khi qua trinh cp nht v tr xong MS gi ti MSC/VLR bn tin SETUP trong sut qua BTS v BSC, bao gm cc thng s nh: kh nng mng, cc thng s m bo kh nng tng thch gi hai thit b MS, s thoi pha b gi,v cc dch v b sung. Sau khi MSC/VLR nhn c thng tin n gi mt bn tin IAM (ISUP) ci t mt kt ni MSC/VLR xc nhn vi bn tin CALL_PROC rng IAM c gi v MSC ang x l thit lp cuc gi. Bn tin ny trong sut qua BTS v BSC ti MS. Ti cng thi im, nu thit lp cuc gi mun OACSU (Off Air Call SetUp) c ngha l knh ting giao v tuyn c cp pht thi im

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

mun nht. Nu OACSU l tch cc th knh ting v FACCH tng ng ch c thit lp ngay trc kt ni khi m bo rng pha b gi tr li. Cn nu kt ni c thit lp khng c OACSU th MSC s gi bn tin ASS_REQ ti BSC vi ni dung quan trng l n nh mt knh m s c s dng cho kt ni giao din Air. y BSC kim tra nu c knh lu lng ri n n nh knh ny cho cuc gi v yu cu BTS tch cc knh ny. bit c tnh trng lp vt l trn giao din Air BSC hi BTS qua bn tin PHY_CONTEXT_REQ trc khi BSC gn knh TCH trn giao din A. BTS p li bn tin PHY_CONEXT_CONF mang ni dung v khong cch thc t ca MS v thit lp cng sut pht cho MS v BS. Sau khi nhn v x l bn tin ASS_REQ, BSC s bo tin cho BTS v kiu knh v s knh s c dnh ring bng bn tin CHAN_ACT. BTS xc nhn vic nhn v x l bng bn tin CHAN_ACT_ACK. Sau BSC s ch cho BTS v MS mt knh giao vn TCH vi bn tin ASS_CMD cha thng tin TRX v TS. Knh ny c dng cho giao din Air.

Hnh 2.32e: Bt u cuc gi trong BSS

MS gi khung SABM thng qua knh FACCH cho BTS yu cu thit lp kt ni lp 2 LAPDm. BTS xc nhn bng bn tin UA (LAPDm) trong lp 2 c thit lp. Ti cng mt thi im gi bn tin T_IND v vic thit lp kt ni 2 cho BSC trn giao din BSC. MS gi mt bn tin trong sut ASS_COM ti MSC y l d liu lp 3 knh giao vn v cng ng thi l bn tin cng nhn ASS_REQ. Lc ny BSC s gii phng knh iu khin chim gi lc trc, knh dng thit lp cuc gi bng bn tin RF_CHAN_REL thng bo

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

cho BTS. BTS xc nhn vic gii phng knh bng bn tin p tr RF_CH_REL_ACK. H thng con iu khin lu lng s phn tch cc s m thu bao gi quay v thit lp kt ni ti thu bao b gi. Cuc gi c ni thng qua chuyn mch nhm. Khi MSC/VLR nhn ACM cho vic thit lp kt ni n gi mt bn tin ALERT hoc bn tin PROGRESS ti MS, y l nhng bn tin trong sut. ALERT s dng ch ra mt s thay i trng thi bnn trong MS cn PROGRESS s dng khi khng thay i trng thi ca MS. Bo chung s c gi n trm MS cho thy pha b gi ang chung. Tng chung c to ra tng i pha thu bao b gi v c chuyn mch nhm n MS. Nh vy tng chung c gi qua ng v tuyn ch khng phai c to ra MS. Khi MSC/VLR nhn c bn tin ANS (y l bn tin tr li t thu bao b gi) th cuc gi thng qua c kt ni, v gi ti MS bn tin CON, mt bn tin trong sut. Mt cuc gi thc t (thoi) bt u khi MS nhn c bn tin CON v gi li bn tin xc nhn CON_ACK ti MSC/VLR, cc ph bt u c tnh. n y th vic thit lp cuc gi l hon thnh. Vic xo mt cuc gi c th khi xng t MS hay t i phng. Nu MS khi xng xo th n pht i bn tin DISCONNECT ti BS v BS tr li bng cch xo kt ni CM. Ta xt trng hp pha thu bao b gi xo kt ni:

Hnh 2.32f: Bt u cuc gi trong BSS

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

MS b gi nhn nt END kt thc cuc gi th kt ni s c gii phng ngay. MS gi bn tin DISC trong sut qua BTS v BSC ti MSC/VLR. MSC/VLR p li bng bn tin REL cng trong sut ti MS. Vic tnh cc cng chm dt MS gi bn tin REL_COM giai phng kt ni ti MSC/VLR. Sau khi cuc gi kt thc knh chim gi trn giao din A s c gii phng. MSC gi bn tin CLR_CMD ti BSC, BSC x l v chuyn tip bn tin CHAN_REL ti BTS v MS. ng thi BSC yu cu BTS ngng gi bn tin knh SACCH bng vic gi bn tin DEACT_SACCH. Khi m MS nhn c bn tin CHAN_REL n s t ng gi tr li bn tin DISC bn tin lp 2 yu cu BTS gii phng kt ni lp 2. BTS xc nhn v p tr bn tin UA. ng thi gi bn tin REL_IND cho BSC xc nhn s gii phng kt ni giao din A. BSC phn tch v gi bn tin ny ti MSC thng qua bn tin CLR_CMP. Vi bn tin RF_CHAN_REL, BSC yu cu TRX gii phng ngun chim gi trn giao din A. MSC yu cu BSC gii phng kt ni SCCP thng qua bn tin RLSD. V BTS xc nhn vic gii phng trn giao din A ng thi BSC cng gi MSC bn tin RLC xc nhn kt ni SCCP c gii phng. Lu : Cc bn tin trn giao din Air trn c truyn trn hai knh FACCH v SDCCH. Bo hiu s giao vn trong thi gian kt ni:

Hnh 2.33: Bo hiu s giao vn trong lc kt ni

C MS v BTS s gi kt qu m chng o c trong sut thi gian kt ni, mi ln gi trn mt khung, trong bn tin MEAS_RES/MEAS_REP ti cho BSC trn knh SACCH. Trn ng truyn xung SACCH gi thng tin SYS_INFO 4 v 6 cho mi ln mt khung cho MS. ng thi cn mang thng tin: thit lp cng sut truyn,

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

thi gian xut. Vic thay i cng sut truyn ca MS v BTS c BSC iu khin thng qua bn tin MS_POWER_CON. b. Bt u cuc gi trong NSS Trong h thng NSS mt yu cu kt ni ca mt thu bao c th c nh hng thng qua: Ti cng mt PLMN (MS-MS). Ti t PLMN khc (MS-MS). Ti t mng tch hp s ISDN. Ti t mng in thoi tng t PSTN.

Di y l v d v cuc gi MOC cho cc trng hp trn. Tng i cng GMSC c s dng cho vic chuyn i t mng ISDN hay PSTN vo mng GSM.

Hnh 2.34a: Bt u cuc gi trong NSS

Cuc gi khi pht t MS trong mng di ng ra mng ngoi ISDN bt u bng vic MSC/VLR nhn mt bn tin khi to yu cu CM_SERV_REQ t BSC Bn tin SETUP mang thng tin v s in thoi ca thu bao b gi s c gi ti MSC MSC x l v gi khung IAM mang thng tin yu cu ra ti GMSC. GMSC chuyn tip bn tin ti tng i ISDN. Khi vic nh tuyn cuc gi trong mng ISDN hon tt. Vic gi thng tin v vic pha thu bao s ang chung s c tng i ISDN gi quay tr li GMSC

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

qua bn tin ACM v chuyn tip qua MSC v MSC x l chuyn ti cho MS thng qua bn tin ALERT hay PROGRESS. Cng ng thi tng i ISDN gi mt bn tin ANM ni dung tr li tin nhn t thu bao di ng v c MSC x l thnh bn tin CON gi cho MS qua BSS. V BSC cng gi p li bn tin CON_ACK. Nh vy mt kt ni c ni thng cho hai thu bao hai mng khc nhau. Cuc m thoi bt u nu bn thu bao s nhc ng nghe. V vic tnh cc cng bt u c tnh. Khi mt bn kt thc cuc gi. trng hp ny l pha MS mt bn tin DISC c gi ti MSC v chuyn tip sang GMSC v qua tng i ISDN bng bn tin REL trong ISUP v ng thi mt bn tin REL (BSSAP) ti cho MS. ng thi chm dt vic tnh cc. Tng i ISDN xc nhn bng vic gi bn tin RLC (trong phn ISUP) cho MSC thng qua GMSC. MS xc nhn bn tin REL gii phng kt ni bng bn tin REL_COM. 2.2.5 Cuc gi t u cui di ng a. u cui di ng gi trong BSS Cuc gi MTC (Mobile Terminal Call) mc d khng xut pht t MS nhng vn c nhiu im ging MOC tuy nhin vn c nhiu im khc nhau: CHAN_REQ ca MS trong MTC l s tr li cho PAGING_REQ cn trong MOC th n l yu cu ca MS cho khi to cuc gi. Bn tin u tin gi trn mt SDCCH mi khng phi l CM_SERV_REQ m l PAG_RSP. Bn tin SETUP trong MTC c khi to t MSC/VLR ch khng phi t MS.

Mt th d v cuc gi MTC:

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 2.35a: u cui di ng gi trong BSS

Khi c mt cuc gi yu cu ti MSC/VLR th u tin MSC/VLR gi mt yu cu PAGING cho tt c BTS, y l bn tin qung b tm gi trm MS c gi v n cha cc thng tin ca c MS gi ln MS b gi nh IMSI hay TMSI. Cc bn tin c chuyn cho cc BTS qua cc trm BSC di bn tin PAGING_CMD. Nu mt BSC no p ng tc l c knh ri th n s gn mt knh iu khin CCH v chuyn cc bn tin cho cc BTS. n trm BTS chuyn n thnh bn tin yu cu cng vn ni dung y PAG_REQ. Khi m tm c MS b gi lp tc n c gn mt knh iu khin do BSC ch nh CCCH v gi mt bn tin tr li s phn trang tr li CHAN_REQ qua BTS n c m ho tnh ton khong cch MS ti BTS v chuyn thng tin trong bn tin CHAN_RQD ti cho BSC. Sau khi nhn c BSC x l v gi p li mt bn tin cho BTS bit v kiu knh v s knh s c gn bng bn tin CHAN_ACT. BTS x l v xc nhn p li mt bn tin CHAN_ACT_ACK v s khung cho BSC.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 2.35b: u cui di ng gi trong BSS

kch hot knh c BSC dnh ring trc n gi bn tin IMM_ASS_CMD cho MS v c BTS gi trn knh AGCH. MS x l v tham chiu vi yu cu ca n trong CHAN_REQ. Sau n gi bn tin PAG_RSP trong khung SABM trn knh SDCCH thit lp yu cu thit lp kt ni lp 2 (LAPDm). Bn tin l trong sut qua s xc nhn bn tin UA tr li cho MS ca BTS v chuyn bn tin PAG_RSP qua cho BSC. BSC x l mt phn (phn n cn l Mobile Station Classmark) v thm LAC, CI. Tt c thng tin c ng gi trong bn tin CL3I v chuyn n cho MSC/VLR ang phc v, bn tin CR yu cu mt kt ni SCCP. Nu MSC c kh nng phc v n s p li bng bn tin CC, t y mt kt ni logic gia MS v MSC/VLR c thit lp. MSC/VLR gi chui s ngu nhin RAND v CKSN trong bn tin AUTH_REQ l trong sut vi BTS v BSC cho MS. MS (chnh xc hn l SIM) sau khi nhn c bn tin RAND (s ngu nhin 128bit) t mng v kt hp vi kho m Ki c lu trong SIM thng qua gii thut A3 cho ta SRES 13bit v MS dng n gi trong bn tin AUTH_REQ ti MSC/VLR, y l mt bn tin trong sut vi BTS v BSC.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 2.35c: u cui di ng gi trong BSS

VLR s so snh SRES vi gi tr c cung cp bi HLR. S chng thc l thnh cng, nu c hai l ph hp. MSC/VLR s kim tra thng tin SRES nu chng thc n s gi thng tin ti MS v BTS. BTS sau khi nhn c bn tin s gii phng mt phn bn tin ENCR_CMD (n l kho m Kc), bn tin ny sau c thut ton A4 bin thnh chui ngu nhin v gi phn cn li ca bn tin CIPH_MOD_CMD ti MS. MS xc nhn bng cch gi bn tin CIPH_MOD_COM ti BSC v c BSC x l chuyn thnh bn tin CIPHER_MODE_CMP ti MSC/VLR m ho kch hot. Nu thit b kim tra l tch cc th MSC/VLR s gi bn tin IDENT_REQ trong sut qua BTS v BSC ti MS yu cu MS cung cp IMEI. MS nhn c yu cu v gi IMEI ca n cho MSC/VLR trong bn tin IDENT_RSP. Bn tin ny cng trong sut vi BTS v BSC. IMEI ca MS c EIR kim tra s chng thc l tch cc hay khng. MSC/VLR gn TMSI mi (y l thng tin c s dng thay cho IMSI theo di nhng thu bao kh hn).TMSI c s dng xc nh tm thi mt thu bao vo bn tin TMSI_REAL_CMD, mt bn tin trong sut vi BTS v BSC v gi ti cho MS. MS xc nhn vi bn tin TMSI_REAL_COM rng TMSI mi c lu tr.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 2.35d: u cui di ng gi trong BSS

Sau khi qua trnh cp nht v tr v xc thc MS xong MSC/VLR gi bn tin SETUP trong sut qua BTS v BSC ti MS, bao gm cc thng s nh: kh nng mng, cc thng s m bo kh nng tng thch gi hai thit b MS, s thoi pha b gi, v cc dch v b sung. Sau khi MS nhn c thng tin n gi mt bn xc nhn CALL_CONF ti MSC/VLR. Bn tin ny trong sut qua BTS v BSC. Ti cng thi im, nu thit lp cuc gi mun OACSU (Off Air Call SetUp) c ngha l knh ting giao v tuyn c cp pht thi im mun nht. Nu OACSU l tch cc th knh ting v FACCH tng ng ch c thit lp ngay trc kt ni khi m bo rng pha b gi tr li. Cn nu kt ni c thit lp khng c OACSU th MSC s gi bn tin ASS_REQ ti BSC vi ni dung quan trng l n nh mt knh m s c s dng cho kt ni giao din Air. y BSC kim tra nu c knh lu lng ri n n nh knh ny cho cuc gi v yu cu BTS tch cc knh ny. bit c tnh trng lp vt l trn giao din Air BSC hi BTS qua bn tin PHY_CONTEXT_REQ trc khi BSC gn knh TCH trn giao din A. BTS p li bn tin PHY_CONEXT_CONF mang ni dung v khong cch thc t ca MS v thit lp cng sut pht cho MS v BS. Sau khi nhn v x l bn tin ASS_REQ, BSC s bo tin cho BTS v kiu knh v s knh s c dnh ring bng bn tin CHAN_ACT. BTS xc nhn vic nhn v x l bng bn tin CHAN_ACT_ACK.

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Hnh 2.35e: u cui di ng gi trong BSS

Sau BSC s ch cho BTS v MS mt knh giao vn TCH vi bn tin ASS_CMD cha thng tin TRX v TS. Knh ny c dng cho giao din Air. MS gi khung SABM thng qua knh FACCH cho BTS yu cu thit lp kt ni lp 2 LAPDm. BTS xc nhn bng bn tin UA (LAPDm) trong lp 2 c thit lp. Ti cng mt thi im gi bn tin T_IND v vic thit lp kt ni 2 cho BSC trn giao din BSC. MS gi mt bn tin trong sut ASS_COM ti MSC y l d liu lp 3 knh giao vn v cng ng thi l bn tin cng nhn ASS_REQ. Lc ny BSC s gii phng knh iu khin chim gi lc trc, knh dng thit lp cuc gi bng bn tin RF_CHAN_REL thng bo cho BTS. BTS xc nhn vic gii phng knh bng bn tin p tr RF_CH_REL_ACK. H thng con iu khin lu lng s phn tch cc s m thu bao gi quay v thit lp kt ni ti thu bao b gi. Cuc gi c ni thng qua chuyn mch nhm. Khi MS nhn ACM (ISUP) cho vic thit lp kt ni khi to vic chung tr li n gi mt bn tin ALERT hoc bn tin PROGRESS ti MSC/VLR, y l nhng bn tin trong sut. ALERT s dng ch ra mt s thay i trng thi bn trong MS. Bo chung s c gi n trm MS cho thy pha b gi ang chung. Tng chung c to ra tng i pha thu bao b gi v c chuyn mch nhm n MS. Nh vy tng chung c gi qua ng v tuyn ch khng phai c to ra MS.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Khi MSC/VLR nhn c bn tin ANS (ISUP) (y l bn tin tr li t thu bao b gi, tc thu bao b gi nhn phim OK) th cuc gi thng qua c kt ni, v gi ti MSC/VLR bn tin CON, mt bn tin trong sut. Mt cuc gi thc t (thoi) bt u khi MSC/VLR nhn c bn tin CON v gi li bn tin xc nhn CON_ACK ti MS, cc ph bt u c tnh. n y th vic thit lp cuc gi l hon thnh. Vic xo mt cuc gi c th khi xng t MS hay t i phng. Nu MS khi xng xo th n pht i bn tin DISCONNECT ti BS v BS tr li bng cch xo kt ni CM. Ta xt trng hp pha thu bao gi xo kt ni:

Hnh 2.35f: u cui di ng gi trong BSS

MS gi nhn nt END kt thc cuc gi th kt ni s c gii phng ngay. MSC/VLR gi bn tin DISC trong sut qua BTS v BSC ti MS b gi. MS p li bng bn tin REL cng trong sut ti MSC/VLR. V chm dt vic tnh cc. MSC/VLR gi bn tin REL_COM gii phng kt ni ti MS. Sau khi cuc gi kt thc knh chim gi trn giao din A s c gii phng. MSC gi bn tin CLR_CMD ti BSC, BSC x l v chuyn tip bn tin CHAN_REL ti BTS v MS. ng thi BSC yu cu BTS ngng gi bn tin knh SACCH bng vic gi bn tin DEACT_SACCH. Khi m MS nhn c bn tin CHAN_REL n s t ng gi tr li bn tin DISC bn tin lp 2 yu cu BTS gii phng kt ni lp 2. BTS xc nhn v p tr bn tin UA. ng thi gi bn tin REL_IND cho BSC xc nhn s gii phng kt ni giao din A. BSC phn tch v gi bn tin ny ti MSC thng qua bn tin CLR_CMP. Vi bn tin RF_CHAN_REL, BSC yu cu TRX gii phng ngun chim gi trn giao din A i vi BTS. MSC/VLR yu cu BSC gii phng kt ni SCCP thng qua bn tin RLSD. V BTS xc nhn vic gii phng trn giao din A ng thi BSC cng gi MSC bn tin RLC xc nhn kt ni SCCP c gii phng.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Nh vy chng ta thy cc th tc trong MTC v MOC hon ton tng t nhau. Chng nh l cc bn tin trong sut gi t MS ny ti cho MS khc thng qua MSC/VLR phc v v BSC ln BTS lm cc trm trung gian. b. u cui di ng gi trong NSS Vic tm kim mt thu bao di ng l mt trong nhng cng vic quan trng nht trong sut thi gian MTC. Vy ci g lm vic ny v cc tng i ISDN v BSS kt hp vi nhau nh th no tm kim mt MS hay ngc li. nh tuyn mt cuc gi ti thu bao s hay tng t th vic gn cc m vng m quc gia l iu quan trng nhng i vi mt cuc gi gia hai MS vi nhau th iu l khng cn thit. Sau khi tng i GMSC nhn mt cuc gi t mng ngoi n s chuyn ti cho h thng NSS trong mng. HLR c mt nh danh v cc thu bao nhng HLR khng c v tr chnh xc ca thu bao (v tr vng), vy n phi tm n VLR. VLR gn mt MSRN cho mc ch nh tuyn v cung cp s ti HLR. HLR chuyn tip n ti MSC, MSC s s dng n nh tuyn cuc gi ti ch ni m MSC/VLR ang phc v. Sau khi mt kt ni v tuyn ti MS c thit lp, MSC/VLR s cung cp giao din chc nng gia h thng NSS v ISDN. Nu nh l cuc gi t mng tng t PSTN th tng i GMSC s chuyn i tn hiu tng t sang tn hiu s trong phn ng dng ISDN ISUP ca dch vlp 3 trong mng bo hiu SS7. Tt c cc cuc gi t mng bn ngoi u c nh tuyn ti tng i cng GMSC. Cn nu l mt cuc gi trong mng th khng cn thng qua GMSC. Xt mt v d khi tng i cng GMSC nhn c mt cuc gi yu cu xut pht t mng ISDN:

Hnh 2.36a: u cui di ng gi trong NSS

Khi tng i GMSC nhn c mt bn tin IAM (ISUP) cho thu bao di ng th u tin HLR ca thu bao yu cu thng tin nh v, thng tin ny nhn t MSISDN. Ban u GMSC gi mt bn tin sendRouting Info (MAP) trn giao din C ti HLR. HLR c thng tin m c VLR cp nht v HLR gi mt bn tin provideRoamingNumber (MAP) xc nh thng tin nh tuyn MSRN.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

MSC/VLR gn tm thi MSRN v phn hi li HLR bn tin tng t provideRoamingNumber. HLR s gi mt phn MSRN cho GMSC n cp pht khi to nh tuyn ca yu cu cuc gi ti kch hot MSC/VLR. Thc hin vic bng bn tin IAM (Initial Address Message) trong ISUP. Bn tin c chuyn ti MS bng bn tin PAGING. y l mt bn tin qung b cho cc BTS/BSC tm gi MS. Khi cc MS nhn c bn tin chng s i chiu cc thng tin (x l) nu MS no ph hp s p li mt bn tin trong sut CIPHER_MODE_CMP ti cho MSC. V MSC gi mt bn tin SETUP ti cho MS. MS s xc nhn cuc gi vi bn tin CALL_COF. qu trnh ny l qu trnh thit lp cng sut pht ca MS v BTS ri gi thng bo cho BSC.

Hnh 2.36b: u cui di ng gi trong NSS

MS gi bn tin ALER ti cho MSC bn tin ny thng bo l pha MS ang chung. Bn tin s c MSC x l v chuyn tip ti GMSC qua bn tin ACM thng bo vic kt ni nh tuyn ti MS hon thnh v MS ang chung. y GMSC s chuyn n ti tng i ISDN. Khi m MS nhn cuc gi (nhn nt OK) n gi cho MSC mt bn tin CON. V bn tin ny li c chuyn qua cho tng i ISDN thng qua GMSC trong ANM cha lp chc nng ISUP. MSC xc nhn bn tin CON bng bn tin CON_ACK v bt u tnh cc. Vic tnh cc s c thc hin trong AUC. n y vic kt ni hon thnh v cuc gi bt u. Cuc gi c th kt thc t MS hay thu bao s ISDN. y ta xt s kt thc v pha ISDN. Khi m GMSC nhn c bn tin REL (ISUP) kt thc cuc gi t tng i ISDN n s gi thng bo ny ti MSC, bn tin ny s ngng vic tnh cc. MSC/VLR s gi bn tin trong sut DISC vi BSS ti MS. MS xc nhn gii phng ca kt ni iu khin cuc gi bng bn tin REL (BSSAP) ti cho MSC/VLR. MSC xc thc n bng bn tin REL_COM v MS ng thi gi bn tin RLC (BSSAP+ISUP) ti cho mng ISDN thng qua GMSC. n y mt kt ni c gii phng hon ton.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Chng 3

CHUYN GIAO MNG GSM


Th tc chuyn giao l c th xy ra v l th tc qua trng nht m bo tnh di ng ca MS trong lc gi. Mc ch ca th tc l duy tr cuc gi ang thc hin, khi MS di chuyn t mt Cell ti Cell khc. Quyt nh c thc hin chuyn giao hay khng, c thc hin bi BSC phc v, hay ni khc l cn c vo kt qu o ca BTS v MS gi ln th BSC s quyt nh c chuyn giao hay khng, nu c n s gi yu cu ln cho MSC. Trong khi gi, MS nh k gi kt qu o ti BTS. Kt qu o c bao gm: kt qu o ca MS v cht lng tn hiu ca ng xung (t BTS ti MS) ca cuc gi v t 6 Cell ln cn. BTS phc v o ng ln (t MS ti BTS) v cht lng tn hiu v tuyn ca cuc gi v trc kt qu o t MS. C hai kt qu o c s c BTS gi ti BSC. T thng tin trong bn tin bo co kt qu o, BSC da vo s c th quyt nh c chuyn giao ti cell khc hay khng. Quyt nh c hay khng thc hin chuyn giao c thc hin bi mt thut ton c ci t v thng s ca n c ngi qun tr mng ci t.

Hnh 3.0: Chuyn giao trong mng GSM

C cc loi chuyn giao khc nhau, trong bao gm cc phn t khc nhau ca mng. Chuyn giao trong cng BSC hay gia cc BTS khng phc tp nh chuyn giao gia cc MSC. By gi ta s i tm hiu v cc loi khc nhau ca chuyn giao. Th t sp xp c lit k vi s tng dn tnh phc tp: Trong cell/BTS, trong BSC, trong MSC v cui cng l gia cc MSC khc nhau.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

3.1 CC LOI CHUYN GIAO 3.1.1 Trong BTS Gi l chuyn giao trong cell hay trong cng BTS c hai c s dng trong vn chng din t cng mt trng thi: mt s thay i khe thi gian (knh vt l) hay ni cch khc l mt s thay i tn s. Bi v mt BTS c th iu khin mt vi cell, ng ngha hn ta phi gi chuyn giao trong BTS (v tnh logic) l ng hn l chuyn giao trong cell. y c g khc vi nh ngha chuyn giao ? Chuyn giao trong cell thc s trn thc t l khng c chuyn giao thc bi v kt qu ca n ch thay i tn s ca cuc gi ang xy ra. Thay i tn s c thc hin khi cht lng ca lin kt gim v s o lng cc cell k cnh cng khng tt hn. Trong trng hp ny BSC iu khin BTS phc v MS ra lnh cho MS v BTS tr v tn s khc, mt tn s c th cho cht lng lin kt tt hn. Vic lm gim cht lng lin kt l do nh hng ca cc cuc gi khc trong cc cell ln cn s dng chung tn s (nhiu ng knh) v do mt gii php l c gng thay i sang mt knh khc (khe thi gian khc) m c th m bo tt hn cho cuc gi.

Hnh 3.1: Chuyn giao trong BTS

3.1.2 Chuyn giao trong cng BSC Chuyn giao trong BSC c thc hin khi cell ch c iu khin bi mt BTS khc t cell ngun v c hai BTS c iu khin bi cng mt BSC. MSC khng lin quan ti qu trnh chuyn giao, n ch c BSC thng bo cho khi chuyn giao hon thnh. Nu cell ch c t v tr trong LA khc, MS cn thc hin cp nht v tr mt th tc sau khi kt thc cuc gi hnh 3.2.

Hnh 3.2: Chuyn giao trong cng BSC

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

3.1.3 Chuyn giao trong cng MSC Khi BSC quyt nh chuyn giao l cn thit, nhng cell ch khng c iu khin b chnh n, n cn s gip t MSC tm ra v tr chnh xc ca cell ang c BSC no qun l, lc ny MSC mi tham gia vo qu trnh chuyn giao. Cell ch s c xc nh ng v tr trong mt BSS khc no m cng c qun l bi cng MSC. Khi tm ra c BSS ch, MSC s kt ni BSS ngun vi BSS ch v gi tin bo cho BSS ngun khi sn sng. Sau qu trnh yu cu BTS ch cp ti nguyn, Sau khi vic cp ti nguyn l thnh cng, MS s c ch dn truy cp knh mi v cuc gi s c chuyn sang BSS mi.

Hnh 3.3: Chuyn giao trong cng MSC

3.1.4 Chuyn giao gia cc MSC Th tc chuyn giao gia cc MSC khc nhau c thc hin khi cell ch c kt ni ti MSC khc (MSC-B) cho mt cuc gi hin thi c phc v bi (MSC-A). MSC-A c giao tip vi MSC-B vi yu cu chuyn giao, yu cu MSCB (hay ni chnh xc l BTS ch) cp ti nguyn cho cuc gi nh trong trng hp intra-MSC.

Hnh 3.4: Chuyn giao gia cc MSC khc nhau

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Khi ti nguyn c cp, cuc gi c chuyn mch nh trong trng hp intra-MSC. Bi v MS chuyn sang mt cell khc (c phc v bi BSS/MSCVLR) m MSC-A c tt c thng tin v thu bao trong VLR ca n. Thng tin ch c chuyn qua cho MSC/VLR mi khi LU c thc hin. Do vy m LU lun c yu cu lc kt thc cuc gi, khi chuyn giao gia cc MSC c thc hin xong. 3.1.5 Nhn xt Trn thc t do 2 MSC khng bao gi li c thit k qun l 2 BTS k cnh m 2 BTS do 2 MSC qun l s rt xa nhau nn vy thi gian MS di chuyn gia Cell ny ti Cell kia l rt lu, cha c thit b no di chuyn nhanh di chuyn ti dn n chuyn giao m khi i ti cell n phi qua cell k cnh nh vy xy ra chuyn giao trong cng MSC hay BSC ri. V do vy chuyn giao gia 2 MSC khc nhau s khng th xy ra. 3.2 CC B NH THI Trong mng GSM cc b nh thi c s dng kim sot qu trnh x l thng tin nh trong mt cuc chuyn giao, ng thi cc b nh thi c s dng y nhm vic gy tc nghn cuc gi (b treo) hay gy nghn mng khi cc bn tin b mt v do n gip cho mng kim sot, hn ch tt hn vic li xy ra trong qu trnh x l chuyn giao. Phn ny chng ta s tm hiu cc b nh thi c lin quan vi chuyn giao trong cng MSC. T7 T7 l b nh thi c t trong BSS v c khi ng khi bn tin HND_RQD ti MSC (bc 3 trong s 3.10). Khi thi gian nh thi ht, bn tin HND_RQD c truyn li. Cc trng hp b timer T7 ngng: Khi BSS nhn bn tin HND_CMD t MSC. - Bn tin RESET c nhn t MSC, cho bit li nguy him trong d liu trao i trn ng truyn. Bn tin RESET khi ng li giao din A gia MSC v BSC. - Cht lng lin kt v tuyn ti MS ci thin v th chuyn giao khng c yu cu thm na. - Cuc gi c kt thc bi mt bn trong nhm gi hoc bi v mt lin kt v tuyn.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

T8 B nh thi T8 cng c t trong BSC c. B nh thi c bt u khi bn tin HND_CMD gi ti MS (bc 9 trong hnh 3.10). L do cho s c mt ca timer l gi ti nguyn v tuyn trong BSS c mt thi gian khi MS phi dng n nu n khng truy cp ti BSS mi hay knh mi khng c n p ng. C 2 trng hp T8 ngng m: - BSC nhn bn tin CLR_CMD t MSC, bn tin thng bo cho BSC rng cng vic ca n trong cuc gi hon thnh v rng ti nguyn ca n s dng trong BSC c c gii phng dnh cho cuc gi khc. - BSC nhn mt bn tin HND_FAI t MS, thng bo cho BSC bit rng MS khng th truy ti BSS mi, v rng cn c quay tr li BSS c.

Hnh 3.5: Khong thi gian nh thi ca T8

Nu thi gian nh thi T8 ht m BSC vn cha nhn c bn tin CLR_CMD t MSC, BSC s gii phng ton b ti nguyn c cp cho cuc gi v gi mt bn tin CLR_REQ ti cho MSC. MSC p ng li mt bn tin CLR_CMD bn tin ny lnh cho BSS gii phng knh c c cp. V nu ht thi gian nh thi T8 l ton b ti nguyn v tuyn c cp cho cuc gi c BSS c gii phng dnh cho cuc gi khc. Do cuc gi s b mt, khng th quay v knh c na. T3103 Timer T3103 c t trong mng, nhng v tr chnh xc ca n l khng c nh r. T s bao hm bn tin ca n, suy ra rng n ch mt vi ni trong BSS c. B timer c khi ng bi vic BSS c gi mt bn tin HND_CMD ti cho MS. C 2 trng hp T3103 ngng m:

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

- Mng (v d BSS mi) nhn bn tin HND_COM (bc 18 trong s 3.10). Bn tin ny khng ni ln thi gian nh thi dng u. V th bn tin CLR_CMD mang ngha l chuyn giao hon thnh. - Khi bn tin HND_FAI c nhn bi mng, v d MS tht bi khi truy cp ti BSS mi v gi HND_FAI ti cho BSS c. Nu thi gian nh thi ca T3103 ht, mng gii phng ti nguyn trong BSS c v xo ton b nhng g c lin quan ti kt ni vi MS. V nh vy c ngha l cuc gi mt lin kt. T3105 Timer T3105 c t trong BTS mi, T3105 c khi ng khi BTS gi mt bn tin PHYS_INFO ti cho MS sau khi nhn bn tin HND_ACC (bc 11-12 trong s 3.10). B timer dng m trong 2 trng hp: BSS mi nhn bn tin SABM lp 2 t MS (bc 14 trong s 3.10). Mt bn tin HND_FAI c nhn bi mng.

Nu ht thi gian nh thi, bn tin PHYS_INFO c gi li. Vic gi li ca bn tin ny c th xy ra khi thi gian t ti gi tr ln nht Ny1, Ny1 l mt hng s nh ngha bi mng GSM, thi gian ny cng c th hiu l thi gian nh thi ban u ca T3105. Trong trng hp ny, BTS gi mt bn tin CONN_FAIL (CONNection FAILure) ti cho BSC. T3124 Timer T3124 c t trong MS. T3124 c khi ng khi MS gi bn tin HND_ACC th nht ti cho BSS mi. N dng li khi MS nhn bn tin PHYS_INFO t BSS mi. Nu T3124 time out, MS c gng tr v knh c (BSS c), n gi mt bn tin HND_FAI v li bt u hot ng bnh thng nh khi khng c chuyn giao xy ra nu nh knh v tuyn c vn p ng c cho cuc gi. Tri li cuc gi s b mt. T101 B nh thi T101 c t trong MSC, b nh thi s hot ng t khi MSC yu cu ti BSS mi chuyn giao cho ti khi ti nguyn v tuyn c cp. B nh thi c bt u khi MSC gi bn tin HND_REQ ti BSS mi (bc 4 trong s 3.10). B timer dng trong 2 trng hp:

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

- Bn tin HND_REQ_ACK c nhn t BSS mi (bc 7 trong s 3.10) - MSC nhn bn tin HND_FAIL (HaNDover FAILed trn giao din A) t BSS mi khi BSS mi khng th cp ti nguyn hoc nu thut ton m ho hin thi khng c cung cp bi BSS. Nu T101 ht thi gian nh thi hoc nhn c bn tin HND_FAIL, ti nguyn trong BSS mi s c ly li bi vic gi bn tin CLR_CMD, cuc gi c coi nh l tip tc trong BSS c. MSC s gi bn tin HND_RQD_REJ ti BSS c thng tin rng BSS mi khng th cp ti nguyn cho chuyn giao. V n khng c gi li v timer T7 s c t khi bn tin ny c BSS c nhn s dng li v v vy bn tin ny ch c yu cu mt ln. V bn tin ny cng thng tin v s tht bi ca cuc chuyn giao. T102 Timer T102 cng c t trong MSC n i cuc chuyn giao thc t hon thnh hoc tht bi. Timer c bt u m khi bn tin HND_CMD gi t BSS c (bc 8 trong s 3.10). T102 dng trong 3 trng hp: - MSC nhn bn tin HND_CMP t BSS mi ch rng chuyn giao hon ton thnh cng (bc 20 trong 3.10) - MSC nhn bn tin HND_FAIL t BSS c c ngha rng MS khng th ti c BSS mi. MSC nhn bn tin CLR_REQ t BSS c bi v cuc gi b rt.

Nu b nh thi T102 ht, ti nguyn c cp cho cuc gi trong c BSS c v mi c gii phng v cuc gi b rt. Nu bn tin CLR_REQ nhn c t BSS mi, ng ngha vi hu qu l cuc gi s b rt. Trong trung hp ca bn tin HND_FAIL cuc gi c ly li trong BSS c nu c th. 3.3 CHI TIT CHUYN GIAO Trong phn trn m t th tc chuyn giao trong mng GSM. Trong phn ny s tp trung vo chuyn giao trong cng MSC, s i vo chi tit cc th tc chuyn giao, bao gm cc bn tin c trao i gia cc thc th c lin quan n vic chuyn giao trong mng. Th nht chng ta quan st mt cuc chuyn giao thnh cng, sau chng ta li m t cc trng hp lin quan ti vic x l tht bi ca chuyn giao trong mng.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Nhn thy rng cc bn tin trao i trong qua trnh chuyn giao l thuc lp 3 tr 2 bn tin SABM v UA l ca lp 2. ng thi trong th tc x l loi b li nh vic mt bn tin nh cng nh vic x l trnh treo mng qu lu dn ti rt cuc gi th mng s s dng cc b nh thi. (v d: bn tin c truyn li cho ti khi mt p ng c nhn hoc vt qu thi gian (time out) ). Nhng vn ny s c lm r trong phn ny. 3.3.1 Trng hp thnh cng Chuyn giao trong cng MSC xy ra khi hai cell chuyn giao c iu khin bi cng mt MSC, nhng vi mt BSS khc vi BSS ang phc v mt cuc gi hin thi. Nh m t trc, ton b chuyn giao c khi to b BSC phc v; khi nhn bn tin MEAS_RES (MEASurement RESult) thng bo v kt qu o ca MS v BTS , khi m BSC nhn thy cht lng lin kt ca Cell ang phc v b hn Cell bn cnh (vt qua ngng ranh gii gia hai Cell l khong 6M) th n quyt nh chuyn giao s c yu cu, BSC gi mt bn tin HND_RQD (HaNDover ReQuireD) ti cho MSC. Chuyn giao trong cng MSC c th c chia thnh 4 giai on: Quyt nh chuyn giao, cp knh, thc hin chuyn giao v ly li ti nguyn. S 3.10 minh ho c 4 giai on ca chuyn giao thnh cng trong MSC. Mi bc trong s c nh s trt t thy c v tr ca chng trong qu trnh chuyn giao. Quyt nh chuyn giao Quyt nh chuyn giao hay khng thc hin chuyn giao l c to bi BSC phc v t bn tin MEAS_RES nhn c t BTS. Khi quyt nh chuyn giao,BSC gi yu cu c khi to chuyn giao bi vic gi bn tin HND_RQD ti cho MSC. Bn tin MEAS_RES c gi nh k trong sut thi gian gi v vic cp nht kt qu o ca MS v BTS l phi thng xuyn. Cc bn tin trong s 3.6 l giai on khi to quyt nh chuyn giao.

Hnh 3.6: Cc bn tin gi BSC quyt nh chuyn giao trong cng MSC

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Cp knh Giai on cp knh ca chuyn giao c quan tm l vic cp ti nguyn v tuyn (cp knh) trong BSS mi. Sau khi qu trnh khi to hon thnh MSC nhn v x l yu cu v MSC gi mt yu cu ti cho BSS mi yu cu n cp mt knh cho cuc gi vi bn tin HND_REQ, v n s c p ng tha nhn vi bn tin HND_REQ_ACK khi knh hot ng. Trn thc t vic phn knh c thc hin bi bn tin CHAN_ACT ca BSC gi cho BTS v bn tin p ng ca BTS l yu cu c chp nhn v knh c kch hot CHAN_ACT_ACK. Cc bn tin trong s 3.7 m t th tc cp knh.

Hnh 3.7 Giai on cp knh trong GSM

Thc hin chuyn giao Khi ti nguyn cho cuc gi c phn trong BSS mi, MS c ch dn truy cp ti knh v tuyn mi. Sau khi MSC nhn c bn tin HND_REQ_ACK mt p ng ca BSS ng v thng bo cho MSC rng knh mi c kch hot bn tin s mang thng tin v knh mi (knh mi trn khe thi gian no v tn s no)c kch hot trong BTS. MSC x l v thng bo ti cho BSS c bng bn tin HND_CMD, bao gm thng tin v knh v tuyn mi. Bn tin ny c gi chuyn ti cho MS. Sau tip nhn bn tin HND_CMD, MS c gng truy cp knh mi vi bn tin HND_ACC trong khi n vn ang lng nghe thng tin vt l t bn tin PHYS_INFO t BSS mi, bao gm thng tin ng b cho MS. Bn tin HND_ACC l bn tin c bit, v c gi l cm truy cp, bn tin ny khng tn ti knh bo hiu, n trong sut ti thng BTS mi. Knh bo hiu s c ci t khi bn tin PHYS_INFO c nhn bi MS. thit lp mt kt ni lp 2 (LAPDm) th MS gi bn tin SABM, l bn tin lp 2. BTS mi xc nhn mt kt ni lp 2 c thit lp bng bn tin UA n cng l bn tin lp 2. y cng l 2 bn tin lp 2 duy nht tham gia vo vic chuyn giao. Vic thit lp kt ni lp 2 c BTS thng bo cho BSC vi bn tin EST_IND (ESTablish INDication). Khi MS nhn bn tin UA, n thng tin cho mng rng chuyn giao hon thnh. N thc hin bi bn tin HDN_COM gi ti BTS mi, n cng l bn tin trong

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

sut ti thng BTS mi. Sau khi nhn bn tin ny BTS mi chuyn n ti thng bo cho BSC kt thc chuyn giao vi bn tin HND_CMP v c chuyn tip ti cho MSC. Ti thi im ny, cuc gi c chuyn mch qua BSS mi. Giai on thc hin chuyn giao c m t trong s 3.8.

Hnh 3.8: Giai on thc hin chuyn giao trong cng MSC

Ly li ti nguyn Khi cuc gi c chuyn ti BSS mi, trn thc t chuyn giao hon thnh, nhng ti nguyn v tuyn vn b chim trong BSS c, v th cn phi gii phng n dnh cho cuc gi khc. Nhn c bn tin thng bo chuyn giao hon thnh t BSC mi ngay lp tc MSC gi bn tin CLR_CMD (CleaR CoMmanD) ti cho BSC c lnh cho n ra lnh cho BTS c gii phng ti nguyn v tuyn c cp trc cho cuc gi vi bn tin RF_CHAN_REL (Radio Frequency CHANel RELease). BSC c chp nhn MSC vi bn tin CLR_CMD. BTS p ng ti BSC rng knh c c gii phng bng bn tin RF_CHAN_REL_ACK. n y BSC hon thnh vic iu khin trn BTS v n bit ti nguyn c gii phng v nu c cuc gi khc yu cu ti n th c th s dng knh ny cp cho cuc gi . Nu tht bi xy ra trong BSS, tc l vic gii phng knh khng thnh cng th ti nguyn r rng s khng dng c cho cuc gi khc. Qu trnh ly li ti nguyn c minh ho trn s 3.9.

Hnh 3.9: Th tc gii phng knh trong chuyn giao GSM

Hon thnh chuyn giao trong MSC

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Ton b qu trnh ca mt cuc chuyn giao thnh cng trong cng MSC c m t trong s 3.10 l tng hp ton b 4 qu trnh trnh by trn. Cc mu xm trong hnh 3.10 l giai on m cuc gi ang thc hin v c th chuyn mch sang cuc gi khc. Trn thc t cuc gi c chuyn qua knh mi khi m MSC nhn bn tin HND_DET. Chuyn cuc gi sm l nt c bit ca mng GSM, nhng hu ht cc mng hin i s dng cch thc ny. N thu ngn li thi gian x l cuc gi chuyn mch nhanh hn (thi gian t lu lng dng li trn BSS c ti khi n li tip tc trn BSS mi trong lc chuyn giao. Cc nh qun tr mng rt quan tm ti vn ny v h c gng rt ngn thi gian x l bi v li ch ca c khc hng ln ca nh cung cp dch v. Phn tip theo chng ta s phn tch mt trng hp ca chuyn giao trong cng MSC thy r hn th tc chuyn giao.

Hnh 3.10: Th tc chuyn giao thnh cng trong cng MSC

3.3.2 Trng hp tht bi Mng GSM l mt h thng c phn phi v phn cp theo tnh logic v nhim v ca tng thit b trong mng. V th m li c th xy ra cc giao din khc nhau hay ni khc l cc trng hp li c phn b khc nhau trong mng, v

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

d nhu mt thit b b thm nhp hoc mt lin kt giao tip b tht bi. Trong phn ny chng ta xem xt mt s tht b c th c trong mt cuc chuyn giao trong cng MSC.

Mt cuc gi Trong khi hay trc mi ln chuyn giao, cuc gi c th b mt bi v cht lng lin kt v tuyn gim n mt mc no , khi m n khng th duy tr lin kt na. Nhng trng hp mng hu nh khng lm g c nhiu, nhng quan trng l vic ton b ti nguyn c cp c gii phng hay cha. Cuc gi c th mt sau khi ti nguyn c cp trong BSS v trc khi cuc gi c chuyn mch. Trong trng hp ny, ti nguyn s b ly li trong c BSS mi v c. MS tht bi truy cp vo BSS mi Khi bn tin HND_CMD c gi ti MS, n c gng truy cp vo BSS mi. MS khng c ng b thi vi BSS mi v do khng BSS nhn bit c MS khi n ang lng nghe bn tin HND_ACC ca MS. Giai on ng b ny c th tht bi, trong trng hp ny MS s quay tr li knh c (BSS c) v thng bo cho bit vic chuyn giao tht bi. Cc thit b khng tng thch Mt cuc chuyn giao thnh cng BSS cng ch cung cp nh nhng gi m BSS c khi to cho cuc gi. Nhng nu nh BSS mi khng cung cp iu kin thc hin cuc gi (v d nh thut ton mt m c dng khng c cung cp chng hn) n s khng th tip tc cuc gi. Trong trng hp ny, BSS mi s thng bo tht bi ti cho MSC. 3.3.3 Quay tr li BSS c Khi m MS khng th truy cp c vo knh mi, n s c gng tr li knh c, iu ny l hon ton c th xy ra do cc nhiu l do khc nhau, v d nh s quay li BTS c bi BTS mi thiu ng dn v tuyn. Qu trnh MS quay tr li BSS c c th chia thnh cc giai on sau: khi to, cp knh, bt u thc hin chuyn giao, rt lui, ly li ti nguyn. Hnh 3.11 s m t qu trnh v l do MS quay li BSS c. Khi to: qu trnh khi to chuyn giao l vic BSC c gi bn tin HND_RQD ti cho MSC yu cu mt cuc chuyn giao.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Cp knh: Cp knh bao gm 4 bn tin: HND_REQ, CHAN_ACT, CHAN_ACT_ACK, v HND_REQ_ACK. Giai on ny MSC s yu cu BSS mi cp ti nguyn cho cuc gi, v BSS tr li MSC bng bn tin HND_REQ_ACK, v n cng bao gm c bn tin HND_CMD cho MS lnh chuyn giao.

Hnh 3.11: Qu trnh MS quay tr li BSS c

Bt u thc hin chuyn giao: Chuyn giao s dng li khi m MS nhn thy khng th truy cp vo knh m biu hin bng vic thi gian nh thi ca b nh thi T3124 ht. Trng hp ny bao gm cc bn tin: HND_CMD, DATA_REQ, HND_CMD2, v HND_ACC. Rt lui: Khi MS tht bi khi truy cp vo knh mi MS s gi bn tin HND_FAI trn knh c thng bo cho tng i bit rng n chuyn giao tht bi v rng yu cu tr li knh c nu khng c vn g xy ra th cuc gi s tip tc trn knh c. Gii phng ti nguyn: Khi nhn c bn tin HND_FAIL t BSS c MSC yu cu BSS mi gii phng ti nguyn c cp. v cuc gi li tip tc trong knh c.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Nhn thy trong cc bn tin trn chng ta khng nhc ti hai bn tin HND_DET trn giao din A v Abis. Nhng bn tin ny c gi bi v BSS mi khng nm c thng tin v chuyn giao tht bi. V th m MSC s thng bo cho BSS mi bit cho ti khi m nhn c bn tin HND_FAI t BSS c. 3.3.4 Gii phng cuc gi Trong qu trnh chuyn giao ng v tuyn c th b mt do sng qu yu dn n cuc gi l khng th tip tc v lc cc ti nguyn c cp trong c BSS c v BSS mi cn c gii phng. Qu trnh ny bao gm cc bc nh trong hnh 3.12:

Hnh 3.12: Gii phng cuc gi

Khi to: Qu trnh khi to chuyn giao tng t nh cc phn nu, BSC c gi bn tin HND_RQD. Bt u qu trnh thc hin chuyn giao: Qu trnh ny bao gm cc bn tin: HND_REQ, CHAN_ACT, v CHAN_ACT_ACK. Ti nguyn s c cp trong BSS mi cho MS tin hnh chuyn giao. Mt ng lin kt v tuyn: Vic mt ng v tuyn m hnh ho vic BSS c mt kt ni vi MS v iu ny khi to yu cu gii phng ti nguyn c thc hin bng vic gi bn tin CLR_REQ. Gii phng ti nguyn trong BSS c: Giai on ny thc hin p ng bn tin CLR_REQ, bao gm cc bc sau: CLR_CMD, CLR_CMP, RF_CHAN_REL, v RF_CHAN_REL_ACK. Ch l BSC c xc nhn bn tin CLR_CMD trong cng bc nh vic gi bn tin RF_CHAN_REL.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Gii phng ti nguyn trong BSS mi: Khi m ti nguyn trong BSS c c gii phng, cng l lc bt u gii phng ti nguyn trong BSS mi, bao gm cc bc nh sau: CLR_CMD, CLR_CMP, RF_CHAN_REL, v RF_CHAN_REL_ACK. Nh vy cuc gi hon ton c gii phng Gii phng cuc gi l hon ton thch ng vi vic mt ng lin kt v tuyn bi v lc ny khng th thng tin c cho MS c th chuyn giao n ng v tuyn mi. Khng c mt BTS no kt ni c vi MS do vic gii phng cuc gi l cn thit. 3.4 NG DNG SDL PHN TCH CHUYN GIAO 3.4.1 Gii thiu v SDL Trong vin thng ngi ta thng s dng cc SDL (Specificationand Description Language) m t h thng ca h. C th hiu SDL l mt ngn ng m hnh ho h thng mt qu trnh no , n cng c th hiu l cch chng ta din t mt thut ton r rng. Tuy nhin SDL s dng phn tch trong h thng GSM vn cha hon chnh v khng r rng. Cha hon chnh bi ch thc th c ch r trong SDL l MSC. Khng r rng bi thc th giao tip vi MSC cn cha phn bit BSS (nh BSS c hoc mi v BSS-A hay BSS-B). S dng m hnh SDL mc ch l phn tch nh dng ca m hnh thit k v chuyn giao bn trong cng mt MSC v hng ti s dng CPN. tho lun v cc SDL, chng ta cn bit qua v c php v ng ngha ca n, y ch cp n cc phn m c s dng phn tch giao thc chuyn giao. Mt SDL c miu t theo mt h thng ng th, c cc trng thi, cc chc nng, cc s la chn, mi lin h bn trong cc trang, v trao i bn tin. Gia cc k hiu th l cc ng, chng lun c nh mi tn. Hnh l cc k hiu SDL c bn.

Hnh 3.13: Cc k hiu SDL c s dng , (a) trng thi, (b) b la chn, (c) chc nng, (d) lin h bn trong cc trang, (e) nhn bn tin, (f) gi bn tin.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Mi SDL c mt trng thi khi to, in hnh c t trn cng ca biu . Cc chc nng c s dng miu t cc qu trnh bn trong pha ngoi s giao tip.Cc khi la chn l khi cc trng hp (c hai hoc nhiu hn cc u ra). Cc mi lin h bn trong cc trang c s dng khi tip theo cc phn khc ca mt biu . Cc bn tin s c gi ti bn ngoi tin trnh, v d nh ngi s dng hoc cc thit b khc c by t bi vic gi bn tin vi k hiu nhn bn tin v vic nhn bn tin bi k hiu nhn bn tin. Phn ln cc bc trong SDLs tho lun trong cc phn trc ri, chng ta s khng ni li na. Phn ny mang mt s tng quan v phc ho mt vi ci nhn tru tng hn v qu trnh chuyn giao trong cng MSC. 3.4.2 Phn tch cc trng hp chuyn giao iu kin bt u ca th tc chuyn giao l cuc gi ang xy ra c chuyn giao bi BSS c, ci m s chuyn giao ti BSS mi, trng thi khi to ca s 3.14a tha nhn cuc gi ang xy ra trong BSS c.

Hnh 3.14 a: Ngn ng SDL m t hot ng ca MSC trong khi chuyn giao trong cng MSC ca mng GSM

Cuc gi ang din ra BSS c th MSC qun l nhn c bn tin HND_RQD yu cu mt cuc chuyn giao t BSC c. MSC nhn bit c cha nu bit ri th xem xem chuyn giao c php n Cell no, y c th l BSS no ? Khi xc nh c BSS mi ri th xem ti nguyn trn BSS nh th no. Nu c MSC gi bn tin HND_REQ ti cho BSS mi yu cu mt cuc chuyn giao sang Cell m n ang qun l. Lc ny timer T101 s c khi ng v i cho ti

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

khi m c p ng t BSS mi l knh c kch hot. Nh vy trong s 3.14a nhn thy hai thiu st. Th nht b st trng hp nu nh bn b gi gii phng cuc gi th sao ?. Call Release c ngha l cuc gi kt thc trc khi chuyn giao c khi to. Th 2 l b st hu qu ca s la chn nu nh xc nh chn th liu BSS mi c kh nng cp knh hay khng, nu khng c th th no. Trng hp mi mt bn ca nhm gi b treo hay b mt ng truyn v tuyn th th no ?. Trong c hai trng hp chuyn giao khng c khi to v khng bo hiu i vi chuyn giao xy ra. L do cho vic b st hu ht hu qu ca s la chn, c th hiu rng y l chuyn giao trong MSC v n iu khin cuc gi cng nh iu khin BSS mi, c php chuyn giao l ti cell mi. MSC bit c BSS v ti nguyn c th c cho chuyn giao v n qun l cc BSS ny.

Hnh 3.14b: Ngn ng SDL m t hot ng ca MSC trong lc chuyn giao trong cng MSC

SDL trn hnh 3.14b khi u ni m MSC i BSS mi cp ti nguyn cho chuyn giao. 3 kt qu c th xy ra trong trng hp ny: trng hp thnh cng (bn tri), quay v BSS c ( da), cui cng l mt cuc gi (bn phi). Trng hp thnh cng bao gm mt vi chc nng cha c cp ti trc : Queue Messages for MS v Set Up Handover Device. Queue Messages for MS l mt chc nng cho bn tin queueing trong khi khng lin kt bo hiu a ti MS. Chc nng ca Set Up Handover Device l mt chc nng bn trong MSC cho chuyn mch cuc gi ti BSS mi. Chng ta tha nhn rng MSC c th thc hin chuyn mch cuc gi. Khi thi gian nh thi T101 ht MSC s gi thng bo ti mng rng knh cuc gi b xo trong BSS mi v y mng s khng c gng thc hin li chuyn giao ln na

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

nu nh ln th nht b tht bi. Trng hp ny nu nh cuc gi khng b xo th cuc gi li tip tc trong BSS c. Mt trng hp khc nu nh MSC nhn bn tin CLR_REQ th n s gi bn tin Call Release ti mng v thng bo rng ti nguyn trong BSS c gii phng v knh cuc gi trong BSS mi cng b xo iu ny ng ngha vi vic cuc gi s mt v MSC trng thi nhn ri.

Hnh 3.14c Ngn ng SDL m t hot ng ca MSC trong lc chuyn giao trong cng MSC

S 3.14c SDL ny l tip theo cho trng hp cp knh thnh cng trong BSS mi SDL trc. V khi u trng thi i MS truy cp ti BSS mi. trng thi ny cng c 3 trng hp c th xy ra. 2 trng hp u (bn tri v gia) l trng hp truy cp thnh cng khi MSC nhn c bn tin HND_DET t BSS mi l knh mi yu cu c kch hot. Trong 2 trng hp ny mt l chuyn mch sm (bn tri) v tip theo bn tin HND_CMP hon thnh chuyn giao, chuyn giao mun ( gia). Chc nng Forward queued messages for MS via New BSS l ni m cc bn tin ni ui nhau ln lt ti MS thng qua BSS mi trong khi m lin kt bo hiu khng th. tip sau (bn phi) th hin trng hp MS khng th truy cp BSS mi v do quay tr li BSS c v thng bo ti mng rng chuyn giao l tht bi. Di y l tm tt s giao tip thng qua BSS c v s ly li ton b ti nguyn c cp cho chuyn giao, c BSS mi v cc thit b bn trong lin quan n chuyn giao. SDL sau (hnh 3.14d) th hin nhng kt qu cn li ca trng thi Wait for access by MS on New BSS. Kt qu th nht (bn tri) th hin rng BSS mi khng th tip tc s chuyn giao v do gi bn tin CLR_REQ. Trong trng hp ny MS c th hon ton quay tr li BSS c. Hai kt qu cn li l BSS c mt kt ni bi v cc b nh thi T3103 ht thi gian nh thi ( gia) v T102 (phi) c biu

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

hin sm hn. S la chn Wait for MS on New BSS ch c th la chn khng chng mc. S la chn ny l khi u cho tnh nhp nhng m h trong s gii thiu. B timer T3103 ht s gii phng cuc gi nhng SDL cho php BSS mi i MS truy cp ti n. Mt trng hp bn tri, gii phng cuc gi t mng, s duy tr cuc gi l kt thc bi v nhm gi gc my. Thng tin ny s lin tc ti MS bi v ti thi im ny lin kt bo hiu s b mt. Chuyn giao ch hon thnh hoc hon ton quay tr li thng tin rng MS kt thc cuc gi. Kt qu ca s vic ny khng bao gm trong chuyn giao v do c t ngoi bn tri.

Hnh 3.14d: Ngn ng SDL m t hot ng ca MSC trong l chuyn giao trong cng MSC

Thng qua cc phn trn ny chng ta bit v th tc v cc bn tin trao i trong mt cuc chuyn giao trong cng MSC mt cch chi tit. Tip theo s da trn nn SDL thit k mt m hnh chuyn giao st vi h thng thc 3.5 THIT K M HNH 3.5.1 Thit k m hnh tng qut

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Nh ni trc mc ch ca chng ta l hiu v gii thch c chuyn giao trong cng MSC c thc hin nh th no trong h thng GSM. t c iu ny chng ta cn la chn phn tch v bao qut c ton b th chng ta chn m hnh chuyn giao vi mt MSC vi 2 BSS c kt ni. Mi BSS bao gm mt BSC v mt BTS v mt MS di chuyn gia hai vng trong lc ang thc hin cuc gi (hnh 3.15). Trong m hnh ny th vai tr ca MSC l quan trng, n l ni quyt nh c thc hin chuyn giao hay khng v yu cu c to ra t BSC c. y chng ta khng cn quan tm ti thut ton quyt nh thc hin chuyn giao bi n nm ngoi mc tiu ca kho lun. Cc BSS trong m hnh m nhim mt chc nng: BSS c ch m nhn chc nng chuyn giao cuc gi v BSS mi m nhn vic nhn cuc gi chuyn giao qua. Thc ra l s phn bit nh vy l d hiu v cng ch dng cho mt cuc chuyn giao, cn trn thc t th 2 h thng BSS l ngang hng v nhim v ca chng khng c phn bit nh vy.

Hnh 3.15: Cc thc th trong m hnh

3.5.2 Cc bn tin Trong mng GSM, gi d liu thc t bao gm rt nhiu thng tin cn thit cho mng. Hu ht cc thng tin ny khng lin quan ti qu trnh chuyn giao v do n s khng c ni ti y. Trong phn ny chng ta s tho lun v m hnh ca cc bn tin. Xung quanh vn tho lun l thit k mt bn tin chung v sau s i vo tng giao din. Bt u l giao din A, tip theo l giao din Abis v cui cng l giao din Air. Vic thit k bn tin u tin l phi ph hp gn vi h thng thc v th n phi y cc trng v chc nng ca cc bit trong . Giao din A Bn tin trn giao din A l mt trong hai bn tin DTAP hoc BSSMAP nm ln gia bn tin SCCP, iu ny c miu t trong chng 2. S tht th SCCP nm

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

ln c lp 3 v 4. Khi bn tin DTAP v BSSMAP xy dng trn SCCP n l bn tin lp 3. Cc b tr cc bn tin BSSMAP v DTAP c m t trn hnh 3.16.

Hnh 3.16: Bn tin BSSMAP v DTAP trn giao din A

Phn u c t c nh phn bit loi bn tin BSSMAP hay DTAP. DTAP c truyn trong sut qua BSS v do khng bao gm nhiu kiu bn tin c th thy lin kt ny, bn tin cho MS l mt phn d liu. Trong trng hp BSSMAP bit th 8 ca phn d liu bao gm trng kiu bn tin. Khai bo color cho bn tin giao din A nh sau:

Bn tin th nht c tho lun y l HND_DET2, n l bn tin HND_DET trn giao din A, thm hu t 2 bi v n l giao din th 2 m n ti. Hai bn tin bao gm mt AirMsg nh l d liu ti trng (HND_REQ_ACK v HND_CMD); c hai bn tin u cha ng bn tin HND_CMD gi cho MS. JHND_RQD v HND_REQ cng mang d liu ti trng n khng c ni ti y v khng c nhiu chi tit lin quan ti qu trnh chuyn giao. Giao din Abis Trn giao din Abis bn tin lp 3 c th hin trn hnh 3.17. Hu ht cc trng ca bn tin phn u khng lin quan ti chuyn giao v do n s khng c tho lun y. 8 bit trng phn bit bn tin, n lin quan ti vic nh tuyn bn tin bn trong BSS cho nhng phn m nhim cho mi dch v. 8 bit trng kiu

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

bn tin y l trng quan trng nht, n ch r bn tin no ang gi, v d HND_DET trng ny c gi tr l 27hex.

Hnh 3.17: bn tin lp 3 trn giao din Abis

Khai bo color cho bn tin giao din Abis nh sau:

Hai bn tin: DATA_REQ v DATA_IND l hon ton mi l, mc ch ca chng l nhn mnh d liu truyn trong sut qua BSS gia MSC v MS, v d bn tin HND_CMD cho MS c to ra bi BSS. DATA_REQ c s dng khi BSC mun gi d liu ti cho MS; DATA_IND l gi t BTS ti BSC cho bit rng bn tin c nhn bi MS. Phn d liu ti trng ca hai bn tin cng th hin rng chng vn chuyn bn tin giao din Air. Cc phn cn li khng mang d liu ti trng nn khng c ni ti y. Giao din Air

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Bn tin lp 3 ca giao din Air c m t trong hnh 3.16, n bao gm 3 phn: trng kiu ID, trng kiu bn tin v trng d liu. Trng kiu ID v trng kiu bn tin l phn u ca bn tin. Chng ta quan st 6 bit trng kiu bn tin m dng phn bit bn tin giao din Air t cc thc th khc nhau ca mng. V d bn tin HND_CMD gi t BTS ti MS th trng ny c gi tr 2Bhex trong trng kiu. Trong phn d liu thc ca bn tin Air d liu c th hin tng chui bit phc tp. Tip theo l trng d liu ti trng kiu d liu union l kiu cn thit cho d liu trng ny.

Hnh 3.18: Bn tin lp 3 trong giao din Air

Khai bo color cho bn tin Air nh sau:

Mt s quyt nh quan trng i vi 2 bn tin lp 2 trong khai bo color (SABM v UA), y l hai bn lp 2 duy nht lin quan ti qu trnh chuyn giao. Phn d liu ti trng ca bn tin ny c miu t trn, chng ta ch ti HND_CMD2 l bn tin HND_CMD m qua giao din th 2 m bao gm tn ti ca BTS ti chuyn giao. 3.6 M T V M HNH CPN Phn ny chng ta s m t v m hnh CPN theo chc nng chuyn giao trong GSM. Bt u vi vic m t v kha cnh ca m hnh, bao gm: s phn loi cc place v chuyn tip, trng thi khi to, quy c t tn, thm vo l m hnh ca cc b nh thi GSM v cc phn t thm. Sau kha cnh chung s i phn tch cc

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

trang ring. Tip theo ta s i tho lun v cu trc ca mng, bt u vi MSC tip theo l ti BSC, BTS v cui cng l MS. 3.6.1 Kha cnh ca m hnh Trong phn ny s m t v cc s la chn v quy c m hnh ho trong ton b m hnh CPN. S phn loi cc places: Trong m hnh ny c cc vai tr khc nhau ca cc place v c phn loi theo cc phn sau: trng thi thc th, trao i bn tin, v cc place ci t. Cc quy c v mt s cch b tr, th hin trn hnh 3.19. Cc place trng thi thc th m hnh ho trng thi ca mt n thc th v bao gm trong ton b mt th bi. Gn nh ton b cc places trng thi thc th u c Color set E iu c ngha l khng c d liu cn miu t trng thi ca thit b, ch duy nht v tr ca trng thi th bi. Place trao i bn tin c s dng trao i bn tin gia cc thc th c lin quan. V d nh MSC v BSC. Cc place ny c hu ht color set. Chng m hnh ho cc bn tin khc nhau c trao i trn cc giao din c trng. y m hnh ho v tr cc bn tin trao i vi nhiu kiu thay v vic m t lin tip cc bn tin. Li ch ca phng php ny l bn tin c th chuyn qua li gia cc thc th khc nhau c th u tin cc bn tin n theo cch chng mun.

Hnh 3.19: Cch b tr cc places; a- trng thi thc th vi ng vin gch t; b-Trao i bn tin vi ng vin kn; c-Ci t hin hnh c t mu xm

Loi place cui cng l place ci t. Hu ht cc places ci t c cn to ra cc bn tin trao i lin tc bi v mt vi thc th tham gia m hnh ho y , v d s dng cng mt trang con do chng ta cn cung cp nhn dng cc thc th, c th phn bit chng da trn trang con. Trong s cc v tr ny s c t mu xm t khi m chng khng nh hng bn cht logic c m hnh ho. Nhng loi ny s c s dng miu t cc trang cho ta hiu hn v ngha ca cc place.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Phn loi chuyn tip (qu ): Trong m hnh ny c hai loi chuyn tip c phn bit bi s hot ng l: trao i bn tin v timeout (ht thi gian nh thi).

Hnh 3.20: Cch trnh by ca s chuyn tip; a-trao i bn tin vi ng vin lin, v b-timeout vi ng vin nt t.

S chuyn tip trao i bn tin c m hnh ho gp phn vo trong vic trao i bn tin. Chng yu cu bn tin c trng t cc thc th khc c php. S xy ra ca chng lm thay i trng thi ca thc th. Thnh thong chng cng gi bn tin ti thit b khc. Timer out l c th xy ra nu nh vt qu thi gian ch i ca mt thc th m khng c p ng khi b nh thi vn hot ng n mt gi tr ti a c t trc trnh gy nghn mng do ch i trong mt k chuyn giao. S chuyn tip thay th: S chuyn tip thay th l mt nt c trng ca thit k/CPN m c thc hin phn tch trn cc phn ca m hnh ti cc trang ring bit. Chng ta s dng c cu phn chia cc kt qu c th ca chuyn giao c th hiu y c cc phn, t mt vi th m c dng li trong cc trang ring bit.

Hnh 3.21: S chuyn tip thay th c t mu en hnh ch nht

Quy c t tn: y s s dng mt vi quy c t tn trong m hnh. S chuyn tip lin quan ti vic gi v nhn cc bn tin c t tn bi cc ch vit tt ca cc bn tin s dng trong chng trc v hot ng c thc hin, v d recCLR_CMD c ngha l nhn bn tin CLR_CMD. Cc place c cp trc y, c chia thnh 3 loi, vic quy c t tn chng theo loi ca chng. Place trng thi thc th l cch gi c trng ca mt vi quy c nh l WaitForHND_CMD, khi m chng ta mong ch mt bn tin HND_CMD. Place trao i bn tin c t tn bi giao din, phng din ca chng v tin t old hoc new mi khi m trnh by cha r. V d nh l AbisRX ngha l giao din Abis v place l cho qu trnh nhn, cn nu l TX c ngha l qu trnh

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

truyn. Place ci t d nhn dng thng tin v do c thm tin t l ID. Cch b tr cc trang: Hu ht cc trang trong m hnh ny xy dng trn cch b tr tng ng nhau, cho mt cu trc hp l. Pha trn cng v pha di cng ca cc trang thng bao gm cc place trao i bn tin. Ch yu cc giao din giao tip c m hnh ho bi c ng ln v ng xung, ngoi tr giao din Air, n ch bao gm mt v tr giao tip. Gia cc trang l cc giao thc i km. Cc th bi trng thi truyn b thng qua m hnh t tri sang phi vi ch mt t ngoi tr, nhng iu ny s c che ch khi chng ti gn. Phn chnh cho thy trng hp chuyn giao thnh cng v khi c cc hot ng lun phin t mt trng thi. Cch m s chuyn tip thay th c t v c o th hin v tr ca chng trong lung giao thc. Hy hnh dung rng mt ng thi gian theo phng ngang i t bn tri sang bn phi ca cc trang. S chuyn tip thay th c t trn ng thi gian ny t nhng ci ca chng m c lin quan ti trng thi bt u, trong khong thi gian v kt thc c th c c. Color sets: Place trng thi thc th c m hnh ho bi color E, m c s dng m hnh ho mt th bi khng c nhiu thng tin ngoi thm vo. Color set ca place trao i bn tin m hnh ho cc bn tin chng ta trao i trn cc giao din, nh ni ti phn trc. Color set ca place ci t l Entityld m c sp xp qua cc kiu c th ca cc thc th v c s dng phn bit cc thc th khc nhau cc trang con c chia s. Cc thnh phn ca color set pha trn cng c trnh din. Mt v d l color set MsgldxAbisMsg, m l mt s cu thnh t 2 color set: Msgld v AbisMsg. Phn Msgld c s dng trong khong cch gia cc bn tin trao i lin tc v AbisMsg sp xp trn cc bn tin c th trn cc giao din. Trng thi khi to: M hnh c khi to vi MS c mt cuc gi ang din ra. Trong thi gian gi, bo co kt qu o gi n cho BSC phc v (BSC c) cho bit rng mt cuc chuyn giao ti mt do mt BSS khc phc v (BSC mi) c yu cu. Ch cho php truyn trong trng thi khi to t sendHND_RQD. Sau khi xy ra mt bn tin HND_RQD gi ti cho MSC phc v. S khi to ny c thc hin trong m hnh. Trng thi khi to ca m hnh ging vi cuc gi u tin ang din ra trong BSS c t SDL trong hnh 3.14. 3.6.2 Cc trang CPN

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

By gi chng ta s i vo chi tit m hnh cc trang ring trong h thng GSM, l cc thc th c lin quan trong chuyn giao trong cng MSC nh: MSC, BSC c, BSC mi, BTS c, BTS mi v MS; y l ton b cc trang con c m hnh ho cc phn sau. Cc tin t c thm vo ch r vai tr ca hai thc th cng tn; v d nh BTS c l BTS khi to phc v cuc gi. Hnh 3.22 th hin trang GSM. Truyn thng gia cc thc th: Truyn thng gia cc thc th trong mng c m hnh ho theo hai cch khc nhau. Chng ta c mt gii php port-socket tch ri cc thc th trong trang nh cho ton b cc giao din truyn thng. Kt ni c t c nh vi cable ngoi tr giao din Air. Chng ta c hai v tr: mt cho ng ln v mt cho ng xung. Chng ta chn gii php ny to ra mt hng i cho cc bn tin mt cch r rng hn. Cc v tr lin quan trong kt ni ny l: A Downlink, A Uplink, Abis Downlink v Abis Uplink. Truyn thng qua giao din Air c m hnh bi mt v tr gi l Air. V d nh chng ta khng th tch ri ng truyn uplink v downlink. L do l truyn thng gia cc MS v cc BTS l khng giy do nh hng ca nhiu c th lm mt i bn tin l c th.

Hnh 3.22: Cc trang GSM

V tr cc giao din trong trang ny m t quy c ca chng ta v v tr cc giao din trong cc trang nh. Hnh 3.22 m t cc trang GSM. MSC

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Trang MSC m hnh ho chc nng chuyn giao c t ti MSC. Hu ht cc chc nng c m hnh c b sung trn 3 trang con ca trang ny. S chia ct cc chc nng to ra trn cc kt qu c th ca chuyn giao: HandoverPossible, FallBackToOldBSS v ReleaseCallNecessary. Trang bao gm cc giao din ti hai BSC di cng. Hu t Oll v New ch ra vai tr ca cc BSC c kt ni. Ba trang bn phi: HandoverSuccess, FallBack v CallRelease, ch ra kt qu ca chuyn giao t im nhn ca MSC. Hai v tr trong trang l WaitChanAlloc T101running v WaitMSAccess T102running, l cc trng thi c chn lc trc tip t miu t ca MSC, l cc trng thi ch yu. T cc SDL trong hnh 3.14 ch ra cc giai on ca chuyn giao nh: cp knh v i cho MS truy cp ti BSS mi. S chuyn tip thc t ch trn trang MSC l recHND_RQD, sendHNDREQ m khi to vai tr ca MS trong chuyn giao. N c php khi MSC nhn bn tin HND_RQD t BSS c. Khi iu ny xy ra n s gi bn tin HND_REQ ti cho BSS mi. Hai bn tin l s gp phn ca MSC ti bn tin 3 v 4 trong hnh 3.10.

Hnh 3.23: Trang MSC

Trong ba phn tip theo chng ta s m t chi tit hn v cc trang con: HandoverPosible, FallBackToOldBSS v ReleaseCallNecessary. HandoverPosible Trang HandoverPosible m hnh cc trng hp m chuyn giao ch c th t im nhn ca MSC. Ta theo s quy c t trang MSC vi cc giao din ti cc BSS di, ch ra rng chng ta ch c th nhn cc bn tin trn giao din mi, c miu t bng vic trng khng ni ti ARX c. 4 v tr khc T101started, T102started,

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HND_CMPrec, CLR_CMDsent(A) v CallProgress(B) v ton b place trng thi thc th, bt tin ti chuyn giao trong vic c gng chuyn giao thnh cng. Ch ra rng T102started l mt v tr cng vo hoc ra.

Hnh 3.24: Trang HandoverPosible

Ton b s chuyn tip trong trang ngoi tr recHND_DET, to ra trng thi cc s thay i bi vic di chuyn ca cc trng thi th bi ti cc place trng thi thc th khc. L do l recHND_DET khng bin i trng thi ca thc th, c m hnh ho bi cc th bi trng thi quay li trng thi u vo tip theo sau phn tho lun v chuyn mch sm v mun. M hnh ny thc hin c chuyn mch sm ln mun bi v MSC khng i hi nhn bn tin HND_DET trc khi nhn bn tin HND_CMP. FallBackToOldBSS Kt qu c th th hai ca chuyn giao l cuc gi c th quay tr li BSS c v tip tc nh cha c vn g xy ra, iu ny c m hnh ho trn trang FallBackToOldBSS. Chng ta c cc giao din truyn thng phn di cng ca trang. Trn phn nh chng ta c cc trng thi thc th nh sau: WaitChanAlloc T101running v WaitMSAccess T102running. Hai s chuyn tip T101Timeout sendCLR_CMD v recHND_FAIL sendCLR_CMD l hnh ng c th khi to s quay tr li hon ton. Trong c hai kt qu u gi bn tin CLR_CMD ti cho BSC mi. Vin cnh kt thc vi vic nhn bn tin CLR_CMP v cuc gi c tip tc trong BSS c.

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Hnh 3.25: Trang FallBackToOldBSS

ReleaseCallNecessary Kt qu cui cng c th ca chuyn giao l chng ta phi gii phng cuc gi v ht ti nguyn v tuyn cp cho cuc gi cn chuyn giao. Cc giao din truyn thng c t ti phn y ca trang. Phn trn nh chng ta dng m hnh v tr cc trng thi thc th. Hai s chuyn tip recCLR_REQ sendCLR_CMD v T102Timeout sendCLR_CMD c th hin cc s vic hng dn hon thnh gii phng cuc gi. C hai s kin s khi to s gii phng vi bn tin CLR_CMD ti cho BSS c. S chuyn tip thay th Release All Resource kt thc gii phng trong BSS mi v cuc gi c gii phng, khi mt th bi c t trn CallReleased. Trang c th hin trn hnh 3.26.

Hnh 3.26: Trang ReleaseCallNecssary

ReleaseAllResources Trang ny m hnh ho gii phng ti nguyn trong c hai BSS. N gii phng cc ti nguyn lin tip sau s bt u vi BSS c.

Hnh 3.27: Trang ReleaseAllResources

Old BSC

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Trang OldBSC phi hp vi cc vn bao hm ca BSC c trong chuyn giao. Tn ti hai trng thi: WaitForHND_CMD v WaitForCLR_CMD, gia nhng s chuyn tip thay th s dng cc trng thi m c chia s gia cc trang. Mc ch c trng ca chng trong vin cnh c gii thch trn cc trang.

Hnh 3.28: Trang BSC c

SuccessfulOldBSC Trang SuccessfulOldBSC m hnh ho bao gm BSC c trong cuc chuyn giao thnh cng. Theo hng thng v c m t bi cc ng vng cung dy c. Chuyn tip bn tin sendHND_RQD khi to chuyn giao v ch php chuyn tip trong trng thi khi to. Trang ny c biu din trn hnh 3.29.

Hnh 3.29: Trang SuccessfulOldBSC

ReleaseResourcesBSC Trang ReleaseResourcesBSC c phn phi gia BSS mi v c v c c gng cp li trong cc trang con ny. Tnh logic ca vic gii phng l n gin hn v c m hnh s bao hm ca BSC trong bn tin th 22, 23 v 24 trong hnh 3.10.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 3.30: Trang ReleaseResourcesBSC

AbnormalCasesOldBSC Trang con AbnormalCasesOldBSC m hnh ho ton b cc trng hp khc thng ca chuyn giao bn trong BSC c. Cc trng hp ny mt ng v tuyn ti MS, v nhn bn tin HND_FAI t MS v b nh thi T3103 ht thi gian nh thi. Vic mt iu kin ng truyn v tuyn c m hnh ho trn trang con Loss Of Radio Path v timeout c m hnh ho trn trang TimeoutT3103. Vic nhn ra chuyn giao tht bi c m hnh ho bi s chuyn tip recHND_FAI sendHND_FAIL.

Hnh 3.31: Trang AbnormalCasesOldBSC

TimeoutT3103

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Trang TimeoutT3103 l mt trang con ca trang AbnormalCasesOldBSC v m hnh ho timeout ca trang, b nh thi T3103 c m t trong phn trc. Timeout c th xy ra khi BSC c i bn tin CLR_CMD t MSC. Khi b nh thi T3103 ht thi gian nh thi ti nguyn cp s c gii phng. iu ny c m hnh ho trong trang ReleaseResourcesBSC (c trng bi s chuyn tip thay th Release Resources). Nh c miu t phn trc, BSC thc hin gii phng ti nguyn ca n khi m bn tin CLR_REQ c gi ti MSC nhng chng ta chn i cho bn tin CLR_CMD n t MSC trc vic gii phng ti nguyn. Vi l do ny m vic dng li trang ReleaseResourcesBSC khi chng ta i bn tin CLR_CMD, s gii phng ng nht vi c khi to bi MSC. Tuy nhin s la chn ca chng ta ph hp vi s gii thiu bi v chng ta ni n c php bt u s gii phng trc khi nhn bn tin CLR_CMD nhng khng cn thit.

Hnh 3.32: Trang TimeoutT3103

V tr trng thi tn ti TimedOut c s dng lu trng thi ca BSC khi s m phng hon thnh xem k cc kt qu. LossOfRadioPath

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM Hnh 3.33: Trang LossOfRadioPath

Trang LossOfRadioPath ging ht nh trang TimeoutT3103. Mt s khc bit nh l chng khng lu trng thi thit b trn mt v tr trng thi thc th ring bit. S chuyn tip RadioPathLost sendCLR_REQ c trnh by nh n l mt s chuyn tip timeout, nhng n cng l mt s chuyn tip chuyn i bn tin. Chng ta chn cch trnh by timeout lm r rng x l chuyn tip l trng thi khng xy ra. NewBSC

Hnh 3.34: Trang NewBSC

Trang NewBSC m hnh ho hot ng ca BSC mi trong khi chuyn giao bn trong MSC. Giao din vi MSC (giao din A) c t trn cng ca trang v giao din vi BSC (giao din Abis) c t di cng ca trang. S chuyn tip thay th rng pha di giao din A, trng hp thnh cng, m hnh ho chuyn giao thnh cng. Trong khi chuyn giao, mt s tht bi hay timeout trong c MSC v BSS c c th xy ra. Cng nh s tht bi c trnh by BSS mi bi MSC n gii phng ti nguyn ca n vi mt bn tin CLR_CMD. X l s tht bi c m hnh ho bi s chuyn tip thay th Release Ressources, c ni ti trang ReleaseResourcesBSC.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Nu MS tht bi ti vic ng b vi BSS mi (ht thi gian nh thi Ny1 ca b nh thi T3105), BTS mi gi mt bn tin CONN_FAIL ti cho BSC mi. BSC mi khi to s gii phng ti nguyn ca n v i s xc nhn t MSC. iu ny c m hnh ho phn di cng ca hai trang recCONN_FAIL sendCLR_REQ v CONN_FAILrec WaitForCLR_CMD. SuccessfulNewBSC

Hnh 3.35: Trang SuccessfulNewBS

Trang SuccessfulNewBSC m hnh ho hot ng ca BSC mi trong chuyn giao thnh cng. Thng thng th cc ng mi tn dy c trong phn chnh gia hng ti ch. Hnh 3.35 m t trang SuccessfulNewBSC c th l cc phn ca BSC ca cc bn tin th 4-7, 13-14, 16 v 19-20 trong hnh 3.10. Old BTS Trang OldBTS m hnh ho cc thnh phn lin quan ca BTS ca chuyn giao trong cng MSC. Phn trn cng ca trang l qun l knh c m hnh ho trong s chuyn tip thay th (Channel Management). Trong phn ny bn tin c trao i ring bit gia BSC v BTS. Bn tin c trao i vi MS khng c x l bi BTS v thng qua chuyn mch trong sut ti cho MS. iu ny c m hnh ho bi 2 s chuyn tip relay RLM v recHND_FAI relay it.

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

Hnh 3.36: Trang OldBTS

ChannelManagement Trang ChannelManagement l trang con ca trang OldBTS v NewBTS m hnh ho giao tip bn trong gia BTS v BSC. Trang ny c th c tch i gi cc tnh nng t BTS c phn bit r vi BTS mi nhng bi v tnh n gin ca trang chng ta quyt nh gi c hai phn ny cng nhau. Chuyn tip cao nht m hnh ho bn tin 5-6 trong hnh 3.10 v phn di cng m hnh ho hai bn tin th 22 v 24 cng trong hnh 3.10.

Hnh 3.37: Trang ChannelManagement

NewBTS Trang NewBTS m hnh ho hot ng chuyn giao ca BTS. phn gia c ch r bi cc ng mi tn l trng hp chuyn giao thnh cng, m hnh ho s trao i bn tin trong hnh 3.10 m BTS mi c lin quan (5-6, 11-13 v 15-19). Trn nh u ca trang, gia cc v tr trao i bn tin cho giao din Abis, l chuyn tip thay th ChannelManagement ni ti trang con cng tn. Ch tnh trng tht bi ca BTS mi c th lin quan vi timeout ca b timer T3105, hoc ng hn t ti

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thi gian ti a Ny1. iu ny c m hnh ho bi s chuyn tip Ny1xT3105 Timeout. V tr T3105 TimedOut cho s nghin cu trng thi ca BTS mi sau khi m phng trang NewBTS.

Hnh 4.38: Trang NewBTS

MS Trang cui cng l m hnh trang MS, s m hnh ho cc thnh phn ca MS lin quan trong chuyn giao. Phn chnh gia cc ng mi tn ch trng hp thnh cng. Ch mt trng hp tht bi l c th trong MS khi b nh thi T3124 ht thi gian nh thi. Kt qu ca timeout l MS c gng quay li hon ton ti BTS c. y chng ta khng m hnh ho thc t qu trnh tr li ny.

Hnh 3.39: Trang MS

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

KT LUN
Lun vn ny s dng m hnh CPN v ngn ng SDL phn tch cc giao thc chuyn giao trong mng GSM. SDL l mt ngn ng thng c s dng phn tch giao thc trong mng vin thng v da trn ngn ng chng ta s ci t m hnh CPN. Thng qua m hnh chng ta c cch nhn hon thin hn v cc th tc hot ng chuyn giao trong mng GSM. i t nn tng ban u n vic phn tch chi tit cc bn tin trao i trong qu trnh chuyn giao, gii hn c la chn vic nghin cu chi tit mt loi chuyn giao tng qut v c trng nht ca chuyn giao gip cho ngi c d hiu v hiu mt cch cn k v su sc hn cc qu trnh . M hnh l s gi gn cc vn thch ng t h thng thc, miu t i st vi thc t mt cuc chuyn giao trong h thng thc. M hnh thit k CPN mang li cho ta s am hiu linh ng v st vi thc t ca chuyn giao m nu nh chng ta ch quan st trn ngn ng SDL th khng th c c iu . S dng cch thc phn tch i chiu vi cc kin t l thuyt vi m hnh chng t rng chuyn giao bn trong MSC l mt giao thc tin b v hon chnh, cc thit b c lin quan trong qu trnh chuyn giao u c th bit c tnh trng hot ng ca mt cuc gi sau mt kt qu ca chuyn giao d n c thnh cng hay khng. M hnh cho ta thy giao thc chuyn giao khng nhng m bo cho cuc gi c gi khi di chuyn m cn m bo cho h thng hot ng hiu qu nht, khng lng ph ti nguyn v c bit l dn ti ti u ho cc qu trnh x l. c bit m hnh rt i st vi h thng thc t ca mng s dng cng ngh GSM v c th p dng m hnh vo thc t cc mng ny. T vic i su phn tch chuyn giao gip em hiu c cc th tc cch thc m cc bn tin trao i vi nhau trong mng GSM, i su tm hiu giao thc bo hiu gip em hiu bn cht ca nhng hot ng trong mng, hiu c thc hin mt cuc gi th mng cn lm g v MS cn lm nhng g ? v c bit hn v l mc ch ca kho lun l tm hiu c giao thc chuyn giao, mt giao thc c trng quan trng nht trong thng tin di ng. C th kt lun cu c chuyn giao mi c di ng. Khi mt MS mun di chuyn i xa m vn m bo c cuc gi n cn thit phi chuyn giao. T vic phn tch chuyn giao gip cho ta hiu v x l ti u c mng; v d nh vic ti u cc bn tin khi xy ra mt qu trnh chuyn giao, v cn phi rt ngn nht c th khong thi gian ny m vn m bo c cht lng cuc gi, hay l vic tnh ton lp t cc trm BTS. Kt hp vi vic o kim cht lng thu pht ca trm BTS a ra gii php ti u mng m mt ngi k s ti u mng cn phi lun lm iu . Tuy nhin qu trnh phn tch cng khng trnh khi nhng thiu st v d nh vn cha a ra cc d liu thc t mt qu trnh chuyn giao chng minh, bi qu trnh phn tch cn phi gn lin vi d liu thc t gip ta so snh xem m hnh thit k c m bo cho h thng thc hay khng. Nh vy mun i su, mun hiu c h thng thng tin di ng th nht thit phi i su tm hiu qu trnh chuyn giao bi y l mt c trng to nn tnh di ng. Qu trnh chuyn giao l mt qu trnh nhy cm v lc ny cht lng cuc gi l thp nn cn phi xem xt k vn ny, cn phi nghin cu su, xy dng m

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

hnh chuyn giao mt cch ti u nht, cn kim nghim m hnh vo h thng thc thy c tnh hiu qu ca m hnh v ngy cng hon thin n trn phng din mt ng dng ch khng ch l m hnh l thuyt.

CC THUT NG
GSM: ETSI: NSS: BSS: MS: MSC: PSTN: ISDN: HLR: VLR: AUC: EIR: BSC: BTS: SIM: LA: PLMN: OSI: SSN07: TRX: GMSC: CPN: SCCP: BSSAP: BSSMAP: DTAP: MTP: TRXM: CCM: Global System for Mobile communication European Telecommunications Standards Institute Network Switching Subsystem Base Station Subsystem Mobile Stations Mobile Switching Center PublicSwitchedTelephone Network Integrated Services Digital Network Home Location Register Visitor Location Registe AUthentication Center Equipment Identity Register Base Station Controller Base Tranceiver Station Subscriber Identity Module Location Area Public Land Mobile Network Open System Interconnection Signalling System Number 7 Transmitter/Receiver Gateway-MSC Coloured Petri Nets Signaling Connection Control Part Base Station Subsystem Application Part Base Station Subsystem Application Part Message Transfer Part TRX Management Common Channel Management Management H thng thng tn di ng ton cu Tiu chn ca Hc Vin Vin Thng Chu u H thng h tr chuyn mch mng H thng trm gc Trm di ng Trung tm chuyn mch di ng Mng in thoi chuyn mch cng cng Mng s tch hp cc dch v B ghi nh v thng tr B ghi nh v tm tr Trung tm nhn thc B ghi nhn dng thit b B iu khin trm gc Trm thu pht c s Module nhn dng thu bao Vng nh v Mng di ng cng cng mt t H thng lin kt m H thng bo hiu s 7 B truyn pht/b thu nhn MSC cng

Phn iu khin kt ni bo hiu


Phn ng dng h thng con trm c s Phn qun l ng dng h thng con trm c s Phn ng dng iu khin truyn Phn chuyn i bn tin Qun l TRX Qun l knh chung

Direct Transfer Application Part

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

RLM: DCM: LAPDm: RR: MM: CC: IMSI: TRAU: I WF: TCH: CCH: BCH: CCCH: DCCH: SMSCB: CBCH: FACCH: SACCH: AGCH: PCH: SCH: FCCH: BCCH: RACH: GMSK: FEC: UI: SABM: UA: MOC: IMEI: IMSI: RSM: SMS: CBSAP: CDMA TDMA FDMA

Radio Link Management Dedicated Channel Management LAPDmodified Radio Resource Mobility Management Call Connection Management International Mobile Subscriber Identity Transcoder/ Adapter Rate Unit InterWorking Function Traffic Channels Control Channels Broadcasting Channel Common Control Channel Dedicated Control Channel Short Message Service Cell Broadcast Cell Broadcasting Channel Fast Associated Control Channel Slow Asociated Control Channel Access Grant Channel Paging Channel Synchronization Channel Frequency Correction Channel Broadcasting Control Channel Random Access Channel Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying Forward Error Correction Unnumbered Information Set Asynchronous Balance Mode Unnumbred Acknowledgement Mibile Originated Call International Mobile Equipment Identity International Mobile Subscriber Identity Radio Subsystem Management Short Message Service Cell Broadcast Service Access Point Code Division Multiple Access Time Division Multiple Access Frequency Division Multyple Access

Qun l lin kt v tuyn Qun l knh chuyn dng LAPD c iu chnh Ti nguyn v tuyn Qun l di ng Qun l kt ni cuc gi Nhn dng thu bao di ng quc t n v chuyn m/p ng Chc nng tng tc Knh lu lng Knh iu khin Knh qung b Knh iu khin chung Knh iu khin ring Dch v tin nhn ngn qung b cell Knh qung b cell Knh iu khin lin kt nhanh Knh iu khin kt hp chm Knh h tr truy cp Knh nhn tin Knh ng b Knh hiu chnh tn s Knh iu khin qung b Knh truy cp ngu nhin Kho dch pha ti thiu Gauss S hiu chnh li tin tin Thng tin khng c nh s t ch cn bng khng ng b S xc nhn khng c nh s Cuc gi c bt u t trm di ng Nhn dng thit b di ng quc t Nhn dng thu bao di ng quc t Qun l h thng v tuyn con Dch v bn tin ngn im truy cp dch v qung b cell a truy cp phn chia theo m a truy cp phn chia theo thi gian a truy cp phn chia theo tn s

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Phn tch chuyn giao trong mng GSM

TI LIU THAM KHO [1] Sigmund M.redl, Matthias K.Weber , Malcolm W.Oliphant, GSM And Personal Communications Handbook of GSM and UMTS The Creation of Global Mobile Communication. Edited by: Friedhelm Hillebrand, Consulting Engineer, Germany [2] Gunnar Heine, GSMNetworks: Protocols, Terminology and Implementation , [3] Asha Mehrotra, GSM SYSTEM ENGINEERIN GSM Switching, Services anh Protocols (Second Edition), John Wiley and Sons, LTD.

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