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A STUDY OF FEMALE STUDENTS PARTICIPATION IN SPORTS ACTIVITIES IN SK KAMPONG BAHAGIA, TELUK INTAN, PERAK.

BY:

MUHAMMAD AKBAR BIN ZAHIDI 2005216577

FACULTY OF SPORTS SCIENCE AND RECREATION

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

SHAH ALAM, SELANGOR DARUL EHSAN

I am MUHAMMAD AKBAR BI ZAHIDI, I/C Number: 831006-08-5939, hereby, declare that: This work has not previously been accepted in substance for any degree, locally or overseas, and is not being concurrently submitted for this degree or any other degrees. This research paper is the result of my independent work and investigation, except where otherwise stated. I absolve Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) and its Faculty of Sports Science and Recreation for any blame as a result of my work. All verbatim extracts have been distinguished by quotation marks and sources of my information have been specifically acknowledged.

MUHAMMAD AKBAR BIN ZAHIDI ______________________________ (Students name) _____________________________ (Signature) 2005216577 ______________________________ (UiTM ID) 831006-08-5939 ______________________________ (NRIC No.)

ABSTRACT

This research seeks to investigate the participation of female students in sports activities. The study is finding the factors of female students who involve in the sports activities and which activities are suitable for the female students. Data were collected from 100 female students who aged 11 and 12 years which was consisted of 30 students of Year 5 and 70 students using convenience sampling at SK Kampong Bahagia Teluk Intan, Perak. It can be concluded that, most of the female students r = 0.693, (p>0.05) are interested and involved in the sports activities. The researcher also runs the one simple t-test. There were suitable sports activities t = 3.012 on sports are significant differences p>0.05. It is recommended that respondents should be added from the other schools so that more reliable result can be obtained towards participation of the sports activities among the female students. Progress came slowly in the face of opposition and gradually women achieved the right to participate in more and more sports and eventually have been allowed to compete professionally. However, despite the increased opportunities that women have fought to achieve, many still do not participate as a result of the stigmas attached since many years ago. Furthermore according to research done in school has shown that girls participation in sports is lower than boys.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Sports activities or fun is the expenditure of time in manner designed for therapeutic refreshment of ones body or mind. As people in the world wealthier region lead increasingly sedentary lifestyles. The need for sports has increased. The rise of so called active vacation exemplifies this. Netball, football or futsal, volleyball and

badminton are the examples of the sport activities in general. Recently there are many discussions about the sport programs that provide such many advantages to the student especially. But poorly, there are not many of school students realize the advantages of getting involve in the sports programs.

We have to make student think and realize the actual thing of sports programs. It is a very beneficial program for them. They can gain a lot of knowledge while join the sports activities such as self confidence skill and social skill. Besides that, while they join the sports activity, it will provide them with a good health. It is because it will need them to be in the good condition of health to do the challenges activity. To be active in the sports activities also require the students time management. It is because they have to divide their time properly to ensure they have the time to study without left behind their interest toward the sports activities.

1.1

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

According to Harderson and Bialeschki (2005), sports and leisure activities and programs for women and girls are not new concept, although their involvement sometimes has been different from men or boys.

Syed, M. (2009), there are several misconceptions regarding Muslim women participating in sport. Women of Islam are represented as oppressed and unable to engage with society and in sports. In fact Islam promotes good health and fitness for both men and women. However there are guidelines within which sports can be practiced; this entails women following their faith by not engaging in mixed gender sports and by observing a dress code. This consists of covering the hair and wearing modest clothing by covering the arms and legs.

Beggs, B.A., Elkins, D.J. & Powers. S (2005), these contribute to Muslim womens comparatively lower participation rate. Other factors which contribute to this are the lack of single sex provisions which can put young women off sport and physical activity. This may also include early negative experiences of P.E. at school. The negative perceptions about physical activity can last into adulthood, making it more difficult for these women to engage in sport. Thus, environmental and cultural boundaries seem to be a determining factor in young Muslim womens attitudes towards sports and physical activity in this society. 1.1.1 Participation and health

Waldron, J.J (2007), there are no statistics that show physical activity participation by different religious groups, for instance Muslim men and women. With respect to Muslim participation rates, participation by ethnicity is the closest monitor that exists, as over 90 per cent of people from Pakistan and Bangladesh are Muslims (Census 2001). 1.1.2 Muslim womens attitudes towards sports and physical activities

Syed, M. (2006), research into Muslim womens attitudes towards sports and physical education in Muslim countries has provided some interesting findings. A study in Jordan found that young Muslim female students hold positive attitudes towards

participation in PE. Furthermore, they considered PE as having great significance and value in increasing leadership proficiency. However, with regard to parental influence, it appeared that parents were less encouraging of their children taking up the option of PE in further education, with girls getting fewer opportunities due to social constraints.

1.1.3

Culture

The Womens Sport Foundation (2006), many Muslim women are constrained by their ethnic backgrounds from participating in sport. For example, research conducted by WSF on Bangladeshi women found that they led sedentary lives with little priority given to exercise and physical activity as it conflicted with their role as a mother and homekeeper (WSF, 2006). Asian cultural ideologies do not always promote exercise and physical activity in women, although many of the women in the research understood its significance. There is research to support such a view. A study in Norway shows that Muslim women who identified themselves in terms of their ethnicity were not interested in participating in sport as it challenged the boundaries of femininity and cultural identity (Walseth, 2006).

1.2

PROBLEM STATEMENTS

The female students interest must be balance in their field of participations between academic and sports activities. The problem statements are going to be followed:

Based on a research done by Mr. Muhammad Akbar Zahidi who was a physical education teacher at SK Kampong Bahagia in October 2009, A Study of Female Students Interest toward Physical Education Subject, most of the female students interested toward sports activities but they did not want to get involved together with male students. The sports activities sometimes give a lot of impact to the female students. As a result from the research, it had stated the factors that made them

involving in the sports activities. 70% of them said they involved in sports because they had been forced by teachers in school.

The second problem is to know the actual types of sports activities that really make the female students interest to get involve. From the previous research of Mr. Muhammad Akbar Zahidi (2009), A Study of Female Students Interest toward Physical Education Subject, female students at SK Kampong Bahagia did not want to participate in any sports activities if the activities gave a burden to them.

According to Waldron, J.J (2007), Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, the third problem is to get to know whether the female students time spending between the concentration of study and involvement in the outdoor activities. The good students do not get any problem to do both of their tasks respectively.

This research project covers the history of female students throughout sport. From the beginning when women had no opportunity to participate, covering the challenges they have faced to overcome the restriction placed upon them by men in control. There are many reasons from the research. Through to the stage they are at today with few restrictions stopping them from participating and yet still lower participation rates than men (Hargreaves, J. 2004).

Primary research has been carried out in SK Kampong Bahagia on the opinion of young girls on attire and clothing that they have to wear for sports. Whilst assessing the extent to which this acts as a deterrent to future participation. It has discovered 80% of the female students at SK Kampong Bahagia that the attire was not popular amongst these young women but it had very little impact as a contributory factor to womens lower participation rates. Finally this research has established female students would in fact like to wear the tracksuit bottoms of their choice of sport attire.

1.3

OBJECTIVES

The purpose of this study:

1.3.1

To determine the factors that female students involve in sports activities.

1.3.2

To assess which sports activities are suitable for the female students.

1.4

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This study is trying to collect and gather information from the female students. The questions are: -

1.4.1

What are the factors to attract the female students to get involved in the sports activities?

1.4.2

Which sports activities are suitable for the female students?

1.5

DEFINITION OF TERMS

1.5.1

Participation

Beggs, B, A., Elkins, D.J & Powers, S. (2005), participation is the process of involving young people in projects, policy reviews or ideas to encourage decision-making and empowerment, recreation and influence in youth services and activities and sports programs. It is the act of taking part in an activity or event. Participation is the action of group in which everyone has contributed their own ideas and act as accordingly their task.

1.5.2

Female

Oglesby, C (2008), the traditional definition of female was "an individual of the sex that bears young" or "that produces ova or eggs". However, things are not so simple today. Female can be defined by physical appearance, by chromosome constitution or by gender identification.

1.5.3

Student

Olubor, R.O & Osunde, U.A. (2007), a person engaged in study one who is devoted to learning, a learner, a pupil, a scholar, especially, one who attends a school, or who seeks knowledge from professional teachers or from books as the students of an academy, a college, or a university, a medical student, a hard student. Student is one who studies. In widest use, student is used to mean a school or class attendee.

1.5.4

School

Gratton, C. Jones, I. (2004), a school originally meaning is an institution designed to allow and encourage students or "pupils" to learn, under the supervision of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country, but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education.

1.5.5

Sport

Haralambos, M. Holborn, M. (2005), sport refers to activities where the physical capabilities of the competitor are the sole or primary determinant of the outcome winning or losing, but the term is also used to include activities such as mind sports a common name for some card games and board games with little to no element of chance and motor sports where mental acuity or equipment quality are major factors.

Sport is commonly defined as an organized, competitive and skillful physical activity requiring commitment and fair play.

1.6

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is one of the first few attempts to investigate the female students participation in the sports programs in SK Kampong Bahagia. Therefore, this study will provide a useful for further research in this area of interest. The findings of this study could provide some form of data for future research in this area. This study also provide the organizer for the sports programs in the school to be more consider to the female students participation field, as well as try to attract them to participate in the sports programs that will be organize. After setting out aims and objectives the reasons for female students low participation rates will be analyzed. Focus will be given to clothing and the history of this will be traced. Research will be carried out among female students in Year 5 and Year 6. This should discover the extent to which they are disinclined to take part in sports and if it is as a result of the enforced attire that students must wear for physical education. After presenting and analyzing the data appropriate conclusions will be drawn. A methodology will be presented explaining research methods to be used and reasons for this selection. This will be followed by presentation of the data in the form of graphs and charts allowing for clear presentation of the results. The data will then be analyzed and explained in the data analysis chapter, clearly explaining what the results show and what they mean. The research project will then be concluded by discussing the extent to which the objectives have been met.

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1.7

LIMITATIONS

There are some limitations doing this study. The major constraints of this research are time, cost and procedure to get the students. This happened because this study will be conducted in a limited time. The time is very tight to the researcher and also to the school. There are also certain procedures that need to be followed at school such as get the permission from the authority during teaching and lesson hour. The distribution of the questionnaire may also disturb the learning process of the students involved. In other word, this study will only concern at SK Kampong Bahagia and does not involve other schools students.

1.8

DELIMITATIONS

This study will be only limited to the female students from SK Kampong Bahagia Teluk Intan, Perak. One hundred (100) female students will be selected randomly. They will be randomly selected without knowing about their sports background. Researcher will get the information from the respondent by answering the questionnaire.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0

OVERVIEW

Sports activities for females, whether athletic or otherwise, were to serve as an educational and constructive force in building qualities of character and citizenship. According to Henderson and Bialeschki (2005), after the World War II, little was written about recreation programming for girls and women. It was believed that sports had become an actuality for women and that women were now interested in their personal sports and not just their children's. Girls' and women's programs were thought to be well established in many communities with a variety of activities (Program for Women, 2004).

Guinn, B. & Vincent, V. (2008), the literature in general, suggested that local sports departments should keep the interest in girls' and women's' activities alive yet, others still felt much needed to be done in local communities so that sports for girls and women was not a "warmed-over version of a sports program which pleased the boys" (p. 153). While research on women's experiences has uncovered various outcomes of participation, very little research has been conducted with adolescent girls.

Adolescence is a "critical time in women's development" (Jackson, E. 2006, p. 37) and a confusing time period for girls. Western culture engages in practices that favor male characteristics and separates boys and girls. "What is culturally valued is associated with masculinity and maleness, and what is devalued is associated with femininity and femaleness, regardless of the reality of men's and women's lives" (Jackson, E. 2006, p. 44). Boys and girls learn at a young age that it is not desirable to be "like a girl," to "act like a girl," or to "throw like a girl."

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2.1

HISTORY OF WOMEN IN SPORTS

Studies by Roth, A. Basow, A. (2004), early forms of sport and physical education for women were established in the late nineteenth century and in order to for it to survive it tended to accommodate traditional biological assumptions, rather than openly challenge them.

Cashmore, E (2005) points out that in the beginning athletic contests were part of young womens education in ancient Sparta and Crete. In ancient Greek and Roman cultures women would hunt, ride, swim and run and yet were not allowed to compete in sport. They were only able to be spectators or outsiders.

Oglesby, C (2008) highlights that in the medieval period women were not seen to be active participants but as objects to place on a pedestal, protected and fought for. However some noble women in parts of Europe jousted, many women were skilled archers and by the 18th century shot on level terms with men. In addition Oglesby suggests that this was a significant historical period for women, a time when for noble women it was acceptable for women to play some sports.

Hargreaves, J (2004) goes on to point out that during the 1930s women began to challenge tradition and the womens movement was gaining momentum dramatically, there were more resources and the numbers of women involved were increasing. This was in part due to a government initiative to improve the fitness of the nation, women were actively encouraged to participate in some form of sport or exercise, traditional ideologies about female exercise were beginning to change and girls and women were becoming more equal on policy agendas.

Oglesby, C. (2008) points out that during the 1960s controversy over high level competition occurred and led to a change in educational athletics. General prosperity

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accompanied by time and money for sport and approval of championships by many influential organizations contributed to an impression that society was beginning to accept womens sports.

2.2

PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS

Early debates about gender and PE during the 1970s and 1980s focused on equal opportunities and issues of access, Leamans research and ILEAs research (2004) found girls are socialized into female activities for example netball and gymnastics whereas boys are socialized into male activities such as football or cricket. Green and Hardman (2005) argue PE has generated much discussion around single sex and mixed sex groups. It is one of the few subjects that have traditionally taught different activities in single sex groupings. Development of separate training for women PE teachers challenged gendered expectations of womens physical capabilities and gave them access to sport previously denied to them.

Olubor, R.O & Osunde, U.A (2007) argues that many PE teachers fail to address seriously the ways in which their practices reinforce and reproduce social inequalities. There are marked gender differences in colleges and universities that reflect school experience.

Guthrie, R.S. & Costa, M.D (2004) argue teachers play a big part in the reproduction and challenging of gender in schools. Teachers had clear ideas about appropriate activities for girls based on historical and traditional expectations of their capabilities; this has affected opportunities made available to girls, their dress for PE and teachers educational practice.

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Hardman, K. & Green, K. (2005) claim there continues to be clear evidence that girls and young women are less likely to take part in physical activity and sports compared with boys. The social construction of an ideal femininity and masculinity can influence young peoples self-perceptions and esteem.

Coakley, J (2001) pointed out that sport continues to be unpopular amongst young girls; they carried out a study in which they asked fourth year secondary school girls about femininity and their attitudes towards PE. Coakley, J (2001) found that girls often felt pressured to conform to popular ideas of what is considered to be feminine, and as a result they felt vigorous sport was not feminine, playing sport and being good at sport was linked to popular ideas about masculinity. Girls do not consider sport to be an important part of their life.

It would appear that throughout the history of women in sport clothing has been a way of limiting womens enjoyment of sport. It has moved from being extremely conservative and unpractical to become revealing and sexy. Studies such as those by Coakley (2001) and Hargreaves (2004) have shown that young women do not continue to play sport after leaving school. One of the reasons identified for this is bad experience of physical education and the clothing worn for this. The studies show that many women feel uncomfortable in what they have to wear, they feel on display and insecure about their bodies. This dissertation should establish the extent to which this is true.

2.3

THE FACTORS THAT FEMALE STUDENTS INVOLVE IN SPORT ACTIVITIES

Structured sports programming for girls and women has evolved over the years. And generations of females have experienced physical competence, the joy of play, an appreciation of competition and excellence, and supportive bonds with other women in nontraditional settings (Cahn, S.K. 2004). And what we have learned to date about

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women's leisure and recreation can help shape future programs that are superior in quality and include the elements that women value the most.

Bialeschki, M.D & Henderson, K.A. (2005), females tend to think of themselves as sports fans for primarily social reasons. These reasons include watching a sporting event with friends and family, cheering at sporting events, and watching and attending sporting event. Additionally, exercise is a crucial success strategy for weight loss as well as weight maintenance. However, exercise habit and eating patterns are two lifestyle factors women change and improve upon to prevent chronic disease. It is well established fact that regular physical activity helps with the maintenance of body or loses weight.

Study revealed that weight and body size were prominent concerns of young women. These young women wanted to be thinner than they currently were, and an increased physical activity is one healthful option for weight management. Additionally, exercise is a crucial success strategy for weight loss as well as weight maintenance (Soliah, Walter, and Antosh, 2008).

Jarvie, G. (2006), recent research also provides evidence for the benefit of leisure for school students. With this population, sports have been shown to be an effective coping resource to help individual develop and maintain healthy psychologically.

2.4

THE SPORTS ACTIVITIES WHICH SUITABLE FOR FEMALE STUDENTS

"Ultimately women's efforts to attain meaningful leisure, unrestricted access to sport, and athletic determination will be part and parcel of transforming the broader social relations of gender within which sporting life takes place. It is the sense of entitlement and determination that stamps the recent period of sports history and provides hope for

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a future in which adequate leisure, athletic pleasures, and physical power are available to all women (Cahn,S.K. 2004).

Finding by Osborne, Ziersch, and Baum (2008), indicates that womens regular participation in sports groups is related to levels of material and social advantage. This supports research that has found social and economis diferrences in the way elements of social capital are accessed, with those who are more privileged generally having greater access to potentially health-enhancing social capital (Ziersch 2005, Baum et al. 2000). It also supports research that has found that women social capital is shaped differently according to socioeconomic factor (Healy et all. 2007, Caiazza 2005).

2.5

CONCLUSION

This chapter describes the outline of the study with the information of the past researches within the context of the sports program itself. It contains the past researches finding about the factors to attract female students involve in the sports activities, the sports activities which suitable for the female students, time spending to join the sports activities and the type of sports activities they like to do. There are many reasons from the research. Through to the stage they are at today with few restrictions stopping them from participating and yet still lower participation rates than men. It analyses and assesses their role in the control of sports and administration, documenting their history of exclusion in this area once again due to male control. Furthermore it covers the reasons why they are so underrepresented in this area due to traditional male practices amongst many reasons. Primary research has been carried out in secondary schools on the opinion of young girls on uniform and clothing that they have to wear for sports. Whilst assessing the extent to which this acts as a deterrent to future participation.

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CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0

INTRODUCTION

This study is implemented purposing to observe about the participation of female students in sports programs. With the purpose to get the result from this research, this chapter will be discussing about the factor that will attract them to involve in the sports programs and the impact toward their academic achievement.

For the primary research which has chosen to collect data is using questionnaires. The questionnaires will be administered to young women aged between 11 and 12 years of age. 100 female students in SK Kampong Bahagia will be picked at random and the questionnaires will be handed out by staff at the schools or by teachers to female PE classes.

The research has chosen to use questionnaires because they can be used to collect large quantities of data in a relatively short period of time. There is little personal involvement so it is unlikely that I would influence respondents filling out the questionnaires, which could potentially cause the results to be invalid. Questionnaires provide data SPSS 16 of one sample t-test that is easily quantified and therefore data can be analyzed quickly and efficiently. Furthermore the data from SPSS 16 of one sample t-test can be analyzed more scientifically and objectively with the use of close ended questions. In addition to this any differences in responses should reflect differences between respondents.

One method that was considered but rejected was to use interviews. This is because they can be very time consuming and this would limit the number of interviews that would be able to be carried out. Whats make this may cause the results to be unrepresentative of girls feelings about sport at school and the uniform they have to

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wear. Furthermore the information may not be valid or reliable because interviewees may be unwilling or unable to give full accurate responses, they may lie or they may tell the interviewer what they feel the interviewer wants to hear.

In order to test the hypothesis it has included questions that should help gain some understanding as to why it is that after leaving school young women do not participate in sport as much men. The questions in my questionnaire should provide data on whether or not girls enjoy sport, what they like and dislike about it and how they feel about the uniform which they have to wear for PE. This should provide the data one simple t-test that will help to find out the extent to which PE uniform is a contributory factor in the drop off rates for young womens participation in sports after they leave school.

A pilot study will be carried out in order to check the feasibility of the questionnaire, this should test the questions to ensure they make sense and produce the information required to come to some conclusion on the impact of uniform on girls participation rates. In order to do this it will hand out 100 questionnaires to girls aged 11 and 12, this should be enough for me to determine if the questionnaire are going to work.

As a result of the pilot study, I found that I had to change the wording of the questions so that it could be sure that the students would understand it. Additionally it was important that the wording of the questions did not influence the respondent in any way so rather than asking if the students felt there was anything wrong with the uniform they wear, researcher chose to ask what they thought of it. Another design issue that arose was the options that would be offered in the close ended questions. They had to be designed in such a way that would allow a variety of sports to be chosen as sports which the students enjoy.

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The chosen sample for this research is young women aged 11 and 12 years old. The questionnaire will be given out to PE classes of all female students just before or after their PE lesson. The classes of female students will be selected at random and the questionnaires will be given out mainly by me but also by staff at the school. The limitations of finding my sample this way are that essentially it is not truly random as not each person within my chosen population has an equal chance of being selected.

This research will be carried out by firstly selecting schools in the SK Kampong Bahagia, contacting them with details about the questionnaire and the reasons for carrying out the research. Arrangements will then be made for me to visit the school and administer the questionnaires or for teachers themselves to administer and supervise the filling out of the questionnaires. Teachers will be instructed to hand out the questionnaires to female students in years 11 and 12. I will then collect the questionnaires from the schools and analyze the data.

The questionnaires were administered during February 2010, the time at which the questionnaires were handed out does not have any particular significance. It was simply a suitable time for researcher and the school after I had contacted them, at the beginning of February.

Once all the data has been collected it will then be analyzed and presented in the SPSS 16 of one sample t-test form of graphs and charts. In order to gain statistics from the open ended questions I will look for the most popular response.

To achieve that purpose, the implementation of this study through particular procedure and methodology and was discussed for a particular purpose in this part according to follow topics:

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a) b) c) d) e) f)

Research design Variables Population and Sample Instrumentation Data Collection Data Analysis Procedure

3.1

RESEARCH DESIGN

This study adopted a survey method, which has been designed to investigate the nature of the female students in the sport programs. This study will just focus on the female students at SK Kampong Bahagia. This design was chosen because this study wants to know the interest of female students toward the sports programs and it is not suitable to do an experimental research or qualitative research that needs a time to make an observation. Each respondent will be given a same set of written questionnaires and they will be selected by simple random sampling. Each respondent has to answer the questionnaire at the time it was given. It is because to ensure that all the questionnaire that will be distribute will getting back and also to avoid wasting of time to collect the questionnaire back if they take the questionnaire back to home.

3.2

VARIABLES

A variable is anything that can on differing or varying values. The values can differ at various times for the same objects or persons, or at the same time for different objects or persons.

Furthermore it will look at the participation rates of girls at school, post school and the drop-off rates. This will show if girls are playing less sport upon leaving school and

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should add to the argument that uniform contributes to a lack of enthusiasm for sport and lower participation rates amongst female students.

Primary research will then be conducted in the form of questionnaires asking girls at the secondary school age to obtain their opinion on the uniform that they have to wear and the extent to which it is a cause for them not wanting to take part in physical education. The data from these findings will then be presented in the form of graphs and charts and analyzed to come to a conclusion on the extent to which uniform is a contributory factor in girls lower participation rates at school and after school leaving age. The primary research will also undertake and discover the choices of the girls themselves and what they would prefer to wear.

Table 3.2.1

Independent Variables:

NO 1 2 3 4 Gender Clothes Age Occupation

ITEM

SUBJECT Female Sport attire 11-12 School students

3.2.1

Independent Variables Independent variables focus on the female students who were studying at SK Kampong Bahagia, Teluk Intan, Perak. Through this study, it examined the factors and suitable activities of their participations.

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Table 3.3.2

Dependent Variables:

NO 1 2 3 4 5

SUBJECT Sports enjoyment Self esteem Perception about sports Muslim culture Behaviour change

3.2.2

Dependent Variables Dependent variables focus on the perception, enjoyment, experience, culture, influence,behaviour and thought about sports activities that organized by school.

3.3

POPULATION AND SAMPLE

The target population of this study was the female students of SK Kampong Bahagia. The sample of this study was just focusing to the female students who from Year 5 and Year 6. The required sample selected randomly by recognizing the class representative and the questionnaire distributed to them before they had been collected afterwards.

3.4

INSTRUMENTATION

Questionnaire In this study, the instrument used is the Sports Activities Interest Questionnaires. It is based to measure the interest of sports activities and related factors (Van Wersch, Trew, Turner, 2002) (See Appendix 1). These questionnaires have two sections. Section A is mainly about demographic data (age, height, weight and level). While section B is about

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several questions regarding to the sports activities. The total number of item in the survey is 30 which are divided into four sub-areas and are shown on the next page table 3.3.1. Both of the sections are analyzed by one sample t-test of SPSS version 16.

Table 3.4.1: Distribution of Sub-Areas Regarding to Sports Activities _____________________________________________________________________ SUB-AREAS NO. OF ITEMS TOTAL OF ITEMS

_____________________________________________________________________ Attraction factors of female students to join sports activities 4,5,9,10,16,20,26 27,29,30 10

Sports activities which suitable for female students

3,7,11,13,19,23,24 28

Spending time for both sports activities and study

2,8,15,18,21,22

Type of sports activities female students like

1,6,12,14,17,25

_____________________________________________________________________

3.5

DATA COLLECTION

The method of data collection is very important to make analysis easier to equip the study more accurately based on the information and the obtained data. The class representative of each programme will be recognized to distribute the questionnaire to their classmates. The respondents have to fill in the questionnaire at the time given. The questionnaire will be collected after the respondents finished fill in the questionnaires. From the questionnaire, all the received data will be collected. The data collection of the research will be analyzed using the quantitative and qualitative methods of one sample t-test SPSS 16. Besides that, the data collections are taking

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from two types of data that are from primary data and secondary data. Primary data will be taking from the questionnaire and the secondary data will be taking from previous reading such as magazine, journal or thesis.

3.6

DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

For each sub-areas of the questionnaire, and overall mean value calculated for an overall group mean of female students. This data was then analyzed by using the percentage to ascertain differences between female students interest toward sports activity. Analyzes were carried by means of the Statistical Packages of the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 using one sample t-test. In addition, the researcher used histogram chart to illustrate the distribution sample of subject according to age, height, weight and level.

The sum of the 30 items provided an indication of female students participation in sports activities. Meanwhile, the indication for each sub-area of female students participation toward sports activities are shown on the next page. The analysis had been analyzed based on research questions, the detail discussed in chapter 4. To answer the research question one (1) and two (2), researcher had used one sample TTest.

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CHAPTER 4

DATA ANALYSIS

4.0

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the researcher will discuss the findings that the researcher enclosed from his study. The researcher had distributed questionnaire on the Female Students Participation in Sports Activities at SK Kampong Bahagia, Teluk Intan Perak.

The questionnaires provided were divided into two sub-areas which are interpretation of recreational activity to determine the factors to attract female student to join sports activity, which sports activities for female students, time spend for both sports activities and study and the type of sports activities which female students like as mentioned in Chapter 3 (Methodology). The result of the data analysis and the interpretation are organized as follows:

4.1 Section A Demographic background 4.2 Section B Information about female students participation in sports activities.

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4.1

SECTION A DEMOGRAPHIC BACKGROUND

From the study, table 4.1.3 finds that 70.0% of the students are from age 12 years and 30.0% of the students are from age 11 years answered the questionnaire. Based on that, table 4.1.4 reveals that a number of female students with height 120cm 129cm are 18.0% while the students with height 130cm 139cm are 35.0%. Besides, table 4.1.4 shows the height ranges from 140cm 149cm is 34.0% and height more than 150cm is 13.0% students answered the questionnaire. Meanwhile, table 4.1.5 also shows that students who answered the questionnaire come with an average weight of 20kg 29kg with 16.0% followed by 30kg 39kg with 35.0%, 40kg 49kg with 34.0% and more than 50kg with 15.0%. Apart from that, table 4.1.6 shows that 68.0% students from Year 6 and 32.0% students from Year 5 answered the questionnaire.

Table 4.1.1 and 4.1.2 below presents the demographic background of students using one sample t-test. Table and figure 4.1.3, 4.1.4, 4.1.5 and 4.1.6 represent the distribution of percentage according to the demographic background of students clearly.

27

4.1.1

ANALYSIS OF DEMOGRAPHIC BACKGROUND (ONE SAMPLE T-TEST)

For the data of participation of female students in sports activities, researcher analyzed all the questions by randomly based on four (4) main demographic areas shown below: Table 4.1.1 One-Sample Statistics

N Age Height Weight Level 100 100 100 100

Mean 1.7310 2.4909 2.5636 1.6817

Std. Deviation .46756 .93912 .94216 .47485

Std. Error Mean .08497 .20449 .21366 .08468

Table 4.1.2

One-Sample Test
Test Value = 2 Mean Sig. (2-tailed) Difference

df

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper .1051 .0162 .8080 .0332

Age Height Weight Level

2.812 2.890 1.702 2.460

99 99 99 99

.424 .009 .104 .022

.0690 .5909 .3636 .2083

.2430 .1657 .0807 .3835

Table 4.1.1 and table 4.1.2 show the demographic areas analysis regarding to female students from the school. The mean of the age is 1.73 (+0.46). The result shows that the t-value of age is 2.812, df is 99 and two-tail significant is 0.424 which the difference is (p>0.05). Second, the mean for height is 2.49 (+0.93). The result shows that the tvalue of height is 2.890, df is 99 and two-tail significant is 0.009 which the difference is (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the mean of weight of the female students is 2.56 (+0.94). The result shows that the t-value of age is 1.702, df is 99 and two-tail significant is 0.104 which the difference is (p>0.05). Besides that, the demographic area of mean for level

28

is 1.68 (+0.47). The result shows that the t-value of level is 2.460, df is 99 and two-tail significant is 0.22 which the difference is (p>0.05).

Table 4.1.3:

Age
Cumulative Percent 30.0 100.0

Frequency Valid 11 years 12 years Total Missing Total System 30 70 100 19 119

Percent 25.2 58.8 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 30.0 70.0 100.0

Figure 4.1.3:

Age

AGE
80

60

40

Frequency

20 Std. Dev = .46 Mean = 1.70 0 1.00 1.50 2.00 N = 100.00

AGE

Figure 4.1.3 shows that 70% of the students (N: 70) are from age 12 years, 30% of students (N: 30) from age 11 years who answered the questionnaire.

29

Table 4.1.4:

Height

Frequency Valid 120 cm - 129 cm 130 cm - 139 cm 140 cm - 149 cm > 150 cm Total Missing Total System 18 35 34 13 100 19 119

Percent 15.1 29.4 28.6 10.9 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 18.0 35.0 34.0 13.0 100.0

Cumulative Percent 18.0 53.0 87.0 100.0

Figure 4.1.4:

Height

HEIGHT
40

30

20

Frequency

10 Std. Dev = .93 Mean = 2.4 0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 N = 100.00

HEIGHT

Figure 4.1.4 shows that 18.0% of the students (N: 18) with height 120cm to 129cm, 35.0% of the students (N: 35) with height 130cm to 139cm, 34.0% of the students (N: 34) with height 140cm to 149cm and 13.0 % of the students (N: 13) with height above 150cm answered the questionnaire.

30

Table 4.1.5:

Weight

Frequency Valid 20 kg - 29 kg 30 kg - 39 kg 40 kg - 49 kg > 50 kg Total Missing Total System 16 35 34 15 100 19 119

Percent 13.4 29.4 28.6 12.6 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 16.0 35.0 34.0 15.0 100.0

Cumulative Percent 16.0 51.0 85.0 100.0

Figure 4.1.5:

Weight

WEIGHT
40

30

20

Frequency

10 Std. Dev = .94 Mean = 2.5 0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 N = 100.00

WEIGHT

Figure 4.1.5 reveals that 16.0% of the students (N: 16) with weight 20kg to 29kg, 35.0% of the students (N: 35) with weight 30kg to 39kg, 34.0% of the students (N: 34) with weight 40kg to 49kg and only 15.0% of the students (N: 15) with weight above 50kg answered the questionnaire.

31

Table 4.1.6:

Level

Frequency Valid Year 5 Year 6 Total Missing Total System 32 68 100 19 119

Percent 26.9 57.1 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 32.0 68.0 100.0

Cumulative Percent 32.0 100.0

Figure 4.1.6:

Level

LEVEL
80

60

40

Frequency

20 Std. Dev = .47 Mean = 1.68 0 1.00 1.50 2.00 N = 100.00

LEVEL

Figure 4.1.6 shows that 32.0% of the students (N: 32) are from Year 5 and 68.0% of the students (N: 68) are from Year 6 answered the questionnaire.

32

4.2 - SECTION B

ANALYSIS OF SUB-AREAS REGARDING TO SPORTS ACTIVITIES (ONE SAMPLE T-TEST)

For the data of participation of female students in sports activities, researcher analyzed all the questions by randomly based on four (4) main sub-areas shown below: Table 4.2.1 One-Sample Statistics
Std. Error Mean .076

N Attraction factors of female students to join sports activities Sports activities which suitable for female students Spending time for both sports activities and study Type of sports activities which female students like 100

Mean 2.03

Std. Deviation .758

100

2.2300

.76350

.07635

100

2.3000

.78496

.07850

100

2.4700

.71711

.07171

Table 4.2.2 One-Sample Test


Test Value = 2 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference T Attraction factors of female students to join sports activities Sports activities which suitable for female students Spending time for both sports activities and study Type of sports activities which female students like .396 Df 99 Sig. (2tailed) .693 Mean Difference .03 Lower -.12 Upper .18

3.012

99

.003

.2300

.0785

.3815

3.822

99

.002

.3000

.1442

.4558

3.554

99

.002

.3700

.3277

.3123

33

Table 4.2.1 and table 4.2.2 show the sub-areas analysis regarding to the questionnaire distributed. The mean of the type of sports activities which female student like was the highest that is 2.47 (+0.71). The result shows that the t-value is 0.396, df is 99 and two-tail significant is 0.693 which the difference is p>0.05. Second, the mean for spending time for both sports activities and study is 2.3 (+0.78). The result shows that the t-value is 3.012, df is 99 and two-tail significant is 0.03 which the difference is p<0.05. Meanwhile, the mean for sport activities which suitable for female activities is 2.23 (+0.76). The result shows that the t-value is 3.822, df is 99 and two-tail significant is 0.02 which the difference is p<0.05.The sub-area of mean for the attraction factors of female students to join sports activities is 2.03 (+0.75). The result shows that the t-value is 3.554, df is 99 and two-tail significant is 0.02 which the difference is p<0.05.

34

4.3

ANALYSIS OF SUB-AREAS REGARDING TO RESEARCH QUESTIONS (ONE SAMPLE T-TEST)

4.3.1

The factors that female students involve in sports activities

Table 4.3.1.1 One-Sample Statistics


N Attraction factors of female students to join sports activities 100 Mean 2.03 Std. Deviation .758 Std. Error Mean .076

Table 4.3.1.2 One-Sample Test


Test Value = 2 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference t Attraction factors of female students to join sports activities df Sig. (2tailed) Mean Difference Lower Upper

.396

99

.693

.03

-.12

.18

Table 4.3.1.1 and table 4.3.1.2 show the analysis of factors of female students involve in sports activities. The mean of the factors is 2.03 (+0.75) and 0.3 of the mean difference. The result shows that the t-value is 0.396, df is 99 and two-tail significant is 0.693 which the difference is (p>0.05). There is no significant different among the factors t = 0.396, p>0.05.

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Table 4.3.1.3 The factors that female students involve in sports activities Std. Deviation .75015 Std. Error Mean .07502

N Combination of several sports activities makes me feel more interested I am able to do things as well as most other people I always think about the great things that sports activities bring me School should organize women-only sports activities I am easy to like sports My schoolwork gets in the way of my sports activities I would only play sports if the teacher or coach is a woman Female students can have sports activities together with male students Female students always fussy of the sports attire they have to wear I would choose to wear my preferred sports attire if I have the choice 100

Mean 2.4000

100

2.2600

.76237

.07624

100

2.6200

.62085

.06208

100

2.7500

.52745

.05275

100

2.1200

.78498

.78250

100

2.3300

.70779

.07478

100

2.2600

.75307

.07531

100

2.2100

.69698

.06970

100

2.4700

.69719

.06972

100

2.5200

.67335

.06733

36

4.3.2

The sports activities which are suitable for the female students Table 4.3.2.1 One-Sample Statistics

N Sports activities which suitable for female students 100

Mean 2.2300

Std. Deviation .76350

Std. Error Mean .07635

Table 4.3.2.2 One-Sample Test

Test Value = 2 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference T Sports activities which suitable for female students df Sig. (2tailed) Mean Difference Lower Upper

3.012

99

.003

.2300

.0785

.3815

Table 4.3.2.1 and table 4.3.2.2 show the analysis of sports activities which are suitable for female students. The mean of the sports activities is 2.23 (+0.76) and 0.23 of the mean difference. The result shows that the tvalue is 3.012, df is 99 and two-tail significant is 0.03 which the difference is p<0.05. There is no significant different among the sports activities t = 3.012, p>0.05.

37

Table 4.3.2.3 The sports activities which are suitable for the female students

N Sports activities are not an unwanted chore or burden for me Sports activities are not suitable for me because I am not strong and big enough I do not like sports activities because it is only suitable for men I am not embarrassed to let people know my opinions Getting active will help me look and feel better about myself I would teach myself a new skill, practice and see how good I can be I enjoy playing sports during Physical Education period I am forced to play sports which I do not like

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

100

2.1100

.79850

.07985

100

2.2700

.72161

.07216

100

2.6100

.62725

.06272

100

2.4400

.69435

.06934

100

2.6300

.61343

.06123

100

2.3300

.70343

.07032

100

2.4200

.73239

.07349

100

2.2100

.74432

.07432

38

4.4

INFORMATION ABOUT FEMALE STUDENTS' PARTICIPATION IN SPORTS ACTIVITIES

Scale: 1 = Disagree, 2 =Neutral, 3 = Agree 1. If a task is difficult it just makes me all the more determined

Table 4.4.1 TASK


Cumulative Percent 12.0 45.0 100.0

Valid

disagree neutral agree Total

Frequency 12 33 55 100 19 119

Percent 10.1 27.7 46.2 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 12.0 33.0 55.0 100.0

Missing Total

System

Figure 4.4.1

TASK
60

50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .70 Mean = 2.43 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

TASK

Figure 4.4.1 shows the frequency of participation in sports activities related to a task which is difficult and makes them all be more determined. 55.0% (N: 55) of students agreed that the sports activities were difficult tasks while 12.0% (N: 12) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

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2.

I would take part in sports activities even if I did not have to.

Table 4.4.2 JOIN


Cumulative Percent 15.0 52.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 15 37 48 100 19 119

Percent 12.6 31.1 40.3 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 15.0 37.0 48.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.2

JOIN
60

50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .73 Mean = 2.33 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

JOIN

Figure 4.4.2 shows the frequency of participation in sports activities related to take part in sports activities even if they did not have to. 48.0% (N: 48) of students agreed that to take part in the sports activities even if they did not have to. 15.0% (N: 15) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

40

3.

Sports activities are not unwanted chore or burden for me

Table 4.4.3 BURDEN


Cumulative Percent 26.0 63.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 26 37 37 100 19 119

Percent 21.8 31.1 31.1 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 26.0 37.0 37.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.3

BURDEN
40

30

20

Frequency

10 Std. Dev = .79 Mean = 2.11 0 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 N = 100.00

BURDEN

Figure 4.4.3 shows the frequency of participation in sports activities related to gender barrier, sports activities are not unwanted chore or burden for them. 37.0% (N: 37) of students agreed that the sports activities ware not unwanted chore or burden. 26.0% (N: 26) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

41

4.

Combination of several sports activities makes me feel more interested

Table 4.4.4 INTEREST


Cumulative Percent 16.0 44.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 16 28 56 100 19 119

Percent 13.4 23.5 47.1 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 16.0 28.0 56.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.4

INTEREST
60

50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .75 Mean = 2.40 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

INTEREST

Figure 4.4.4 shows the frequency of participation in sports activities related to attraction factors, the combination of several recreational activities make students feel more interested. 56.0% (N: 56) of students agreed that the combination of several sports activities made students felt more interested. 28.0% (N: 28) of students were in neutral state and only 16.0% (N: 16) of students disagreed with the combination of several sports activities.

42

5.

I am able to do things as well as most other people

Table 4.4.5 ABLE


Cumulative Percent 19.0 55.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 19 36 45 100 19 119

Percent 16.0 30.3 37.8 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 19.0 36.0 45.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.5

ABLE
50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .76 Mean = 2.26 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

ABLE

Figure 4.4.5 shows the frequency of participation in sports activities related to attraction factors, they are able to do things as well as most other people. 45.0% (N: 45) of students agreed that they were able to do things as well as most other people made students felt more interest. 36% (N: 36) of students were neutral while 19.0% (N: 19) of students disagreed.

43

6.

It is depend on sports activities to make me feel positive toward myself.

Table 4.4.6 ATTITUDE


Cumulative Percent 16.0 48.0 100.0

Valid

disagree neutral agree Total

Frequency 16 32 52 100 19 119

Percent 13.4 26.9 43.7 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 16.0 32.0 52.0 100.0

Missing Total

System

Figure 4.4.6

ATTITUDE
60

50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .75 Mean = 2.36 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

ATTITUDE

Figure 4.4.6 shows the frequency of participation in sports activities related to the type of sports activities, it depends on sports activities to make them feel positive toward themselves. 52.0% (N: 52) of students agreed that it depended on the sports activities to make them felt positive toward themselves. 16.0% (N: 16) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

44

7.

Sports activities are not suitable for me because I am not strong and big enough.

Table 4.4.7 SUITABLE


Frequency Valid Disagree Neutral Agree Total Missing Total System 16 41 43 100 19 119 Percent 13.4 34.5 36.1 84.0 16.0 100.0 Valid Percent 16.0 41.0 43.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 16.0 57.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.7

SUITABLE
50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .72 Mean = 2.27 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

SUITABLE

Figure 4.4.7 reflects the frequency of participation in sports activities and related to sports activities which are not suitable for them because they are not strong and big enough. 43.0% (N: 43) of students agreed that the sports activities were not suitable for them. 16.0% (N: 16) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

45

8.

My academic assignments prevent me from joining sports activities

Table 4.4.8 ACADEMIC


Cumulative Percent 15.0 36.0 100.0

Valid

disagree neutral agree Total

Frequency 15 21 64 100 19 119

Percent 12.6 17.6 53.8 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 15.0 21.0 64.0 100.0

Missing Total

System

Figure 4.4.8

ACADEMIC
70 60

50

40

30

20

Frequency

10 0 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

Std. Dev = .75 Mean = 2.49 N = 100.00

ACADEMIC

Figure 4.4.8 reflects the frequency of participation of sports activities related to academic assignments prevent them from joining sports activities. 64.0% (N: 64) of students agreed that academic would prevent them from joining sports activities. 15.0% (N: 15) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

46

9.

I always think about the great things that sports activities bring me.

Table 4.4.9 THINGS


Cumulative Percent 7.0 31.0 100.0

Valid

disagree neutral agree Total

Frequency 7 24 69 100 19 119

Percent 5.9 20.2 58.0 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 7.0 24.0 69.0 100.0

Missing Total

System

Figure 4.4.9

THINGS
80

60

40

Frequency

20 Std. Dev = .62 Mean = 2.62 0 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 N = 100.00

THINGS

Figure 4.4.9 reflects the frequency of participation in sports activities related to always thinking about the great things that sports activities bring them. 69.0% (N: 69) of students agreed that thinking about the great things that sports activities brought them. 7.0% (N: 7) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

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10. School should organize women-only sports activities. Table 4.4.10 ORGANIZE
Cumulative Percent 4.0 21.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 4 17 79 100 19 119

Percent 3.4 14.3 66.4 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 4.0 17.0 79.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.10

ORGANIZE
100

80

60

40

Frequency

20

Std. Dev = .52 Mean = 2.75 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

ORGANIZE

Figure 4.4.10 reflects the frequency of participation in sports activities related to organize women-only sports activities. 79.0% (N: 79) students thought school should organize women-only in sports activities. 4.0% (N: 4) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

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11. I do not like sports activities because it is only suitable for men. Table 4.4.11 DISLIKE
Cumulative Percent 8.0 31.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 8 23 69 100 19 119

Percent 6.7 19.3 58.0 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 8.0 23.0 69.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.11

DISLIKE
80

60

40

Frequency

20 Std. Dev = .63 Mean = 2.61 0 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 N = 100.00

DISLIKE

Figure 4.4.11 reflects the frequency of participation in sports activities related to the female students do not like sports activities because it is only suitable for men. 69.0% (N: 69) of students agreed with the statement while 8.0% (N: 8) of them disagreed. 23.0% (N: 23) of students were neutral with their answers.

49

12. I can usually make my mind up and stick to it. Table 4.4.12 STICK
Cumulative Percent 21.0 51.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 21 30 49 100 19 119

Percent 17.6 25.2 41.2 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 21.0 30.0 49.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.12

STICK
60

50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .79 Mean = 2.28 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

STICK

Figure 4.4.12 reflects the frequency of participation in sports activities related to they can usually make their mind up and stick to it. 49.0% (N: 49) of students agreed sticking to it. 21.0% (N: 21) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

50

13. I am not embarrassed to do type of sports activities do by men. Table 4.4.13 SHAME
Cumulative Percent 11.0 45.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 11 34 55 100 19 119

Percent 9.2 28.6 46.2 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 11.0 34.0 55.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.13

SHAME
60

50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .69 Mean = 2.44 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

SHAME
Figure 4.4.13 shows the frequency of participation in sports activities related to they do not embarrass to do some type of sports activities which are done by men. 55.0% (N: 55) of students agreed that they did not embarrass to do the sports activities. 11.0% (N: 11) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

51

14. Time is the thing that currently prevents me from participating in sports and activities. Table 4.4.14 TIME
Cumulative Percent 12.0 36.0 100.0

Valid

disagree neutral agree Total

Frequency 12 24 64 100 19 119

Percent 10.1 20.2 53.8 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 12.0 24.0 64.0 100.0

Missing Total

System

Figure 4.4.14

TIME
70 60

50

40

30

20

Frequency

10 0 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

Std. Dev = .70 Mean = 2.52 N = 100.00

TIME

Figure 4.4.14 shows the frequency of participation in sports activities related to the time spent, which time is the thing that currently prevents them from participating in sports activities. 64.0% (N: 64) of students agreed that time was the thing that currently prevented them from participating the activities. 12.0% (N: 12) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

52

15. I prefer those activities in sports programs which do not make me tired and sweaty.

Table 4.4.15 TIRED


Cumulative Percent 10.0 34.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 10 24 66 100 19 119

Percent 8.4 20.2 55.5 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 10.0 24.0 66.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.15

TIRED
70 60

50

40

30

20

Frequency

10 0 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

Std. Dev = .67 Mean = 2.56 N = 100.00

TIRED

Figure 4.4.15 reflects the frequency of participation in sports activities related to those activities in sports programs which do not make them tired and sweaty. 66.0% (N: 66) of students agreed those activities in sports programs made them tired and sweaty. 10.0% (N: 10) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

53

16. I like to do easy sports activities. Table 4.4.16 EASY


Cumulative Percent 25.0 63.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 25 38 37 100 19 119

Percent 21.0 31.9 31.1 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 25.0 38.0 37.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.16

EASY
40

30

20

Frequency

10 Std. Dev = .78 Mean = 2.12 0 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 N = 100.00

EASY

Figure 4.4.16 shows the frequency of participation in sports activities related to they like to do easy sports activities. 37.0% (N: 37) of students agreed that they like to do easy sports activities. 25.0% (N: 25) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

54

17. I do not go to school to do sports activities, but to learn more important subjects. Table 4.4.17 SUBJECTS
Cumulative Percent 4.0 17.0 100.0

Valid

disagree neutral agree Total

Frequency 4 13 83 100 19 119

Percent 3.4 10.9 69.7 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 4.0 13.0 83.0 100.0

Missing Total

System

Figure 4.4.17

SUBJECTS
100

80

60

40

Frequency

20

Std. Dev = .50 Mean = 2.79 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

SUBJECTS

Figure 4.4.17 reflects the frequency of participation in sports activities related to they do not to go to school to do sports activities, but to learn more important subjects. 83.0% (N: 83) of students agreed that they went to school to learn more important subjects and not to do sports activities. 4.0% (N: 4) disagreed while the rest were neutral.

55

18. I find the sports activities more masculine than feminism. Table 4.4.18 GENDER
Cumulative Percent 40.0 63.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 40 23 37 100 19 119

Percent 33.6 19.3 31.1 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 40.0 23.0 37.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.18

GENDER
50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .88 Mean = 1.97 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

GENDER

Figure 4.4.18 reflects the frequency of participation in sports activities related to find the sports activities more masculine than feminism. 37.0% (N: 37) of students agreed that the sports activities were more masculine than feminism while 40.0% (N: 40) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

56

19. Getting active will help me look and feel better about myself. Table 4.4.19 ACTIVE
Cumulative Percent 7.0 30.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 7 23 70 100 19 119

Percent 5.9 19.3 58.8 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 7.0 23.0 70.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.19

ACTIVE
80

60

40

Frequency

20 Std. Dev = .61 Mean = 2.63 0 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 N = 100.00

ACTIVE

Figure 4.4.19 reflects the frequency of participation in sports activities related to get active will help them look and feel better about themselves. 70.0% (N: 70) of students agreed that getting active will help them look and feel better. 23.0% (N: 23) of students were neutral and 7.0% (N: 7) of them disagreed.

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20. My schoolwork gets in the way of my sports activities. Table 4.4.20 HOMEWORK
Cumulative Percent 13.0 54.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 13 41 46 100 19 119

Percent 10.9 34.5 38.7 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 13.0 41.0 46.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.20

HOMEWORK
50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .70 Mean = 2.33 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

HOMEWORK

Figure 4.4.20 shows the frequency of participation in sports activities related to their schoolwork gets in the way of their sports activities. 46.0% (N: 46) of students agreed that their schoolwork gets in the way of their sports activities. 13.0% (N: 13) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

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21. Sports activities consume a lot of time Table 4.4.21 TIME


Cumulative Percent 12.0 36.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 12 24 64 100 19 119

Percent 10.1 20.2 53.8 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 12.0 24.0 64.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.21

PERIOD
70 60

50

40

30

20

Frequency

10 0 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

Std. Dev = .70 Mean = 2.52 N = 100.00

PERIOD

Figure 4.4.21 shows the frequency of participation in sports activities related to the recreational activities consume a lot of time. 64.0% (N: 64) of students agreed that the recreational activities consumed a lot of time. 12.0% (N: 12) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

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22. I like sport activity which is challenging Table 4.4.22 HARDER


Cumulative Percent 20.0 64.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 20 44 36 100 19 119

Percent 16.8 37.0 30.3 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 20.0 44.0 36.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.22

HARDER
50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .73 Mean = 2.16 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

HARDER

Figure 4.4.22 shows the frequency of participation in sports activities related to they like sports activities which are challenging. 36.0% (N: 36) of students agreed that they liked sports activities which were challenging. 20.0% (N: 20) of students disagreed and the rest were neutral.

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23. I would teach myself a new skill, practice and see how good I can be Table 4.4.23 PRACTICE
Cumulative Percent 13.0 54.0 100.0

Valid

disagree neutral agree Total

Frequency 13 41 46 100 19 119

Percent 10.9 34.5 38.7 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 13.0 41.0 46.0 100.0

Missing Total

System

Figure 4.4.23

PRACTICE
50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .70 Mean = 2.33 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

PRACTICE

Figure 4.4.23 shows the frequency of participation in sports activities related to the students will teach themselves a new skill, practice and see how good they can be. 46.0% (N: 46) of students agreed that they would teach themselves a new skill, practice and how good they could be while 13.0% (N: 13) of students did not agree and the rest were neutral.

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24. I enjoy playing sports during Physical Education period. Table 4.4.24 ENJOY
Cumulative Percent 14.0 44.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 14 30 56 100 19 119

Percent 11.8 25.2 47.1 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 14.0 30.0 56.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.24

ENJOY
60

50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .73 Mean = 2.42 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

ENJOY

Figure 4.4.24 reflects the frequency of participation in sports activities related to enjoy playing sports during Physical Education period.56.0% (N: 56) of students agreed that they enjoyed playing sports during Physical Education period. 30.0% (N: 30) of students were neutral and 14.0% (N: 14) of them disagreed.

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25. Female students like sports to keep themselves fit and healthy. Table 4.4.25 HEALTHY
Cumulative Percent 16.0 49.0 100.0

Valid

disagree neutral agree Total

Frequency 16 33 51 100 19 119

Percent 13.4 27.7 42.9 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 16.0 33.0 51.0 100.0

Missing Total

System

Figure 4.4.25

HEALTHY
60

50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .74 Mean = 2.35 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

HEALTHY

Figure 4.4.25 reflects the frequency of participation in sports activities related to they like sports to keep themselves fit and healthy.. 51.0% (N: 51) of students agreed that sports kept themselves fit and healthy. 33.0% (N: 33) of students were neutral and 16.0% (N: 16) of them disagreed.

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26. I would only play sports if the teacher or coach is a woman. Table 4.4.26 TEACHER OR COACH
Cumulative Percent 18.0 56.0 100.0

Valid

disagree neutral agree Total

Frequency 18 38 44 100 19 119

Percent 15.1 31.9 37.0 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 18.0 38.0 44.0 100.0

Missing Total

System

Figure 4.4.26

COACH
50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .75 Mean = 2.26 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

COACH

Figure 4.4.26 reflects the frequency of participation in sports activities related to play sports if the teacher or coach is a woman. 44.0% (N: 44) of students agreed that would only play sports if the teacher or coach was a woman. 38.0% (N: 38) of students were neutral and 18.0% (N: 18) of them disagreed.

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27. Female students can have sports activities together with male students. Table 4.4.27 TOGETHER WITH MALE
Cumulative Percent 15.0 64.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 15 49 36 100 19 119

Percent 12.6 41.2 30.3 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 15.0 49.0 36.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.27

TOGETHER
60

50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .69 Mean = 2.21 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

TOGETHER

Figure 4.4.27 reflects the frequency of participation in sports activities related to female students can have sports activities together with male students. 36.0% (N: 36) of students agreed that they could have sports activities together with male students. 49.0% (N: 49) of students were neutral and 15.0% (N: 15) of them disagreed.

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28. I am forced to play sports which I do not like. Table 4.4.28 FORCED
Cumulative Percent 19.0 60.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 19 41 40 100 19 119

Percent 16.0 34.5 33.6 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 19.0 41.0 40.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.28

FORCED
50

40

30

20

Frequency

10

Std. Dev = .74 Mean = 2.21 N = 100.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

FORCED

Figure 4.4.28 reflects the frequency of participation in sports activities related to be forced to play sports which they do not like. 40.0% (N: 40) of students agreed they were forced to play sports which they did not like. 41.0% (N: 41) of students were neutral and 19.0% (N: 19) of them disagreed.

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29. Female students always fussy of the sports attire they have to wear Table 4.4.29 FUSSY
Cumulative Percent 11.0 42.0 100.0

Valid

disagree neutral agree Total

Frequency 11 31 58 100 19 119

Percent 9.2 26.1 48.7 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 11.0 31.0 58.0 100.0

Missing Total

System

Figure 4.4.29

FUSSY
70 60

50

40

30

20

Frequency

10 0 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

Std. Dev = .69 Mean = 2.47 N = 100.00

FUSSY

Figure 4.4.29 reflects the frequency of participation in sports activities related to female students always fussy of the sports attire they have to wear. 58.0% (N: 58) of students agreed that they were always fussy of the sports attire they had to wear. 31.0% (N: 31) of students were neutral and 11.0% (N: 11) of them disagreed.

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30. I would choose to wear my preferred sports attire if I have the choice Table 4.4.30 SPORT ATTIRE
Cumulative Percent 10.0 38.0 100.0

Frequency Valid disagree neutral agree Total Missing Total System 10 28 62 100 19 119

Percent 8.4 23.5 52.1 84.0 16.0 100.0

Valid Percent 10.0 28.0 62.0 100.0

Figure 4.4.30

ATTIRE
70 60

50

40

30

20

Frequency

10 0 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

Std. Dev = .67 Mean = 2.52 N = 100.00

ATTIRE

Figure 4.4.30 reflects the frequency of participation in sports activities related to choose to wear their preferred sports attire if they have the choice. 62.0% (N: 62) of students agreed that would choose to wear they preferred sports attire if they had the choice. 28.0% (N: 28) of students were neutral and 10.0% (N: 10) of them disagreed.

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CHAPTER 5

DISCUSSION

5.0

INTRODUCTION

This chapter will provide a discussion of data that had been collected by the researcher. The discussion will begin with an overview of the overall female students participation in sports activities and will continue with all sub-areas that linked with those factors.

5.1

FACTORS THAT FEMALE STUDENTS INVOLVE IN THE SPORTS ACTIVITIES

An analysis was made for sub-area of participation in sports activities in interpretation of factors that female students involve in the sports activities. Table 4.4.4 obtained 56.0% (N: 56) students from this study answering agree for statement Combination of several recreational activities makes me feel more interested. It showed that variety of activities in one session can get students participation in sports activities. Table 4.3.1.1 and table 4.3.1.2 show the analysis of factors of female students involve in sports activities. The mean of the factors is 2.03 (+0.75) and 0.3 of the mean difference. The result shows that the t-value is 0.396, df is 99 and two-tail significant is 0.693 which the difference is (p>0.05). There is no significant different among the factors t = 0.396, p>0.05. The variety of activities can avoid student feel bored to do the same activities for a long period of time (Guthrie, R. S. Costa, M. D. 2004). 5.2 SPORTS ACTIVITES WHICH ARE SUITABLE FOR FEMALE STUDENTS

The same result showed for sub-area interest toward recreational activity in interpretation of sports activities which are suitable for female students. Table 4.4.11

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has been categorized positive whereby 69.0% (N: 69) students answering disagree for statement I do not like sports activities because it is only suitable for men. It was supported by Hannon and Ratliffe (2006) in their study to increase girls participation in sports activities. Table 4.4.22 also showed that 36.0% (N: 36) students like sports activities which are challenging. One of the reason is students can feel something that they never done before and get a new knowledge and experience. Contrary for the result of the statement I find the sports activities more masculine than feminism. Majority of the students agreed that the statement. It might be certain of sports activities looking so rough, traditionally sports activities ware monopoly by the man so most of the activities are based on their level of challenge. Sports and outdoor activities have been claimed by women as a symbol of empowerment. Table 4.3.2.1 and table 4.3.2.2 show the analysis of sports activities which are suitable for female students. The mean of the sports activities is 2.23 (+0.76) and 0.23 of the mean difference. The result shows that the t-value is 3.012, df is 99 and two-tail significant is 0.03 which the difference is p<0.05. There is no significant different among the sports activities t = 3.012, p>0.05. But at the same time, womens program has been inferior to mens, making the women involved feel frustrated and less powerful (Deem, R. 2002).

5.3 SPENDING TIME FOR BOTH SPORTS ACTIVITIES AND STUDY

In addition, the same result also can be observed for sub-area of interest toward recreational activity related to spending time for both sports activities and study. Table 4.4.14 showed that students have positive participation in sports activities whereby the finding that 64.0% (N: 64) students agreed that the time was the thing that currently prevented them from participating in sports activities. The students perceived their academic assignment prevent from joining the recreational activity. The main

constraint for students interest is the lack of time. To alleviate this, they would like to

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see organized activities specifically designed for students that are promoted well in advance so that they can schedule it into their busy schedules (Cashmore, E. 2005).

5.4 TYPE OF SPORTS ACTIVITIES THAT FEMALE STUDENTS LIKE

Lastly, the result for sub-area of participation in sports activities in related to types of recreational activity like to do by women. Table 4.4.13 obtained 55.0% (N: 55)

students from this study answering agree for statement I am do not embarrassed to do type of recreational activity do by men. This is supported by Schmalz and Kerstetter (2007). More girls participated in masculine sports than girls participated in feminine sports.

5.5 RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON RESEARCH FINDINGS

Based on research findings, there are several recommendations can be suggested to improved students participation in sports activities. The most important way to do that is to foster high interest participation in sports among students. Even though most of the student showed interest towards sports activities, some students did not participate even they have to or pretended to be ill. This problem will be solved if collaboration between schools, teachers and students exist in order to promote high interest participation in sports activities among students. All parties should encourage students to engage sports activities which eventually will contribute good development for the students. Administrators should play their main role to encourage the students and promote them to engage in sports activities by organize it out of the students schedule.

In addition, each programme must have its own committee to in charge the sports activities for their single members of the programme. It is to ensure the leisure time of the students will be fulfilling with the beneficial activity. For the first time, the participation should be compulsory to make them feel the experienced and gain the

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knowledge. By the first experience it will make the students feel interest in the sports activities. They have to manage themselves and their group members to ensure that activities will be successful.

According to the findings for sub-area of interpretation gender barriers, whereby the sports activities more masculine than feminism. It can be recommended that variety of activities should be offered to the female students development can offer avenues for the students to resist social stereotypes.

5.6 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

Based on the findings of this study, additional research is needed in the area of female students participation in sports activities. The insights gathered from this study, although helpful, are in no way exhaustive. Therefore it is imperative that future research in this area to be continued.

An obvious starting point would be to further investigate is to increase the sample of this study. Further research can be carried out on every single class in SK Kampong Bahagia Teluk Intan, Perak as well to get better insights in the area of participation in sports activities. Otherwise, another recommendation for future research is the replication of this study with various populations from various locations. More specifically, female students participation in sports activities should continue to be examined according to school location including other districts and according to student co-curriculum background.

Another important factor to be considered in the future research is the method used in obtaining research data that gives substantial impact to research outcome. Contributing questionnaire is the easiest and fastest way to get information from the research sample and that can be improved by having more questions to get in depth survey for the research topic. Besides, researcher may include interview session

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between students as an additional method to gather more information and get better insights in this area of participation in sports activities.

Based on the recommendations that have mentioned above, it is hoped that more local researchers will commit to study in this area and get better insights about it to make some necessary improvement of sports activities in the future.

5.7 CONCLUSION

From this study, it is indicated that overall female students are participating in sports activities. Meanwhile, sub area of interpretation sports activities in gender barrier, the time spend to do sports activities and the attraction factors that make students interest in sports activities showed positive value.

To conclude, it would appear that this project has been successful in meeting the objectives set out in the beginning. The research carried out disproved the hypothesis that sport attire is a contributory factor to female students low participation rates. To improve the project further research is necessary using a larger broader scale to ensure that this is the case. It could be that the schools involved in this study may be exceptional cases. The influence of a good teacher or the fact that the schools may have a good spirit and ethos may have influenced the overall result of this study. Furthermore in such a piece of research as this it is important to consider the influence of peer pressure on the results of the primary research. A number of the respondents may have been influenced by others and feel it necessary to agree in order to fit in with the group. In a school it is very likely that this could have been the case.

The conclusions can be drawn from this study offer insight into female students participation in sports activities and also factors which contribute to those interests. Although, this study will contribute to the research area, additional and in-depth investigations are needed for better finding.

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