M e a n i n g o f I C T: You see the letters ICT everywhere - particularly in education. But what does it mean? Read our brief introduction to this important and fastchanging subject. ICT is an acronym that stands for Information Communications Technology However, apart from explaining an acronym, there is not a universally accepted defininition of ICT? Why? Because the concepts, methods and applications involved in ICT are constantly evolving on an almost daily basis. Its difficult to keep up with the changes - they happen so fast. Lets focus on the three words behind ICT:


A good way to think about ICT is to consider all the uses of digital technology that already exist to help individuals, businesses and organizations use information. ICT covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form. For example, personal computers, digital television, email, robots. So ICT is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission or receipt of digital data. Importantly, it is also concerned with the way these different uses can work with each other. In business, ICT is often categorised into two broad types of product: (1) The traditional computer-based technologies (things you can typically do on a personal computer or using computers at home or at work); and


(2) The more recent. and fast-growing range of digital communication technologies (which allow people and organisations to communicate and share information digitally) Let's take a brief look at these two categories to demonstrate the kinds of products and ideas that are covered by ICT: INTRODUCTION:4 .

tourism. law. banking. a lack of training among established teaching practitioners. The way these fields operate today is vastly different from the ways they operated in the past. But when one looks at education. engineering and architecture. travel. there seems to have been an uncanny lack of influence and far less change than other fields have experienced. 2002). There have been a number of factors impeding the wholesale uptake of ICT in education across all sectors. business. These have included a growing need to explore efficiencies in terms of program delivery. Oliver & Short. Kennedy & McNaught. Oliver & Towers. Soloway and Prior. a lack of motivation and need among teachers to adopt ICT as teaching tools (Starr. the opportunities for flexible delivery provided by ICTs (eg. the capacity of technology to provide support for customized educational programs to meet the needs of individual learners (eg. A number of people have attempted to explore this lack of activity and influence (eg. the impact of ICT across the past two or three decades has been enormous. But in recent times. factors have emerged which have strengthened and encouraged moves to adopt ICTs into classrooms and learning settings. 1997). 1997). 2001). As we move into the 21st century. These have included such factors as a lack of funding to support the purchase of the technology. If one was to compare such fields as medicine. and the growing use of the Internet and WWW as tools for information access and communication (eg. 1999). Collis. these factors and many others are bringing strong forces to bear on the adoption of ICTs in education and contemporary trends suggest we will soon see large scale changes in the way 5 .Information and communication technology (ICT) is a force that has changed many aspects of the way we live. 1996.

Such curricula tend to require:  access to a variety of information sources. Stephenson. the paper will explore the impact both current and emerging information and communication technologies will be likely to have in coming years on what is learned. Contemporary settings are now favouring curricula that promote competency and performance. Curricula are starting to emphasise capabilities and to be concerned more with how the information will be used than with what the information is. when and where learning will take place and how the learning will is planned and delivered as a consequence of the opportunities and affordances of ICT.  student-centred learning settings based on information access and inquiry. For many years course have been written around textbooks. This paper seeks to explore the likely changes we will see in education as ICT acts as a powerful agent to change many of the educational practices to which we have become accustomed. 2001). The impact of ICT on what is learned:Conventional teaching has emphasised content.  access to a variety of information forms and types. 6 . A. Teachers have taught through lectures and presentations interspersed with tutorials and learning activities designed to consolidate and rehearse the content. Competency and performance-based curricula The moves to competency and performance-based curricula are well supported and encouraged by emerging instructional technologies (eg. In particular.

Contemporary ICTs are able to provide strong support for all these requirements and there are now many outstanding examples of world class settings for competency and performance-based curricula that make sound use of the affordances of these technologies (eg.2). INFORMATION LITERACY Another way in which emerging ICTs are impacting on the content of education curricula stems from the ways in which ICTs are dominating so much of contemporary life and work. Oliver. learning environments centred on problem-centred and inquiry-based activities. 2000). 1999. the capability to support these quality learning settings will continue to grow. p. many restrictions and impediments of the past have been removed. authentic settings and examples. locate and evaluate relevant information in order to engage with it or to solve a problem arising from it” (McCausland. As students and teachers gain access to higher bandwidths. “the capacity to identify and issue and then to identify. For many years. more direct forms of communication and access to sharable resources. And new technologies will continue to drive these forms of learning further. Already there has emerged a need for educational institutions to ensure that graduates are able to display appropriate levels of information literacy. teachers wishing to adopt such curricula have been limited by their resources and tools but with the proliferation and widespread availability of contemporary ICTs. and teachers as coaches and mentors rather than content experts. B. Wache & Berk. The drive to promote such developments stems from general moves among institutions to ensure their graduates demonstrate not 7 .

THE IMPACT OF ICT ON HOW STUDENTS LEARN Just as technology is influencing and supporting what is being learned in schools and universities. The growing use of ICT as an instructional medium is changing and will likely continue to change many of the strategies employed by both teachers and students in the learning process. to be able to negotiate outcomes. The following sections describe particular forms of learning that are gaining prominence in universities and schools worldwide. Students have been trained to let others present to them the information that forms the curriculum. to manage time. Through technology-facilitated approaches. Moves from content-centred curricula to competency-based curricula are associated with moves away from teacher-centred forms of delivery to student-centred forms.only skills and knowledge in their subject domains but also general attributes and generic skills. Traditionally generic skills have involved such capabilities as an ability to reason formally.In the past students have become very comfortable to learning through transmissive modes. 8 . The growing use of ICTs as tools of every day life have seen the pool of generic skills expanded in recent years to include information literacy and it is highly probable that future developments and technology applications will see this set of skills growing even more. project management. to solve problems. and collaboration and teamwork skills. so too is it supporting changes to the way students are learning. contemporary learning settings now encourage students to take responsibility for their own learning . to communicate effectively.

Evidence of this today is manifested in: The proliferation of capability. The theories of learning that hold the greatest sway today are those based on constructivist principles (eg. Internet users are able to choose the experts from whom they will learn The use of ICT in educational settings. 1996). SUPPORTING KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION The emergence of ICTs as learning technologies has coincided with a growing awareness and recognition of alternative theories for learning. ICTs by their very nature are tools that encourage and support independent learning. the influence of the technology on supporting how students learn will continue to increase.A. These principles posit that learning is achieved by the active construction of knowledge supported by various perspectives within meaningful contexts.CENTRED LEARNING Technology has the capacity to promote and encourage the transformation of education from a very teacher directed enterprise to one which supports more student-centred models. by itself acts as a catalyst for change in this domain. Reeves & Jonassen. competency and outcomes focused curricula  Moves towards problem-based learning  Increased use of the Web as an information source. Vygotsky. In constructivist theories. 1978). STUDENT. 9 . social interactions are seen to play a critical role in the processes of learning and cognition (eg. B. 1996). Duffy & Cunningham. Students using ICTs for learning purposes become immersed in the process of learning and as more and more students use computers as information sources and cognitive tools (eg.

1996). 1998). Typically these forms of teaching have revolved around the planned transmission of a body of knowledge followed by some forms of interaction with the content as a means to consolidate the knowledge acquisition. student centered settings and by enabling learning to be related to context and to practice (eg. The impact of ICT on when and where students learn:In the past educational institutions have provided little choice for students in terms of the method and manner in which programs have been delivered. any use of ICT in learning settings can act to support various aspects of knowledge construction and as more and more students employ ICTs in their learning processes. The strengths of constructivism lie in its emphasis on learning as a process of personal understanding and the development of meaning in ways which are active and interpretative. the more pronounced the impact of this will become. 1998. Learning approaches using contemporary ICTs provide many opportunities for constructivist learning through their provision and support for resource-based. Lebow. Jonassen & Reeves. the conventional process of teaching has revolved around teachers planning and leading students through a series of instructional sequences to achieve a desired learning outcome. Berge. Students have typically been forced to accept what has been delivered and 10 . 1993. Contemporary learning theory is based on the notion that learning is an active process of constructing knowledge rather than acquiring knowledge and that instruction is the process by which this knowledge construction is supported rather than a process of knowledge transmission (Duffy & Cunningham. 1996). As mentioned previously. In this domain learning is viewed as the construction of meaning rather than as the memorisation of facts (eg. Barron.In the past.

The scope and extent of this activity is demonstrated in some of the examples below. These choices extend from when students can choose to learn to where they learn. • The communications capabilities of modern technologies provide opportunities for many learners to enroll in courses offered by external institutions rather than those situated locally. has extended the scope of this activity and whereas previously off-campus delivery was an option for students who were unable to attend campuses. The advantages of education and training at the point of need relate not only to convenience but include cost savings associated with travel and time away from work. many more students are able to make this choice through technology-facilitated learning settings. • In many instances traditional classroom learning has given way to learning in work-based settings with students able to access courses and programs from their workplace. A. however. 1996). Use of the technology. Educational institutions have been offering programs at a distance for many years and there has been a vast amount of research and development associated with establishing effective practices and procedures in off-campus teaching and learning. ICT applications provide many options and choices and many institutions are now creating competitive edges for themselves through the choices they are offering students. ANY PLACE LEARNING:The concept of flexibility in the delivery place of educational programs is not new (eg.institutions have tended to be quite staid and traditional in terms of the delivery of their programs. today. 11 . and also situation and application of the learning activities within relevant and meaningful contexts. Moore & Kearsley.

Young. • Through online technologies learning has become an activity that is no longer set within programmed schedules and slots. cultures and perspectives. technology-facilitated educational programs also remove many of the temporal constraints that face learners with special needs (eg. through a number of different institutions. ANYTIME LEARNING:In concert with geographical flexibility. This flexibility has heightened the availability of just-in-time learning and provided learning opportunities for many more learners who previously were constrained by other commitments (eg. anytime and any place. Moore & Kearsley. Students are starting to appreciate the capability to undertake education anywhere. There are now countless ways for students completing undergraduate degrees for example. B. 12 . 1996). an activity that provides considerable diversity and choice for students in the programs they complete. • The freedoms of choice provided by programs that can be accessed at any place are also supporting the delivery of programs with units and courses from a variety of institutions. to study units for a single degree. Learners are free to participate in learning activities when time permits and these freedoms have greatly increased the opportunities for many students to participate in formal programs.These opportunities provide such advantages as extended course offerings and eclectic class cohorts comprised of students of differing backgrounds. 2002).

Choosing how much time will be used within the 24x7 envelope and what periods of time are challenges that will face the educators of the future (eg. The continued and increased use of ICTs in education in years to come. As ICT access increases among students so too will these opportunities. Mobile technologies and seamless communications technologies support 24x7 teaching and learning. teachers are also finding the capabilities of teaching at any time to be opportunistic and able to be used to advantage. changes in the costing and economics of course delivery. These include changes to the makeup of the teacher pool. 13 . • As well as learning at anytime. Advancements in learning opportunities tend to be held back by the ICT capabilities of the lowest common denominator. Young. changes to the profile of who are the learners in our courses and paramount in all of this.• The wide variety of technologies that support learning are able to provide asynchronous supports for learning so that the need for real-time participation can be avoided while the advantages of communication and collaboration with other learners is retained. namely the students with the least access to ICT. will serve to increase the temporal and geographical opportunities that are currently experienced. 2002). EMERGING ISSUES:A number of other issues have emerged from the uptake of technology whose impacts have yet to be fully explored.

the role of teacher in an educational institution was a role given to only highly qualified people. 14 . for example. The changing role of the teacher has seen increased opportunities for others to participate in the process including workplace trainers. today we have a much expanded pool of teachers with varying roles able to provide support for learners in a variety of flexible settings. This trend seems set to continue and to grow with new ICT developments and applications. there are now opportunities to extend the teaching pool beyond this specialist set to include many more people. education has been a privilege and an opportunity that often was unavailable to many students whose situation did not fit the mainstream. EXPANDING THE POOL OF STUDENTS:In the past. The pool of students is changing and will continue to change as more and more people who have a need for education and training are able to take advantage of the increased opportunities. Littlejohn et al. And within this changed pool of teachers will come changed responsibilities and skill sets for future teaching involving high levels of ICT and the need for more facilitative than didactic teaching roles (eg. 2002). Through the flexibilities provided by technology. Through the affordances and capabilities of technology. Interesting opportunities are now being observed among. B. mentors. school students studying university courses to overcome limitations in their school programs and workers undertaking courses from their desktops. EXPANDING THE POOL OF TEACHERS:In the past. With technology-facilitated learning.. many students who previously were unable to participate in educational activities are now finding opportunities to do so. specialists from the workplace and others.A.

Likewise costs associated with delivery have not been found to diminish as expected. We may have to brace ourselves for the advantages and affordances which will improve the quality of education in the near future to also increase components of the cost. Compared to traditional forms of off-campus learning. infrastructure. We have already seen a number of virtual universities built around technology delivery alone (eg. www.jiu. The costs would come from the ability to create courses with fixed establishment costs. There appear to have been many underestimated costs in such areas as course development and course delivery. The reality is that few institutions have been able to realize these aims for economy. The main reason for this has been the need to maintain a relatively stable student to staff ratio and the expectation of students that they will have access to teachers in their courses and programs. technology-facilitated learning has proven to be quite expensive in all areas of consideration. The costs associated with the development of high quality technologyfacilitated learning materials are quite course development and course delivery. Jones International University. 15 . THE COST OF EDUCATION:Traditional thinking has always been that technology-facilitated learning would provide economies and efficiencies that would see significant reductions in the costs associated with the delivery of educational programs. and for which there would be savings in delivery through large scale uptake.C. It has found to be more than a matter of repackaging existing materials and large scale reengineering has been found to be necessary with large scale costs. for example technology-based courses.

Summary and Conclusions This paper has sought to explore the role of ICT in education as we progress into the 21st century. The various influences that have been discussed provide examples of an agent that has the capacity to influence education at all levels and hence to be an agent supporting and encouraging considerable change. for whom the change will be the greatest. it is interesting to speculate among the stakeholders. Extrapolating current 16 . When the future of education is considered in this way. Clearly the stakeholders for whom technology would seem to proffer the most influence and change are the students. In particular the paper has argued that ICTs have impacted on educational practice in education to date in quite small ways but that the impact will grow considerably in years to come and that ICT will become a strong agent for change among many educational practices. development and delivery of educational programs in the coming years. So while institutions are pondering how they will be influenced in years to come.STAKEHOLDERS AND INFLUENCES:The ideas that have been discussed in this paper suggest that while ICTs may not have had a large impact to date. whatever the outcomes. their use will grow to play a significant role in many aspects of the design. Table 1 lists the principal stakeholders and suggests how the various issues discussed in the paper might influence each. the beneficiaries of the activity and change will be the students. This would seem to be the outcome everyone would want to see.

it will be important as it is in every other walk of life to ensure that the educational research and development dollar is sustained so that education at large can learn from within and that experiences and activities in different institutions and sectors can inform and guide others without the continual need for reinvention of the wheel. • How it is learned. 17 . the continued use and development of ICTs within education will have a strong impact on: • What is learned. • Who is learning and who is teaching.activities and practices. To ensure that the opportunities and advantages are realized. • When and where learning takes place. The upshot of all this activity is that we should see marked improvements in many areas of educational endeavour. Learning should become more relevant to stakeholders’ needs. Once again ICTs serve to provide the means for much of this activity to realize the potential it holds. quality of programs as measured by fitness for purpose should continue to grow as stakeholder groups find the offerings matched to their needs and expectations. learning outcomes should become more deliberate and targeted. At the same time. and learning opportunities should diversity in what is learned and who is learning.


virtual classroom opportunities and digital collaboration. E-learning applications and processes include Web-based learning. and CD-ROM. audio or video tape. streaming video and audio. The information and communication systems. It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes media in the form of text. computer-based learning.E. even as advances continue in regard to devices and curriculum. intranet/extranet.[1] The term will still most likely be utilized to reference out-of-classroom and inclassroom educational experiences via technology. image. animation. satellite TV. 19 . whether networked or not. E-learning is essentially the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge.LEARNING:- E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. serve as specific media to implement the learning process. Content is delivered via the Internet.

and eLearning. services and support being identified as the five key sectors of the e-learning industry. such as making classroom lecture Powerpoint slides available to students through a course web site or learning management system. There is a trend to move towards blended learning services. with consulting. i. The terms will be utilized throughout this article to indicate their validity under the broader terminology of E-learning Market The worldwide e-learning industry is estimated to be worth over $48 billion according to conservative estimates. Today one can still find these terms being used. Bates and Poole (2003)[1] and the OECD (2005)[2] suggest that different types or forms of e-learning can be considered as a continuum. to laptop programs.e. along with variations of e-learning such as elearning.[2] Developments in internet and multimedia technologies are the basic enabler of e-learning. to hybrid learning. where classroom time is reduced but not eliminated. where computer-based activities are integrated with practical or classroombased situations. content. from no e-learning. with more time devoted to 20 .Abbreviations like CBT (Computer-Based Training). IBT (Internet-Based Training) or WBT (Web-Based Training) have been used as synonyms to elearning. E-LEANING USED IN EDUCATION Approaches to e-learning services E-learning services have evolved since computers were first used in education. through classroom aids. technologies. Elearning. where students are required to bring laptops to class and use them as part of a face-to-face class. no use of computers and/or the Internet for teaching and learning.

This classification is somewhat similar to that of the Sloan Commission reports on the status of e-learning. While this can refer to the use of computers in a classroom. sometimes abbreviated to CBL. Bates and Poole argue that when instructors say they are using e-learning. and it is often by no means clear even in peer reviewed research publications which form of e-learning is being discussed. laptops and hybrid learning. through to fully online learning. Whyte researched about the ever increasing role that computers would play in higher education. the term more broadly refers to a structured environment in which computers are used for teaching purposes. in addition to data management. This evolution. home. slow devices taking up much space in the classroom. this most often refers to the use of technology as classroom aids. 'blended learning' can cover classroom aids. has been realized. Computer-based learning Computer-based learning. which is a form of distance education. to include computer-supported collaborative learning. web supplemented and web dependent to reflect increasing intensity of technology use. while 'distributed learning' can incorporate either hybrid or fully online learning. Cassandra B. refers to the use of computers as a key component of the educational environment.[citation needed] which refer to web enhanced. there has been a gradual increase in fully online learning (see Market above). although over time.[3] However. The type of computers have changed over the years from cumbersome. In the Bates and Poole continuum. It can be seen then that e-learning can describe a wide range of applications. 21 .

For this reason they are often used to teach static processes. Assessments are easily scored and recorded via online 22 . such as using software or completing mathematical equations. The term Computer-Based Training is often used interchangeably with Web-based training (WBT) with the primary difference being the delivery method. radial button. much like reading an online book or manual. Assessing learning in a CBT usually comes in the form of multiple choice questions. COMPUTER-BASED TRAINING Computer-Based Trainings (CBTs) are self-paced learning activities accessible via a computer or handheld device.and office to laptops and handheld devices that are more portable in form and size and this minimalization of technology devices will continue. WBTs are delivered via the Internet using a web browser. simulation or other interactive means. or other assessments that can be easily scored by a computer such as drag-and-drop. CBTs typically present content in a linear fashion. Where CBTs are typically delivered via CD-ROM.

Typically the creation of effective CBTs requires enormous resources. students are able to acquire knowledge and skills through methods that are much more conducive to individual learning preferences. CBTs offer user-friendly solutions for satisfying continuing education requirements. can easily be embedded to enhance the learning. CBTs pose some learning challenges as well. not typically offered by any other means. the lack of human interaction can limit both the type of content that can be presented as well as the type of assessment that can be performed. or classroom-based instruction. CBTs provide learning stimulus beyond traditional learning methodology from textbook. including videos or animations. Many learning organizations are beginning to use smaller CBT/WBT activities as part of a broader online learning program which may include online discussion or other interactive elements. Instead of limiting students to attending courses or reading printed manuals. manual. Users are often able to print completion records in the form of certificates.[citation needed] CBTs can be a good alternative to printed learning materials since rich media. Another advantage to CBTs are that they can be easily distributed to a wide audience at a relatively low cost once the initial development is completed For example. [citation needed] For example. The software for developing CBTs (such as Flash or Adobe Director) is often more complex than a subject matter expert or teacher is able to use. 23 . In addition. CBTs offer visual learning benefits through animation or video. providing immediate end-user feedback and completion status.

which is often given the neologism E-Learning 1. a “Smart Board system provides 24 . It is widely agreed to distinguish collaborative learning from the traditional 'direct transfer' model in which the instructor is assumed to be the distributor of knowledge and skills.COMPUTER-SUPPORTEDCOLLABORATIVE LEARNING (CSCL) Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is one of the most promising innovations to improve teaching and learning with the help of modern information and communication technology.0.0. According to Johnson-Eilola. In Datacloud: Toward a New Theory of Online Work. Most recent developments in CSCL have been called E-Learning 2. but the concept of collaborative or group learning whereby instructional methods are designed to encourage or require students to work together on learning tasks has existed much longer. Johndan JohnsonEilola describes a specific computer-supported collaboration space: The Smart Board. even though this direct transfer method most accurately reflects Computer-Based Learning systems (CBL).

Teachers and/or students are able to draw on the board using different colors. this space allows for more than one user. This makes it easy to show the information in its original form. it invites multiple users. Users have the opportunity to engage with—inhabit—the technology by direct manipulation. Moreover. In Datacloud. intelligent whiteboard surface for work” (79). He explains how the Smart Board system offers an information space that allows his students to engage in active collaboration. and how information spaces must be shared with others rather than being private. This can help focus ones attention on particular areas of the screen. 3) The work produced is often “dynamic and contingent” (82). Johnson-Eilola asserts that “[w]e are attempting to understand how users move within information spaces. lived within rather than simply visited” (82). fun. When using smart boards teaching and learning become a more active experience for both the student and the teacher. how users can exist within information spaces rather than merely gaze at them.[5] When using smart boards information is able to be introduced to students in a new. touchscreen. 25 . essentially. rear projection. He makes three distinct claims regarding the functionality of the technology: 1) The Smart Board allows users to work with large amounts of information.[5] Johnson-Eilola further explains that with the Smart Board “…information work becom[es] a odied experience” (81). 2) It offers an information space that invites active collaboration. and engaging way.a 72-inch. The marks made on the smart board are able to be erased.

Whyte.Locus of Control remains an important consideration in successful engagement of E-learners whether using the Smart Board or another Elearning modality. TECHNOLOGY ISSUES 26 . Information about motivational tendencies can help educators. The field of TEL therefore applies to the support of any learning activity through technology. psychologists. the continuing attention to aspects of motivation and success in regard to Elearning should be kept in context and concert with other educational efforts. independent of time. According to the work of Cassandra B.[6] TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LEARNING (TEL) Technology-Enhanced Learning Technology enhanced learning (TEL) has the goal to provide socio-technical innovations (also improving efficiency and cost effectiveness) for e-learning practices. place and pace. and technologists develop insights to help students perform better academically. regarding individuals and organizations.

Educational technology Along with the terms learning technology. E-Learning pioneer Bernard Luskin argues that the "E" must be understood to have broad meaning if eLearning is to be effective. also has implications beyond just the technology and refers to the actual learning that takes place using these systems. E-learning is naturally suited to distance learning and flexible learning. and Educational Technology. energetic. as well as newer online-only colleges. the increasing tendency is to create a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) (which is sometimes combined with a Management Information System (MIS) to create a Managed Learning Environment) in which all aspects of a course are handled through a consistent user interface standard throughout the institution. instructional technology. the term is generally used to refer to the use of technology in learning in a much broader sense than the computer-based training or Computer Aided Instruction of the 1980s. It is also broader than the terms Online Learning or Online Education which generally refer to purely web-based learning. enthusiastic. E-learning. have 27 . emotional. but can also be used in conjunction with face-to-face teaching. excellent. and educational in addition to "electronic" that is a traditional national interpretation. In cases where mobile technologies are used. This broader interpretation allows for 21st century applications and brings learning and media psychology into the equation. A growing number of physical universities. extended. in which case the term Blended learning is commonly used. however. the term M-learning has become more common. In higher education especially. Luskin says that the "e" should be interpreted to mean exciting.

With the combination of video and audio. online textbook purchase. student governments and student newspapers. The term is also used extensively in the business sector where it generally refers to cost-effective online training. several universities offer online student support services. There are many screencasting tools available but the latest buzz is all about the web based screencasting tools which allow the users to create screencasts directly from their browser and make the video available online so that the viewers can stream the video directly. complete instructions. many are delivered completely online. In addition. something a classroom cannot always offer. The recent trend in the E-Learning sector is screencasting. While some programs require students to attend some campus classes or orientations. the expert can mimic the one on one experience of the classroom and deliver clear. From the learner's point of view this provides the ability to pause and rewind and gives the learner the advantage of moving at their own pace. such as online advising and registration. e-counseling.begun to offer a select set of academic degree and certificate programs via the Internet at a wide range of levels and in a wide range of disciplines. E-Learning can also refer to educational web sites such as those offering learning scenarios. worksheets and interactive exercises for children. COMMUNICATION LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES USED IN E- 28 . which may be more confusing when delivered via simple text instructions. The advantage of such tools is that it gives the presenter the ability to show his ideas and flow of thoughts rather than simply explain them.

Virtual classrooms and meetings can often use a mix of communication technologies. Students are able to 'write on the board' and even share their desktop. The idea here is that participants may engage in the exchange of ideas or information without the dependency of other participants involvement at the same time. Synchronous activities involve the exchange of ideas and information with one or more participants during the same period of time. microphone rights. A face to face discussion is an example of synchronous communications. Asynchronous activities use technologies such as blogs. Other communication technologies available in a virtual classroom include text notes.Communication technologies are generally categorized as asynchronous or synchronous. They have the opportunity to complete their work in a low stress environment. Asynchronous learning also gives students the ability to work at their own pace. Synchronous activities occur with all participants joining in at once. and breakout sessions. as with an online chat session or a virtual classroom or meeting. Electronic mail (Email) is also asynchronous in that mail can be sent or received without having both the participants’ involvement at the same time. This is particularly beneficial for students who have health problems. Breakout sessions allow the participants to work collaboratively in a small group setting to accomplish a task as well as allow the teacher to have private conversations with his or her students. when given rights by the teacher. and discussion boards. wikis. 29 . Participants in a virtual classroom use icons called emoticons to communicate feelings and responses to questions or statements.

internships. the writing community and the communication channels relate with the E-learning and the M-learning communities. 30 . Students also have access to an incredible variety of enrichment courses in online learning.In asynchronous online courses. Many activities. or work and still graduate with their class. students proceed at their own pace. and can participate in college courses. essential for the learners in these environments. sports. students can earn their diplomas more quickly. Both the communities provide a general overview of the basic learning models and the activities required for the participants to join the learning sessions across the virtual classroom or even across standard classrooms enabled by technology. or think about a question for awhile. they may do so without fearing that they will hold back the rest of the class. In many models. Through online courses. If they need to listen to a lecture a second time. require frequent chat sessions in the form of virtual classrooms and/or blog meetings. or repeat failed courses without the embarrassment of being in a class with younger students.


maintain and repair this equipment can be important to helping businesses remain productive. machinery and safety systems all rely on electronic devices and systems.THE SCHOOL OF ELECTRONICS TECHNOLOGY The School of Electronics Technology at ITT Tech combines classroom theory and practical application in a laboratory environment. test. automated equipment. Individuals with the technical knowledge to help install. With a hands-on learning environment in most programs and convenient class schedules. The electronics industry offers a variety of career opportunities across a wide range of fields. the ITT Technical Institutes offer an education designed 32 . Not only has the rapid transmission of data become indispensable to many consumers and businesses. Communications systems. but most businesses also depend on complex electronic equipment for a variety of functions.

the Wright Brothers were just getting their "flying machine" off the ground. As we begin the 21st century. wireless phones and computer networks staples of everyday life. and the first crude computer was still thirty years from invention. ELECTRONICS TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING What It Means: It may be hard to imagine today. A world of opportunity is waiting for those ready to take the next step forward in their education. but at the beginning of the 20th century. which consider innovations such as communications satellites. the telephone was still a novelty. the rapid transmission of data has become indispensable to many consumers and businesses.around today's workplace. According to the June 2002 edition of 33 . One example of this is the increasing use of broadband applications and service among consumers.

test and maintain communications systems.7 million. technical consultant. develop. What It Means To You: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. develop. Among the types of work environments that may use the services of graduates with these skills include. telecommunications technician. data and telecommunications service providers. install. electronic systems R&D facilities and entertainment industries. the estimated need for residential broadband access will jump 42 percent from 2002 to 2003. such as electronics engineering technologist. communication systems installer.2010 will be in fields of technology. The Electronics and Communications Engineering Technology program of study at ITT Technical Institute emphasizes technical skills that can be used to help design. 34 . Graduates of this program may begin to pursue career opportunities in a variety of entry-level positions. eight of the ten fastest growing occupations from 2000 . among others.Communications Engineering and Design magazine. field service representative. engineering sales/service representative. from 11 million users to more than 15. engineering technician or research technician. electronics engineering assistant. Demand for these modern communication devices has created a need for skilled employees who can help design. test and maintain them. install. TV and satellite services organizations. computer network sales and services organizations. computer systems technologist.

WHAT ARE SOME OF THE TECHNICAL COURSES IN THE PROGRAM:  C Programming in Linux  Advanced Circuit Analysis  Digital Communication Systems  Electronic Circuit Design  Communications Cabling  Data and Network Communications  Modern Wireless Communications  Advanced Topics in Technical Mathematics  Technical Calculus WHAT EQUIPMENT WILL STUDENTS HAVE AN OPPORTUNITY TO USE:  Multimeters  Oscilloscopes  Power Supplies  Signal Generators  Spectrum Analyzers  Cabling Tools and Test Instruments  Circuit and System Simulation Software 35 .

36 .ADMISSION: Please consult the school catalog for an explanation of the admission requirements for this program. Please contact the local campus regarding the opportunity to transfer credits earned at other postsecondary institutions to satisfy course requirements for this program.


38 . for example.MULTIMEDIA Multimedia is media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. The term can be used as a noun (a medium with multiple content forms) or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content forms. but can also be part of a live performance. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art. Multimedia is usually recorded and played. animation. such as computerized and electronic devices. video. still images. and interactivity content forms. by including audio. it has a broader scope. Multimedia includes a combination of text. displayed or accessed by information content processing devices. Multimedia (as an adjective) also describes electronic media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. audio. The term is used in contrast to media which only use traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material.

The term "rich media" is synonymous for interactive multimedia. Hypermedia can be considered one particular multimedia application. Corporate presentations may combine all forms of media content. 39 . Applications and delivery platforms of multimedia are virtually limitless. Virtual reality uses multimedia content. USAGE OF MULTIMEDIA A presentation using Powerpoint.

scientific research and spatial temporal applications. art. Multimedia games are a popular pastime and are software programs available either as 40 . to media and software services provided for any of the industries listed below. Commercial multimedia developers may be hired to design for governmental services and nonprofit services applications as well. education.VVO Multimedia-Terminal in Dresden WTC (Germany) Multimedia finds its application in various areas including. mathematics. multimedia is heavily used in the entertainment industry. engineering. Business to business. medicine. business. and interoffice communications are often developed by creative services firms for advanced multimedia presentations beyond simple slide shows to sell ideas or liven-up training. especially to develop special effects in movies and animations. to creative. to journalism. Request for their skills range from technical. COMMERCIAL Much of the electronic old and new media used by commercial artists is multimedia. but not limited to. to analytical. Several examples are as follows: CREATIVE INDUSTRIES Creative industries use multimedia for a variety of purposes ranging from fine arts. ENTERTAINMENT AND FINE ARTS In addition. Exciting presentations are used to grab and keep attention in advertising. to entertainment. advertisements. An individual multimedia designer may cover the spectrum throughout their career. entertainment. to commercial art.

Another approach entails the creation of multimedia that can be displayed in a traditional fine arts arena. and associated illustrations in various information formats. Multimedia learning. The possibilities for learning and instruction are nearly endless. Several lines of research have evolved (e. Cognitive load. especially multimedia entertainment. Learning theory in the past decade has expanded dramatically because of the introduction of multimedia. The idea of media convergence is also becoming a major factor in education. the survivability of the content is as strong as any traditional media.CD-ROMs or online. text about a particular topic. One of the most relevant could be Peter Greenaway who is melding Cinema with Opera and all sorts of digital media. Edutainment is an informal term used to describe combining education with entertainment. Digital recording material may be just as durable and infinitely reproducible with perfect copies every time. whose minds are able to blend techniques using different media that in some way incorporates interaction with the viewer. Defined as separate technologies such as voice 41 . EDUCATION In Education. A CBT lets the user go through a series of presentations. Multimedia applications that allow users to actively participate instead of just sitting by as passive recipients of information are called Interactive Multimedia. such as an art gallery.g. multimedia is used to produce computer-based training courses (popularly called CBTs) and reference books like encyclopedia and almanacs. Although multimedia display material may be volatile. In the Arts there are multimedia artists. Some video games also use multimedia features. and the list goes on). particularly higher education.

JOURNALISM Newspaper companies all over are also trying to embrace the new phenomenon by implementing its practices in their work. 42 . data (and productivity applications) and video that now share resources and interact with each other. Freelance journalists can make use of different new media to produce multimedia pieces for their news stories. News reporting is not limited to traditional media outlets. synergistically creating new efficiencies. Common Language Project is an example of this type of multimedia journalism production. other major newspapers like The New York Times. Multimedia for software interfaces are often done as a collaboration between creative professionals and software engineers. USA Today and The Washington Post are setting the precedent for the positioning of the newspaper industry in a globalized world.(and telephony features). which develops new communication techniques for both media producers and consumers. It engages global audiences and tells stories with technology. While some have been slow to come around. Likewise. ENGINEERING Software engineers may use multimedia in Computer Simulations for anything from entertainment to training such as military or industrial training. of jobs requiring this savvy technological skill. it is changing the availability. or lack thereof. media convergence is rapidly changing the curriculum in universities all over the world.

Representative research can be found in journals such as the Journal of Multimedia.INDUSTRY In the Industrial sector. 43 . MEDICINE In Medicine. multimedia is mainly used for modeling and simulation. advertising and selling products all over the world via virtually unlimited web-based technology MATHEMATICAL AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH In mathematical and scientific research. superiors and coworkers. For example. DISABILITIES Ability Media allows those with disabilities to gain qualifications in the multimedia field so they can pursue careers that give them access to a wide array of powerful communication forms. DOCUMENT IMAGING Document imaging is a technique that takes hard copy of an image/document and converts it into a digital format (for example. multimedia is used as a way to help present information to shareholders. Multimedia is also helpful for providing employee training. doctors can get trained by looking at a virtual surgery or they can simulate how the human body is affected by diseases spread by viruses and bacteria and then develop techniques to prevent it. scanners). a scientist can look at a molecular model of a particular substance and manipulate it to arrive at a new substance.

pictures. function in terms of its purpose. easy to navigate. The site must be attractive and innovative in its design. The power of multimedia and the Internet lies in the way in which information is linked.[6] A good site must be made with a specific purpose in mind and a site with good interactivity and new technology can also be useful for attracting visitors.[8] 44 . frequently updated and fast to download.[7] When users view a page. multimedia users must create a ‘mental model of information structure’. they can only view one page at a time. The style of writing that is appropriate for the 'on-line world' is highly optimized and designed to be able to be quickly scanned by readers.STRUCTURING INFORMATION IN A MULTIMEDIA FORM Multimedia represents the convergence of text. Multimedia and the Internet require a completely new approach to writing. video and sound into a single form. As a result.

Most modern desktop computers have separate screens and keyboards. as opposed to a mobile laptop or portable computer. Prior to the widespread use of microprocessors.DESKTOP COMPUTER A desktop computer is a personal computer (PC) in a form intended for regular use at a single location. 45 . regardless of orientation and placement. Desktop computers come in a variety of types ranging from large vertical tower cases to small form factor models that can be tucked behind an LCD monitor. Tower cases are desktop cases in the earlier sense. "Desktop" can also indicate a horizontally-oriented computer case usually intended to have the display screen placed on top to save space on the desktop. a computer that could fit on a desk was considered remarkably small. Cases intended for home theater PC systems are usually considered to be desktop cases in both senses. though not in the latter.

Early computers took the space of a room. leading to a model programmable in BASIC in 1972. The IBM 5100 in 1975 had a small CRT display and could be programmed in BASIC and APL. By the late 1970s and 1980s personal computers. They could draw computer graphics with a plotter. They used a smaller version of a minicomputer design based on ROM memory and had small one-line LED alphanumeric displays. such as the Apple II series and the IBM Personal Computer used standard 46 . These were generally expensive specialized computers sold for business or scientific uses. It was not until the 1970s when computers such as the HP 9800 series desktop computers were fully programmable computers that fit entirely on top of a desk. The Wang 2200 of 1973 had a full-size cathode ray tube (CRT) and cassette tape storage. Minicomputers generally fit into one or a few refrigerator sized racks.HISTORY A sophisticated programmable calculator. The first large calculators were introduced in 1971. the HP 9830A was actually an early desktop computer with printer.

also fit into this category. and later incorporate graphic user interfaces and powerful networked operating systems such as Mac (Macintosh) and Windows. 47 . such as the original Macintosh of the mid1980s and the iMac of the late 1990s and 2000s. These would find uses in the home as well as in business and industry. Some older 8-bit computers. All-in-One PCs are typically more portable than other desktop PCs and many have been built with carrying handles integrated into the case.processors to reduce cost to put a complete computer on top of a desk with a separate monitor. They can simply be unplugged and transported to a new location. Apple has manufactured several popular examples of all-in-one computers. ALL-IN-ONE All-in-One computers are desktop computers that combine the monitor into the same case as the CPU. such as the Commodore PET 2001 or Kaypro II.

like the optical drive. For example. as internal hardware is often placed in the back of the visual display unit. while laptops only tend to have one mini PCI slot and one PC card slot (or ExpressCard slot). All-in-One desktop computers are characterized by a comparative lack of upgradeability or hardware customization. Another advantage of desktop is. Desktops have several standardized expansion slots. However. Procedures for (dis-)assembly of desktops tend to be simple and standardized to a great extent too. the form factor of the motherboard is standardized. This means that a desktop can be customized and upgraded to a greater extent than laptops. in the case of the iMac line since 2002.Like laptops. resulting in lower prices and greater availability. like the ATX form factor. hard disk. though adding or replacing some parts. like Conventional PCI or PCI express. the CPU and other internal hardware units are. that (apart from environmental concerns) power consumption is not as critical as in laptop computers because the 48 . Many of the current offerings are using standard offthe-shelf components and are designing upgrade convenience into their products. Furthermore. COMPARISON WITH LAPTOPS Desktops have the advantage over laptops that the spare parts and extensions tend to be standardized. This tends not to be the case for laptops. and adding an extra memory module is often quite simple. more or less. permanently glued to the motherboard due to space constraints. latest models of the All-In-One Computer have changed their approach to this issue.

Bluetooth and 3G. On the other hand. The two large microprocessor manufacturers Intel and AMD develop special CPUs for mobile computers (i. laptops) that consume less power and lower heat. Laptops also more commonly integrate wireless technologies like WiFi. giving them a broader range of options for connecting to the internet. Desktop computers also provides more space for heat to escape. though this trend is changing as more desktop computers come integrated with wireless. 49 .desktop is powered from the wall socket. but with lower performance levels. laptop computers offer portability that desktop systems can not due to their small form factor.e.


Fedora and openSUSE. Linux is available in multiple distributions. New versions of each of these operating systems are released on a semi-regular basis. Mac OS X. Each distribution has its own version number and bundled software. In order of usage share. the legality of this is currently disputed. manages all the other programs in a computer.[1] The newest version of Mac OS is Mac OS X Snow Leopard. although Mac OS X can be used on some computers that aren't Apple branded. they are Microsoft Windows. and Linux. Microsoft Windows and Linux can be used for almost any desktop computer. but all distributions of Linux contain a Linux kernel. Mac OS has been designed by Apple to only work on Apple computers unless you have an EFI emulator which creates an environment that can boot Mac OS X on a regular PC. the more popular being Ubuntu.OPERATING SYSTEMS An operating system is the program that after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program. Most of today's desktop computers have one of the three major operating systems available. The newest version of Microsoft Windows is called Windows 7 and is widely regarded as a marked improvement over the previous Windows Vista. 51 .

laptops.WINDOW XP Windows XP is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers. and 52 . including home and business desktops.

Windows Vista Ultimate or Windows Vista Business.[3] and is the most popular version of Windows. XP may continue to be available as these sources run through their inventory or by purchasing Windows 7 Ultimate. and was targeted at power users. 53 . which was targeted at home users. and worldwide to the general public on January 30. Windows 7 Pro. Windows XP was released for retail sale on October 25. which was released to volume license customers on November 8. It was first released to computer manufacturers on August 24. according to an estimate in that month by an IDC analyst. and listen to music. centers. business and enterprise clients. The most common editions of the operating system were Windows XP Home Edition. Microsoft continued to sell Windows XP through their System Builders (smaller OEMs who sell assembled computers) program until January 31. 2001. 2007. and Windows XP Professional.[5] It was succeeded by Windows Vista. and then downgrading to Windows XP. Direct OEM and retail sales of Windows XP ceased on June 30. 2008. 2006. view DVD movies. The name "XP" is short for "eXPerience Windows XP was the successor to both Windows 2000 and Windows Me. Windows XP Media Center Edition has additional multimedia features enhancing the ability to record and watch TV shows. and over 400 million copies were in use in January 2006. which offered additional features such as support for Windows Server domains and two physical processors. and was the first consumer-oriented operating system produced by Microsoft to be built on the Windows NT kernel and architecture. based on installed user base. 2009. Windows XP Tablet PC Edition was designed to run stylus applications built using the Tablet PC platform.

Service Pack 3.[12][13] Windows XP presented a significantly redesigned graphical user interface. Windows XP 64-bit Edition for IA-64 (Itanium) processors and Windows XP Professional x64 Edition for x86-64.[16] According to web analytics data generated by W3Schools. C++. Windows XP had also been criticized by some users for security vulnerabilities. the project was codenamed "Whistler". Windows XP is the most widely used operating system for accessing the Internet in the world with a 40. and for aspects of its default user interface. which are programmed in C.1% in January 2007. a component version of the Windows XP Professional.[14][15] It is also the first version of Windows to use product activation to combat illegal copying. a manufacturer revealed the first Windows XP powered cellular telephone.Windows XP was eventually released for two additional architectures. By mid 2009.During development. A new software management facility called Side-by-Side Assembly was introduced to ameliorate the "DLL hell" that plagues 9x versions of Windows. There is also Windows XP Embedded. and assembly. as many Microsoft employees skied at the Whistler-Blackcomb ski resort. British Columbia. tight integration of applications such as Internet Explorer 6 and Windows Media Player. and Internet Explorer 8 addressed some of these concerns.9% market share. and editions for specific markets such as Windows XP Starter Edition. 54 . having peaked at 76.[10] The NT-based versions of Windows. a change Microsoft promoted as more user-friendly than previous versions of Windows. as of April 2011. after Whistler.[11] are known for their improved stability and efficiency over the 9x versions of Microsoft Windows. Later versions with Service Pack 2.

ABOUT THE COMPUTER:User interface Windows XP themes Default Blue (Luna) Windows Classic XP Media Center The new start menu design in the "Energy blue" theme. The Start menu and Taskbar were updated and many visual effects were added. The "task grouping" feature introduced in Windows XP. Windows XP featured a new task-based GUI (Graphical user interface). including: • • • • A translucent blue selection rectangle in Explorer Drop shadows for icon labels on the desktop Task-based sidebars in Explorer windows ("common tasks") The ability to group the taskbar buttons of the windows of one application into one button 55 .

and is enabled by default for machines with more than 64 MiB of RAM. Microsoft officially released a modified version of this theme as 56 . However. Users can further customize these settings. but not menus) • • Windows XP analyzed the performance impact of visual effects and uses this to determine whether to enable them. In addition to the included Windows XP themes. albeit unofficially. However. Windows XP added the ability for Windows to use "Visual Styles" to change the user interface. visual styles must be cryptographically signed by Microsoft to run. and Microsoft recommends the feature should be turned off manually. performance can be substantially degraded. on Windows XP.Some effects. Some users "patch" the uxtheme.• The ability to lock the taskbar and other toolbars to prevent accidental changes The highlighting of recently added programs on the Start menu Shadows under menus (Windows 2000 had shadows under mouse pointers. not to all of the new user interface features of Windows XP as a whole.dll file that restricts the ability to use visual styles. created by the general public or the user. there is one previously unreleased theme with a dark blue taskbar and window bars similar to Windows Vista titled "Royale Noir" available for download. so as to prevent the new functionality from consuming excessive additional processing overhead. if the video card is not capable of hardware alpha blending. such as alpha compositing (transparency and fading). are handled entirely by many newer video cards. Luna is the name of the new visual style that ships with Windows XP. Luna refers only to one particular visual style.

Bliss.the "Zune" theme. California. the Media Center "Energy Blue" theme. Additionally. to celebrate the launch of its Zune portable media player in November 2006. is also available to download for use on all Windows XP editions. The differences are only visual with a new glassy look along with a black taskbar instead of dark blue and an orange start button instead of green. Several third party utilities exist that provide hundreds of different visual styles.[24] with rolling green hills and a blue sky with stratocumulus and cirrus clouds. The default wallpaper. which was included in the Media Center editions. is a BMP photograph of a landscape in the Napa Valley outside Napa. 57 . The Windows 2000 "classic" interface can be used instead if preferred.


and Microsoft PowerPoint. Microsoft Excel. OLE data integration and Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. Over the years. the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word. Microsoft also positions Office as a development platform for line-of-business software 59 . introduced by Microsoft in 1989. servers and services for the Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X operating systems. Initially a marketing term for a bundled set of applications. Office applications have grown substantially closer with shared features such as a common spell checker.MICROSOFT OFFICE Microsoft Office is a proprietary commercial office suite of inter-related desktop applications.

the version numbers were altered to create parity across the suite—every program was called version 7. It was designed as a fully 32-bit version to match Windows 95. released October 26.[1] The current versions are Office 2010 for Windows.0. and Schedule+ 7. According to Forrester Research. with 64% of enterprises using Office 2007. a major milestone release which included hundreds of new features and improvements.0: Microsoft Word for Windows 1.0 meaning all but Word missed out versions. Office 95 was available in two versions. Office 95 Standard and Office 95 Professional. 2010.[2] and Office 2011 for Mac OS X.0. introduced command bars.1. a paradigm in which menus and toolbars were made more similar in capability 60 . Again. If the professional version was purchased in CD-ROM form. and Microsoft PowerPoint for Windows 2.0. released on June 15. 2010. PowerPoint 7. The professional edition contained all of the items in the standard version plus Access 7. Microsoft Excel for Windows Excel 7. Microsoft Office 97 (Office 8. it also included Bookshelf.[3] VERSION HISTORY Microsoft Windows versions The Microsoft Office for Windows[4] started in October 1990 as a bundle of three applications designed for Microsoft Windows 3.under the Office Business Applications brand. as of June 2009. some version of Microsoft Office is used in 80% of enterprises.0. The standard version consisted of Word 7.0).[5] Microsoft Office 95 was released in August 1995.

and visual design. Office 97 also featured Natural Language Systems and grammar checking. Office 97 was the first version of Office to include the Office Assistant. Microsoft Office 2000 (Office 9.0) introduced adaptive menus, where littleused options were hidden from the user. It also introduced a new security feature, built around digital signatures, to diminish the threat of macro viruses. Office 2000 automatically trusts macros (written in VBA 6) that were digitally signed from authors who have been previously designated as trusted. Office 2000 is the last version to support Windows 95. Microsoft Office XP (Office 10.0 or Office 2002) was released in conjunction with Windows XP, and was a major upgrade with numerous enhancements and changes over Office 2000. Office XP introduced the Safe Mode feature, which allows applications such as Outlook to boot when it might otherwise fail. Safe Mode enables Office to detect and either repair or bypass the source of the problem, such as a corrupted registry or a faulty add-in. Smart tag is a technology introduced with Office XP. Some smart tags operate based on user activity, such as helping with typing errors. These smart tags are supplied with the products, and are not programmable. For developers, though, there is the ability to create custom smart tags. In Office XP, custom smart tags could work only in Word and Excel. Microsoft Office XP includes integrated voice command and text dictation capabilities, as well as handwriting recognition. Office XP is the last version to support Windows 98, ME and NT 4.0. It was the first version to require Product Activation as an anti-piracy measure, which attracted widespread controversy.[17]

Microsoft Office 2003 (Office 11.0) was released in 2003. It featured a new logo. Two new applications made their debut in Office 2003: Microsoft InfoPath and OneNote. It is the first version to use Windows XP style icons. Outlook 2003 provides improved functionality in many areas, including Kerberos authentication, RPC over HTTP, Cached Exchange Mode, and an improved junk mail filter. 2003 is the last Office version to support Windows 2000. Microsoft Office 2007 (Office 12.0) was released in 2007. Office 2007's new features include a new graphical user interface called the Fluent User Interface,[18] replacing the menus and toolbars that have been the cornerstone of Office since its inception with a tabbed toolbar, known as the Ribbon; new XML-based file formats called Office Open XML; and the inclusion of Groove, a collaborative software application.[19] Microsoft Office 2010 (Office 14.0) was finalized on April 15, 2010, and was made available to consumers on June 15, 2010.[20] Office 2010 was given the version number 14.0, to avoid the version number 13.0 due to superstition relating to the number thirteen.[21] The main features of Office 2010 include the backstage file menu, new collaboration tools, a customizable ribbon, protected view and a navigation pane. Microsoft Office 2010 also features a new logo, which is similar to the 2007 logo, except in gold, and with a slightly modified shape.[22] Microsoft Office 15, or dubbed Microsoft Office 2012, is expected to be released to manufacturing on July 2, 2012. In addition, mainstream support for the product is expected to end on June 30, 2017; and extended support is expected to end on July 5, 2022.

Microsoft Office 2012 is reportedly in

Build 15.0.2703.1000, and has reached Milestone 2. It sports a revamped application interface; the interface is based on Metro Design Language, which is the interface Windows Media Center for Windows Phone 7 uses. Microsoft Outlook has received the most pronounced changes so far; for example, the Metro interface enables users to have access to a new visualization for scheduled tasks. Some other modest changes to the overall Office suite include PowerPoint having more templates and transition effects; and OneNote providing a new splash screen. However, Excel and Word remain almost identical to their software counterparts in Office 2010.


WORD 64 .MS.

On the Insert tab in the Text group. Open a new or existing document. and select a style. Click OK. Keep in mind that you can move it or adjust it later. The WordArt appears in your document where you 65 . and avoid fonts with thin lines. Select formatting that provides enough area within the letters to accommodate an image. and click where you would like to place WordArt. and apply formatting options. For example.MS-WORD WORDART:To create a WordArt title that contains a picture: 1. use Bold. 3. such as WordArt style 1—the first style in the gallery. such as font and size. 2. click WordArt. Start with a fairly plain style. Type your title or phrase.

6. Browse for the picture you want to use. 66 . 4. Here are some things you can try:  Add an outline to make the words stand out. click the WordArt Tools Format tab. click the arrow next to the Shape Outline button. or apply formatting. In the WordArt Styles group. click Insert. and select a color. Click Weight. and the picture appears inside the WordArt title. and select a heavier line to help the letters pop out.clicked. To insert a picture. 5. select the title. 7. and then click Picture. click the arrow next to the Shape Fill button. Move or resize the title. Then. In the WordArt Styles group.

WordArt changes the proportions of a picture to fit the size and shape of the title. Click Text Wrapping. which comes with the 2007 Microsoft Office suites. You can also use the tool to crop out parts of the picture you do not want in the WordArt. Also. If you want the picture to maintain its original aspect ratio.  Resize or crop the picture. To keep the WordArt in the correct proportion. you can use Microsoft Office Picture Manager. try simplifying the text with fewer words and with letters that work better with images. WordArt will squeeze the picture vertically to fit. Creating tables Users can also create tables in MS Word. or change the shape of the WordArt title. For example. move. USING FORMULAS 67 . and then reinsert it. If your picture is tall. Depending on the version. and your title is wide. crop and resize the picture with a picture editing tool to better match the proportions of the title. Word can perform simple calculations. Resize. drag from a corner box. select images that do not have a lot of fine detail. Formulas are supported as well. and select any option other than In Line with Text to move the title freely on the page.  To make the title easier to read.

To access Word's formula function in Word 2003.Another problem is that ABOVE. LEFT. For example. For example. select Table>>Formula. you can use ABOVE. The cells in the range must not be empty and they must contain numeric values otherwise the calculation will not include the entire range expected. Formulas use a similar convention as that used in Excel.Word tables don't display column and row ids. LEFT.. the address must be determined by counting the number of columns and rows. Examples are: =C3+C4. To access Word's formula function in Word 2007. Once cell addresses are known the formula can be written. The formula function is on the ribbon in the Data section. MS Word supports the use of formulas. Word also adds the heading row if it contains a numeric value provided the cells in the range are contiguous and all contain values. There are limitations to this method. BELOW. cell C4 appears three columns from the left and four rows down. As an alternative to using actual cell references as the arguments in the formula. or RIGHT instead (i. Click on the Formula icon to open the Formula Dialog box. At the top of the Formula box is a place to enter a formula. cell references may be added to a formula by double-clicking the cell. 68 .e. click anywhere in a table. =SUM(ABOVE)) which adds a range of cells. Cell references use the "A1" reference style. then choose Table Tools>>Layout. or RIGHT doesn't recognize negative numbers when the number is surrounded by parenthesis and as a result does not calculate correctly. BELOW. An optional Microsoft Word add-in program called Formula Builder provides cell references in a number of different ways so the user doesn't have to determine it by counting columns and rows.As mentioned in Creating Tables. =sum(C2:C10). Formulas are written using cell references (for example =A1+A2).

" explains Fein. Then. 69 . the higher the rank of the sentence.AUTOSUMMARIZE AutoSummarize highlights passages or phrases that it considers valuable. it "averages" each sentence by adding the scores of its words and dividing the sum by the number of words in the sentence—the higher the average. AutoCorrect items added by the user stop working when text from sources outside of the document are pasted in. It can only be done using the equation editor. it is impossible to display superscript exactly lying above subscript. AutoSummarize cuts wordy copy to the bone by counting words and ranking sentences. The amount of text to be retained can be specified by the user as a percentage of the current amount of text. SUBSCRIPT AND SUPERSCRIPT ISSUES In any of the Microsoft word packages. although it was present in Word for Mac 2008. AUTOCORRECT In Microsoft Office 2003. First. "It's like the ratio of wheat to chaff.[83] AutoSummarize was removed from Microsoft Word for Mac 2011. the higher the score. AutoSummarize identifies the most common words in the document (barring "a" and "the" and the like) and assigns a "score" to each word—the more frequently a word is used. According to Ron Fein of the Word 97 team.

" Click on the icon to bring up a new blank document.Opening Microsoft Word: To run Word on your computer: “Start” >> “Programs” >> “Microsoft Office” >> “Microsoft Office Word 2003. 70 . then you can begin a new blank document in a variety of ways. as well. If not. which looks like a blank sheet of paper. located underneath the menu bar in Word in what is called the "standard toolbar. a new blank document should automatically open.” If there is an icon of Microsoft Word available on your desktop (shaped like a square with a "W" in the middle). find the "New Blank Document" icon. you can open up the program by double-clicking it. First. Making a New Blank Document: When Word is opened.

Or. edit. Opening a Document: To open to view. you can click on the Save icon. In Word. A dialogue box should appear. you can go to the menu bar and select File >> New… (shortcut: Ctrl+N). Or. just click the cursor anywhere within the new blank document. locate and select the folder on 71 . To begin typing. you can use the menu bar and navigate to File >> Open… (shortcut: Ctrl+O). To save the document in the desired location on your computer. You can open a file by clicking on the "Open" folder icon (with a picture of a folder) located in the standard toolbar. you can go to the menu bar and select File >> Save… (shortcut: Ctrl+S). shaped like a disk located on the standard toolbar. there are numerous options for saving documents in a variety of file types.Also. To save a new. you must first open up that file in Word. or print a document. offering you a number of options. you should be sure to save your work often. Saving a Document: When you are working with any sort of media in any software. unsaved document.

doc To save a completely new document using previously existing (and opened) text. Open the document that you wish to save as an entirely new file. Using this option allows you to save multiple versions (with different file names) of a document based on one original file. and click on File >> Save as. 72 . Give your document a name in the file name text box. there are numerous options available for presenting your text. modify. For example. make sure you save it with a name you can remember. In the file name text box. Formatting Text/Paragraphs Using Toolbars: In a word processing program such as Word. While you can give your document long names. Please note that it's good practice not to use spaces or special characters in file names. a long file name may look like this: expos_sample_paper1. and display text (and non-text) components. give your document a new name. go to the menu bar.your computer. youuse the Save As option. This part of the tutorial will guide you through several of the important features in Word that will allow you to edit.

If you wish to explore more print options. then go to the menu bar and select “File” >> “Print. Click this for more information and options. However. If you are saving a document for the first time. 4. When working on any document. Print: Clicking on the Print icon automatically prints the document currently active in Word. Use the following graphic as a guide to the Standard Toolbar. you can click on this icon to view your document from a 73 . 2. then you must go to the menu bar and select “File” >> “Save As” and give the file a new name. Permission: Microsoft has enabled Information Rights Management (IRM) within the new version of Word. Save: Clicking on the Save icon saves the document you are currently working on. Print Preview: To get an idea of the appearance of your document in print before you actually print it out. 5. if you want to save a new file from a preexisting document. 1. which can help protect sensitive documents from being copied or forwarded. click on the New Blank Document icon. There are several buttons that may or may not appear immediately in your version of Word. you should be sure to save frequently. you can click on this button. shaped like a blank sheet of paper. 3. so that you don't lose any work. New Blank Document: To begin a new document. so you may not find all options listed here.” 6.The Standard Toolbar: Word allows all toolbars to be customized. Open: Clicking on this icon opens up a previously saved document on your computer.

Once selected.Undo Typing: The Undo Typing button goes back and removes the last addition or change made to your document. Copyright © Rutgers Writing Program Contact Barclay Barrios (barclay. 11. 8. Insert Table: When this icon is clicked. 12. 9. which can then be pasted elsewhere in the document. the area and apply changes such as borders and colors. the link in your Word document can be clicked and the web page will open up in a web browser. Using the Insert Hyperlink button. 7. Copy: Copy the current selection to the clipboard. Spelling and Grammar: Clicking begins a review of your document in search of spelling and grammatical errors that may need to be corrected. Once the link is inserted. You can type in the URL yourself or insert a preexisting bookmark. a window will appear that will allow you to insert the URL (web address) of the web page you want to link to. you can turn selected text into hyperlinks. or some other kind of online file in your Word document. The Formatting Toolbar: 74 . you can either insert the copied text into a document or replace selected text. a small window will appear in the form of a grid of squares. or into a completely separate program/document. web page. or place the cursor in. Use this window as a guide to indicate how many rows and columns you would like your table to contain. To modify an aspect of the table. select. Paste: Clicking on the Paste button inserts the text that has been most recently added to the Clipboard (the text would have been added there by Cutting or Copying). Insert Hyperlink: You may find that you want to make links to a particular web site.barrios@rutgers. With Paste. When the icon is clicked.zoom-out distance. a table will automatically appear in Word. Clicking the Tables and Borders button will allow you to modify the table.

5. Arial font looks better on screen. double-spaced.Word allows all toolbars to be customized. 9. Line Spacing: Adjust the line spacing (single-spaced. 4. Use the following graphic as a guide to the Formatting Toolbar. Underline: Underlines the text. 1. Selecting desired text with the cursor and choosing a font size from the drop down menu changes the size of text. either on the screen or in print. Style: Styles in Word are used to quickly format portions of text. 11. Font Size: You may encounter times in which you need to display some text larger or smaller than other text. Font: Font is a simple but important factor in Word documents. so you may not find all options listed here.) 75 . There are also three preset styles made for headings. Center: Aligns the selection to the center of the screen/paper. Align Left: Aligns the selection to the left of the screen/paper. etc. For example. 6. 10. and choose a font from the font drop down menu. Italic: Places the text in italics. To apply a font to text. while Times New Roman is clearer in print. Bold: Places the text in bold. 7. The choice of font (the style of the text itself) can influence the way others view documents. 2. 3. you could use the "Normal" or "Default Paragraph Font" for the body text in a document. For example. Justify: Aligns the selection to both the left and right of the screen/paper. There are several buttons that may or may not appear immediately in your version of Word. Align Right: Aligns the selection to the right of the screen/paper. 8. select desired text with your cursor.

navigate to the menu bar.Font Color: Change the font color. the default/automatic color is black. A window will appear with options for modifying spacing and indenting. Decrease Indent: Decreases the indentation of the current selection (to the left).12. 15. Increase Indent: Increases the indentation of the current selection (to the right).Numbering: Create a numbered list. as well asedit the margins for the document. Highlight: Highlight the current 14. Here. Copyright © Rutgers Writing Program Contact Barclay Barrios (barclay. 13. click the drop-down for a wide selection of bordering options. 16. and select“Format” >> “Paragraph. youcan choose to make the text in your document single or double spaced.barrios@rutgers. 76 .” or right-click within a paragraph. default color is yellow. Word provides a great deal of ways to customize and format your text and documents. Bullets: Create an unordered. bulleted list. More Formatting: Besides the toolbars. 18. Paragraph Spacing: To access the Paragraph formatting options. Outside Border: Places a border around the current selection. 17.

Headers/Footers: Headers and footers are important aspects of a Word document if you wish to include information such as page numbers and headings on every page.” 77 . go to the menu bar and select “View” >> “Header andFooter. To access the header and footer options.

as well as a sub-menu for formatting header and footer properties. Then go to the menu bar and select “Insert” >> “Picture. Inserting an Image: In Word. The page number will then be inserted and applied to all of the pages in your document. If you scroll down on your current page opened in Word. The cursor will already be placed in the Header box. "Clipart" searches 78 . To add page numbers to your document. it's possible to add clipart or other images to a document. simply click the cursor inside either one of the boxes." To add text in the Header or the Footer. you will see a dotted-line box called "Footer. you will find a number of options to choose from.A dotted-line box called "Header" will automatically appear. Click the cursor in your document where you wish to place an image. and type the text you want. click on the icon shaped like a sheet of paper with a "#" inside. Then. click your cursor inside of the footer box.” From there.

Other options include "AutoShapes" and "WordArt." 79 . "From File" will allow you to insert an image saved elsewhere on your computer.through your computer's Clipart library.


Microsoft released the first version of Excel for the Mac in 30 September 1985. the program's 81 .0 Microsoft originally marketed a spreadsheet program called Multiplan in 1982. while this is no longer common.[44] Lotus was slow to bring 1-2-3 to Windows and by 1988 Excel had started to outsell 1-2-3 and helped Microsoft achieve the position of leading PC software developer. dethroning the king of the software world. over time this practice has been ignored. but on MS-DOS systems it lost popularity to Lotus 1-2-3.05 to line up with the Mac and bundled with a run-time Windows environment) in November 1987. This accomplishment. Early in 1993 Excel became the target of a trademark lawsuit by another company already selling a software package named "Excel" in the finance industry. and Microsoft cleared up the issue permanently when they purchased the trademark of the other program. Multiplan became very popular on CP/M systems.MS-EXCEL HISTORY Excel 2. As the result of the dispute Microsoft had to refer to the program as "Microsoft Excel" in all of its formal press releases and legal documents. However. every two years or so.[citation needed] Microsoft also encouraged the use of the letters XL as shorthand for the program. solidified Microsoft as a valid competitor and showed its future of developing GUI software. and the first Windows version (numbered 2. Microsoft pushed its advantage with regular new releases.

thus allowing simple automation of regular tasks. and each cell may contain data or a formula. Excel has extensive graphing capabilities. 82 . VBA allows the creation of forms and in-worksheet controls to communicate with the user. VBA is a powerful addition to the application which. and enables users to perform mail merge. the essence remains the same as in the original spreadsheet software. Macro recording can produce VBA code replicating user actions. later versions add support for class modules allowing the use of basic objectoriented programming techniques. a programming language based on Visual Basic which adds the ability to automate tasks in Excel and to provide user-defined functions (UDF) for use in worksheets.xls. where only cells dependent on the cell being modified are updated (previous spreadsheet programs recomputed everything all the time or waited for a specific user command). in later versions. Excel became the first spreadsheet to allow the user to define the appearance of spreadsheets (fonts. The language supports use (but not creation) of ActiveX (COM) DLL's. includes a fully featured integrated development environment (IDE). and the file extension of the default Excel format is . VisiCalc: the program displays cells organized in rows and columns. with relative or absolute references to other cells.icon on Windows still consists of a stylized combination of the two letters. Excel offers many user interface tweaks over the earliest electronic spreadsheets. character attributes and cell appearance). Since 1993 Excel has included Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). however. It also introduced intelligent cell recomputation.

Excel 2007 icon 83 . one of the most obvious changes introduced with Excel 2000 (and the rest of the Office 2000 suite) involved a clipboard that could hold multiple objects at once. Microsoft belatedly took steps to prevent the misuse by adding the ability to disable macros completely.[45] EXCEL 2000 See also: Microsoft Office 2000 For many users.0 of Excel contain various Easter eggs.The automation functionality provided by VBA made Excel a target for macro viruses.0 Versions 5. EXCEL 5. became less intrusive. to enable macros when opening a workbook or to trust all macros signed using a trusted certificate. In another noticeable change the Office Assistant. whose frequent unsolicited appearance in Excel 97 had annoyed many users.0 to 9. This caused serious problems until antivirus products began to detect these viruses. although since version 10 Microsoft has taken measures to eliminate such undocumented features from their products.

Microsoft Excel 2007

EXCEL 2007 The most obvious change is a completely revamped user interface called the Ribbon menu system, which means a user must abandon most habits acquired from previous versions. Some practical advantages of the new system are greatly improved management of named variables through the Name Manager, and much improved flexibility in formatting graphs, which now allow (x, y) coordinate labeling and lines of arbitrary weight. The number of rows is now 1,048,576 and columns is 16,384. Several improvements to pivot tables were introduced. Office Open XML file formats were introduced, including .xlsm for a workbook with macros and .xlsx for a workbook without macros.[46] THE STANDARD TOOLBAR :advertisem ent

This entire toolbar could become a floating window by double-clicking on the control bar at the far left end of this toolbar. That gives the


following window, which can be placed anywhere on the screen:

This toolbar can be restored to its original position by clicking in the gray bar at the top and dragging it back to the top of the screen. Push the top of the window up to the bottom of the menu bar.
Function of commonly used buttons Creates a new blank document based on the default template Saves the active file with its current file name, location and file format Print preview - Shows how the document will look when you print it. Cut - Removes the selection from the document and places it on the clipboard Paste - Places the content of the clipboard at the insertion point Undo - Reverses the last command, use pulldown menu to undo several steps Displays the Tables and Borders toolbar Select Color, Grayscale or Pure Black and White Displays or hides a grid on a slide Opens or finds a file Prints the active file - for more print options go to the File menu and select Print Spelling, grammar and writing style checker Copy - Copies the selected item(s) to the clipboard Format painter - Copies the format from a selected object or text and applies to other objects or text Redo - Reverses the action of the Undo button, use the pull-down menu to redo several steps Insert a table into the document, or make a table of selected text Shows, or hides, character formatting Zoom - Enlarge or reduce the display of the active document

Opening Excel: Start >> Programs >> Microsoft Office >> Microsoft Office Excel 2003

Microsoft Excel will automatically open with a blank spreadsheet spanning many columns and rows. You will notice a number of toolbars with many more options included. Standard Toolbar: 1. New: Create a new, blank spreadsheet 2. Open: Open a previously saved spreadsheet 3. Save: Save your current spreadsheet Copyright © Rutgers Writing Program Contact Barclay Barrios ( 4. Permission: 5. Print: Prints the current document. 6. Print Preview: Preview the potential print of the current document. 7. Research: Microsoft has enabled Information Rights Management (IRM) within the new version of Excel, which can help protect sensitive documents from being

such as Spell Check. 14. Click this for more information and options. 9.More Options: There are a variety of extra options you can call or add to the toolbar. Size: Change the font size of the selection 3. 15. Microsoft Excel Help: Brings up the Excel Help window. reverting “back” a step in time.” which will walk you through the creation of a chart / diagram using the currently selected information. which will allow you to type in a keyword for more information. 11.Undo: Undoes the last action in the document. Font: Change the font of the selected cell(s) 2. you can drag this toolbar outwards more to make more available space for these options directly on the toolbar. you can access these options. etc. Sort Ascending: Sorts the current selection in ascending order. Bold: Put the selection in bold face 87 . which can then be pasted elsewhere in the document.AutoSum: A drop-down menu of available mathematical operations to perform. Paste: Takes the current clipboard contents and inserts them. Sort Descending. or click anything on screen to directly bring up further information on that subject. Copy: Copies the current selection to the clipboard. Formatting Toolbar: 1. Chart Wizard: Opens the “Chart Wizard. Cut. By clicking the triangle. 16. 10. 13.copied or forwarded. at the same time. 8. Redo. 12. Insert Hyperlink: Inserts a hyperlink to an Internet location.

numbers. or formulas (don't worry about formulas quite yet). Underline: Underline the selection Copyright © Rutgers Writing Program Contact Barclay Barrios (barclay.4. To refer to a particular cell. the cell in the uppermost left corner would be "A1. and then by its row letter. Percent Style: Change the style in which percents are displayed 12. What can you do with them? Cells can contain text.Font Color: Select a color to apply to a selection of text You now have a basic understanding of the toolbars. Italics: Italicize the selection 5. but still have a huge window of cells in front of you. Border: Add or alter the style of borders to format a cell with 14." which appears on the left below the toolbars. Fill Color: Select a color to fill the background of a cell with 15. Currency Style: Change the style in which currency is displayed 11.barrios@rutgers. Align Right: Align the current selection to the right 9. Decrease Indent: Decrease the indent of a cell by approximately one character 13. Center: Align the current selection to the center 6." The current cell(s) will always be listed in the "Name Box. For example. 88 . Align Left: Align the current selection to the left 7. Merge & Center: Combine two selected cells into one new cell that spans the width of both and center the contents of this new cell 10. you call it by its column letter.

which have been placed in bold. and drag to the right or left until the desired width is achieved. The "Enter" button will confirm the entered information and move one cell down." "Down. The "tab" button will move one cell to the right. numbers automatically align to the right. Room has been allowed at the top and the left for column and row headings. keeping track of the grades for five students. while text automatically aligns to the left. Simple Formulas: 89 . You can also simply click the cursor into a cell). If you enter text or numbers that span further than the column allows. You can also double-click this dividing line to have Excel automatically choose the best width.Navigating the Spreadsheet: You can use the "Up. simply place your cursor on the line dividing two columns next to their respective letters." to move (one cell at a time) throughout the spreadsheet. As you'll notice." "Left. A Simple Spreadsheet: This is what a basic spreadsheet may look like." "Right.

the contents of the three cells in parenthesis (B2. The formula will be copied down in each cell. and D2) are all added to each other. and drag down several rows (to "E6" in this example)."92. This gives an average of the three grades. C2. which is then shown in the cell "E2" (where the formula was entered). and then divided by 3. click the bottom right corner of the selection box. and will change itself to reflect each new row. If you wanted to do the same for students 2 through 5. you would enter in similar formulas for each cell from "E3" to "E6" replacing the column and row numbers where appropriate." The "formula bar" has the following entered into it: =(B2+C2+D2)/3 By following the normal order of operations. 90 .67" was not entered as the contents for cell "E2. An easy method to replicate formulas is to select the cell which contains the original formula ("E2" in this case).

Select Insert >> Rows. you 91 . while still retaining the relationships among information. A new window will appear asking how you would like to sort the information.Insert Rows & Columns: You may find that you need to insert a new. Sorting: One of Excel’s powerful features is its ability to sort. Select Insert >> Columns. place your cursor directly below where you would like a new row. To insert a new blank row. let’s take our student grade example from above. blank row where there isn't a blank row any more. let’s select the information we want to sort. If there were other criteria you wished to sort by as secondary measures. Now let’s select the “Sort” option from the “Data” menu. What if we wanted to sort the grades in descending order? First. For example. which is in Column E. Let’s sort it by the average grade. place the cursor in a cell directly to the right of where you would like the column. To insert a new column. be sure to set by “Descending” order.

as you increase the cell’s width. The results should look something like this: Cell Formatting: You may notice that. let’s select “Then by” as “Grade 3” just for the practice of doing so (“Descending” order. Select “Cells” from the “Format” menu. as well). Excel will leave as many decimal points as possible within the cell’s width restraints. Excel will sort your information with the specifications you entered. the number of decimal points increases. by default. A new window will appear with a wide 92 .could do so.

You can also set the formatting for things such as the date. you can make this selection under the “Number” category within the “Number” tab. For example. Chart Wizard: Excel allows you to create basic – to – intermediate charts based off of information and data within your spreadsheets. time. experiment with the settings to see what works best for you. highlight the data. etc. 93 .variety of ways in which to customize your spreadsheets. The “Font” tab will also allow you to change the default font used on the spreadsheet. First. currency. The other tabs provide even more ways to customize your spreadsheet and its appearance. Let’s create a column chart from the student grade data from before. if we wanted to set the percentages fixed to only two decimal points.

Next. let’s do a basic pie chart. Select “Column” from the “Chart Type” on the left side. 94 . 2D column chart). select “Chart” from the “Insert” menu. and pick the first sub-type on the right (a normal. For this example. A new window will appear asking which type of chart you would like to create.

Click “Next. Test 2. label the X and/or Y axis. this will break it down by “Grade” (such as Test 1.” In this window.” In step three you can give the chart a name (“Chart Title”). Let’s arrange it by rows.) and comparing the student scores next to each other. Since you’ve already selected the area before. it should already be entered into the appropriate area.Click “Next. this is the area of your spreadsheet that you wish to generate a chart from. etc. you’ll be asked to select your “data range”. etc. 95 . “Series in” allows you to choose by which value you want to arrange the chart.

” The final step will ask whether you want the chart as an object in your current spreadsheet or in a new one. Click “Finish.Click “Next. you will place it within the same spreadsheet.” and your chart will appear in your spreadsheet! Copyright © Rutgers Writing Program 96 . generally.

97 .


99 . it supports all file content except OLE objects and scripting. The PowerPoint Viewer file is also available for download from the Microsoft Office Online Web site. The PowerPoint Viewer prompts you for a password if the file is open password-protected. The PowerPoint Viewer supports opening presentations created using PowerPoint 97 and later. The Office PowerPoint Viewer is added by default to the same disk or network location that contains one or more presentations you packaged by using the Package for CD feature.MS-POWERPOINT The Microsoft Office PowerPoint Viewer is a program used to run presentations on computers that do not have Microsoft PowerPoint installed. The Package for CD feature allows you to package any password-protected file or set a new password for all packaged presentations. In addition. The PowerPoint Viewer is installed by default with a Microsoft Office 2003 installation for use with the Package for CD feature. Presentations password-protected for opening or modifying can be opened by the PowerPoint Viewer.

was changed to be less intrusive. the idea for the name coming from Robert Gaskins.[1] Originally designed for the Macintosh computer. which continued to further develop the software.1 million in present-day terms[3]). Prior to PowerPoint 97. and became Microsoft's Graphics Business Unit. whose frequent unsolicited appearances in PowerPoint 97 (as an animated paperclip) had annoyed many users.HISTORY The original version of this program was created by Dennis Austin and Thomas Rudkin of Forethought.[4] 100 . it was renamed to "PowerPoint" due to problems with trademarks. Inc. presentations were linear. the initial release was called "Presenter". PowerPoint 97 incorporated the Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) language. Another noticeable change was that the Office Assistant. Forethought was bought by Microsoft for $14 million USD ($27. PowerPoint changed significantly with PowerPoint 97. In 1987. underlying all macro generation in Office 97. which allowed users to invoke pre-defined transitions and effects in a non-linear movie-like style without having to learn programming PowerPoint 2000 (and the rest of the Office 2000 suite) introduced a clipboard that could hold multiple objects at once.[2] In August of the same year. always proceeding from one slide to the next.

These can be animated in a variety of ways.OPERATION PowerPoint presentations consist of a number of individual pages or "slides". or navigated through at the command of the presenter. exit or move MICROSOFT POWERPOINT 2010 PowerPoint 2010 has changed from its predecessor. Also. Entrance. For larger audiences the computer display is often projected using a video projector. facilitates the use of a consistent style in a presentation using a template or "Slide Master". allowing you to take a screen capture and add it onto your document. The presentation can be printed. Plus. Slides can also form the basis of webcasts. sound. movies. However. graphics. such as 'Pencil effects' onto pictures. the ability to apply certain text effects directly onto 101 . PowerPoint provides three types of movements: 1. Slides may contain text. however. which may be arranged freely. displayed live on a computer.# Custom animation can be used to create small story boards by animating pictures to enter. Transitions. PowerPoint. and other objects. and exit of elements on a slide itself are controlled by what PowerPoint calls Custom Animations 2. on the other hand are movements between slides. new transitions are available. The "slide" analogy is a reference to the slide projector. emphasis. Screen Capturing has been introduced. you can now remove background images and you can add special effects.

and can be moved and modified independently from other objects in a slide.barrios@rutgers." If you navigate to the Programs menu. Copyright © Rutgers Writing Program Contact Barclay Barrios ( 102 . We will get into the specifics of how to actually create these elements in a bit. and navigate to "Programs. but you should know from the start that you are not limited when creating a slideshow. go to the Start menu. create charts. or lists. a separate WordArt text box is required. insert images or sounds. You can type in text using text boxes. Opening PowerPoint: To begin running PowerPoint.existing text. and make text columns. About the Slides: On any given slide in a PowerPoint presentation. you will see Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2003 listed. Each separate element in a slide (be it text or an image) is considered its own object. seen in Microsoft Word is not available. and from there. navigate to the Microsoft Office applications. graphs. you can present your information in a variety of ways.

such as Drawing and 103 .The Opening Screen: When you start PowerPoint. We’ll get into more detail about this toolbar later on in the tutorial. The panel on the bottom has more tools for editing your slides. there’s a panel with two tabs called “Slides” and “Outline” this allows you to view all of your slides in your slideshow as small images (in the “Slides” mode) or as text (you can view as text if you click on the “Outline” tab). On the left side of the screen. These tools allow you to format and edit text and other elements in your slide. You can go in a number of directions from here. a number of screens and panels will appear on your screen. Across the top of the screen. you’ll notice a toolbar that looks similar to ones used in word processing program.

navigate to “View.” As the name implies. Copyright © Rutgers Writing Program Contact Barclay Barrios (barclay.” select the “Toolbars” menu. and make sure “Task Pane” is selected. If you click on the small triangle.barrios@rutgers. The Task Pane: The panel on the right side of the screen is actually called the “Task Pane. you can expand the menu to see all of the submenus included in the Task Pane: 104 .edu) When you first open PowerPoint. This will help you in beginning your presentation. it controls all the main slide control tasks for your presentation. the “Task Pane” is set to display as the “Getting Started” panel. If you ever lose sight of this panel. go to the menu bar in PowerPoint.AutoShapes.

You may find the third potion of the menu the most useful. 105 . Using these menus. let’s take a detailed look at the "Getting Started" panel on the right side of the screen. you can format the Slide Layout. and animations). For now. Slide Design (make custom color schemes. and Slide Transitions. Custom Animations.

. Click on the "Create a new presentation. You'll notice a change in the "Getting Started" panel.Open a PowerPoint File: In the "Open" section on the bottom of the “Getting Started” panel. Select the file name and click "OK" to open the file." and you can also move forward. navigate your computer to locate the file you wish to open." button. back.ppt") by clicking on the "Open" icon.. Create a New Presentation: If you want to start a new presentation. It's now called "New Presentation. When you click on the "Open" icon. you have the option to open a pre-existing PowerPoint file (PowerPoint files end in the file extension ". You can edit the presentation as needed. and go "home" using the buttons on the top of the panel if you want to go back and read information you may have passed. 106 . you can do one of many things.

the AutoContent wizard. we’ll describe in detail the different ways you can begin your new presentation. an existing presentation. 107 . The panel will then give you a number of slide layouts to choose from. or from a photo album.In the "New" section. you can make a new presentation using a blank presentation. Blank Presentation: Click on the “blank presentation” button. a design template. At this point.

Please note the different kinds of objects in the slide layouts: long bars of gray represent text boxes, boxes with little pictures in them represent image objects, and the bulleted lists represent unordered lists. If you choose to select from one of these pre-made slide layouts, keep in mind that you can change the positioning and even delete some of the objects in the layout. Nothing is set in stone, and you can always modify objects, even in the premade

slide layouts. If you want to try to be a little more advanced, you can choose to make a completely blank slide, and then insert objects and text as you work (the blank slide is the one at the top of the “Content Layouts” area in the “Slide Layout” panel). Find a layout you like, and click on it in the panel window. As soon as you click on the layout in the “Slide Layout” panel, the layout will be applied to the current slide. From this point, you are free to create the rest of your presentation as you see fit. To create a new slide based on a pre-made layout, right-click on the layout you like in the “Slide Layout” panel, and select “Insert Slide.” You will then see the new slide appear on your screen, as well as in the “Slide” view on the left side of your screen. If you want to change the order of the slides you made, simply click and drag the selected slide in the “Slide” panel to the desired location. Please read the “Create Slide Content” section for more information on how to add content to slides. Design Template: In the “New” section of the “New Presentation” panel, click on the “From Design Template” button. The following panel will then appear:


This is a list of different design templates. They are pre-made backgrounds and layouts that you can use to build your presentation. Use the scroll bar to see the entire list of designs. When you see a design template you like, simply click on the design, and it will be applied to your presentation. Now, every time you make a new slide, it will retain the design template you selected.


use the design for all new presentations you create. you may create new slides as needed. all the slides. Please read the “Create Slide Content” section for more information on how to add content to slides. or choose to view large preview versions of the slide designs. At this point. You can right-click on a design template to bring up even more options. 111 . You can apply a design template to selected slides.You can choose a new design template by clicking on a different design in the “Slide Design” panel on the right.


and Roberts based the technology on the work of Paul Baran. J. was selected to head the IPTO. and Strategic Air Command headquarters (SAC). Licklider. 113 . Cheyenne Mountain.[4][5] ARPA created the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) program. R. C. a promoter of universal networking. and as a first step interconnect their computers at the Pentagon. later DARPA) in February 1958 to regain a technological lead. Licklider moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard University to MIT in 1950. At MIT. where he bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first public demonstration of time-sharing. which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time. Licklider's successor Ivan Sutherland in 1965 got Lawrence Roberts to start a project to make a network.[6] who had written an exhaustive. after becoming interested in information technology. In 1957 he became a Vice President at BBN. Professor Leonard Kleinrock with the first ARPANET Interface Message Processors at UCLA At the IPTO.INTERNET HISTORY The USSR's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA. The IPTO's purpose was to find ways to address the US military's concern about survivability of their communications networks. he served on a committee that established Lincoln Laboratory and worked on the SAGE project.

the World Wide Web has enabled the decentralization of information. The Web has also enabled individuals and organizations to publish ideas and information to a potentially large audience online at greatly reduced expense 114 . video. World Wide Web browser software. but the two terms are not synonymous. The World Wide Web is a global set of documents. multimedia and interactive content including games. Web services may also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order to share and exchange business logic and data. text. or just the Web. Through keyword-driven Internet research using search engines like Yahoo! and Google. interchangeably. the primary carrier protocol of the Web. Apple's Safari. and other databases that store documents and provide resources and access them using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). office applications and scientific demonstrations. users worldwide have easy. including graphics. URIs allow providers to symbolically identify services and clients to locate and address web servers. such as Microsoft's Internet Explorer. These documents may also contain any combination of computer data. instant access to a vast and diverse amount of online information. sounds. and Google Chrome. HTTP is only one of the hundreds of communication protocols used on the Internet. let users navigate from one web page to another via hyperlinks embedded in the documents. Compared to printed encyclopedias and traditional libraries. images and other resources. logically interrelated by hyperlinks and referenced with Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). Mozilla Firefox. Opera. file servers.INFORMATION Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web.

Facebook and MySpace currently have large followings. diverse and up-to-date information is still a difficult and expensive proposition. professional web sites with attractive. and e-commerce or the sale of products and services directly via the Web continues to grow. and have become increasingly sophisticated. Contributors to these systems. which are largely used as easily updatable online diaries. formatted with HTML. Over time. the process of creating and serving web pages has become more automated and more dynamic. Collections of personal web pages published by large service providers remain popular. and be attracted to the corporation as a result. Many individuals and some companies and groups use web logs or blogs. newer offerings from. Publishing and maintaining large. When the Web began in the 1990s. One example of this practice is Microsoft. initially. These operations often brand themselves as social network services rather than simply as web page hosts. ready to be sent to a user's browser in response to a request. very little content. however. Publishing a web page. who may be paid 115 . Advertising on popular web pages can be lucrative. a typical web page was stored in completed form on a web server. Some commercial organizations encourage staff to communicate advice in their areas of specialization in the hope that visitors will be impressed by the expert knowledge and free information. Websites are often created using content management or wiki software with. Whereas operations such as Angelfire and GeoCities have existed since the early days of the Web. or building a website involves little initial cost and many cost-free services are available.and time delay. a blog. whose product developers publish their personal blogs in order to pique the public's interest in their work. for example.

members of a club or other organization or members of the public. Pictures. The benefit is that. Emails can be cc-ed to multiple email addresses. as the Internet carries the voice traffic. fill underlying databases with content using editing pages designed for that purpose. The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet.staff. while casual visitors view and read this content in its final HTML form. VoIP can be free or cost much less than a traditional telephone call. documents and other files are sent as email attachments. Internet telephony is another common communications service made possible by the creation of the Internet. approval and security systems built into the process of taking newly entered content and making it available to the target visitors. COMMUNICATION Electronic mail. The idea began in the early 1990s with walkie-talkie-like voice applications for personal computers. is an important communications service available on the Internet. Interoperability between different providers has improved and the ability to 116 . There may or may not be editorial. VoIP is maturing into a competitive alternative to traditional telephone service. In recent years many VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal telephone. or email. referring to the protocol that underlies all Internet communication. especially over long distances and especially for those with always-on Internet connections such as cable or ADSL. VoIP stands for Voice-over-Internet Protocol.

It can be uploaded to a website or FTP server for easy download by others. VoIP has also become increasingly popular for gaming applications. Simple. a few VoIP providers provide an emergency service. Traditional phones are line-powered and operate during a power failure. the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured by encryption. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of "mirror" servers or peer-to-peer networks. a credit card whose details are also passed—usually fully encrypted—across the Internet. for example. as a form of communication between players. The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from. A computer file can be emailed to customers. access to the file may be controlled by user authentication. and money may change hands for access to the file. 117 . In any of these cases. colleagues and friends as an attachment. Wii. and Xbox 360 also offer VoIP chat features. It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a file server for instant use by colleagues. Remaining problems for VoIP include emergency telephone number dialing and reliability. but it is not universally available. DATA TRANSFER File sharing is an example of transferring large amounts of data across the or receive a call from a traditional telephone is available. PlayStation 3. inexpensive VoIP network adapters are available that eliminate the need for a personal computer. VoIP does not do so without a backup power source for the phone equipment and the Internet access devices. Popular VoIP clients for gaming include Ventrilo and Teamspeak. Currently. Voice quality can still vary from call to call but is often equal to and can even exceed that of traditional calls.

This means that an Internet-connected device. to broadcast audiovisual material worldwide. film. from specialized technical webcasts to on-demand popular multimedia services. For example. photography. Podcasting is a variation on this theme. This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products. such as a computer or something more specific. This includes all manner of print publications. over a worldwide basis.The origin and authenticity of the file received may be checked by digital signatures or by MD5 or other message digests. graphics and the other arts. Many radio and television broadcasters provide Internet feeds of their live audio and video productions. software products. sale. These techniques using simple equipment allow anybody. These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet "broadcasters" who never had on-air licenses. are changing the production. Classic Clips and Listen Again features. with little censorship or licensing control. video. and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer file for transmission. Digital media streaming increases the demand for network bandwidth. can be used to access on-line media in much the same way as was previously possible only with a television or radio receiver. Streaming media is the real-time delivery of digital media for the immediate consumption or enjoyment by end users. where—usually audio—material is downloaded and played back on a computer or shifted to a portable media player to be listened to on the move. standard image quality needs 1 Mbps link speed for SD 480p. The range of available types of content is much wider. They may also allow time-shift viewing or listening such as Preview. HD 118 . music. These simple features of the Internet. news.

traffic at a local roundabout or monitor their own premises. Video chat rooms and video conferencing are also popular with many uses being found for personal webcams. ships in the Panama Canal.720p quality requires 2. live and in real time. Registered users may upload an unlimited amount of video and build their own personal profile. the picture is usually either small or updates slowly.[22] Webcams are a low-cost extension of this phenomenon.5 Mbps for 1080p. YouTube was founded on 15 February 2005 and is now the leading website for free streaming video with a vast number of users. and upload hundreds of thousands of videos daily. YouTube claims that its users watch hundreds of millions. Internet users can watch animals around an African waterhole.[23] 119 . While some webcams can give full-frame-rate video.5 Mbps. It uses a flash-based web player to stream and show video files. with and without two-way sound. and the top-of-the-line HDX quality needs 4.

EMAIL 120 .

gmail. Then fill out a simple form. 1. if you want to make a gmail id then follow these 2.rediffmail as you know google is one of the big leaders who provide you email address. 121 . Open 3. Gmail.EMAIL HOW TO CREATE EMAIL ID AS there are various leaders who provide you email addresses such as click on Create an account.

this image is always distracted. And then press I accept create MY account.After this enter the image shown. and press (I accept create My account.) After this your id will be created and ready for sending and retriving emails 122 . NOTE: if you see a distracted image you can type whatever letters you want .

Write your message! Just click in the large field and type away. under the Gmail logo). we'll also suggest contacts for you to include.HOW TO SEND EMAIL Here's a guide to what you'll need to do in order to send a message in Gmail: The essentials • • • • • Click the Compose Mail link on any Gmail screen (it's on the left. Enter a subject for your message in the 'Subject:' field. click the Send button (located just above the 'To:' field). Enter your recipient's email address. When you're done composing. Directly beneath the 'To:' field. based on the groups of people you email most often. 123 . You'll see a confirmation at the top of the window that your message was sent. or find the address in your Contacts list. You can type the address in the 'To:' field.

Extras • • • • You can change the formatting.' 'Cc:. You can also attach files. When you begin to type an address in the 'To:. You can also click the Save Now button at any time to save what you've written. we'll automatically save drafts every few minutes so you can leave your message and come back to it later before sending it out. As you compose a message. font. 124 .' or 'Bcc:' fields. Display this field by clicking Add Cc. and color of your message text using the tools located above the compose window. We suggest using the carbon copy feature when you'd like to include additional recipients whose responses are welcome but not required. The blind carbon copy field (click Add Bcc to display) lets you hide recipients' addresses and names from one another. Gmail will suggest complete addresses from your Contacts list.

RESUME 125 .

ACADEMIC BACKGROUND Degree MA BA HSC SSC Institute Punjab University Campus MCM DAV DAV Board/University Punjab University Punjab University CBSE CBSE Year 2006 2004 2001 1999 Percentage (%) 65 67 74 74 126 . Mobile: 09812016000 To become a competent & dynamic professional working in an organization that places high value on professional growth for self motivated individuals seeking challenging assignments for responsible positions. ABRIDGMENT ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ Highly dynamic & effervescent professional. Result oriented Proficient in handling multiple tasks and projects simultaneously in challenging environments. problem solving & organizational abilities. A proactive learner with a flair for adopting emerging trends & addressing industry requirements to achieve organizational objectives & profitability norms. An effective communicator with strong analytical. confident in presentation skills Committed team player with flexible in approach. Enthusiastic person with good communication skills.Sucheta Garg Date of birth: 19-04-1983 E-mail: suchetagarg@gmail.

Adaptability and learning ability. Date: Place: Sucheta Garg 127 . AFFIRMATION I hereby declare that the facts given in resume are correct to best of my knowledge and belief.punjabi ASSETS Good understanding of Human Behavior. Traveling. keen desire to achieve Success. : Personal : 09812016000 Marital Status : married Sex : female Nationality : Indian Hobbies : Listening To Music. Sarita Aggarwal Permanent address: 393. Vijay Aggarwal Mother’s Name : Mrs. Net Surfing Languages known: Hindi.INDIVIDUAL INFORMATION & PERSONAL DETAIL Father’s Name : Mr. regular and punctual believe only in results.English. panipat-132103 (HARYANA) Contact no. Optimistic attitude. Self Discipline. spirit of team work and cooperation. Good planning skills.Sec-11 huda.

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