Handout: Software Testing

Version: ST/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

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Handout – Software Testing

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................5 About this Module .........................................................................................................................5 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................5 Module Objectives ........................................................................................................................5 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................5 Chapter 1: Introduction to Testing ...............................................................................................6 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................6 What is Software Testing..............................................................................................................6 Testing Life Cycle .........................................................................................................................6 Broad Categories of Testing .........................................................................................................7 The Testing Techniques ...............................................................................................................7 Types of Testing ...........................................................................................................................8 SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................................8 Test your Understanding ..............................................................................................................9 Chapter 2: Black Box Vs. White Box Testing ............................................................................10 Learning Objective:.....................................................................................................................10 Introduction to Black Box and White Box testing........................................................................10 Black box testing ........................................................................................................................10 Black box testing - without user involvement .............................................................................11 Black box testing - with user involvement ..................................................................................11 White Box Testing ......................................................................................................................14 Black Box (Vs) White Box...........................................................................................................18 SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................20 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................20 Chapter 3: Other Testing Types ..................................................................................................21 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................21 What is GUI Testing? .................................................................................................................21 Regression Testing.....................................................................................................................31 Integration Testing ......................................................................................................................38 Acceptance Testing ....................................................................................................................43 Configuration Testing & Installation Testing ...............................................................................45 Alpha testing and Beta testing ....................................................................................................48 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................52
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Handout – Software Testing
Chapter 4: Levels of Testing .......................................................................................................53 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................53 Unit Testing.................................................................................................................................53 Integration Testing ......................................................................................................................60 System Testing ...........................................................................................................................61 SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................64 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................64 Chapter 5: JUnit Testing ..............................................................................................................65 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................65 JUNIT Testing - Introduction.......................................................................................................65 Simple Test Case .......................................................................................................................65 Fixture .........................................................................................................................................66 Test Case ...................................................................................................................................67 Suite............................................................................................................................................67 TestRunner .................................................................................................................................68 Chapter 6: Testing Artifacts ........................................................................................................70 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................70 Test Strategy and Test Plan .......................................................................................................70 Test Plan.....................................................................................................................................75 Test Case .................................................................................................................................100 SUMMARY ...............................................................................................................................103 Test your Understanding ..........................................................................................................103 Chapter 7: Defect Management .................................................................................................104 Learning Objective ....................................................................................................................104 What is a Defect? .....................................................................................................................104 Defect Lifecycle ........................................................................................................................105 Defect Reporting and Tracking .................................................................................................105 SUMMARY ...............................................................................................................................107 Test your Understanding ..........................................................................................................108 Chapter 8: Automation ...............................................................................................................109 Learning Objective ....................................................................................................................109 What is Automation? ................................................................................................................109 Automation Benefits .................................................................................................................109 Automation Life Cycle...............................................................................................................111 Test Environment Setup ...........................................................................................................113 Other Phases in Automation.....................................................................................................116
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..................................146 Performance Testing Process ................................................................... Cognizant Technology Solutions............167 What is a Test Case Point (TCP)? .....................................172 REFERENCES ..126 Sample Test Automation Tool ....................................................................................................................................127 Rational Robot .............................................................................................................................................................................140 Supported environments .....................................................................118 SUMMARY ..........................................................................126 Rational Administrator ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................144 Learning Objective .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................154 Volume and Stress Testing ......................................................117 Automation tool comparison ................................166 Chapter 11: Test Case Point ..............................................................175 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007................................................................................................................................................143 Chapter 10: Performance Testing ...................................................................................................................................126 Rational Suite of tools....................................................................................................................................................................................174 STUDENT NOTES: ...............................................................................................................174 WEBSITES ...125 Chapter 9: Sample Test Automation Tool ....................................174 BOOKS .................................................................163 SUMMARY .............................144 Performance Testing Requirements ...........142 SUMMARY .........................................................................................................167 SUMMARY ..................................................144 What is Performance testing? ..............................................172 Test your Understanding ..........................130 Rational Test Manager ................147 Performance Testing Tools ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................167 Test Case Point Analysis.........................................................................Handout – Software Testing Automation Methods.......................................167 Learning Objective ..................................................................................................126 Learning Objective ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Target Audience Entry Level Trainees Module Objectives After completing this module.Handout – Software Testing Introduction About this Module This module provides you with a brief description of the module. audience. suggested prerequisites and module objectives. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the student will be able to: Explain Software Testing List the types of testing Explain Test Strategy Describe Test Plan Describe Test Design Describe Test Cases Describe Test Data Explain Test Execution Perform Defect reporting and analyzing the defects List Test Automation advantages and disadvantages Work with Winrunner Describe Performance Testing Work with Loadrunner Too Work with Test Director Pre-requisite This module does not require any prerequisite Page 5 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

stability. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. the scope of testing can be tailored. Testing Life Cycle Every testing project has to follow the waterfall model of the testing process." where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. not prove that there are none. but the process mentioned above is common to any testing activity. There are many approaches to software testing. Actually. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it. According to the respective projects. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . completeness and quality of developed computer software. Involving software testing in all phases of the software Page 6 ©Copyright 2007. maintainability and usability. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. It can only find defects. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. as this can only be done by formal verification (and only when there is no mistake in the formal verification process).Handout – Software Testing Chapter 1: Introduction to Testing Learning Objectives After completing this topic you will be able to: Explain the need for Software testing What is Software Testing Software testing is a process used to identify the correctness.putting the product through its paces. Software Testing has been accepted as a separate discipline to the extent that there is a separate life cycle for the testing activity. testing can never establish the correctness of computer software. portability. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product-.

there needs to be testing done on Software Testing every phase. we see that there are two categories of testing activities that can be done on software. The V-Model of the Software Testing Life Cycle along with the Software Development Life cycle given below indicates the various phases or levels of testing. etc. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The Testing Techniques To perform these types of testing. The above said testing types are performed based on the following testing techniques. namely. walkthrough and audits. This type of testing is called Static Testing. Black-Box testing technique: This technique is used for testing based solely on analysis of requirements (specification.) (But expected results still come requirements). code review. Static Testing Dynamic Testing The kind of verification we do on the software work products before the process of compilation and creation of an executable is more of Requirement review. When we test the software by executing and comparing the actual & expected results. These topics will be elaborated in the coming chapters Page 7 ©Copyright 2007. user documentation. White-Box testing technique: This technique us used for testing based on analysis of internal logic (design. Also known as functional testing. code.Handout – Software Testing development life cycle has become a necessity as part of the software quality assurance process. it is called Dynamic Testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. there are two widely used testing techniques.). Right from the Requirements study till the implementation. Also known as Structural testing. design review. Broad Categories of Testing Based on the V-Model mentioned above.

which enables a customer to determine whether to accept the system or not. we see that are various levels or phases of testing. namely. integrated) to form higher-level elements Regression Testing: Selective re-testing of a system to verify the modification (bug fixes) have not caused unintended effects and that system still complies with its specified requirements. Performance Testing: To evaluate the time taken or response time of the system to perform it’s required functions in comparison Stress Testing: To evaluate a system beyond the limits of the specified requirements or system resources (such as disk space. User Acceptance testing etc. memory. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Types of Testing From the V-model. Integration Testing: Testing which takes place as sub elements are combined (i. processor utilization) to ensure the system do not break unexpectedly Load Testing: Load Testing. Integration testing. System Testing: Testing the software for the required specifications on the intended hardware Acceptance Testing: Formal testing conducted to determine whether or not a system satisfies its acceptance criteria. Unit testing.e. SUMMARY “Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors” Evolution of Software Testing The Testing process and lifecycle Broad categories of testing Widely employed Types of Testing The Testing Techniques Page 8 ©Copyright 2007. Unit Testing: The testing done to a unit or to a smallest piece of software. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Done to verify if it satisfies its functional specification or its intended design structure. verifies that a web site can handle a particular number of concurrent users while maintaining acceptable response times Alpha Testing: Testing of a software product or system conducted at the developer’s site by the Customer Beta Testing: Testing conducted at one or more customer sites by the end user of a delivered software product system. a subset of stress testing. System testing.. Let us see a brief definition on the widely employed types of testing.

The primary objective of testing is a) To show that the program works b) To provide a detailed indication of quality c) To find errors d) To protect the end –user Answers: 1) c Page 9 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Test your Understanding 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

you will be able to: Explain the methods of testing Introduction to Black Box and White Box testing Test Design refers to understanding the sources of test cases. Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. In practice. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether!!! Black box testing Black Box Testing is testing without knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested. Cognizant Technology Solutions. test groups are often used. It is used to detect errors by means of execution-oriented test cases. For this reason. opaque-box. Additionally. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. no other knowledge of the program is necessary. how to develop and document test cases. i. and how to build and maintain test data. For example. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. Some call this "graybox" or "translucent-box" test design. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. It is because of this that black box testing can be considered testing with respect to the specifications. and closedbox. Though centered around the knowledge of user requirements. In the following the most important aspects of these black box tests will be described briefly. functional. and benchmarks. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". Synonyms for white-box include: structural.e. recovery testing. volume tests. there are two types of black box test that involve users. field and laboratory tests. test coverage. For this testing. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". There are 2 primary methods by which tests can be designed and they are: Black box White box Black-box test design treats the system as a literal "black-box". White Box Testing Learning Objective: After completing this chapter. black box tests do not necessarily involve the participation of users. While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. when black box testing is applied to software engineering.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 2: Black Box Vs. but not how the program actually arrives at those outputs. but it's still discouraged. the tester would only know the "legal" inputs and what the expected outputs should be. stress tests. the tester and the programmer can be independent of one another. avoiding programmer bias toward his own work. It is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. glass-box and clear-box. Among the most important black box tests that do not involve users are functionality testing.

with user involvement For tests involving users. one may find practical test reports that distinguish roughly between field and laboratory tests. to modify a term bank via different terminals simultaneously). A typical example could be to perform the same function from all workstations connected in a LAN within a short period of time (e. or only show that an error message would be needed telling the user that the system cannot process the given amount of data. The efficiency of a piece of software strongly depends on the hardware environment and therefore benchmark tests always consider the soft/hardware combination.g. or. Does the system provide possibilities to recover all of the data or part of it? How much can be recovered and how? Is the recovered data still correct and consistent? Particularly for software that needs high reliability standards. During a stress test. benchmark tests only denote operations that are independent of personal variables. a consumption of too much memory space.e. Black box testing . i. The other is to test module by module. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Black box testing . recovery testing is very important. however. performing a standardised task. field tests are particularly useful for assessing the interoperability of the software system. i. Particularly in the NLP environment Page 11 ©Copyright 2007. A scenario test is a test case which aims at a realistic user background for the evaluation of software as it was defined and performed It is an instance of black box testing where the major objective is to assess the suitability of a software product for every-day routines. A volume test can uncover problems that are related to the efficiency of a system. The aim of recovery testing is to make sure to which extent data can be recovered after a system breakdown. sending e-mails. In field tests users are observed while using the software system at their normal working place. There are different approaches to functionality testing.g. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Rather. Whereas for most software engineers benchmark tests are concerned with the quantitative measurement of specific operations. incorrect buffer sizes. The notion of benchmark tests involves the testing of program efficiency. Scenario Tests. e.g. Its primary objective is to assess whether the program does what it is supposed to do. some also consider user tests that compare the efficiency of different software systems as benchmark tests. One is the testing of each program feature or function in sequence.e. E. i. what is specified in the requirements. The term ``scenario'' has entered software evaluation in the early 1990s . Moreover.e. Apart from general usability-related aspects. each function where it is called first. methodological considerations are rare in SE literature. The objective of volume tests is to find the limitations of the software by processing a huge amount of data. In short it involves putting the system into its intended use by its envisaged type of user. In the following only a rough description of field and laboratory tests will be given. how the technical integration of the system works. field tests are the only real means to elucidate problems of the organizational integration of the software system into existing procedures. the system has to process a huge amount of data or perform many function calls within a short period of time.without user involvement The so-called ``functionality testing'' is central to most testing exercises. In the context of this document. in the NLP area.

that neither source texts nor target texts are properly organised and stored and. Testing Strategies/Techniques Black box testing should make use of randomly generated inputs (only a test range should be specified by the tester). Laboratory tests are mostly performed to assess the general usability of the system. where the major implementation problem is not the technical environment. especially with real time systems Crash testing should be performed to see what it takes to bring the system down Test monitoring tools should be used whenever possible to track which tests have already been performed and the outputs of these tests to avoid repetition and to aid in the software maintenance Other functional testing techniques include: transaction testing. Domain tests not covered by the above. test cases are designed to traverse the entire graph Transaction flow testing (nodes represent steps in some transaction and links represent logical connections between steps that need to be validated) Page 12 ©Copyright 2007. last but not least. Additional tests for data-flow coverage as needed. Finite state machine models can be used as a guide to design functional tests According to Beizer the following is a general order by which tests should be designed: o o o o o o Clean tests against requirements. Due to the high laboratory equipment costs laboratory tests are mostly only performed at big software houses such as IBM or Microsoft. syntax testing. domain testing. state.Handout – Software Testing this problem has frequently been underestimated. Black box testing Methods Graph-based Testing Methods Black-box methods based on the nature of the relationships (links) among the program objects (nodes). to eliminate any guess work by the tester as to the methods of the function Data outside of the specified input range should be tested to check the robustness of the program Boundary cases should be tested (top and bottom of specified range) to make sure the highest and lowest allowable inputs produce proper output The number zero should be tested when numerical data is to be input Stress testing should be performed (try to overload the program with inputs to see where it reaches its maximum capacity). Cognizant Technology Solutions. and state testing. as needed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . loop. individual translators are not too motivated to change their working habits. Since laboratory tests provide testers with many technical possibilities. etc. Special techniques as appropriate--syntax. Any dirty tests not covered by the above. A typical example of the organizational problem of implementing a translation memory is the language service of a big automobile manufacturer. but the fact that many clients still submit their orders as print-out. Additional structural tests for branch coverage. logic testing. data collection and analysis are easier than for field tests.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. test cases should include a and b.Handout – Software Testing Finite state modeling (nodes represent user observable states of the software and links represent transitions between states) Data flow modeling (nodes are data objects and links are transformations from one data object to another) Timing modeling (nodes are program objects and links are sequential connections between these objects. one valid and two invalid equivalence classes are defined If an input condition requires a specific value. link weights are required execution times) Equivalence Partitioning Black-box technique that divides the input domain into classes of data from which test cases can be derived An ideal test case uncovers a class of errors that might require many arbitrary test cases to be executed before a general error is observed Equivalence class guidelines: o o o o o If input condition specifies a range. one valid and one invalid equivalence class is defined Boundary Value Analysis Black-box technique that focuses on the boundaries of the input domain rather than its center BVA guidelines: If input condition specifies a range bounded by values a and b. size limitations). as well as values just above and just below the minimum and maximum values Apply guidelines 1 and 2 to output conditions.g. test cases should be designed to produce the minimum and maxim output reports If internal program data structures have boundaries (e. one valid and one invalid equivalence class is defined If an input condition is Boolean. values just above and just below a and b If an input condition specifies and number of values. test cases should exercise the minimum and maximum numbers. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . one valid and two invalid equivalence classes are defined If an input condition specifies a member of a set. be certain to test the boundaries Comparison Testing Black-box testing for safety critical systems in which independently developed implementations of redundant systems are tested for conformance to specifications Often equivalence class partitioning is used to develop a common set of test cases for each implementation Orthogonal Array Testing Black-box technique that enables the design of a reasonably small set of test cases that provide maximum test coverage Focus is on categories of faulty logic likely to be present in the software component (without examining the code) Page 13 ©Copyright 2007.

to test every possible input stream would take nearly forever Without clear and concise specifications. including specific programming languages Tester and programmer are independent of each other Tests are done from a user's point of view Will help to expose any ambiguities or inconsistencies in the specifications Test cases can be designed as soon as the specifications are complete Disadvantages of Black Box Testing Only a small number of possible inputs can actually be tested.Handout – Software Testing Priorities for assessing tests using an orthogonal array Detect and isolate all single mode faults Detect all double mode faults Multimode faults Specialized Testing Graphical user interfaces Client/server architectures Documentation and help facilities Real-time systems o o o o Task testing (test each time dependent task independently) Behavioral testing (simulate system response to external events) Inter task testing (check communications errors among tasks) System testing (check interaction of integrated system software and hardware) Advantages of Black Box Testing More effective on larger units of code than glass box testing Tester needs no knowledge of implementation. test cases are hard to design There may be unnecessary repetition of test inputs if the tester is not informed of test cases the programmer has already tried May leave many program paths untested Cannot be directed toward specific segments of code which may be very complex (and therefore more error prone) Most testing related research has been directed toward glass box testing White Box Testing Software testing approaches that examine the program structure and derive test data from the program logic. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Structural testing is sometimes referred to as clear-box testing since white boxes are considered opaque and do not really permit visibility into the code. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Synonyms for white box testing Glass Box testing Structural testing Clear Box testing Page 14 ©Copyright 2007.

1. naming conventions and libraries. Developing a test harness made up of stubs. Establishment and maintenance of regression test suites and procedures. 1 Code Coverage Analysis 1. The purpose of white box testing Initiate a strategic initiative to build quality throughout the life cycle of a software product or service. In general. Provide a complementary function to black box testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions.1.1 Flow Graph Notation A notation for representing control flow similar to flow charts and UML activity diagrams. The means to develop or acquire tool support for automation of capture/replay/compare. Allocation of resources to design. results verification and documentation capabilities.Handout – Software Testing Open Box Testing Types of White Box testing A typical rollout of a product is shown in figure 1 below. Development and use of standard procedures. Practices: This section outlines some of the general practices comprising white-box testing process. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Perform complete coverage at the component level. drivers and test object libraries. document and manage a test history library. test suite execution. These are test cases that exercise basic set will execute every statement at least once. Improve quality by optimizing performance. Page 15 ©Copyright 2007.1 Basis Path Testing A testing mechanism proposed by McCabe whose aim is to derive a logical complexity measure of a procedural design and use this as a guide for defining a basic set of execution paths. white-box testing practices have the following considerations: The allocation of resources to perform class and method analysis and to document and review the same.

2.2 Control Structure testing 1. nested. Page 16 ©Copyright 2007. and an upper bound for the number of tests to ensure that each statement is executed at least once. where E1 and E2 are arithmetic expressions.1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 4). 2).1 Conditions Testing Condition testing aims to exercise all logical conditions in a program module.2 Cyclomatic Complexity The cyclomatic complexity gives a quantitative measure of 4the logical complexity. This value gives the number of independent paths in the basis set. Relational expression: (E1 op E2).3 Loop Testing Loops fundamental to many algorithms. 1.2. and unstructured.2. possibly proceeded by a NOT operator.2 Data Flow Testing Selects test paths according to the location of definitions and use of variables. Cyclomatic complexity provides upper bound for number of tests required to guarantee coverage of all program statements. concatenated. Boolean expression: Condition without Relational expressions. Simple condition: Boolean variable or relational expression. Boolean operators and parentheses. They may define: 1).e. a new edge). they are redesigned. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Can define loops as simple. An independent path is any path through a program that introduces at least one new set of processing statements or a new condition (i. Examples: Note that unstructured loops are not to be tested rather. 3). Compound condition: composed of two or more simple conditions.Handout – Software Testing 1.. 1. 1.

the code specification is expressed unambiguously using a formal language that describes the code's implicit contracts. Advantages of White Box Testing Forces test developer to reason carefully about implementation Approximate the partitioning done by execution equivalence Reveals errors in "hidden" code Beneficent side-effects Disadvantages of White Box Testing Expensive Cases omitted in the code could be missed out. Durability). Basically.research. Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. Transactions are checked thoroughly for partial/complete commits and rollbacks encompassing databases and other XA compliant transaction processors. 4 Error Handling Exception and error handling is checked thoroughly are simulating partial and complete fail-over by operating on error causing test vectors.htm] are used to perform this function.ibm.com/journal/sj/391/kazi.Handout – Software Testing 2 Design by Contract (DbC) DbC is a formal way of using comments to incorporate specification information into the code itself.html] may also be used to perform this function. 5 Transactions Systems that employ transaction. Conditions that a method must meet after it executes. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . may be validated to ensure that ACID (Atomicity. Third party tools such as JaViz [http://www.com/products/jtract/index.parasoft. It identifies routines that are consuming the majority of the CPU time so that problems may be tracked down to improve performance. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Consistency. Isolation. These include the use of Microsoft Java Profiler API and Sun’s profiling tools that are bundled with the JDK. local or distributed. Proper error recovery. Each of the individual parameters is tested individually against a reference data set. Assertions that a method must satisfy at specific points of its execution Tools that check DbC contracts at runtime such as Jcontract [http://www. These contracts specify such requirements as: Conditions that the client must meet before a method is invoked. 3 Profiling Profiling provides a framework for analyzing Java code performance for speed and heap memory use. notification and logging are checked against references to validate program design.

Requirements-based testing could be called “black box” because it makes sure that all the customer requirements have been verified. Imagine you’re testing an electronics system. Boundary testing and other attack-based techniques are targeted at common coding errors. Black box software testing is doing the same thing. however. These are the two most commonly used coverage criteria. paths. You must test it without opening it up. Code-based testing is often called “white box” because it makes sure that all the code (the statements. “black box” testing becomes another name for system testing. To help understand the different ways that software testing can be divided between black box and white box techniques. or decisions) is exercised. An opposite test approach would be to open up the electronics system. These terms are commonly used. It’s housed in a black box with lights. and dials on the outside. this is called white box testing. Developer testing is called “white box” testing. Coverage: What is tested? If we draw the box around the system as a whole. consider the Five-Fold Testing System. This is black box testing. People: Who do the testing? Some people know how software works (developers) and others just use it (users). Effective security testing also requires a detailed understanding of the code and the system architecture. Accordingly. And testing the units inside the box becomes white box testing. Another is to contrast testing that aims to cover all the requirements with testing that aims to cover all the code. and you can’t see beyond its surface. The distinction here is based on what the person knows or can understand. You have to see if it works just by flipping switches (inputs) and seeing what happens to the lights and dials (outputs). It lays out five dimensions that can be used for examining testing: People (who do the testing) Coverage (what gets tested) Risks (why you are testing) Activities (how you are testing) Evaluation (how you know you’ve found a bug) Let’s use this system to understand and clarify the characteristics of black box and white box testing. Risks: Why are you testing? Sometimes testing is targeted at particular risks. these techniques might be Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. but with software. apply probes internally and maybe even disassemble parts of it. This is one way to think about coverage.Handout – Software Testing Black Box (Vs) White Box An easy way to start up a debate in a software testing forum is to ask the difference between black box and white box testing. any testing by users or other non-developers is sometimes called “black box” testing. Both are supported by extensive literature and commercial tools. switches. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Black box testing begins with a metaphor. depends on how you define the boundary of the box and what kind of access the “blackness” is blocking. By analogy. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The actual meaning of the metaphor. Thus. see how the circuits are wired. yet everyone seems to have a different idea of what they mean.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it cannot guarantee that all parts of the implementation have been tested. Thus black box testing is testing against the specification and will discover faults of omission. They may be masked by fault tolerance or simply luck. there are further constructive means to guarantee high quality software end products. this is probably the most commonly cited definition for black box and white box testing. and structural test design. Assertions are another technique for helping to make problems more visible. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing classified as “white box”. White box testing is much more expensive than black box testing. Another activity-based distinction contrasts dynamic test execution with formal code inspection. A failure of a white box test may result in a change which requires all black box testing to be repeated and the redetermination of the white box paths. helping with diagnosis. indicating that part of the specification has not been fulfilled. and could be termed “black box. White box testing is testing against the implementation and will discover faults of commission.” Activities: How do you test? A common distinction is made between behavioral test design. Related techniques capture code history and stack information when faults occur. Certain test techniques seek to make these kinds of problems more visible. with the production of flowgraphs and determination of paths. it is often called “black box. These are two design approaches. The consequences of test failure at this stage may be very expensive. The advice given is to start test planning with a black box test approach as soon as the specification is available. It requires the source code to be produced before the tests can be planned and is much more laborious in the determination of suitable input data and the determination if the software is or is not correct.” Indeed. Testing is then categorized based on the types of tools used. To conclude. Another set of risks concerns whether the software will actually provide value to users. Since behavioral testing is based on external functional definition. White box testing is concerned only with testing the software product. In this case. In order to fully test a software product both black and white box testing are required. White box planning should commence as soon as all black box tests have been successfully passed. which defines tests based on the code itself.” while structural testing—based on the code internals—is called “white box. it cannot guarantee that the complete specification has been implemented. Evaluation: How do you know if you’ve found a bug? There are certain kinds of software faults that don’t always lead to obvious failures. since they use code instrumentation to make the internal workings of the software more visible. the metaphor maps test execution (dynamic testing) with black box testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and maps code inspection (static testing) with white box testing. indicating that part of the implementation is faulty. apart from the above described analytical methods of both glass and black box testing. Some tool vendors refer to code-coverage tools as white box tools. Black box testing is concerned only with testing the specification. Usability testing focuses on this risk. All of these techniques could be considered white box test techniques. The paths should then be checked against the black box test plan and any additional required test runs determined and applied. Memory leaks and wild pointers are examples. and tools that facilitate applying inputs and capturing inputs—most notably GUI capture replay tools—as black box tools. which defines tests based on functional requirements. We could also focus on the tools used. These contrast with black box techniques that simply look at the official outputs of a program.

functional. inspection or code-coverage automation (activities). opaque-box. boundary or security testing (risks). Equivalence partitioning is a black-box testing method that a) Looks for equivalent data values in the program b) Looks for classes of output c) Focuses on output errors d) Defines classes of input 2. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. At a minimum. rapid prototyping. and closed-box White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". It is used to detect errors by means of execution-oriented test cases. and last but not least the involvement of users in both software development and testing procedures SUMMARY Black box testing can sometimes describe user-based testing (people). or testing based on probes. structural testing. Black-box test design treats the system as a literal "black-box". white-box test case design requires that you have a) Source code b) An operational program c) A detailed procedural design d) The program architecture Answers: 1). Synonyms for white-box include: structural. the integration of CASE tools. c Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. unit or code-coverage testing (coverage). system or requirements-based testing (coverage). usability testing (risk). on the other hand. assertions. White box testing. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. It is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. glass-box and clear-box. Cognizant Technology Solutions. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure.Handout – Software Testing Among the most important constructive means are the usage of object-oriented programming tools. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . d 2). and logs (evaluation). can sometimes describe developer-based testing (people). Test your Understanding 1. or behavioral testing or capture replay automation (activities).

This icon should correspond to the Original Icon under Program Manager. then use all ungrayed options. version number. This should not be allowed . It is absolutely essential that any application has to be user-friendly. Check if the title of the window make sense. If Window has a Minimize Button. If the screen has a Control menu. The following is a set of guidelines to ensure effective GUI Testing and can be used even as a checklist while testing a product / application.Windows Compliance Testing Application Start Application by Double Clicking on its ICON. Double Click the Icon to return the Window to its original size. The Loading message should show the application name. Check all text on window for Spelling/Tense and Grammar. then some enquiry in progress message should be displayed.e. or it can refer to testing the functionality of each and every component involved. Try this for every grayed control. clarity and non-updateable etc. if the application is busy. Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. Window should return to an icon on the bottom of the screen. These should be checked for spelling. Try to start the application twice as it is loading. On each window. then the hour glass should be displayed. No Login is necessary. If a field is disabled (grayed) then it should not get focus. especially on the top of the screen. The end user should be comfortable while using all the components on screen and the components should also perform their functionality with utmost clarity. and a bigger pictorial representation of the icon.Check for spelling. All controls should get focus . click it. Use SHIFT+TAB to move focus backwards. The window caption for every application should have the name of the application and the window name . Hence it becomes very essential to test the GUI components of any application.) F1 key should work the same. All screens should have a Help button (i.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 3: Other Testing Types Learning Objective After completing this chapter. English and clarity. The main window of the application should have the same caption as the caption of the icon in Program Manager.indicated by dotted box. If there is no hour glass. The text in the Micro Help line should change . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .you should be returned to main window. Tab order should be left to right. GUI Testing can refer to just ensuring that the look-and-feel of the application is acceptable to the user. It should not be possible to select them with either the mouse or by using TAB. Tabbing to an entry field with text in it should highlight the entire text in the field. and Up to Down within a group box on the screen. Closing the application should result in an "Are you Sure" message box Attempt to start application twice. Section 1 . or cursor. Use TAB to move focus around the Window.especially the error messages. you will be able to Explain the methods of testing What is GUI Testing? GUI is the abbreviation for Graphic User Interface. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Spacing should be compatible with the existing windows spacing (word etc. If pressing the Command button results in uncorrectable data e. in All fields. there should be a message phrased positively with Yes/No answers where Yes results in the completion of the action. In general. SPACE should do the same.Letters in amount fields. SHIFT and Arrow should Select Characters. If it doesn't then the text in the box should be gray or non-updateable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Enter text into Box Try to overflow the text by typing to many characters – should be stopped Check the field width with capitals W. Refer to previous page. One button on the screen should be default (indicated by a thick black border). followed by a colon tight to it. Make sure only one space appears. Check Boxes Clicking with the mouse on the box. Items should be in alphabetical order with the exception of blank/none. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Click each button once with the mouse . the label text and contents changes from black to gray depending on the current status. Select with mouse by clicking. This List may be scrollable. Drop down with the item selected should be display the list with the selected item on the top. Pressing ALT+Letter should activate the button. closing an action step. shouldn't have a blank line at the bottom. Option (Radio Buttons) Left and Right arrows should move 'ON' Selection. So should Up and Down. Make sure there is no duplication. Double Click should select all text in box.F4’ should open/drop down the list box.Press SPACE This should activate Tab to each button .This should activate The above are VERY IMPORTANT.Handout – Software Testing Never updateable fields should be displayed with black text on a gray background with a black label.Press RETURN . double-clicking is not essential. In a field that may or may not be updateable. Tab to another type of control (not a command button). List boxes are always white background with black text whether they are disabled or not. Cursor should change from arrow to Insert Bar. All Buttons except for OK and Cancel should have a letter Access to them. All others are gray. All tab buttons should have a distinct letter. Pressing Return in ANY no command button control should activate it.* etc. and if the user can enter or change details on the other screen then the Text on the button should be followed by three dots. Drop Down List Boxes Pressing the Arrow should give list of options. This is indicated by a letter underlined in the button text.g. then pressing <Esc> should activate it.). You should not be able to type text in the box. and should be done for EVERY command Button. Text Boxes Move the Mouse Cursor over all Enterable Text Boxes. Enter invalid characters . Pressing ‘Ctrl . If there is a Cancel Button on the screen. which is at the top or the bottom of the list box. Selection should also be possible with mouse. or on the text should SET/UNSET the box. everything can be done using both the mouse and the keyboard. Page 22 ©Copyright 2007. Command Buttons If Command Button leads to another Screen. All text should be left justified. . Pressing a letter should bring you to the first item in the list with that start with that letter. In general.This should activate Tab to each button . try strange characters like + .

Assure that all dialog boxes have a consistent look and feel. should act in the same way as selecting and item in the list box. or using the Up and Down Arrow keys. Is all the micro-help text spelt correctly on this screen? Is all the error message text spelt correctly on this screen? Is all user input captured in UPPER case or lowercase consistently? Where the database requires a value (other than null) then this should be defaulted into fields. Section 2 . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Clicking Arrow should allow user to choose from list List Boxes Should allow a single selection to be chosen. Are all numeric fields right justified? This is the default unless otherwise specified. make sure all the data can be seen in the box. are the field backgrounds of the correct color? Are all the screen prompts specified in the correct screen font? Is the text in all fields specified in the correct screen font? Are all the field prompts aligned perfectly on the screen? Are all the field edit boxes aligned perfectly on the screen? Are all group boxes aligned correctly on the screen? Should the screen be resizable? Should the screen be allowed to minimize? Are all the field prompts spelt correctly? Are all character or alphanumeric fields left justified? This is the default unless otherwise specified. Validation Conditions: Does a failure of validation on every field cause a sensible user error message? Is the user required to fix entries. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The user must either enter an alternative valid value or leave the default value intact. by clicking with the mouse. Pressing a letter should take you to the first item in the list starting with that letter. then clicking the command button.e. which have failed validation tests? Have any fields got multiple validation rules and if so are all rules being applied? If the user enters an invalid value and clicks on the OK button (i.Handout – Software Testing Combo Boxes Should allow text to be entered. Force the scroll bar to appear. If there is a 'View' or 'Open' button besides the list box then double clicking on a line in the List Box. Assure that all windows have a consistent look and feel. are the field prompts of the correct color? In read-only mode. does not TAB off the field) is the invalid entry identified and highlighted correctly with an error message? Page 23 ©Copyright 2007.Screen Validation Checklist Aesthetic Conditions: Is the general screen background of the correct color? Are the field prompts of the correct color? Are the field backgrounds of the correct color? In read-only mode.

Handout – Software Testing
Is validation consistently applied at screen level unless specifically required at field level? For all numeric fields check whether negative numbers can and should be able to be entered. For all numeric fields check the minimum and maximum values and also some midrange values allowable? For all character/alphanumeric fields check the field to ensure that there is a character limit specified and that this limit is exactly correct for the specified database size? Do all mandatory fields require user input? If any of the database columns don't allow null values then the corresponding screen fields must be mandatory. (If any field, which initially was mandatory, has become optional then check whether null values are allowed in this field.) Navigation Conditions: Can the screen be accessed correctly from the menu? Can the screen be accessed correctly from the toolbar? Can the screen be accessed correctly by double clicking on a list control on the previous creen? Can all screens accessible via buttons on this screen be accessed correctly? Can all screens accessible by double clicking on a list control be accessed correctly? Is the screen modal? (i.e.) Is the user prevented from accessing other functions when this screen is active and is this correct? Can a number of instances of this screen be opened at the same time and is this correct? Usability Conditions: Are all the dropdowns on this screen sorted correctly? Alphabetic sorting is the default unless otherwise specified. Is all date entry required in the correct format? Have all pushbuttons on the screen been given appropriate Shortcut keys? Do the Shortcut keys work correctly? Have the menu options that apply to your screen got fast keys associated and should they have? Does the Tab Order specified on the screen go in sequence from Top Left to bottom right? This is the default unless otherwise specified. Are all read-only fields avoided in the TAB sequence? Are all disabled fields avoided in the TAB sequence? Can the cursor be placed in the microhelp text box by clicking on the text box with the mouse? Can the cursor be placed in read-only fields by clicking in the field with the mouse? Is the cursor positioned in the first input field or control when the screen is opened? Is there a default button specified on the screen? Does the default button work correctly? When an error message occurs does the focus return to the field in error when the user cancels it?
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Handout – Software Testing
When the user Alt+Tab's to another application does this have any impact on the screen upon return to the application? Do all the fields edit boxes indicate the number of characters they will hold by there length? e.g. a 30 character field should be a lot longer Data Integrity Conditions: Is the data saved when the window is closed by double clicking on the close box? Check the maximum field lengths to ensure that there are no truncated characters? Where the database requires a value (other than null) then this should be defaulted into fields. The user must either enter an alternative valid value or leave the default value intact. Check maximum and minimum field values for numeric fields? If numeric fields accept negative values can these be stored correctly on the database and does it make sense for the field to accept negative numbers? If a set of radio buttons represents a fixed set of values such as A, B and C then what happens if a blank value is retrieved from the database? (In some situations rows can be created on the database by other functions, which are not screen based, and thus the required initial values can be incorrect.) If a particular set of data is saved to the database check that each value gets saved fully to the database. (i.e.) Beware of truncation (of strings) and rounding of numeric values. Modes (Editable Read-only) Conditions: Are the screen and field colors adjusted correctly for read-only mode? Should a read-only mode be provided for this screen? Are all fields and controls disabled in read-only mode? Can the screen be accessed from the previous screen/menu/toolbar in read-only mode? Can all screens available from this screen be accessed in read-only mode? Check that no validation is performed in read-only mode. General Conditions: Assure the existence of the "Help" menu. Assure that the proper commands and options are in each menu. Assure that all buttons on all tool bars have a corresponding key commands. Assure that each menu command has an alternative (hot-key) key sequence, which will invoke it where appropriate. In drop down list boxes, ensure that the names are not abbreviations / cut short In drop down list boxes, assure that the list and each entry in the list can be accessed via appropriate key / hot key combinations. Ensure that duplicate hot keys do not exist on each screen Ensure the proper usage of the escape key (which is to undo any changes that have been made) and generates a caution message "Changes will be lost - Continue yes/no" Assure that the cancel button functions the same as the escape key.
Page 25 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Handout – Software Testing
Assure that the Cancel button operates, as a Close button when changes have been made that cannot be undone. Assure that only command buttons, which are used by a particular window, or in a particular dialog box, are present. – (i.e) make sure they don't work on the screen behind the current screen. When a command button is used sometimes and not at other times, assures that it is grayed out when it should not be used. Assure that OK and Cancel buttons are grouped separately from other command buttons. Assure that command button names are not abbreviations. Assure that all field labels/names are not technical labels, but rather are names meaningful to system users. Assure that command buttons are all of similar size and shape, and same font & font size. Assure that each command button can be accessed via a hot key combination. Assure that command buttons in the same window/dialog box do not have duplicate hot keys. Assure that each window/dialog box has a clearly marked default value (command button, or other object) which is invoked when the Enter key is pressed - and NOT the Cancel or Close button Assure that focus is set to an object/button, which makes sense according to the function of the window/dialog box. Assure that all option buttons (and radio buttons) names are not abbreviations. Assure that option button names are not technical labels, but rather are names meaningful to system users. If hot keys are used to access option buttons, assure that duplicate hot keys do not exist in the same window/dialog box. Assure that option box names are not abbreviations. Assure that option boxes, option buttons, and command buttons are logically grouped together in clearly demarcated areas "Group Box" Assure that the Tab key sequence, which traverses the screens, does so in a logical way. Assure consistency of mouse actions across windows. Assure that the color red is not used to highlight active objects (many individuals are redgreen color blind). Assure that the user will have control of the desktop with respect to general color and highlighting (the application should not dictate the desktop background characteristics). Assure that the screen/window does not have a cluttered appearance Ctrl + F6 opens next tab within tabbed window Shift + Ctrl + F6 opens previous tab within tabbed window Tabbing will open next tab within tabbed window if on last field of current tab Tabbing will go onto the 'Continue' button if on last field of last tab within tabbed window Tabbing will go onto the next editable field in the window Banner style & size & display exact same as existing windows
Page 26 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

highlighting the field with the error on it) Pressing continue while on the first tab of a tabbed window (assuming all fields filled correctly) will not open all the tabs.e the tab is opened. Assure that both + and . Assure that fields with a blank in the last position are processed or reported as an error an error. generating "changes will be lost" message if necessary. Assure that numeric fields with a blank in position 1 are processed or reported as an error. Page 27 ©Copyright 2007.should be no need to scroll Errors on continue will cause user to be returned to the tab and the focus should be on the field causing the error. Assure that division by zero does not occur. 30 are validated correctly & do not cause errors/ miscalculations. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 28. On open of tab focus will be on first editable field All fonts to be the same Alt+F4 will close the tabbed window and return you to main screen or previous screen (as appropriate). Numeric Fields Assure that lowest and highest values are handled correctly. Assure that Feb. (i. Assure that day values 00 and 32 are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. Assure that 00 and 13 are reported as errors.values are correctly processed. Assure that Feb. Microhelp text for every enabled field & button Ensure all fields are disabled in read-only mode Progress messages on load of tabbed screens Return operates continue If retrieve on load of tabbed window fails window should not open Specific Field Tests Date Field Checks Assure that leap years are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. 30 is reported as an error. Assure that invalid values are logged and reported. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Assure that out of cycle dates are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. display all options on open of list box . Assure that valid values are handles by the correct procedure. Assure that month code 00 and 13 are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. Assure that century change is validated correctly & does not cause errors/miscalculations. 29.Handout – Software Testing If 8 or less options in a list box.

Standard Actions Examples of Standard Actions .Valid data Fill each field . Alpha Field Checks Use blank and non-blank data.e. Validation Testing .(i. Assure that upper and lower values in ranges are handled correctly. Include lowest and highest values. Cognizant Technology Solutions.e. continue saving changes or additions) Add View Change Delete Cancel .Substitute your specific commands Add View Change Delete Continue .(i. Include valid characters. Include out of range values above the maximum and below the minimum. Include data items with first position blank. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Include invalid characters & symbols. Include maximum and minimum range values. abandon changes or additions) Fill each field . Include data items with last position blank. Include at least one in-range value.Handout – Software Testing Include value zero in all calculations.Invalid data Different Check Box / Radio Box combinations Scroll Lists / Drop Down List Boxes Help Fill Lists and Scroll Tab Tab Sequence Shift Tab Page 28 ©Copyright 2007.

Handout – Software Testing Shortcut keys / Hot Keys Note: The following keys are used in some windows applications. and are included as a guide. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 29 ©Copyright 2007.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Applications may use other modifiers for these operations.Handout – Software Testing * These shortcuts are suggested for text formatting applications. in the context for which they make sense. Page 30 ©Copyright 2007.

The selective retesting of a software system that has been modified to ensure that any bugs have been fixed and that no other previously working functions have failed as a result of the reparations and that newly added features have not created problems with previous versions of the software. and can include both manual and automated tests Example: You can create a cycle containing basic tests that run on each build of the application throughout development. Before a new version of a software product is released. You can run the cycle each time a new build is ready. Test Execution Test Execution is the heart of the testing process. to determine the application's stability before beginning more rigorous testing. Each time your application changes. This test cycle includes tests that check that module in depth. Example: You can create another set of tests for a particular module in your application. Regression testing is a normal part of the program development process. The reason they might not work because changing or adding new code to a program can easily introduce errors into code that is not intended to be changed.Handout – Software Testing Regression Testing What is Regression Testing? Regression testing is the process of testing changes to computer programs to make sure that the older programming still works with the new changes. refer to the testing goals you defined at the beginning of the process. It is a quality control measure to ensure that the newly modified code still complies with its specified requirements and that unmodified code has not been affected by the maintenance activity. A related group of tests is called a test cycle. you need to execute different tests in order to address specific goals. Usually you do not run all the tests at once. Also consider issues such as the current state of the application and whether new functions have been added or modified. the old test cases are run against the new version to make sure that all the old capabilities still work. Page 31 ©Copyright 2007. To decide which test cycles to build. Create Test Cycles During this stage you decide the subset of tests from your test database you want to execute. At different stages of the quality assurance process. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Test department coders develop code test scenarios and exercises that will test new units of code after they have been written. you will want to execute the relevant parts of your test plan in order to locate defects and assess quality. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Also referred to as verification testing Regression testing is initiated after a programmer has attempted to fix a recognized problem or has added source code to a program that may have inadvertently introduced errors.

This cycle can group medium-level tests. The goal of this type of cycle is to verify that a change to one part of the software did not break the rest of the application. Regression cycle tests maintenance builds. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . During Automated Test Execution you create a batch of tests and launch the entire batch at once. A regression cycle includes sanity-level tests for testing the entire software. With Manual Test Execution you follow the instructions in the test steps of each test. It then imports results. notices a problem with an application. You perform manual tests using the test steps. Analyze Test Results After every test run one analyze and validate the test results. For each test step you assign either pass or fail status. The tests in the cycle cover the entire application (breadth). you begin executing the tests in the cycle. And have to identify all the failed steps in the tests and to determine whether a bug has been detected. Testing Tools executes automated tests for you. This cycle should include basic-level tests containing mostly positive checks. a letter is allowed to be entered in a number field) Change a modification of the existing application. compare the application output with the expected output. as well as in-depth tests for the specific area of the application that was modified. Change Request Initiating a Change Request A user or developer wants to suggest a modification that would improve an existing application. Run Test Cycles (Automated & Manual Tests) Once you have created cycles that cover your testing objectives. (for example. sorting the files alphabetically by the second field rather than numerically by the first field makes them easier to find) Enhancement Page 32 ©Copyright 2007. rather than depth) to see that it is functional and stable. A test cycle is complete only when all tests-automatic and manual-have been run. and also test advanced options in the application (depth). You use the application. Cognizant Technology Solutions. (for example. Testing Tools runs the tests one at a time.Handout – Software Testing Following are examples of some general categories of test cycles to consider: Sanity cycle checks the entire system at a basic level (breadth. This cycle can be run when more time is available for testing. Advanced cycle tests both breadth and depth. containing both positive and negative checks. Any major or minor request is considered a problem with an application and will be entered as a change request. and log the results. enter input. or if the expected result needs to be updated. Type of Change Request Bug the application works incorrectly or provides incorrect information. providing outcome summaries for each test. or wants to recommend an enhancement. Normal cycle tests the system a little more in depth than the sanity cycle.

fix. High the application works. all members of the development and quality assurance team must be well informed in order to insure that bugs information is up to date and that the most important problems are addressed. Critical the application does not work. Report Bugs Once you execute the manual and automated tests in a cycle. you report the bugs (or defects) that you detected. Bugs can be detected and reported by engineers. testers. Information about bugs must be detailed and organized in order to schedule bug fixes and determine software release dates. There can be more things Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. but this is necessary to perform a job. and provide all necessary information to reproduce. The bugs are stored in a database so that you can manage them and analyze the status of your application. First you report New bugs to the database. When you report a bug. Traceability Matrix A traceability matrix is created by associating requirements with the products that satisfy them. These bugs are given the status Open and are assigned to a member of the development team. The number of open or fixed bugs is a good indicator of the quality status of your application. Bug Tracking involves two main stages: reporting and tracking.Tests are associated with the requirements on which they are based and the product tested tomeet the requirement. If a bug is detected again. (for example. it is reopened. and follow up the bug. it is Closed. Software developers fix the Open bugs and assign them the status Fixed. job functions are impaired and there is no work around. you record all the information necessary to reproduce and fix it. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Bug Tracking Locating and repairing software bugs is an essential part of software development. a new report. The Quality Assurance manager or Project manager periodically reviews all New bugs and decides which should be fixed. This also applies to any Section 508 infraction.Handout – Software Testing new functionality or item added to the application. Below is a simple traceability matrix structure. verified. Track and Analyze Bugs The lifecycle of a bug begins when it is reported and ends when it is fixed. and closed. and end-users in all phases of the testing process. You can use data analysis tools such as re-ports and graphs in interpret bug data. You also make sure that the QA and development personnel involved in fixing the bug are notified. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a new field. or a new button) Priority for the request Low the application works but this would make the function easier or more user friendly. If a bug does not reoccur. QA personnel test a new build of the application. Communication is an essential part of bug tracking.

The examples below show traceability between user and system requirements.Handout – Software Testing included in a traceability matrix than shown below. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ." Tracing S12 to its source makes it clear this requirement is erroneous: it must be eliminated. Numbers for products are established in a configuration management (CM) plan. User requirement identifiers begin with "U" and system requirements with "S. or the traceability corrected. and that all higher level requirements are allocated to lower level requirements. rewritten. Traceability ensures completeness. Traceability requires unique identifiers for each requirement and product. Traceability is also used in managing change and provides the basis for test planning. Cognizant Technology Solutions. that all lower level requirements derive from higher level requirements. Page 34 ©Copyright 2007. SAMPLE TRACEABILITY MATRIX A traceability matrix is a report from the requirements database or repository.

Goal is to evaluate the system as a whole. What goes into each report depends on the information needs of those receiving the report(s). Unit testing. Acceptance Testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Installation. The integration of this code with the internal code is the important objective. other reports are necessary to manage requirements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .) Types and Phases of Testing Page 35 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing In addition to traceability matrices. Phases of Testing The primary objective of testing effort is to determine the conformance to requirements specified in the contracted documents. Determine their information needs and document the information that will be associated with the requirements when you set up your requirements database or repository. etc. Techniques can be used in any stage that tests the system as a whole (System testing. not its parts Techniques can be structural or functional.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Page 36 ©Copyright 2007.

Handout – Software Testing Page 37 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

because of the vast amount of detail separating the input data from the individual code modules. testing at each phase helps detect errors early and keep the system under control. Large systems may require many integration phases. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . First. an integration testing technique should fit well with the overall integration strategy. top-down. and finally assembling the highest level subsystems into the complete system. In a multi-phase integration. Integration may be performed all at once. Performing only cursory testing at early integration phases and then applying a more rigorous criterion for the final stage is really just a variant of the high-risk "big bang" approach. this is impractical for two major reasons. Cognizant Technology Solutions. In general. To be most effective. Second. critical piece first. beginning with assembling modules into lowlevel subsystems. However. the more important the integration strategy. performing rigorous testing of the entire software involved in each integration phase involves a lot of wasteful duplication of effort across phases. Very small systems are often assembled and tested in one phase. bottom-up. In fact. the larger the project. then assembling subsystems into larger subsystems. For most real systems.Handout – Software Testing Integration Testing One of the most significant aspects of a software development project is the integration strategy. most integration testing has been traditionally limited to ``black box'' techniques. the system would fail in so many places at once that the debugging and retesting effort would be impractical. The key is to Page 38 ©Copyright 2007. satisfying any white box testing criterion would be very difficult. or by first integrating functional subsystems and then integrating the subsystems in separate phases using any of the basic strategies.

leads to an excessive amount of redundant testing. Applying it to each phase of a multiphase integration strategy. and then performing pure integration testing at higher levels. verifying the details of each module's implementation in an integration context. At the other extreme. this trivial kind of generalization does not take advantage of the differences between module and integration testing. Each of these views of integration testing may be appropriate for any given project. module and integration testing can be combined. for example. Generalization of module testing criteria Module testing criteria can often be generalized in several possible ways to support integration testing. integration testing concentrates entirely on module interactions. Then. the most obvious generalization is to satisfy the module testing criterion in an integration context. Many projects compromise. It is important to understand the relationship between module testing and integration testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing leverage the overall integration structure to allow rigorous testing at each phase while minimizing duplication of effort. assuming that the details within each module are accurate. As discussed in the previous subsection. so an integration testing method should be flexible enough to accommodate them all. However. combining module testing with the lowest level of subsystem integration testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. modules are rigorously tested in isolation using stubs and drivers before any integration is attempted. in effect using the entire program as a test driver environment for each module. Page 39 ©Copyright 2007. In one view.

Although the specifics of the generalization of structured testing are more detailed. in which each statement is required to be exercised during module testing. The sequential rule eliminates sequences of non-call ("white dot") nodes. Rules 1 through 4 are intended to be applied iteratively until none of them can be applied. since for poorlystructured code it may be hard to distinguish the ``top'' of the loop from the ``bottom. even very complex logic can be eliminated as long as it does not involve any module calls. the call rule states that function call ("black dot") nodes cannot be reduced. can be generalized to require each module call statement to be exercised during integration testing. By this process. Since structured testing at the module level requires that all the decision logic in a module's control flow graph be tested independently. at which point the design reduction is complete. it does simplify the graph so that the other rules can be applied. the appropriate generalization to the integration level requires that just the decision logic involved with calls to other modules be tested independently. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Module design complexity Rather than testing all decision outcomes within a module independently. the approach is the same. It is important to preserve the module's connectivity when using the looping rule. remove all control structures that are not involved with module calls. so that it is possible to exercise them independently during integration testing. The remaining rules work together to eliminate the parts of the flow graph that are not involved with module calls. However. there must be a path from the module entry to the top of the loop and a path from the bottom of the loop to the module exit. The idea behind design reduction is to start with a module control flow graph. Since the repetitive. The looping rule eliminates bottom-test loops that are not involved with module calls. Figure below shows a systematic set of rules for performing design reduction. The statement coverage module testing criterion.'' For the rule to apply. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . structured testing at the integration level focuses on the decision outcomes that are involved with module calls. Since application of this rule removes one node and one edge from the flow graph. they each reduce cyclomatic complexity by one. it leaves the cyclomatic complexity unchanged. conditional. Although not strictly a reduction rule. Page 40 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing More useful generalizations adapt the module testing criterion to focus on interactions between modules rather than attempting to test all of the details of each module's implementation in an integration context. and then use the resultant "reduced" flow graph to drive integration testing. The design reduction technique helps identify those decision outcomes. The conditional rule eliminates conditional statements that do not contain calls in their bodies. and looping rules each remove one edge from the flow graph. The repetitive rule eliminates top-test loops that are not involved with module calls.

Hierarchical design is most effective when the coupling among sibling components decreases as the component size increases. which simplifies the derivation of data sets that test interactions among components. and it is important to limit the corresponding stages of testing as well. it is required that each statement be executed during the first phase (which may be anything from single modules to the entire Page 41 ©Copyright 2007. The remainder of this section extends the integration testing techniques of structured testing to handle the general case of incremental integration. including support for hierarchical design.Handout – Software Testing Incremental integration Hierarchical system design limits each stage of development to a manageable effort. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . avoiding redundant testing of previously integrated sub-components. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The key principle is to test just the interaction among components at each integration stage. To extend statement coverage to support incremental integration. To form a completely flexible "statement testing" criterion. it is required that all module call statements from one component into a different component be exercised at each integration stage.

Page 42 ©Copyright 2007. this limits the testing effort to a small fraction of the effort to cover each statement of the system at each integration phase. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing program). and that at each integration phase all call statements that cross the boundaries of previously integrated components are tested. Given hierarchical integration stages with good cohesive partitioning properties.

in general. an Acceptance Test Plan should be developed in order to plan precisely. acceptance testing is formal testing conducted to determine whether a system satisfies its acceptance criteria and thus whether the customer should accept the system. As in any system though. the testing should be planned in order to provide a realistic and adequate exposure of the system to all reasonably expected events. The customer knows what is required from the system to achieve value in the business and is the only person qualified to make that judgment. To be of real use. It would take three tests to integrate this system in a single phase. and not the developer should always do acceptance testing. However. Figure 7-7 illustrates the structured testing approach to incremental integration. User Acceptance Testing is a critical phase of any 'systems' project and requires significant participation by the 'End Users'. and the component module design complexity of module C is 2. Acceptance. Modules A and C have been previously integrated. Acceptance Testing In software engineering. Modules B and D are removed from consideration because they do not contain cross-component calls. Interface. Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. and in detail. Release. only two additional tests are required to complete the integration testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Structured testing can be extended to cover the fully general case of incremental integration in a similar manner. Factors influencing Acceptance Testing The User Acceptance Test Plan will vary from system to system but. including Users. It is similar to systems testing in that the whole system is checked but the important difference is the change in focus: Systems Testing checks that the system that was specified has been delivered. The testing can be based upon the User Requirements Specification to which the system should conform. The test procedures that lead to formal 'acceptance' of new or changed systems. The main types of software testing are: Component. but at all times they are informed by the business needs. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The final part of the UAT can also include a parallel run to prove the system against the current system. yielding component-reduced graphs. The customer. the means by which 'Acceptance' will be achieved. Acceptance Testing checks the system against the "Requirements". The key is to perform design reduction at each integration phase using just the module call nodes that cross component boundaries. Acceptance Testing checks that the system delivers what was requested. since the design predicates decision to call module D from module B has been tested in a previous phase. and exclude from consideration all modules that do not contain any cross-component calls. as have modules B and D. problems will arise and it is important to have determined what will be the expected and required responses from the various parties concerned. the component module design complexity of module A is 1. The forms of the tests may follow those in system testing. System.

receive priority response and that all testing will cease until such level 1 problems are resolved. in consultation with the executive sponsor of the project. Critical Problem. testing can continue but live this feature will cause severe disruption to business processes in live operation. Major Problem. testing can continue but we cannot go into production (live) with this problem. perhaps unintentionally. Because no system is entirely fault free.g. '1' is the most severe. Page 44 ©Copyright 2007. Caution. N.e. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the End Users and the Project Team need to develop and agree a range of 'Severity Levels'. and '6' has the least impact: 'Show Stopper' i. in terms of business / commercial impact.Handout – Software Testing Project Team. of a problem with the system. it is impossible to continue with the testing because of the severity of this error / bug. prior consideration of this is advisable. In some cases.B. testing can continue and the system is likely to go live with only minimal departure from agreed business processes. users may agree to accept ('sign off') the system subject to a range of conditions. we strongly advised that a range of examples are agreed in advance to ensure that there are no fundamental areas of disagreement. found during testing. if such features are key to the business requirements they will warrant a higher severity level. seek additional functionality which could be classified as scope creep. or. Here is an example which has been used successfully. the allocation of a problem into its appropriate severity level can be subjective and open to question. Finally. Cognizant Technology Solutions. These conditions need to be analyzed as they may. Vendors and possibly Consultants / Contractors. This problem should be corrected. These levels will range from (say) 1 to 6 and will represent the relative severity. the maximum number of acceptable 'outstanding' in any particular category. To avoid the risk of lengthy and protracted exchanges over the categorization of problems. any and all fixes from the software developers. Minor Problem . must then agree upon the responsibilities and required actions for each category of problem. For example. but little or no changes to business processes are envisaged. both testing and live operations may progress. In order to agree what such responses should be. where appropriate Regression Testing. must be subjected to rigorous System Testing and. Again. fonts. you may demand that any problems in severity level 1. pitch size However. it is crucial to agree the Criteria for Acceptance. Even where the severity levels and the responses to each have been agreed by all parties. Medium Problem. In any event. it must be agreed between End User and vendor. or if there are. The users of the system. these will be known in advance and your organization is forewarned. colours. 'Cosmetic' Problem e.

Cause failures concerning the configurability requirements that help identify defects that are not efficiently found during unit and integration testing: o o o Functional Variants.e. Examples Typical examples include configuration testing of an application that must: Have multiple functional variants. etc. The test environment is ready. to determine if it fulfills its configurability requirements). Preconditions Configuration testing can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The configurability requirements to be tested have been specified. However. analyzed. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007. configuration testing can begin prior to the distribution of the software components onto the hardware components. The typical goals of configuration testing are to cause the application to fail to meet its configurability requirements so that the underlying defects can be identified. fixed.Handout – Software Testing Configuration Testing & Installation Testing Configuration testing: Testing to determine whether the program operates properly when the software or hardware is configured in a required manner. taxes and tariffs. The relevant software components have passed unit testing.g. Personalization Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. Support personalization. Software integration testing has started. multiple languages. The relevant system components have passed system integration testing. currencies. Determine the effect of adding or modifying hardware resources such as: o o o o Memory Disk and tape resources Processors Load balancers Determine an optimal system configuration. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Internationalization (e.). and prevented in the future. Support internationalization.. Multiple variants of the application exist. The independent test team is adequately staffed and trained in configuration testing. Objectives The typical objectives of configuration testing are to: Partially validate the application (i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. time zones..

The test suites for every scheduled configurability requirement execute successfully on the appropriate configuration.Handout – Software Testing Completion Criteria Configuration testing is typically complete when the following postconditions hold: At least one configuration test suite exists for each configurability requirement. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Tasks Configurability testing typically involves the independent test team performing the following testing tasks: Test Planning Test Reuse Test Design Test Implementation Test Execution Test Reporting Environments Configuration testing is performed on the following environments using the following techniques: Test Environment: Test Harness Work Products Configuration testing typically results in the production of all or part of the following work products from the test work product set: Documents: Project Test Plan Master Test List Test Procedures Test Report Test Summary Report Software and Data: Test Harness Test Scripts Test Suites Test Cases Test Data Phases Configuration testing typically consists of the following tasks being performed during the following phases: Page 46 ©Copyright 2007.

Page 47 ©Copyright 2007. Test planners should check with Soft Solutions International to determine whether there are any additional regulatory requirements for installation testing. Installation testing is any testing that takes place at a user's site with the actual hardware and software that will be part of the installed system configuration. Quality System Regulations require installation and inspection procedures (including testing where appropriate) and documentation of inspection and testing to demonstrate proper installation. and installation verification have all been used to describe installation testing. However. there are specific site validation requirements that need to be considered in the planning of installation testing. Terminology in this testing area can be confusing. Terms such as beta test. and for the purposes of this document. reuse functional test cases as configuration test cases. user acceptance test. The testing is accomplished through either actual or simulated use of the software being tested within the environment in which it is intended to function. Likewise. Configuration testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur. To avoid confusion. and automated systems be validated for their intended use. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . To the extent practical. in some areas. installation testing is defined as any testing that takes place outside of the developer's controlled environment. site validation. Guidance contained here is general in nature and is applicable to any installation testing. Installation testing: Testing to identify the ways in which the installation procedures lead to incorrect results.Handout – Software Testing Guidelines The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that configuration testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. manufacturing equipment must meet specified requirements. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

fault testing (avoidance. errors. Alpha testing and Beta testing Alpha testing is the launch testing consisting of the development organization’s initial internal dry runs of the application’s acceptance tests in the production environment. and serviceability. if any. and the recording of all test outputs. detection. Measures should ensure that all system components are exercised during the testing and that the versions of these components are those specified. There should be evidence that hardware and software are installed and configured as specified. the definition of expected test results. and recovery). Operators should be able to perform the intended operations and respond in an appropriate and timely manner to all alarms. tolerance. If the developers are not involved. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Objectives The typical objectives of alpha testing are to: Cause failures that only tend to occur in the production environment. it is all the more important that the user have persons knowledgeable in software engineering who understand the importance of such matters as careful test planning. These may include tests for a high volume of data. The revision of the system to compensate for faults detected during this installation testing should follow the same procedures and controls as any other software change. they may seamlessly carry over to the user's site the last portions of design-level systems testing. The developer may be able to furnish the user with some of the test data sets to be used for this purpose. Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. If the developers are involved. Help determine the extent to which the application is ready for: o o o Beta testing. there should be an evaluation of the ability of the users of the system to understand and correctly interface with it. Launch.Handout – Software Testing Installation testing should follow a pre-defined plan with a formal summary of testing and a record of formal acceptance. Some of the evaluations that have been performed earlier by the software developer at the developer's site should be repeated at the site of actual use. heavy loads or stresses. which are encountered. etc. Records should be maintained during installation testing of both the system's capability to properly perform and the system's failures. error messages. In addition to an evaluation of the system's ability to properly perform its intended functions. Page 48 ©Copyright 2007. security. which are not apparent during more normal activities. test input data and test results. The testing instructions should encourage use through the full range of operating conditions and should continue for a sufficient time to allow the system to encounter a wide spectrum of conditions and events in an effort to detect any latent faults. The developers of the software may or may not be involved in the installation testing. There should be retention of documented evidence of all testing procedures. warnings. implementation of safety requirements. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Acceptance testing.

Completion Criteria Alpha testing is typically complete when the following post conditions hold: An initial version of the acceptance test suites exists. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The independent test team is adequately staffed. The customer representative has approved these acceptance test suites. The application has been ported to the production environment. Test Reporting: Report failures that occurred during testing to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. The production environment is ready. Update the alpha testing subsection of Project Test Plan (PTP) Test Design: Select an adequate subset of the system test suites of test cases (both functional and quality) to be repeated on the production environment during alpha testing. Test Execution: Execute the alpha test suites on the production environment. Preconditions Execution of alpha tests can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The application has passed all system tests. The acceptance tests execute on the production environment. Acceptance testing does not discover any: o o Severity one defects. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Test Implementation: Fix any defects in the test suites found during evaluation.Handout – Software Testing Provide input to the defect trend analysis effort. Environments Alpha testing is typically performed on the following environments with the following tools: o Production Environments None o o o o Page 49 ©Copyright 2007. The delivery phase has begun. Severity two defects that do not have adequate work arounds. Tasks Typically involves the following teams performing the following testing tasks: Independent Test Team: o Test Planning: Determine alpha testing completion criteria.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Phases Alpha testing typically involves the following tasks being performed during the following phases: Guidelines To the extent practical. Help determine the extent to which the system is ready for: o o Acceptance testing. Definition Beta testing is the launch testing of the application in the production environment by a few select users prior to acceptance testing and the release of the application to its entire user community. Preconditions Beta test execution can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The application has passed all system tests. Provide input to the defect trend analysis effort. The application has passed alpha testing. reuse the tests from system testing when performing alpha testing rather than producing new tests. The delivery phase has begun. The production environment is ready. Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. Launch. Objectives The typical objectives of beta testing are to: Cause failures that only tend to occur during actual usage by the user community rather than during formal testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Obtain additional user community feedback beyond that received during usability testing. Page 50 ©Copyright 2007.

User Organizations: Page 51 ©Copyright 2007. Test Reporting . Completion Criteria Beta testing is typically complete when: The time period scheduled for beta testing ends.Select beta test user group. The selected group of users is ready.Use application under normal conditions of operation. The users have reported any failures observed to the development organization. Tasks Beta testing typically involves the following producers performing the following testing tasks: Independent Test Team: o Test Planning . Test Reporting .Report failures to customer organization. Test Execution . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Update beta testing subsection of Project Test Plan (PTP).Pass on reported failures to developer organization. These failures have been passed on to the development teams. Customer Organization: o o o o Environments Beta testing is typically performed on the following environments (limited to a select group of users) using the following tools: Production Environments: Client Environment Contact Center Environment Content Management Environment Data Center Environment Tools: Defect reporting tool.Handout – Software Testing The application has been ported to the production environment. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Test Implementation .

Beta testing often uses actual live data rather than data created for testing purposes. The testing that ensures that no unwanted changes were introduced is a) Unit Testing b) System Testing c) Acceptance Testing d) Regression Testing Answers: 1) a 2) d Page 52 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Alpha testing is differentiated from beta testing by a) the location where the tests are conducted b) the types of tests conducted c) the people doing the testing d) the degree to which white-box techniques are used 2.Handout – Software Testing Phases Beta testing typically involves the following tasks being performed during the following phases: Guidelines Limit the user test group to users who are willing to use a lower quality version of the application in exchange for obtaining it early and having input into its iteration. Beta testing is critical if formal usability testing was not performed during system testing. Test your Understanding 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

If the scope is too narrow. any method that can break is a good candidate for having a unit test. The programmer is then reduced to testing-by-poking-around. Certainly. The careful programmer will know that their unit testing is complete when they have verified that their unit tests cover every cluster of objects that form their application. can it be tested by inspection? If the code is simple enough that the developer can just look at it and verify its correctness then it is simple enough to not require a unit test. then the tests will be trivial and the objects might pass the tests. It's important. because it may break at some time.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 4: Levels of Testing Learning Objective After completing this chapter. because they test for failures. Usually this is the case when the method involves a cluster of objects. but there will be no design of their interactions. along with the expected results and pass/fail date. it is a little design document that says. The programmer should know that their unit testing is complete when the unit tests cover at the very least the functional requirements of all the code. in the language of object oriented programming. Hence: Unit tests isolate clusters of objects for future developers. Cognizant Technology Solutions. if the scope is too broad. you will be able to: List different levels of testing Unit Testing Unit testing: Isn't that some annoying requirement that we're going to ignore? Many developers get very nervous when you mention unit tests. "What will these clusters of objects do?" The crucial issue in constructing a unit test is scope. Just because we don't test every method explicitly doesn't mean that methods can get away with not being tested. Another good litmus test is to look at the code and see if it throws an error or catches an error. The danger of not implementing a unit test on every method is that the coverage may be incomplete. Unit tests that isolate clusters of objects for testing are doubly useful. Unit tests will most likely be defined at the method level. People who revisit the code will use the unit tests to discover which objects are related. "What will this bit of code do?" Or. Usually this is a vision of a grand table with every single method listed. The unit test will motivate the code that you write. then there is a high chance that not every component of the new code will get tested. or which objects form a cluster. Need for Unit Test How do you know that a method doesn't need a unit test? First. Generally. If error handling is performed in a method. and then the unit test will be there to help you fix it. which is not an effective test strategy. In a sense. then that method can break. interactions of objects are the crux of any object oriented design. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Likewise. and they also identify those segments of code that are related. The developer should know when this is the case. so the art is to define the unit test on the methods that cannot be checked by inspection. but not relevant in most programming projects.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.e. As it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. from Requirements till User Acceptance Testing. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. and Prepare a test case with a high probability of finding an as-yet undiscovered error.. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. To test particular functions or code modules.Handout – Software Testing Life Cycle Approach to Testing Testing will occur throughout the project lifecycle i. Types of Errors detected The following are the Types of errors that may be caught Error in Data Structures Performance Errors Logic Errors Validity of alternate and exception flows Identified at analysis/design stages Page 54 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Levels of Unit Testing UNIT 100% code coverage INTEGRATION SYSTEM ACCEPTANCE MAINTENANCE AND REGRESSION Concepts in Unit Testing: The most 'micro' scale of testing.. To uncover an as-yet undiscovered error . The main Objective to Unit Testing are as follows : To execute a program with the intent of finding an error.

Handout – Software Testing Unit Testing – Black Box Approach Field Level Check Field Level Validation User Interface Check Functional Level Check Unit Testing – White Box Approach STATEMENT COVERAGE DECISION COVERAGE CONDITION COVERAGE MULTIPLE CONDITION COVERAGE (nested conditions) CONDITION/DECISION COVERAGE PATH COVERAGE Unit Testing – Field Level Checks Null / Not Null Checks Uniqueness Checks Length Checks Date Field Checks Numeric Checks Negative Checks Unit Testing – Field Level Validations Test all Validations for an Input field Date Range Checks (From Date/To Date’s) Date Check Validation with System date Unit Testing – User Interface Checks Readability of the Controls Tool Tips Validation Ease of Use of Interface Across Tab related Checks User Interface Dialog GUI compliance checks Unit Testing . Page 55 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ..Functionality Checks Screen Functionalities Field Dependencies Auto Generation Algorithms and Computations Normal and Abnormal terminations Specific Business Rules if any.

Handout – Software Testing Unit Testing .Other Measures Function coverage Loop coverage Race coverage Execution of Unit Tests Design a test case for every statement to be executed. Page 56 ©Copyright 2007. This measure reports whether each executable statement is encountered. Also known as: line coverage. segment coverage and basic block coverage. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Basic block coverage is the same as statement coverage except the unit of code measured is each sequence of non-branching statements. Select the unique set of test cases. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Page 57 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Method for Statement Coverage Design a test-case for the pass/failure of every decision point Select unique set of test cases Page 58 ©Copyright 2007. Disadvantage of Unit Testing Insensitive to some control structures (number of iterations) Does not report whether loops reach their termination condition Statement coverage is completely insensitive to the logical operators (|| and &&). Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Unit Testing Flow : Advantage of Unit Testing Can be applied directly to object code and does not require processing source code. Performance profilers commonly implement this measure.

Method for Condition Coverage: Test if every condition (sub-expression) in decision for true/false Select unique set of test cases. Disadvantage: Tedious to determine the minimum set of test cases required. separated by logical-and and logical-or if they occur. Also known as: branch coverage. especially for very complex Boolean expressions Number of test cases required could vary substantially among conditions that have similar complexity Condition/Decision Coverage is a hybrid measure composed by the union of condition coverage and decision coverage. A path is a unique sequence of branches from the function entry to the exit. the sub-expressions are separated by logical-and and logical-or. Also known as predicate coverage. Additionally. The test cases required for full multiple condition coverage of a condition are given by the logical operator truth table for the condition. decisionpath testing. exception handlers. The entire Boolean expression is considered one true-or-false predicate regardless of whether it contains logical-and or logical-or operators. when present. Condition coverage measures the sub-expressions independently of each other. basis path coverage. and interrupt handlers. Reports the true or false outcome of each Boolean sub-expression. Advantage: Simplicity without the problems of statement coverage Disadvantage This measure ignores branches within boolean expressions which occur due to shortcircuit operators. Predicate coverage views paths as possible combinations of logical conditions Path coverage has the advantage of requiring very thorough testing Page 59 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing This measure reports whether Boolean expressions tested in control structures (such as the if-statement and while-statement) evaluated to both true and false. It has the advantage of simplicity but without the shortcomings of its component measures This measure reports whether each of the possible paths in each function have been followed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Reports whether every possible combination of boolean sub-expressions occurs. As with condition coverage. Cognizant Technology Solutions. all-edges coverage. this measure includes coverage of switch-statement cases. "Basis path" testing selects paths that achieve decision coverage.

and more than once. twice and more than twice (consecutively). Broad. shallow testing finds gross deficiencies in a test suite quickly. exactly once. Objectives The typical objectives of integration testing are to: Determine if components will work properly together. system integration testing is the testing of software components that have been distributed across multiple platforms (e.e. information not reported by others measure. System Integration System integration testing is the integration testing of two or more system components. It is useful during preliminary testing to assure at least some coverage in all areas of the software. Identify defects that are not easily identified during unit testing. Kinds of Integration Testing Integration testing includes the following kinds of testing: Commercial Component Integration Commercial component integration testing is the integration testing of multiple commercialoff. if they contain any interface defects).theshelf (COTS) software components to determine if they are not interoperable (i. Integration Testing Integration testing is the testing of a partially integrated application to identify defects involving the interaction of collaborating components. Race Coverage This measure reports whether multiple threads execute the same code at the same time. The valuable aspect of this measure is determining whether while-loops and for-loops execute more than once. Software Integration Software integration testing is the incremental integration testing of two or more integrated software components on a single platform to produce failures caused by interface defects.Handout – Software Testing Function Coverage: This measure reports whether you invoked each function or procedure. loop coverage reports whether you executed the body exactly once. For do-while loops. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ..g. Helps detect failure to synchronize access to resources. Specifically. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Useful for testing multi-threaded programs such as in an operating system. and database Page 60 ©Copyright 2007. Loop Coverage This measure reports whether you executed each loop body zero times. web server. client. application server..

The difference between function testing and system testing is that now the focus is on the whole application and its environment . automotive. development costs and improved 'time to market' for new systems. because this would be too redundant. and nevertheless. This does not mean that now single functions of the whole program are tested. The main goal is rather to demonstrate the discrepancies of the product from its requirements and its documentation. Even security guide lines have to be included. Once again. while this is one of the most incomplete test methods. Integration testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur. It is often agreed that testing is essential to manufacture reliable products. System Testing For most organizations. defects involving distribution and back-office integration). In this paper we examine the results of applying several types of Poisson-process models to the development of a large system for which system test was performed in two parallel tracks. this again includes the question. it is one of the most important. and aeronautical and space. ecommerce. railway. software and system testing represents a significant element of a project's cost in terms of money and management time. This means that those tests should be done in the environment for which the program was designed. acceptance and qualification testing. integrating with which-ever type of development methodology you are applying. These techniques can be applied flexibly. ``Did we build the right product?'' and not just. We will test that the functionality of your systems meets with your specifications. Moreover. Page 61 ©Copyright 2007. A number of time-domain software reliability models attempt to predict the growth of a system's reliability during the system test phase of the development life cycle. using different strategies for test data selection. system testing does not only deal with this more economical problem. it also contains some aspects that are orientated on the word ``system'' . However. whether testing a financial system. it is beyond doubt that this test cannot be done completely. Guidelines The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that integration testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. Systems with software components and software-intensive systems are more and more complex everyday. ``Did we build the product right?'' However.Handout – Software Testing server) to produce failures caused by system integration defects (i. an online casino or games testing. the validation process is close to other activities such as conformance. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the validation process does not often receive the required attention.e. In other words. Therefore the program has to be given completely.. Making this function more effective can deliver a range of benefits including reductions in risk. are good examples. like a mulituser network or whetever. Industry sectors such as telecom. We test for errors that users are likely to make as they interact with the application as well as your application’s ability to trap errors gracefully.

how it handles corrupted data. etc. Cognizant Technology Solutions. increased independence naturally increases objectivity. commercial and technical. when appropriate. also encompass many other types of testing. System Testing Techniques Goal is to evaluate the system as a whole.test larger-than-normal capacity in terms of transactions. as a part of software engineering. etc.test adherence to standards Page 62 ©Copyright 2007.test how the system fits in with existing operations and procedures in the user organization Compliance testing . not its parts Techniques can be structural or functional Techniques can be used in any stage that tests the system as a whole (acceptance. etc. such as: Security Load/stress Performance Browser compatibility Localisation Need for System Testing Effective software testing. Recovery testing .test how the system recovers from a disaster. installation. however. speed. Your test strategy must take into consideration the risks to your organisation. has been proven over the last 3decades to deliver real business benefits including: These benefits are achieved as a result of some fundamental principles of testing.) Techniques not mutually exclusive Structural techniques Stress testing . etc. Execution testing.Handout – Software Testing System Testing is more than just functional testing. for example. and can. users. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Operations testing .test performance in terms of speed. You will have a personal interest in its success in which case it is only human for your objectivity to be compromised. precision. data.

pick test cases that will produce output at the extremes of the output domain Structural techniques Statement testing . etc.feed same input into two versions of the system to make sure they Produce the same output Unit Testing Goal is to evaluate some piece (file.choose test cases that violate the format rules for input Special values .test required control mechanisms Parallel testing . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .includes user documentation Intersystem handling testing . low.partition the range of allowable input so that the program is expected to behave similarly for all inputs in a given partition.makes sure the system does what it’s required to do Regression testing .pick test cases representative of the range of allowable input.every path is exercised (impossible in practice) Error-based techniques Page 63 ©Copyright 2007.every part of every expression is exercised Path testing .Handout – Software Testing Security testing .each branch of an if/then statement is exercised Conditional testing . and average values Equivalence partitioning .fundamental form of testing .test required error-handling functions (usually user error) Manual-support testing . Cognizant Technology Solutions.test that the system can be used properly .test that the system is compatible with other systems in the environment Control testing . including high. component.ensure the set of test cases exercises every statement at least once Branch testing . it’s usually ad-hoc and looks a lot like debugging More structured approaches exist Functional techniques Input domain testing . program.test security requirements Functional techniques Requirements testing .choose test cases with input values at the boundary (both inside and outside) of the allowable range Syntax checking .) in isolation Techniques can be structural or functional In practice. module.design test cases that use input values that represent special situations Output domain testing .make sure unchanged functionality remains unchanged errorhandling testing .each truth statement is exercised both true and false Expression testing . then pick a test case from each partition Boundary value .

then test until they are all found Mutation testing . none of the above 2). then tests a new product until the number of defects found approaches the expected number SUMMARY Testing irrespective of the phases of testing should encompass the following: Cost of Failure associated with defective products getting shipped and used by customer is enormous To find out whether the integrated product work as per the customer requirements To evaluate the product with an independent perspective To identify as many defects as possible before the customer finds To reduce the risk of releasing the product Hence the system Test phase should begin once modules are integrated enough to perform tests in a whole system environment. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . then run test cases until all mutants have been killed Historical test data . unit testing is performed by: a. you can estimate whether or not you’ve found all of them or not Fault seeding . Test your Understanding 1). an independent test group b. The customer Answers: 1) a 2) b Page 64 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Basic idea is that if you know something about the nature of the defects in the code. In general.put a certain number of known faults into the code. Unit testing is predominantly a. both black-and-white-box oriented d. System testing can occur in parallel with integration test.an organization keeps records of the average numbers of defects in the products it produces. especially with the top-down method. SQA d. Cognizant Technology Solutions. black-box oriented c. the software engineer c. white-box oriented b.create mutants of the program by making single changes.

Money m14CHF= new Money(14.you can only execute one debug expression at a time and a program with too many print statements causes the dreaded "Scroll Blindness". write: public void testSimpleAdd() { Money m12CHF= new Money(12. "CHF"). When you need to test something. to test that the sum of two Moneys with the same currency contains a value which is the sum of the values of the two Moneys. "CHF"). they don't compose nicely. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. You can change debug expressions without recompiling. and it is easy to run many of them at the same time. JUNIT Testing . you will be able to: Write a Junit Testing. here is what you do: Create an instance of Test Case: Create a constructor which accepts a String as a parameter and passes it to the superclass. Also. Page 65 ©Copyright 2007. Both styles of tests are limited because they require human judgment to analyze their results. call assertTrue() and pass a boolean that is true if the test succeeds For example. It is an instance of the xUnit architecture for unit testing frameworks.Introduction JUnit is a simple framework to write repeatable tests. JUnit tests do not require human judgment to interpret. and you can wait to decide what to write until you have seen the running objects.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 5: JUnit Testing Learning Objective After completing this chapter. You can also write test expressions as statements which print to the standard output stream. Override the method runTest() When you want to check a value. JUnit features include: Assertions for testing expected results Test fixtures for sharing common test data Test suites for easily organizing and running tests Graphical and textual test runners JUnit was originally written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck Simple Test Case How do you write testing code? The simplest way is as an expression in a debugger.

Fixture What if you have two or more tests that operate on the same or similar sets of objects? Tests need to run against the background of a known set of objects. private Money f28USD. you will be able to use the same fixture for several different tests. When you want to run more than one test. protected void setUp() { f12CHF= new Money(12. This set of objects is called a test fixture. you can write as many Test Cases as you'd like. } } Once you have the Fixture in place. When you are writing tests you will often find that you spend more time writing the code to set up the fixture than you do in actually testing values. private Money f14CHF. Often. "USD"). When you have a common fixture. f28USD= new Money(28. "CHF"). a much bigger savings comes from sharing fixture code. Each case will send slightly different messages or parameters to the fixture and will check for different results. Page 66 ©Copyright 2007. To some extent. and 28 US Dollars. Money result= m12CHF. "CHF"). Add an instance variable for each part of the fixture Override setUp() to initialize the variables Override tearDown() to release any permanent resources you allocated in setUp For example. create a Suite. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . to write several test cases that want to work with different combinations of 12 Swiss Francs. 14 Swiss Francs. f14CHF= new Money(14. "CHF").Handout – Software Testing Money expected= new Money(26. here is what you do: Create a subclass of TestCase Create a constructor which accepts a String as a parameter and passes it to the superclass. you can make writing the fixture code easier by paying careful attention to the constructors you write. assertTrue(expected. Cognizant Technology Solutions.add(m14CHF). write a Fixture instead.equals(result)). first create a fixture: public class MoneyTest extends TestCase { private Money f12CHF. } If you want to write a test similar to one you have already written. However.

organize them into a Suite. Suite How do you run several tests at once? As soon as you have two tests. You write test cases for a Fixture the same way. Here is what you do: Write the test case method in the fixture class.override runTest in an anonymous subclass of TestCase. to test the addition of a Money and a MoneyBag.add(f28USD. suite. Page 67 ©Copyright 2007. TestSuite which runs any number of test cases together. You could run the tests one at a time yourself.add(f14CHF))).addTest(new MoneyTest("testMoneyEquals")).addTest(new MoneyTest("testSimpleAdd")).Handout – Software Testing Test Case How do you write and invoke an individual test case when you have a Fixture? Writing a test case without a fixture is simple. To do so you pass the class of your Test Case to the TestSuite constructor. by making a subclass of TestCase for your set up code and then making anonymous subclasses for the individual test cases. you execute: TestResult result= (new MoneyTest("testMoneyMoneyBag")).Create an instance of the TestCase class and pass the name of the test case method to the constructor. However. To create a suite of two test cases and run them together. For example. to run a single test case. you'll want to run them together. suite. but you would quickly grow tired of that. Be sure to make it public. Cognizant Technology Solutions. MoneyBag expected= new MoneyBag(bag). Another way is to let JUnit extract a suite from a TestCase. the name of the test is used to look up the method to run. Once you have several tests. TestResult result= suite. f28USD }. after a few such tests you would notice that a large percentage of your lines of code are sacrificed to syntax. JUnit provides an object. write: public void testMoneyMoneyBag() { // [12 CHF] + [14 CHF] + [28 USD] == {[26 CHF][28 USD]} Money bag[]= { f26CHF. f12CHF.run().run(). For example. } Create an instance of of MoneyTest that will run this test case like this: new MoneyTest("testMoneyMoneyBag") When the test is run. or it can't be invoked through reflection. Instead. assertEquals(expected. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . JUnit provides a more concise way to write a test against a Fixture. execute: TestSuite suite= new TestSuite().

suite.Start it by typing java junit. The graphical user interface presents a window with: A field to type in the name of a class with a suite method.TestRunner or junit. JUnit provides tools to define the suite to be run and to display its results. In the case of an unsuccessful test JUnit reports the failed tests in a list at the bottom.addTest(new MoneyTest("testMoneyEquals")). You make your suite accessible to a TestRunner tool with a static method suite that returns a test suite For example. and we can run them together by creating a TestSuite that contains both: TestSuite suite= new TestSuite(). They contain any object that implements the Test interface.run(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A list of failed tests.addTest(Kent. return suite.addTest(new MoneyTest("testSimpleAdd")). A failure is anticipated and checked for with assertions. TestSuites don't only have to contain TestCases.Handout – Software Testing TestSuite suite= new TestSuite(MoneyTest. JUnit distinguishes between failures and errors. For example. suite. It avoids you having to update the suite creation code when you add a new test case.awtui. Use the manual way when you want a suite to only contain a subset of the test cases.suite()). A progress indicator that turns from red to green in the case of a failed test. you'll want to run it.suite()). TestResult result= suite. JUnit provides both a graphical and a textual version of a TestRunner tool. A run button to start the test.run(). } If a TestCase class doesn't define a suite method a TestRunner will extract a suite and fill it with all the methods starting with "test". to make a MoneyTest suite available to a TestRunner. you can create a TestSuite in your code and I can create one in mine. TestRunner How do you run your tests and collect their results? Once you have a test suite. suite. TestResult result= suite. Otherwise the automatic suite extraction is the preferred way.addTest(Erich.TestRunner. Errors are unanticipated problems like an Page 68 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. add the following code to MoneyTest: public static Test suite() { TestSuite suite= new TestSuite(). suite.class).swingui.

run(suite()). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In a dynamic programming environment like VisualAge for Java which supports hot code update you can leave the JUnit window up all the time. Page 69 ©Copyright 2007. also.runner.This feature can be disabled by unchecking the 'Reload classes every run' checkbox. Cognizant Technology Solutions. To use it typejava junit. The batch interface shows the result as text output. This is tedious and time consuming. There is a batch interface to JUnit.LoadingTestCollector . write: public static void main(String args[]) { junit.TestRunner.jar file is on your CLASSPATH. The following figure shows an example of a failed test. For using either the graphical or the textual version make sure that the junit. In other environments you have to restart the graphical version for each run. An alternative way to invoke the batch interface is to define a main method in your TestCase class. As an alternative JUnit's AWT and Swing UIs use junit. This LoadingTestCollector reloads all your classes for each test run. } With this definition of main you can run your tests by simply typing java MoneyTest at an operating system prompt.TestRunner followed by the name of the class with a suite method at an operating system prompt.textui. For example. to start the batch TestRunner for MoneyTest.textui.Handout – Software Testing ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException.

high level test phase plans prepared and resource schedules considered. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Any test support tools introduced should be aligned with. Test organization also involves the determination of configuration standards and the definition of the test environment. The project framework under which the testing activities will be carried out is reviewed. A detailed test plan and schedule is prepared with key test responsibilities being indicated. Key elements of Test Management: Test organization –the set-up and management of a suitable test organizational structure and explicit role definition. The required outcome of each test must be known before the test is attempted. The Testing strategy should define the objectives of all test stages and the techniques that apply. integration and system testing – configuration items are verified against the appropriate specifications and in accordance with the test plan. It is the role of test management to ensure that new or modified service products meet the business requirements for which they have been developed or enhanced.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 6: Testing Artifacts Learning Objective After completing this chapter. Test planning – the requirements definition and design specifications facilitate in the identification of major test items and these may necessitate the test strategy to be updated. The test environment should also be under configuration control and test data and results stored for future evaluation. Test management is also concerned with both test resource and test environment management. and facilitates communication of the test process and its implications outside of the test discipline. Unit. The status of the configuration items should be reviewed against the phase plans and test progress reports prepared providing some assurance of the verification and validation activities. Test monitoring and assessment – ongoing monitoring and assessment of the integrity of the development and construction. Page 70 ©Copyright 2007. The testing strategy also forms the basis for the creation of a standardized documentation set. Test Approach/Test Architecture are the acronyms for Test Strategy. and in support of. you will be able to: Create a test plans and test cases Test Strategy and Test Plan Introduction This Document entails you towards the better insight of the Test Strategy and its methodology. the test strategy. Test specifications – required for all levels of testing and covering all categories of test. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Testing and commissioning is often considered by teams as a secondary activity and given a lower priority particularly as pressure builds on the program towards completion. Product assurance may oversee some of the test activity and may participate in process reviews. Fitness for purpose checklist: Is there a documented testing strategy that defines the objectives of all test stages and the techniques that may apply. A common criticism of construction programmers is that insufficient time is frequently allocated to the testing and commissioning of the building systems together with the involvement and subsequent training of the Facilities Management team. identifying: The items to be tested.g. e-commerce testing may involve new user interfaces and a business focus on usability may mean that the organization must review its testing strategies. It is possible to gain greater control of this process and the associated risk through the use of specialists such as Systems Integration who can be appointed as part of the professional team. The time necessary for testing and commissioning will vary from project to project depending upon the complexity of the systems and services that have been installed. stress and security etc? Does the test plan prescribe the approach to be taken for intended test activities.Handout – Software Testing Product assurance – the decision to negotiate the acceptance testing program and the release and commissioning of the service product is subject to the ‘product assurance’ role being satisfied with the outcome of the verification activities. Reporting requirements. The testing to be performed. Evaluation criteria. Resource and facility requirements. The Project Sponsor should ensure that the professional team and the contractor consider realistically how much time is needed. Traditionally the responsibility for testing and commissioning is buried deep within the supply chain as a sub-contract of a subcontract. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 71 ©Copyright 2007. Test schedules. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . e. Sufficient time must be dedicated to testing and commissioning as ensuring the systems function correctly is fairly fundamental to the project’s success or failure. non-functional testing and the associated techniques such as performance. Risks requiring contingency measures? Are test processes and practices reviewed regularly to assure that the testing processes continue to meet specific business needs? For example.

. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected Based on the Key Potential Risks o o o o o o o o o o o o Determination of Actual Risk. Test Strategy – Selection Selection of the Test Strategy is based on the following factors Product o Test Strategy based on the Application to help people and teams of people in making decisions. Suggestion of Wrong Ideas. People will use the Product Incorrectly Incorrect comparison of scenarios. Unable to handle Complex Decisions. Understand the underlying Algorithm. Simulate the Algorithm in parallel. Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. Capability test each major function. Test for sensitivity to user Error.Handout – Software Testing Test Strategy Flow: Test Cases and Test Procedures should manifest Test Strategy. Scenarios may be corrupted. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Generate large number of decision scenarios. Create complex scenarios and compare them. Review Documentation and Help.

Create a means to generate and apply large numbers of decision scenarios to the product. The system concerns on risks then establish the objectives for the test process. Review the Documentation. The difficulty of automating decision tests. This will be done using the GUI test Automation system or through the direct generation of Decide Right scenario files that would be loaded into the product during test. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The two components of the testing strategy are the Test Factors and the Test Phase. Issues in Execution of the Test Strategy The difficulty of understanding and simulating the decision algorithm The risk of coincidal failure of both the simulation and the product.Handout – Software Testing Test Strategy Execution: Understand the decision Algorithm and generate the parallel decision analyzer using the Perl or Excel that will function as a reference for high volume testing of the app. General Testing Strategies Top-down Bottom-up Thread testing Stress testing Back-to-back testing Need for Test Strategy The objective of testing is to reduce the risks inherent in computer systems. The strategy must address the risks and present a process that can reduce those risks. Page 73 ©Copyright 2007. Test with decision scenarios that are near the limit of complexity allowed by the product Compare complex scenarios. and the design of the user interface and functionality for its sensitivity to user error. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Test the product for the risk of silent failures or corruptions in decision analysis.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The test phase will vary based on the testing methodology used. Place risks in the Matrix Page 74 ©Copyright 2007. Test Phase – The Phase of the systems development life cycle in which testing will occur. Not all the test factors will be applicable to all software systems. Select and rank Test Factors Identify the System Developmental Phases Identify the Business risks associated with the System under Development. For example the test phases in as traditional waterfall life cycle methodology will be much different from the phases in a Rapid Application Development methodology.Handout – Software Testing Test Factor – The risk or issue that needs to be addressed as part of the test strategy. The applicable test factors would be listed as the phases in which the testing must occur. Four test steps must be followed to develop a customized test strategy. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The development team will need to select and rank the test factors for the specific software systems being developed. Developing a Test Strategy The test Strategy will need to be customized for any specific software system. The strategy will select those factors that need to be addressed in the testing of a specific application system.

The system accordingly focuses on risks thereby establishes the objectives for the test process. approach. responsibilities. and any risks requiring contingency planning. deadlines and deliverables for the project. the features to be tested. The completed document will help people outside the test group understand the 'why' and 'how' of product validation. the testing tasks. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The main purpose of preparing a Test Plan is that everyone concerned with the project are in sync with regards to the scope. It should be thorough enough to be useful but not so thorough that no one outside the test group will read it. Purpose of preparing a Test Plan A Test Plan is a useful way to think through the efforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software product. resources and schedule of intended test activities. Contents of a Test Plan Purpose Scope Test Approach Entry Criteria Resources Tasks / Responsibilities Exit Criteria Schedules / Milestones Page 75 ©Copyright 2007. It is in this respect that reviews and a sign-off are very important since it means that everyone is in agreement of the contents of the test plan and this also helps in case of any dispute during the course of the project (especially between the developers and the testers). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . who will do each task. Test Plan A Test Plan can be defined as a document that describes the scope. It identifies test items. Thus the Test team needs to acquire and study the test strategy that should question the following: What is the relationship of importance among the test factors? Which of the high level risks are the most significant? What damage can be done to the business if the software fails to perform correctly? What damage can be done to the business if the business if the software is not completed on time? Who are the individuals most knowledgeable in understanding the impact of the identified business risks? Hence the Test Strategy must address the risks and present a process that can reduce those risks.Handout – Software Testing Conclusion: Test Strategy should be developed in accordance with the business risks associated with the software when the test team develop the test tactics.

Entry Criteria This section explains the various steps to be performed before the start of a test (i. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .e. restoring system to pre-test environment. starting the web server / app server. database. Resources This section should list out the people who would be involved in the project and their designation etc.) prerequisites. database refresh etc. Test Approach This would contain details on how the testing is to be performed and whether any specific strategy is to be followed (including configuration management). Page 76 ©Copyright 2007. Exit criteria Contains tasks like bringing down the system / server. For example: Timely environment set up. mainframe processes etc).Handout – Software Testing Hardware / Software Requirements Risks & Mitigation Plans Tools to be used Deliverables References Procedures Templates Standards/Guidelines Annexure Sign-Off Contents (in detail) Purpose This section should contain the purpose of preparing the test plan Scope This section should talk about the areas of the application which are to be tested by the QA team and specify those areas which are definitely out of scope (screens. successful implementation of the latest build etc. Tasks / Responsibilities This section talks about the tasks to be performed and the responsibilities assigned to the various members in the project. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Schedules / Milestones This sections deals with the final delivery date and the various milestone dates to be met in the course of the project.

Test Data Preparation . Referenced documents can also be attached here. Test Procedure.g. Tools to be used This would list out the testing tools or utilities (if any) that are to be used in the project (e. Status Reports.) templates used for reports. PCOM.e.) daily. Functional testing can suffer if data is poor. can reduce maintenance effort and allow flexibility.Handout – Software Testing Hardware / Software Requirements This section would contain the details of PC’s / servers required (with the configuration) to install the application or perform the testing.Introduction A System is programmed by its data.) QView Project related documents (RSD. connectivity related issues etc.g. Test Matrices. Test Scripts etc. end of the project etc. Sign-Off This should contain the mutual agreement between the client and the QA team with both leads / managers signing off their agreement on the Test Plan. Good test data can be structured to improve understanding and testability. Actual customer names or contact details should also not be used for such tests. Its contents. The first stage of any recogniser development project is data preparation.) WinRunner. It is recommended that a full test environment be set up for use in the applicable circumstances. the persons involved in the testing Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. WinSQL. weekly. Deliverables This section contains the various deliverables that are due to the client at various points of time (i. Templates for all these could also be attached. the simulated conditions used. Test data should however. Risks & Mitigation Plans This section should list out all the possible risks that can arise during the testing and the mitigation plans that the QA team plans to implement incase the risk actually turns into a reality. Each separate test should be given a unique reference number which will identify the Business Process being recorded. test cases etc. be prepared which is representative of normal business transactions. and good data can help improve functional testing. specific software that needs to be installed on the systems to get the application running or to connect to the database.g. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ADD. correctly chosen. start of the project. Test Director. FSD etc) Annexure This could contain embedded documents or links to documents which have been / will be used in the course of testing (e. These could include Test Plans. Preparation of the data can help to focus the business where requirements are vague. References Procedures Templates (Client Specific or otherwise) Standards / Guidelines (e.

the paper will concentrate most on data-heavy applications. such as operational profiles. This will enable the monitoring and testing reports to be co-coordinated with any feedback received. those which use databases or are heavily influenced by the data they hold. is the medium through which the tester influences the software. You must understand the limits inherent in the tests themselves. extrapolated. you should design test cases. A system can be configured to fit several business models. as input data has the greatest influence on functional testing and is the simplest to manipulate. A business may look to an application's configurability to allow them to keep up with the market without being slowed by the development process. Roles of Data in Functional Testing Testing consumes and produces large amounts of data.Handout – Software Testing process and the date the test was carried out. data manipulation. performing a specific set of tests at appropriate points in the process is more important than running the tests at a specific time. is close enough good enough? You should have a good idea of a methodology for the test. Data is manipulated. summarized and referenced by the functionality under test. and will show that testing can be improved by a careful choice of input data. how the protocols behave. You must have a consistent schedule for testing. Data is a crucial part of most functional testing. what steps are required. In other words. if you're testing a specific functionality. implementing and evaluating tests. massive datasets and environmental tuning. etc. Tests must be planned and thought out a head of time. you must know how it's supposed to work. The paper will focus on input data. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This paper sets out to illustrate some of the ways that data can influence the test process. Configuration data can dictate control flow. the way the test is going to be run and applied. an individual may look for a personalized experience from commonly-available software. Effective quality control testing requires some basic goals and understanding: You must understand what you are testing. the more formal a plan the better. etc. which finally spews forth yet more data to be checked against expectations. work (almost) seamlessly with a variety of cooperative systems and provide tailored experiences to a host of different users. presentation and user interface. You should have a definition of what success and failure are. Testing is the process of creating. A System Is Programmed By Its Data Many modern systems allow tremendous flexibility in the way their basic functionality can be used. In doing this. forms the input. you have to decide such things as what exactly you are testing and testing for. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Data describes the initial conditions for a test. Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. rather than output data or the transitional states the data passes through during processing. The paper will not consider areas where data is important to non-functional testing.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This section of the BCP should contain the names of the BCP Team members nominated to coordinate the testing process. They may obscure problems or avoid them altogether. Regression testing and automated test maintenance can be made speedier and easier by using good data. Good Data Is Vital To Reliable Test Results An important goal of functional testing is to allow the test to be repeated with the same result. Good Data Can Help Testing Stay On Schedule An easily comprehensible and well-understood dataset is a tool to help communication. that take longer to execute. and varied to allow diagnosis. Poor data tends to result in poor tests. the tests should be independently monitored. Each business process should be thoroughly tested and the coordinator should ensure that each business unit observes the necessary rules associated with ensuring that the testing process is carried out within a realistic environment. whether they are good or bad. Good data allows diagnosis. Identify Who is to Control and Monitor the Tests In order to ensure consistency when measuring the results. effective reporting. Cognizant Technology Solutions. they may be hard to maintain. for example: Project and quality assumptions Project background information Resources Schedule & timeline Entry and exit criteria Test milestones Tests to be performed Use cases and/or test cases Criteria for Test Data Collection This section of the Document specifies the description of the test data needed to test recovery of each business process. and it can become difficult to have confidence in the QA team's results.Handout – Software Testing Functional Testing Suffers If Data Is Poor Tests with poor data may not describe the business model effectively. Without this. one or more members of the Business Continuity Planning (BCP) Team should be nominated to co-ordinate the testing process within each business unit. This task would normally be carried out by a nominated member of the Business Recovery Team or a member of the Business Continuity Planning Team. Identify Who is to Conduct the Tests In order to ensure consistency of the testing process throughout the organization. and allows tests to be repeated with confidence. Page 79 ©Copyright 2007. while an elegantly-chosen dataset can often allow new tests without the overhead of new data. It should also list the duties of the appointed co-ordinators. a nominated testing and across the organization. Good data can greatly assist in speedy diagnosis and rapid re-testing. A formal test plan is a document that provides and records important information about a test project. or require lengthy and difficult setup. it is hard to communicate problems to coders.

This is probably best handled in a workshop environment and should be presented by the persons responsible for developing the emergency procedures. It should be noted whenever part of the costs is already incorporated with the organization’s overall budgeting process. This section of the BCP will contain a list of the testing phase activities and a cost for each. Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. Completion of feedback forms should be mandatory for all persons participating in the testing process. It is inevitable that these back up and recovery processes will involve additional costs. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Where the costs are significant they should be approved separately with a specific detailed budget for the establishment costs and the ongoing maintenance costs. The 'Preparing for a Possible Emergency' Phase of the BCP process will involve the identification and implementation of strategies for back up and recovery of data files or a part of a business process. may require particularly expensive back up strategies to be implemented. This section of the BCP should contain a template for a Feedback Questionnaire. It is important that clear instructions are given to the Core Testing Team regarding the simulated conditions which have to be observed. It will also contain a list of the duties to be undertaken by the monitoring staff. The forms should be completed either during the tests (to record a specific issue) or as soon after finishing as practical. it is necessary for the core testing team to be trained in the emergency procedures. This section of the BCP should contain a list of the core testing team for each of the business units who will be responsible for coordinating and undertaking the Business Recovery Testing process. Prepare Budget for Testing Phase Each phase of the BCP process which incurs a cost requires that a budget be prepared and approved. This feedback will hopefully enable weaknesses within the Business Recovery Process to be identified and eliminated. Training Core Testing Team for each Business Unit In order for the testing process to proceed smoothly.Handout – Software Testing This section of the BCP will contain the names of the persons nominated to monitor the testing process throughout the organization. Prepare Feedback Questionnaires It is vital to receive feedback from the persons managing and participating in each of the tests. This will enable observations and comments to be recorded whilst the event is still fresh in the persons mind. It is important that all persons who are likely to be involved with recovering a particular business process in the event of an emergency should participate in the testing process. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It should be mandatory for the management of a business unit to be present when that unit is involved with conducting the tests. Conducting the Tests The tests must be carried out under authentic conditions and all participants must take the process seriously. Critical parts of the business process such as the IT systems.

The training should be assessed to verify that it has achieved its objectives and is relevant for the procedures involved. a large numberof persons are to be contacted. provide further comment What were the main comments received in the feedback questionnaires Each test should be assessed as fully satisfactory. This training may be integrated with the training phase or handled separately. Where. each critical part of the business recovery process should be fully tested. a hierarchical process could be used whereby one person contacts five others. Training may be delivered either using in-house resources or external resources depending upon available skills and related costs. This activity will usually be handled by the HRM Department or Division. All contact numbers are to be validated for all involved employees.if not. The training should be carefully planned and delivered on a structured basis. provides further comment Were simulated conditions reasonably "authentic" . This is particularly important when the procedures are significantly different from those pertaining to normal operations. provide further comment Did the tests proceed without any problems . Every part of the procedures included as part of the recovery process is to be tested to ensure validity and relevance. The testing co-ordination and monitoring will endeavor to ensure that the simulated environments are maintained throughout the testing process.if not. in the event of an emergency occurring outside of normal business hours. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This process must have safety features incorporated to ensure that if one person is not contactable for any reason then this is notified to a nominated controller. in a realistic manner. adequate or requiring further testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This section of the BCP is to contain a list of each business process with a test schedule and information on the simulated conditions being used. Page 81 ©Copyright 2007.if not. The following questions may be appropriate: Were objectives of the Business Recovery Process and the testing process met .Handout – Software Testing Test each part of the Business Recovery Process In so far as it is practical. provide further comment Was test data representative .if not. This is particularly important for management and key employees who are critical to the success of the recovery process. Training Staff in the Business Recovery Process All staff should be trained in the business recovery process. Assess Test Results Prepare a full assessment of the test results for each business process. This will enable alternative contact routes to be used. Test Accuracy of Employee and Vendor Emergency Contact Numbers During the testing process the accuracy of employee and vendor emergency contact information is to be re-confirmed.

Prepare Training Schedule Once it has been agreed who requires training and the training materials have been prepared a detailed training schedule should be drawn up. Page 82 ©Copyright 2007. as appropriate. however. This can be a time consuming task and unless priorities are given to critical training programmes. For larger organizations it may be practical to carry out the training in a classroom environment. The scope of the training could be along the following lines: o "The training is to be carried out in a comprehensive and exhaustive manner so that staff become familiar with all aspects of the recovery process. an estimate of resources and an estimate of the completion date. who needs it and a budget prepared for the additional costs associated with this phase. Consideration should also be given to the development of a comprehensive corporate awareness program for communicating the procedures for the business recovery process. Training Needs Assessment The plan must specify which person or group of persons requires which type of training. Develop Objectives and Scope of Training The objectives and scope of the BCP training activities are to be clearly stated within the plan. The BCP should contain a description of the objectives and scope of the training phase. what specific training is required.Handout – Software Testing Managing the Training Process For the BCP training phase to be successful it has to be both well managed and structured. These manual procedures must be fully understood by the persons who are required to carry them out. The objectives for the training could be as follows : "To train all staff in the particular procedures to be followed during the business recovery process". It will be necessary to identify the objective and scope for the training. Training Materials Development Schedule Once the training needs have been identified it is necessary to specify and develop suitable training materials. for smaller organizations the training may be better handled in a workshop style. The training will cover all aspects of the Business Recovery activities section of the BCP including IT systems recovery". and the training fine tuned. For example it may be necessary to carry out some process manually if the IT system is down for any length of time. it could delay the organization in reaching an adequate level of preparedness. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This section of the BCP will identify for each business process what type of training is required and which persons or group of persons need to be trained. This will enable the training to be consistent and organized in a manner where the results can be measured. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This section of the BCP contains information on each of the training programmes with details of the training materials to be developed. It is necessary for all new or revised processes to be explained carefully to the staff.

A separate communication should be sent to the managers of the business units advising them of the proposed training schedule to be attended by their staff. The communication should provide for feedback from the staff member where the training dates given are inconvenient. This feedback will enable weaknesses within the Business Recovery Process. it has to be recognized that. Communication to Staff Once the training is arranged to be delivered to the employees. Identified weaknesses should be notified to the BCP Team Leader and the process strengthened accordingly. However. This section of the BCP should contain a template for a Feedback Questionnaire for the training phase. Depending upon the cross charging system employed by the organization. It should be noted whenever part of the costs is already incorporated with the organization’s overall budgeting process. training incurs additional costs and these should be approved by the appropriate authority within the organization. Feedback Questionnaires Assess Feedback Feedback Questionnaires It is vital to receive feedback from the persons managing and participating in each of the training programmes. however well justified. it is necessary to advise them about the training programmes they are scheduled to attend. The key issues raised by the trainees should be noted and consideration given to whether the findings are critical to the process or not. Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. This section of the BCP contains a draft communication to be sent to each member of staff to advise them about their training schedule. the training costs will vary greatly. to be identified and eliminated. Assessing the Training The individual BCP training programmes and the overall BCP training process should be assessed to ensure its effectiveness and applicability. or the training. This will enable observations and comments to be recorded whilst the event is still fresh in the persons mind. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. This section of the BCP will contain a list of the training phase activities and a cost for each. Completion of feedback forms should be mandatory for all persons participating in the training process. or the process.Handout – Software Testing This section of the BCP contains the overview of the training schedule and the groups of persons receiving the training. The forms should be completed either during the training (to record a specific issue) or as soon after finishing as practical. If there are a significant number of negative issues raised then consideration should be given to possible retraining once the training materials. have been improved. Assess Feedback The completed questionnaires from the trainees plus the feedback from the trainers should be assessed. This section of the BCP will contain a format for assessing the training feedback. Each member of staff will be given information on their role and responsibilities applicable in the event of an emergency. Prepare Budget for Training Phase Each phase of the BCP process which incurs a cost requires that a budget be prepared and approved. This information will be gathered from the trainers and also the trainees through the completion of feedback questionnaires.

The BCP Team Leader will remain in overall control of the BCP but business unit heads will need to keep their own sections of the BCP up to date at all times. It is important that the relevant BCP coordinator and the Business Recovery Team are kept fully informed regarding any approved changes to the plan. Responsibilities for Maintenance of Each Part of the Plan Each part of the plan will be allocated to a member of the BCP Team or a Senior Manager with the organization who will be charged with responsibility for updating and maintaining the plan. Products and services change and also their method of delivery. Similarly. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This is necessary due to the level of complexity contained within the BCP. the BCP Testing Co-ordinator will be notified. Page 84 ©Copyright 2007. It is necessary for the BCP to keep pace with these changes in order for it to be of use in the event of a disruptive emergency. This chapter deals with updating the plan and the managed process which should be applied to this updating activity. A Change request Form / Change Order form is to be prepared and approved in respect of each proposed change to the BCP. Whenever changes are made to the BCP they are to be fully tested and appropriate amendments should be made to the training materials. Change Controls for Updating the Plan It is recommended that formal change controls are implemented to cover any changes required to the BCP. HRM Department will be responsible to ensure that all emergency contact numbers for staff are kept up to date. The BCP Team Leader will notify the BCP Training Co-ordinator of all approved changes to the BCP in order that the training materials can be updated.Handout – Software Testing Keeping the Plan Up-to-date Changes to most organizations occur all the time. This section of the BCP contains a draft communication from the BCP Co-ordinator to affected business units and contains information about the changes which require testing or re-testing. have significantly increased the level of dependency upon the availability of systems and information for the business to function effectively. Whenever changes are made or proposed to the BCP. This will involve the use of formalized change control procedures under the control of the BCP Team Leader. Maintaining the BCP It is necessary for the BCP updating process to be properly structured and controlled. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This section of the BCP will contain a Change Request Form / Change Order to be used for all such changes to the BCP. An assessment should be made on whether the change necessitates any re-training activities. Advise Person Responsible for BCP Training A member of the BCP Team will be given responsibility for co-ordinating all training activities (BCP Training Co-ordinator). The BCP Testing Co-ordinator will then be responsible for notifying all affected units and for arranging for any further testing activities. Test All Changes to Plan The BCP Team will nominate one or more persons who will be responsible for co-ordinating all the testing processes and for ensuring that all changes to the plan are properly tested. The increase in technological based processes over the past ten years. These changes are likely to continue and probably the only certainty is that the pace of change will continue to increase. and particularly within the last five.

Confusion between developers. A proportion of all failures logged will be found. Unreliable test results Running the same test twice produces inconsistent results.Handout – Software Testing Advise Person Responsible for BCP Training A member of the BCP Team will be given responsibility for co-ordinating all training activities (BCP Training Co-ordinator). Degradation of test data over time Program faults can introduce inconsistency or corruption into a database. Most reports make reference to the input data and the actual and expected results. testers stand a greater chance of missing important diagnostic features of a failure. but the original fault is undiagnosed and can carry on into live operation and perhaps future releases. Restoring the data to a clean set gets rid of the symptom. testers and business. If not spotted at the time of generation. it may not be time-effective to construct further data to support investigator tests. Most projects experience these problems at some stage . The following list details the most common problems familiar to the author. If that data is itself hard to understand or manipulate. the cost increases further. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Problems which can be caused by Poor Test Data Most testers are familiar with the problems that can be caused by poor data. Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. Less time spent hunting bugs the more time spent doing unproductive testing or ineffective test maintenance. Poor data will cause more of these problems. not to be faults at all. The BCP Team Leader will notify the BCP Training Co-ordinator of all approved changes to the BCP in order that the training materials can be updated. Everybody makes mistakes. Obscure results and bug reports without clearly comprehensible data. An assessment should be made on whether the change necessitates any re-training activities. Requirements problems can be hidden in inadequate data.recognizing them early can allow their effects to be mitigated. Data can play a significant role in these failures. they can cause hard-to-diagnose failures that may be apparently unrelated to the original fault. Increased test maintenance cost If each test has its own data. This can be a symptom of an uncontrolled environment. Poor data can make these reports hard to understand. Cognizant Technology Solutions. or indeed of missing the failure entirely. If the datasets are poorly constructed. Confusing or over-large datasets can make data selection mistakes more common. Reduced flexibility in test execution If datasets are large or hard to set up. or of a failure to recognize all the data that is influential on the system. evidence of the fault is lost. after further analysis. Larger proportion of problems can be traced to poor data. unrecognized database corruption. Inadequate data can lead to ambiguous or incomplete requirements. It is important to consider inputs and outputs of a process for requirements modeling. Each of these groups has different data requirements. some tests may be excluded from a test run. the less time spent testing. A failure to understand each others data can lead to ongoing confusion. as the data is restored. Furthermore. Simpler to make test mistakes. the cost of test maintenance is correspondingly increased.

a complex dataset will positively hinder diagnosis. Test requirements. The following broad categories allow data to be handled and discussed more easily. A few datasets are easier to manage than many datasets. it can be hard for the business or the end users to feel confidence in the test effort if they feel distanced from it. This can make portions of the application untestable for many testers simultaneously. Although it is perhaps simpler to discuss data in these terms. it is useful to split the categorization once more. and can be seen as part of the test conditions. Accounts. they can influence and corrupt each others results as they change the data in the system. Page 86 ©Copyright 2007. directory trees and paths and environmental variables. Cognizant Technology Solutions. setup data causes different functionality to apply to otherwise similar data. For the purposes of testing. or tests. Inability to spot data corruption caused by bugs. Business data not representatively tested. It includes communications addresses. share the same dataset. A few well-known datasets can be more easily be checked than a large number of complex datasets. many references are made to "The Data" or "Data Problems". Small datasets can be manipulated more easily than large datasets. This can not only cause false results. or methods of debt collection from different kinds of customers. orders. Classification of Test Data Types In the process of testing a system. products. Typically. but can lead to database integrity problems and data corruption. Environmental data Environmental data tells the system about its technical environment.as can be seen in the mobile phone industry. The current date and time can be seen as environmental data. A readily understandable dataset can allow straightforward diagnosis. With an effective approach to setup data. It might include a cross reference between country and delivery cost or method. particularly in configuration data. Setup data Setup data tells the system about the business rules. often don't reflect the way the system will be used in practice. where new billing products are supported and indeed created by additions to the setup data. business can offer new intangible products without developing new functionality . it is useful to be able to classify the data according to the way it is used. documents can all be input data. Input data Input data is the information input by day-to-day system functions. If a large number of testers. Poor database/environment integrity. actions. and may lend themselves to automated testing / sanity checks. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Unwieldy volumes of data. Fixed Input Data Fixed input data is available before the start of the test. While this may arguably lead to broad testing for a variety of purposes.

and so is comprehensive enough to allow a great many new. this produces a far smaller set of tests than the brute-force approach for all permutations. Typically held in internal system variables.which also allows a wide range of tests. these criteria apply to many traditional database-based systems: Fixed input data consists of many rows Fields are independent You want to do many tests without loading / you do not load fixed input data for each test. It allows complete pairwise coverage. Jackson's Structured Programming methodology). but the data maintenance required will be greatly lessened by the small size of the dataset and the amount of reuse it allows. The same techniques can be applied to test data. or diagnostic tests. generating tests so that all possible permutations of inputs are tested. Transitional data is not seen outside the system (arguably. Transitional data Transitional data is data that exists only within the program. Typically. Output Data Output data is all the data that a system outputs as a result of processing input data and events.Handout – Software Testing Consumable Input Data Consumable input data forms the test input It can also be helpful to qualify data after the system has started to use it. and includes not only files. easy to handle dataset . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Achieves good test coverage without having to construct massive datasets Page 87 ©Copyright 2007. This allows a small. on fixed input data. but its state can be inferred from actions that the system has taken. A good approach increases data reliability. it is temporary and is lost at the end of processing. for non-trivial sets. adhoc. this method of working with fixed input data can help greatly in testing the setup data. during processing of input data. the test data can contain all possible pairs of permutations in a far smaller set than that which contains all possible permutations. Good data assists testing. Database changes will affect it. It generally has a correspondence with the input data (cf. This method is most appropriate when used. Finally. It is most effective when the following conditions are satisfied. This small. the way it is chosen and described. but can also include test measurements. reduces data maintenance time and can help improve the test process. transmissions. it does not directly influence the quality of the tests. Fortunately. as above. Cognizant Technology Solutions. rather than hinders it. As such. and easy to manipulate dataset is capable of supporting many tests. or combinatorial testing addresses this problem by generating a set of tests that allow all possible pairs of combinations to be tested. Pair wise. Most are also familiar with the ways in which this generally vast set can be cut down. Permutations Most testers are familiar with the concept of permutation. A subset of the output data is generally compared with the expected results at the end of test execution. Organizing the data A key part of any approach to data is the way the data is organized. influenced by the uses that are planned for it. test handles and instrumentation make it output data). permutation helps because: Permutation is familiar from test planning. reports and database updates. To sum up.

Handout – Software Testing
Can perform investigative testing without having to set up more data Reduces the impact of functional/database changes Can be used to test other data - particularly setup data Partitioning Partitions allow data access to be controlled, reducing uncontrolled changes in the data. Partitions can be used independently; data use in one area will have no effect on the results of tests in another. Data can be safely and effectively partitioned by machine / database / application instance, although this partitioning can introduce configuration management problems in software version, machine setup, environmental data and data load/reload. A useful and basic way to start with partitions is to set up, not a single environment for each test or tester, but to set up three shared by many users, so allowing different kinds of data use. These three have the following characteristics: Safe area o Used for enquiry tests, usability tests etc. o No test changes the data, so the area can be trusted. o Many testers can use simultaneously Change Area o o o Used for tests which update/change data. Data must be reset or reloaded after testing. Used by one test/tester at a time.

Scratch area o Used for investigative update tests and those which have unusual requirements. o Existing data cannot be trusted. o Used at tester's own risk! o Testing rarely has the luxury of completely separate environments for each test and each tester. Controlling data, and the access to data, in a system can be fraught. Many different stakeholders have different requirements of the data, but a common requirement is that of exclusive use. While the impact of this requirement should not be underestimated, a number of stakeholders may be able to work with the same environmental data, and to a lesser extent, setup data – and their work may not need to change the environmental or setup data. The test strategy can take advantage of this by disciplined use of text / value fields, allowing the use of 'soft' partitions. 'Soft' partitions allow the data to be split up conceptually, rather than physically. Although testers are able to interfere with each others tests, the team can be educated to avoid each others work. If, for instance, tester 1's tests may only use customers with Russian nationality and tester 2's tests only with French, the two sets of work can operate independently in the same dataset. A safe area could consist of London addresses, the change area Manchester addresses, and the scratch area Bristol addresses. Typically, values in free-text fields are used for soft partitioning.

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Handout – Software Testing
Data partitions help because: Allow controlled and reliable data, reducing data corruption / change problems Can reduce the need for exclusive access to environments/machines Clarity Permutation techniques may make data easier to grasp by making the datasets small and commonly used, but we can make our data clearer still by describing each row in its own free text fields, allowing testers to make a simple comparison between the free text (which is generally displayed on output), and actions based on fields which tend not to be directly displayed. Use of free text fields with some correspondence to the internals of the record allows output to be checked more easily. Testers often talk about items of data, referring to them by anthropomorphic personification – that is to say, they give them names. This allows shorthand, but also acts as jargon, excluding those who are not in the know. Setting this data, early on in testing, to have some meaningful value can be very useful, allowing testers to sense check input and output data, and choose appropriate input data for investigative tests. Reports, data extracts and sanity checks can also make use of these; sorting or selecting on a free text field that should have some correspondence with a functional field can help spot problems or eliminate unaffected data. Data is often used to communicate and illustrate problems to coders and to the business. However, there is generally no mandate for outside groups to understand the format or requirements of test data. Giving some meaning to the data that can be referred to directly can help with improving mutual understanding. Clarity helps because: Improves communication within and outside the team Reduces test errors caused by using the wrong data Allows another method way of doing sanity checks for corrupted or inconsistent data Helps when checking data after input Helps in selecting data for investigative tests Data Load and Data Maintenance An important consideration in preparing data for functional testing is the ways in which the data can be loaded into the system, and the possibility and ease of maintenance. Loading the data Data can be loaded into a test system in three general ways. Using the system you're trying to test o The data can be manually entered, or data entry can be automated by using a capture/replay tool.

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Handout – Software Testing
o This method can be very slow for large datasets. It uses the system's own validation and insertion methods, and can both be hampered by faults in the system, and help pinpoint them. If the system is working well, data integrity can be ensured by using this method, and internally assigned keys are likely to be effective and consistent. Data can be well-described in test scripts, or constructed and held in flat files. It may, however, be input in an ad-hoc way, which is unlikely to gain the advantages of good data listed above. Data load tools directly manipulate the system's underlying data structures. As they do not use the system's own validation, they can be the only way to get broken data into the system in a consistent fashion. As they do not use the system to load the data, they can provide a convenient workaround to known faults in the system's data load routines. However, they may come up against problems when generating internal keys, and can have problems with data integrity and parent/child relationships. Data loaded can have a range of origins. In some cases, all new data is created for testing. This data may be complete and well specified, but can be hard to generate. A common compromise is to use old data from an existing system, selected for testing, filtered for relevance and duplicates and migrated to the target data format. In some cases, particularly for minor system upgrades, the complete set of live data is loaded into the system, but stripped of personal details for privacy reasons. While this last method may seem complete, it has disadvantages in that the data may not fully support testing, and that the large volume of data may make test results hard to interpret.


Using a data load tool o


Not loaded at all o Some tests simply take whatever is in the system and try to test with it. This can be appropriate where a dataset is known and consistent, or has been set up by a prior round of testing. It can also be appropriate in environments where data cannot be reloaded, such as the live system. However, it can be symptomatic of an uncontrolled approach to data, and is not often desirable. o Environmental data tends to be manually loaded, either at installation or by manipulating environmental or configuration scripts. Large volumes of setup data can often be generated from existing datasets and loaded using a data load tool, while small volumes of setup data often have an associated system maintenance function and can be input using the system.Fixed input data may be generated or migrated and is loaded using any and all of themethods above, while consumable input data is typically listed in test scripts or generated as an input to automation tools. When data is loaded, it can append itself to existing data, overwrite existing data, or delete existing data first. Each is appropriate in different circumstances, and due consideration should be given to the consequences. Testing the Data A theme bought out at the start of this paper was 'A System is Programmed by its Data'. In order to test the system, one must also test the data it is configured with; the environmental and setup data. Environmental data is necessarily different between the test and live environment. Although testing can verify that the environmental variables are being read and used correctly, there is little point in testing their values on a system other than the target system. Environmental data is often checked
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and make its structure and content transparent Use the data to improve understanding throughout testing and the business Test setup data as you would test functionality Page 91 ©Copyright 2007. it is important to have a well-known set of fixed input data and consumable input data. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . as the business environment changes – particularly if there is a long period between requirements gathering and live rollout. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Setup data can change often. Testing done on the setup data needs to cover two questions.Handout – Software Testing manually on the live system during implementation and rollout. Does the planned/current setup data induce the functionality that the business requires? Will changes made to the setup data have the desired effect? Testing for these two questions only becomes possible when that data is controlled. The advantages of testing the setup data include: Overall testing will be improved if the quality of the setup data improves Problems due to faults in the live setup data will be reduced The business can re-configure the software for new business needs with increased confidence Data-related failures in the live system can be assessed in the light of good data testing Conclusion Data can be influential on the quality of testing. The following points summarize the actions that can influence the quality of the data and the effectiveness of its usage: Plan the data for maintenance and flexibility Know your data. Well-planned data can allow flexibility and help reduce the cost of test maintenance. Aspects of all the elements above come into play. This allows the effects of changes made to the setup data to be assessed repeat ably and allows results to be compared. throughout testing. Common data problems can be avoided or reduced with preparation and automation. The setup data should be organized to allow a good variety of scenarios to be considered The setup data needs to be able to be loaded and maintained easily and repeatable The business needs to become involved in the data so that their setup for live can be properly tested When testing the setup data. Effective testing of setup data is a necessary part of system testing. and the wide variety of possible methods will not be discussed further here. and good data can be used as a tool to enable and improve communication throughout the project.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . For those facts. well supported.Handout – Software Testing Test Logs . When a deviation is identified between what is found to actually exist and what the user thinks is correct or proper . The statement of condition is uncovering and documenting the facts. The statement of condition should document as many of the following attributes as appropriate of the problem. as they currently exist. and the criteria. making up the statement of condition. These two attributes are the basis for a finding. Effect: Tells why the difference between what is and what should be is significant Cause: Tells the reasons for the deviation. The actual deviation will be the difference or gap between “what –is” and “ what is desired”. These concepts are the first two and the most basic . The ‘What is”: can be called the statement of condition. Page 92 ©Copyright 2007.Introduction Test Problem is a condition that exists within the software system that needs to be addressed. What is a fact? The statement of condition will of course depend on the nature and extent of the evidence or support that is examined and noted. Carefully and completely documenting a test problem is the first step in correcting the problem. Identification of the cause is the necessary as a basis for corrective action. If a comparison between the two gives little or no practical consequence. Criteria – Tells what should be. the first essential step toward development of a problem statement has occurred. The documenting of the deviation is describing the conditions. It is difficult to visualize any type of problem that is not in some way characterized by this deviation. as they exist. A well developed problem statement will include each of these attributes. no finding exists. attributes of a problem statement. questions almost arise. The “What should be” shall be called the “Criteria”. the I/S professional will need to ensure that the information is accurate. Cognizant Technology Solutions. which represents what the user desires.Essentially the user compares” what is” with “what should be”. The following four attributes should be developed for all the test problems: Statement of condition –Tells what it is. and worded as clearly and precisely as possible. such as Criteria: Why is the current state inadequate? Effect: How significant is it? Cause: What could have cause of the problem? Factors defining the Test Log Generation Document Deviation: Problem statements begin to emerge by process of comparision. When one or more these attributes is missing.

it could indicate the need to reduce the complaints or delays as well as desired processing turn around time. For example . – The specific step-by –step activities that are utilized in producing the output from the identical activities. Inputs . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and document the statement of condition and the statement of criteria.The triggers.The specific business or administered activities that are being performed during Test Log generation are as follows: Procedures used to perform work. Deficiencies noted – The status of the results of executing this activity and any appropriate interpretation of those facts. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The Criterion is the user’s statement of what is desired.or class users/customers serviced by this activity. Users/Customers served –The organization .Handout – Software Testing Activities Involved:. For example the following Work paper provides the information for Test Log Documentation: Page 93 ©Copyright 2007.individuvals. Outputs /Deliverables – The products that are produced from the activity.events.or documents that cause this activity to be executed. Work Paper to describe the problem. It can be stated in the either negative or positive terms.

This description includes but not limited to : Data the defect uncovered Name of the Defect Location of the Defect Page 94 ©Copyright 2007. Inspections – A verification of process deliverables against deliverable specifications. Test Suites. Test factors -The factors incorporated in the plan.Validation that data/Objects can be correctly passed among Software components. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and Test Events These are the test products produced by the test team to perform testing.The hardware and Software environment in which the software system will operate. Business Objective –The validation that specific business objectives have been met. Test Transactions. Test Results Data This data will include. Reviews: Verification that the process deliverables / phases are meeting the user’s true needs. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Interface Objectives .Identifiable Software components normally associated with the requirements of the software. the validation of which becomes the Test Objective. These are explained in the following paragraphs.The smallest identifiable software components Platform. Test transactions/events: The type of tests that will be conducted during the execution of tests.Handout – Software Testing Collecting Status Data Four categories of data will be collected during testing. Functions/Sub functions . Units. which will be based on software requirements. Defect This category includes a Description of the individual defects uncovered during the testing process.

Developing Test Status Reports Report Software Status Establish a Measurement Team Inventory Existing Project Measures Develop a Consistent Set of Project metrics Define Process Requirements Develop and Implement the Process Monitor the Process The Test process should produce a continuous series of reports that describe the status of testing. and the software development team. Storing Data Collected during Testing It is recommended that a database be established in which to store the results collected during testing. and when it was entered for retest.Handout – Software Testing Severity of the Defect Type of Defect How the defect was uncovered (Test Data/Test Script) The Test Logs should add to this information in the form of where the defect originated . As described the most common test Report is a simple Spread sheet . Use of Function/Test matrix: This shows which tests must be performed in order to validate the functions and also used to determine the status of testing. test managers. and the results of testing at any point of time. The frequency of the test reports should be based on the discretion of the team and extensiveness of the test process. Many organizations use spreadsheet package to maintain test results. The test reports are for use of testers. It is also suggested that the database be put in online through client/server systems so that with a vested interest in the status of the project can be readily accessed for the status update. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . when it was corrected. but not performed 2=Test currently being performed 3=Minor defect noted 4=Major defect noted 5=Test complete and function is defect free for the criteria included in this test Page 95 ©Copyright 2007. which indicates the project component for which the status is requested. the test that will be performed to determine the status of that component. The intersection can be coded with a number or symbol to indicate the following: 1=Test is needed. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

'' GRG . HTML or any other kind of ASCII based output format can be produced just as easily. and data base management products. PostScript. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .or comma-separated text files. delimited ASCII text file or a SQL query to a RDBMS and produces a report listing. This allows each person to use the normal functions of the computer keyboard that are common to all word processors. you can quickly scan through any number of these reports and see how each person's history compares. The program was loosely designed to produce TeX/LaTeX formatted output. Some query tools available for Linux based databases include: MySQL dbMetrix PgAccess Cognos Powerhouse This is not yet available for Linux. PostScript.Use of word processing. Cognos is looking into what interest people have in the product to assess what their strategy should be with respect to the Linux ``market. and more. DocBook. composing and revising text. or tab. email editors. but plain ASCII text. LaTeX2e. Reports can be viewed and printed from the application or output as HTML.GNU Report Generator The GRG program reads record and field information from a dBase3+ file. Status Report Word Processing Tests or Keypad Tests Basic Skills Tests or Data Entry Tests Progress Graph Game Scores Test Report for each test Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. defect tracking. and graphic tools to prepare test reports. XML. organizing. HTML.Handout – Software Testing Methods of Test Reporting Reporting Tools . Cognizant Technology Solutions. From the LaTeX2e and DocBook output files you can in turn produce PDF. database. text. Individual Reports include all of the following information. however. Some Database test tools like Data Vision is a database reporting tool similar to Crystal Reports. A one-page summary report may be printed with either the Report Manager program or from the individual keyboard or keypad software at any time. Word –Processing: One way of increasing the utility of computers and word processors for the teaching of writing may be to use software that will guide the processes of generating. troff. order entry systems. From the Report Manager.

o Average duration between defect detection and defect correction o Average effort to correct a defect o Total number of defects remaining at delivery o Software performance data us usually generated during system testing. o Average CPU utilization o Average memory Utilization o Measured I/O transaction rate Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. tester. Anywhere access to Test Assets Using Test Director’s web interface. which can be repeated throughout the application life cycle Provides Analysis and Decision Support Graphs and reports help analyze application readiness at any point in the testing process Requirements coverage. defect statistics can be used for production planning Provides Anytime.Defining the components that should be included in a test report. Cognizant Technology Solutions. test execution progress. Testing Data used for metrics Testers are typically responsible for reporting their test status at regular intervals. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . business analysts and Client can participate and contribute to the testing process Traceability throughout the testing process Test Cases can be mapped to requirements providing adequate visibility over the test coverage of requirements Test Director links requirements to test cases and test cases to defects Manages Both Manual and Automated Testing Test Director can manage both manual and automated tests (Win Runner) Scheduling of automated tests can be effectively done using Test Director Test Report Standards . once the software has been integrated and functional testing is complete.Ability to draw statistically valid conclusions from quantitative test results.Handout – Software Testing Test Director: Facilitates consistent and repetitive testing process Central repository for all testing assets facilitates the adoption of a more consistent testing process. The following measurements generated during testing are applicable: o Total number of tests o Number of Tests executed to date o Number of tests executed successfully to date o Data concerning software defects include o Total number of defects corrected in each activity o Total number of defects entered in each activity. run schedules. developers. Statistical Analysis .

A good test plan will identify the interfaces and institute test conditions that will validate interfaces. This includes the following Individual Project Test Report Integration Test Report System Test Report Acceptance test Report These test reports are designed to document the results of testing as defined in the testplan.Purpose of a Test Report: The test report has one immediate and three long term purposes. if the function matrix is maintained electronically. to assess the potential consequences and initiate appropriate actions to minimize those consequences. The Third long term purpose is to show what was accomplished in case of an Y2K lawsuit. Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. Individual Project Test Report These reports focus on the Individual projects(software system). as paper report will summarize the data. draws appropriate conclusions and present recommendations.Handout – Software Testing Test Reporting A final test report should be prepared at the conclusion of each test activity. they should prepare a report on their results. and if so. The first of the three long term uses is for the project to trace problems in the event the application malfunctions in production. Given is the Individual Project test report except that conditions tested are interfaces. For example. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The second long term purpose is to use the data to analyze the rework process for making changes to prevent the defects from occurring in the future. These defect prone components identify tasks/steps that if improved. there is no reason to print that. The immediate purpose is to provide information to customers of the software system so that they can determine whether the system is ready for production . Cognizant Technology Solutions.when different testers should test individual projects. could eliminate or minimize the occurrence of high frequency defects. Knowing which functions have been correctly tested and which ones still contain defects can assist in taking corrective actions. The test report can be a combination of electronic data and hard copy. Integration Test Report Integration testing tests the interfaces between individual projects.9 .

If these details are maintained Electronically . The second objective is to ensure that software system can operate in the real world user environment. Conclusion The Test Logs obtained from the execution of the test results and finally the test reports should be designed to accomplish the following objectives: Provide Information to the customer whether the system should be placed into production. and so forth. how was it to be tested. what was to be tested. If the defined requirements are those true needs. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. The system test Report should present the results of executing the test plan.Handout – Software Testing System Test Reports A System Test plan standard that identified the objective of testing . The Acceptance Test Report should encompass these criteria’s for the User acceptance respectively. which includes people skills and attitudes. testing should have accomplished this objective. could eliminate or minimize the occurrence of high frequency defects in future. The data can also be used to analyze the developmental process to make changes to prevent defects from occurring in the future. One Long term objective is for the Project and the other is for the information technology function. and when tests should occur. time pressures. Knowing which functions have been correctly tested and which ones still contain defects can assist in taking corrective actions. if so the potential consequences and appropriate actions to minimize these consequences. then it need only be referenced . Acceptance Test Report There are two primary objectives of Acceptance testing Report: The first is to ensure that the system as implemented meets the real operating needs of the user/customer. not included in the report. The project can use the test report to trace problems in the event the application malfunction in production. changing business conditions. Page 99 ©Copyright 2007. These defect prone components identify tasks/steps that if improved.

. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Test Report A Test Report is a document that is prepared once the testing of a software product is complete and the delivery is to be made to the customer.g. Help developers improve the quality of the specifications (e. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .g. Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. a single test of a use case path or class method). use case path and class responsibilities) of the item under test. the type of failures to be elicited).. Help developers understand the behavior of the item under test. Document the producer of the test case. the part of the item under test being tested. Help improve the quality of the item under test. Objectives To support these goals. Cause failures that uncover underlying defects so that they can be identified and removed. This document would contain a summary of the entire project and would have to be presented in a way that any person who has not worked on the project would also get a good overview of the testing effort.. the objectives of a single test case include: Document the purpose of the test case (i.e. Contents of a Test Report The contents of a test report are as follows: Executive Summary Overview Application Overview Testing Scope Test Details Test Approach Types of testing conducted Test Environment Tools Used Metrics Test Results Test Deliverables Recommendations Test Case A test case is a testing work product that automatically performs a single test on an executable work product. Goals The goals of a test case is to automate or document the following: Perform a single test (e.

Page 101 ©Copyright 2007. o The Software Development Team for design model and unit test cases.. the test stimuli. exceptions raised. Failure to automate test cases makes regression testing more expensive and less likely to occur. The SoftwareDevelopment Team for design model and unit test cases. send it test messages. test oracle) Test reporting script Test finalization script Stakeholders Producers: o o o o o The Requirements Team for requirements model test cases. changes in state and messages sent) to the test stimuli. to send test messages or raise test exceptions) Expected behavior (i. postconditions) to the expected responses to identify failures that imply the existence of defects in the item under test. etc. Documents a single test in terms of objective. values returned. oracle.g.. The Independent Test Team for system test cases.g.e. The Architecture Team for architecture model test cases.e. to place objects under test into the appropriate pre-test states) Test stimuli (e. place the item under test.g... Evaluator: Test Inspection Team Approvers: None.g. Maintainers: o The Requirements Team for requirements model test cases. Benefits A test case provides the following benefits: Automates a single test. Observe how the item responds (e.. Contents Test case objectives Test preparation (e.. The Integration Team for integration test cases. o The Architecture Team for architecture model test cases. and provide the necessary test data)..e. and the collaborators of the item under test into their correct pretest states. Stimulate the item (e. Documents test results Failure to produce test cases increases the probability that the item under test will contain defects that will make the application fail to meet its requirements.Handout – Software Testing Prepare the item under test for testing (i. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Report the results of the associated test. Compare the actual responses (i. raise test exceptions). thereby supporting regression testing.

The Integration Team for performing integration testing..Handout – Software Testing o o Users: o Tumultuous 1). Inputs Work products: Project Test Plan System Requirements Specification System Architecture Document Software Architecture Document Javadoc including responsibilities Software components (e. The relevant requirements. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Model testing of the software design 2). Domain object model The Architecture Team for: 1). method signatures. The Test Team for performing system testing. 4). The relevant item under test is started. or design are completed. Unit testing of the software components 3). assertions. The Integration Team for integration test cases. The relevant team is staffed. Use case model 2).g. Unit testing of the software architecture prototype The SoftwareDevelopment Team for 1). The relevant test suite is started. The Independent Test Team for system test cases. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . branching and looping logic) Stakeholders: None Page 102 ©Copyright 2007. architecture. Model testing of the software architecture 2). o o Phases Initiation: Completed Construction: Completed Delivery: Completed Usage: Maintained Retirement: Archived Preconditions A test case typically can be started if the following preconditions hold: The relevant sections of the Project Test Plan are completed.

then it will be difficult to know if the defect causing the failure is in the item under test or in the test case. Test your Understanding 1). Test Environment (Hardware. Test harness 2). Software. test cases will be automated whenever practical. If the quality of the test cases is not at least as good as the quality of the item under test. Test Script Answers: 1) c 2) c Page 103 ©Copyright 2007. which are documented in the associated test report..g. Thus. execution conditions and expected results. Test Result c. Test Deliverables. Guidelines A test case is constrained by the following conventions: Content and Format Standard Inspection Checklist SUMMARY A test plan contains description of testing objectives and Goals. When performed manually. To support regression testing. model testing. Test Specification b. A test case has set of test inputs. Test Strategy/Approach based on customer priorities. Test cases need not document how to perform the test unless they are automated. Test Plan c. integration testing. unit testing. test cases need to be evaluated for defects. A test reflects what tests need to be performed. Test cases do not document the results of the tests.) Features to test with priority/criticality. A series of test data that is logically tested together is a. and the test case developer can make mistakes. Network. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Guidelines Test cases will be used at all levels of testing (e. Test Log d. this information is documented in the associated test procedure. The document that describes the expected output as well as inputs is a. and system testing). Test Case b. Communication etc. Test Case d. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The oracle can be incorrect.

This evaluation is described as system reliability growth modelling. and reporting What is a Defect? A mismatch in the application and its specification is a defect. Quality is the indication of how well the system meets the requirements. Defect Classification The severity of bugs will be classified as follows: Page 104 ©Copyright 2007. A Defect is a product anomaly or flaw. An evaluation of defects discovered during testing provides the best indication of software quality. you will be able to: Describe defect lifecycle. The actual data about defect rates are then fit to the model. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . So in this context defects are identified as any failure to meet the system requirements. Such an evaluation estimates the current system reliability and predicts how the reliability will grow if testing and defect removal continue. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 7: Defect Management Learning Objective After completing this chapter. Defects include such things as omissions and imperfections found during testing phases. tracking. Symptoms (flaws) of faults contained in software that is sufficiently mature for production will be considered as defects. Defect evaluation is based on methods that range from simple number count to rigorous statistical modeling. A software error is present when the program does not do what its end user expects it to do. Rigorous evaluation uses assumptions about the arrival or discovery rates of defects during the testing process. A deviation from expectation that is to be tracked and resolved is also termed a defect.

When you are reporting a defect the more information you supply. project and data used.Handout – Software Testing Defect Lifecycle Defect Reporting and Tracking The key to making a good report is providing the development staff with as much information as necessary to reproduce the bug. Summarize what you think the problem is. the easier it will be for the developers to determine the problem and fix it. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Supply a copy of all relevant reports and data including copies of the expected results. For example: cosmetic errors may only require a brief description of the screen. but the more complex the problem– the more information the developer is going to need. how to get it and what needs to be changed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This can be broken down into 5 points: Give a brief description of the problem List the steps that are needed to reproduce the bug or problem Supply all relevant information such as version. Simple problems can have a simple report. Page 105 ©Copyright 2007.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Anatomy of a bug report Bug reports need to do more than just describe the bug. don’t abbreviate and don’t assume anything. After you’ve finished writing down the steps. In most cases the more information/ correct information given the better. Go through the process again and see if there are any steps that can be removed. one before the process and one after. Steps: List the steps taken to recreate the bug. Data: Unless you are reporting something very simple.Handout – Software Testing However. you should include two versions of the dataset. With the data. Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. The report should explain exactly how to reproduce the problem and an explanation of exactly what the problem is. Copies of any output should be included. The basic items in a report are as follows: Version: This is very important. Include all proper menu names. If specific data is involved. if available. If you’re reporting a processing error. In either case. such as: The name of the process and how to get to it. developers will be forced to try and find the bug based on forensic evidence.make sure you’ve included everything you type and do to get to the problem. developers will have been working on it and if they’ve found a bug– it may already have been reported or even fixed. an error in processing will require a more detailed description. When you report the steps they should be the clearest steps to recreating the bug. (Expected results) The source of the expected results. If there are parameters. you should include a dataset that exhibits the error. supply the exact data entered. (Perceived results) An explanation of how the results differed. an earlier version of the software and any formulas used) Documentation on what actually happened. As a rule the detail of your report will increase based on The severity of the bug. If the dataset from before the process is not included. In most cases the product is not static. Documentation on what was expected. they need to know which version to use when testing out the bug. The complexity of reproducing the bug. The level of the processing. They have to give developers something to work with so that they can successfully reproduce the problem. Product: If you are developing more than one product– Identify the product in question. developers can trace what is happening. such as a cosmetic error on a screen. list them. follow them . This includes spread sheets. If you have to enter any data. Identify the individual items that are wrong. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a copy of the data both before and after the process should be included.

Duplicate – The bug has already been reported. include a copy of the report with the problem areas highlighted. but detail what is wrong. It is not enough to say that something is wrong. Include a list of what was expected. If you have a report to compare against. so that someone who has never seen the system can follow the steps and reproduce the problem. they will set to Dev Waiting. Include what you expected. Once the development team has started working on the defect the status is set to WIP ((Work in Progress) or if the development team is waiting for a go ahead or some technical feedback. If the fixed defect satisfies the requirements/passes the test case. what data was used. include it and its source information (if it’s a printout from a previous version. and the defect still exists. Testers will need this information for later regression testing and verification. which means the defect is ready to re-test. which will follow the same cycle as an open defect. identify it and fix it. Defect Tracking After a defect has been found. Cognizant Technology Solutions. it is set to Closed. Remember report one problem at a time. Supporting documentation: If available. The report must also say what the system should be doing. Invalid Bug – The reported bug is not valid one as per the requirements/design As Designed – This is an intended functionality as per the requirements/design Deferred –This will be an enhancement. the status is set to REOPENED. On re-testing the defect. The developers need it to reproduce the bug. it must be reported to development so that it can be fixed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the status is set to FIXED. Page 107 ©Copyright 2007.Try to weed out any extraneous information. supply documentation. The report should be written in clear concise steps. Document – Once it is set to any of the above statuses apart from Open. include the version number and the dataset used) This information should be stored in a centralized location so that Developers and Testers have access to the information. It should include information about the product. After the development team has fixed the defect. If the process is a report. The Initial State of a defect will be ‘New’. including the version number. The Project Lead of the development team will review the defect and set it to one of the following statuses: o o o o o o Open – Accepts the bug and assigns it to a developer. don’t combine bugs in one report. and the testing team does not agree with the development team it is set to document status. SUMMARY A bug report is a case against a product. In order to work it must supply all necessary information to not only identify the problem but what is needed to fix it as well.Handout – Software Testing Description: Explain what is wrong .

The following is NOT a defect management activity a. Finding the person who introduced the defect d. Logging a defect b. Tracking a defect to closure c. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Test your Understanding 1). Software problem that requires corrective action b. Unexpected error/event that needs investigation c. Temporary problem that is not related to the software d. Defect is defined as a. All the above 2). Preventing defects Answers: 1) a&b 2) c Page 108 ©Copyright 2007.

Every organization has unique reasons for automating software quality activities. and time-consuming manual test procedures. In the past. This required a large staff of test personnel to perform expensive. most software tests were performed using manual methods. Using Testing Effectively By definition. An automated test executes the next operation in the test hierarchy at machine speed. Furthermore. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . load/stress testing using automated methods require only a fraction of the computer hardware that would be necessary to complete a manual test. Many internal and external factors are forcing organizations to ensure a high level of software quality and reliability. some types of testing. the need is greatly increased for testing methods that support business objectives. Therefore.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 8: Automation Learning Objective After completing this chapter. rigorous application testing is a critical part of virtually all software development projects. Cognizant Technology Solutions. but several reasons are common across industries. Imagine performing a load test on a typical distributed client/server application on which 50 concurrent users were planned. Automation Benefits Today. The very nature of application software development dictates that no matter which methods are employed to carry out testing (manual or automated). you will be able to: Explain automated testing What is Automation? Automated testing is automating the manual testing process currently in use. Many automated testing tools can replicate the activity of a large number of users (and their associated transactions) using a single computer. Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. Reducing Testing Costs The cost of performing manual testing is prohibitive when compared to automated methods. they remain repetitious throughout the development lifecycle. Owing to the size and complexity of today’s advanced software applications. built according to specification. and have the ability to support business processes. repetitive work while human personnel perform other tasks. The reason is that computers can execute instructions many times faster. allowing tests to be completed many times faster than the fastest individual. It is necessary to ensure that these systems are reliable. are virtually impossible to perform manually. such as load/stress testing. As more organizations develop mission-critical systems to support their business activities. manual testing is no longer a viable option for most testing situations. Automation of testing processes allows machines to complete the tedious. testing is a repetitive activity. and with fewer errors than individuals. Automation allows the tester to reduce or eliminate the required “think time” or “read time” necessary for the manual interpretation of when or where to click the mouse or press the enter key.

In some industries such as healthcare and pharmaceuticals. organizations are required to comply with strict quality regulations as well as being required to document their quality assurance efforts for all parts of their systems. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Replicating Testing Across Different Platforms Automation allows the testing organization to perform consistent and repeatable tests. It is easy to see why manual methods for load/stress testing is an expensive and logistical nightmare. the entire test operation could be created on a single machine having the ability to run and rerun the test as necessary. automated tests can be executed as many times as necessary without requiring a user to recreate a test script each time the test is run. Repeatability and Control By using automated techniques. Greater application test coverage also reduces the risk of exposing users to malfunctioning or non-compliant software. standard or benchmark tests can be created and repeated on target platforms to ensure that new platforms operate consistently. and a cadre of coordinators to relay instructions to the users would be required. As another example. automated tests can be built that extract variable data from external files or applications and then run a test using the data as an input value. Most importantly. When applications need to be deployed across different hardware or software platforms. Greater Application Coverage The productivity gains delivered by automated testing allow and encourage organizations to test more often and more completely. at night or on weekends without having to assemble an army of end users. and how the tests will be executed. imagine the same application used by hundreds or thousands of users. the tester has a very high degree of control over which types of tests are being performed. 50 application users employing 50 PCs with associated software. For example. With an automated scenario.Handout – Software Testing To do the testing manually. Cognizant Technology Solutions. an available network. Using automated tests enforces consistent procedures that allow developers to evaluate the effect of various application modifications as well as the effect of various user actions. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007.

software applications can literally define or control the core of a company’s business. close a testing session and apply testing values.If a testing procedure can be reused many times. Certain types of tests like user comprehension tests. tests that run only once. Cognizant Technology Solutions. common outline files can be created to establish a testing session. Examples include: financial month-end closings.Handout – Software Testing Automation Life Cycle Identifying Tests Requiring Automation . sales order entry and other core activities. Repetitive Testing . production planning. Examples include: creating customer records. Any application with a high-degree of risk associated with a failure is a good candidate for test automation. High Path Frequency . invoicing and other high volume activities where software failures would occur frequently.In many situations.Automated testing can be used to verify the performance of application paths that are used with a high degree of frequency when the software is running in full production. types of tests can be automated. it is also a prime candidate for automation. but not all. If the application fails. These automated modules can be used again and again without having to rebuild the test scripts. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Most. Mission-critical processes are prime candidates for automated testing. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007. The following are examples of criteria that can be used to identify tests that are prime candidates for automation. the company can face extreme disruptions in critical operations. Critical Business Processes . For example. This modular approach saves time and money when compared to creating a new end-to-end script for each and every test. and tests that require constant human intervention are usually not worth the investment to automate.

The tests created for testing Internet or intranet-based applications should be portable across browsers. an automated test should be able to link business requirements to test results.If an application is planned to be in production for a long period of time. and create meaningful end-user and management reports. allowing users to evaluate application readiness based upon the application's ability to support the business requirements. the testing tool itself should have a short learning curve. A robust tool will allow users to integrate existing test results into an automated test plan. Test components built for performing functional tests should also support other types of testing including regression and load/stress testing. a testing tool that requires programming skills is unusable by most organizations. Ease of Use Testing tools should be engineered to be usable by non-programmers and application endusers. GUI and Client/Server Testing A robust testing tool should support testing with a variety of user interfaces and create simple-to manage. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the greater the benefits are from automation. Also. provide organization for testing components. With much of the testing responsibility shifting from the development staff to the departmental level. Page 112 ©Copyright 2007. the architecture of the testing tool environment should be open to support interaction with other technologies such as defect or bug tracking packages. Even if programmers are responsible for testing. It should also provide test results in an easy-tounderstand reporting format. easy-to-understand language. and one which often poses enterprise-wide implications. Test Planning and Management A robust testing tool should have the capability to manage the testing process. Testing Product Integration Testing tools should provide tightly integrated modules that support test component reusability.Handout – Software Testing Applications with a Long Life Span . Cognizant Technology Solutions. which should be addressed when selecting an application testing solution. What to Look For in a Testing Tool Choosing an automated software testing tool is an important step. Test component reusability should be a cornerstone of the product architecture. It should also allow users to include non-automated testing procedures within automated test plans and test results. Here are several key issues. easy-to-modify tests. All products within the testing product environment should be based upon a common. and should automatically adjust for different load times and performance levels. Finally. Load and Performance Testing The selected testing solution should allow users to perform meaningful load and performance tests to accurately measure system performance. User training and experience gained in performing one testing task should be transferable to other testing tasks. Internet/Intranet Testing A good tool will have the ability to support testing within the scope of a web browser.

you are ready to re-execute tests or prepare for a different set of tests. Operational Support . the test environment can be prepared. The definition of these tasks. Make sure that other groups that might share these resources are informed of this schedule. Installation Procedures . These business requirements should be defined in such a way as to make it abundantly clear that the software system correctly (or incorrectly) performs the necessary business functions. Creating a Test Plan For the greatest return on automated testing. functional requirements of the software system in question. locate and configure test-related hardware and software products and coordinate the human resources required to complete all testing. Description . those evaluating test automation should consider these fundamental planning steps. or to print a salary check. Cognizant Technology Solutions. outline those procedures needed to restore the test environment to its original state. The test environment is defined as the complete set of steps necessary to execute the test as described in the test plan. a testing plan should be created at the same time the software application requirements are defined. To guarantee the best possible result from an automated testing program.Finally. This plan is very much a “living document” that should evolve as the application functions become more clearly defined.Document the technical environment needed to execute the tests. The test environment includes initial set up and description of the environment. all user groups and the Page 113 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Test Environment Setup Once the test cases have been created. The time invested in detailed planning significantly improves the benefits resulting from test automation. This enables the testing team to define the tests. Test Schedule . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . or business requirements.Outline the procedures necessary to install the application software to be tested. By doing this. a business requirement for a payroll application might be to calculate a salary. A good testing plan should be reviewed and approved by the test team. the software development team. defines the high-level. Restoration Procedures .Identify the times during which your testing facilities will be used for a given test. Inputs to the Test Environment Preparation Process Technical Environment Descriptions Approved Test Plan Test Execution Schedules Resource Allocation Schedule Application Software to be installed Test Planning Careful planning is the key to any successful process.Identify any support needed from other parts of your organization. and the procedures needed for installation and restoration of the environment. For example. Evaluating Business Requirements Begin the automated testing process by defining exactly what tasks your application software should accomplish in terms of the actual business activities of the end-user.

Each test case must have a unique name. so that the results of these test elements can be traced and analyzed.What is the application intended to do? These should be stated in the terms of the business requirements of the end users. A proper test case will include the following key components: Test Case Name(s) . Test Design and Development After the test components have been defined. Test Procedures – Identify the application steps necessary to complete the test case. A test case identifies the specific input values that will be sent to the application. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The following items detail the input and output components of the test planning process. if necessary.Specify any relationships. These expected results will be used to measure the acceptance criteria. and the expected application values for the procedure being tested.When is the scheduled release? When are updates or enhancements planned? Are there any specific events or actions that are dependent upon the application? Acceptance Criteria for implementation .Handout – Software Testing organization’s management. Test Case Prerequisites .Document all screen identifier(s) and expected value(s) that must be verified as part of the test. Test Case Execution Order . Application Implementation Schedules . Test Data Sources .What critical actions must the application accomplish before it can be deployed? This information forms the basis for making informed decisions on whether or not the application is ready to deploy. The type and number of test cases needed will be dictated by the testing plan.This section of the test case identifies the values to be supplied to the application as input including. Expected Results . Page 114 ©Copyright 2007. run orders and dependencies that might exist between test cases. Input Values .Identify set up or testing criteria that must be established before a test can be successfully executed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Inputs to the Test Planning Process Application Requirements . the procedures for applying those inputs. the action to be completed.Take note of the sources for extracting test data if it is not included in the test case. the standardized test cases can be created that will be used to test the application. and therefore the ultimate success of the test.

Specific performance measurements of the test execution phase include: Application of Test Cases – The test cases previously created are applied to the target software application as described in the testing environment Documentation . documents the results. and validates those results against expected performance.Activities within the test execution are logged and analyzed as follows: Actual Results achieved during test execution are compared to expected application behavior from the test cases Test Case completion status (Pass/Fail) Actual results of the behavior of the technical test environment Deviations taken from the test plan or test process Inputs to the Test Execution Process Approved Test Plan Documented Test Cases Stabilized.Handout – Software Testing Inputs to the Test Design and Construction Process Test Case Documentation Standards Test Case Naming Standards Approved Test Plan Business Process Documentation Business Process Flow Test Data sources Outputs from the Test Design and Construction Process Revised Test Plan Test Procedures for each Test Case Test Case(s) for each application function described in the test plan Procedures for test set up. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . test execution and restoration Executing the Test The test is now ready to be run. This step applies the test cases identified by the test plan. test execution environment Standardized Test Logging Procedures Outputs from the Test Execution Process Test Execution Log(s) Restored test environment Page 115 ©Copyright 2007. repeatable. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

and a separate test execution cycle may be required for the stress/volume testing of the same application. needs more testing. including application processes that need to be analyzed further. noting those that passed. operating environment. Measuring the Results This step evaluates the results of the test as compared to the acceptance criteria set down in the test plan. and install and configure the tool(s) for your application and environment. This step of the process can range from very chaotic to very simple and schedule driven. a test execution may be required for the functional testing of an application.This step identifies the overall status of the application after testing. etc.This final and very important report identifies potential defects in the software. An automation assessment allows us to evaluate your tool needs. there may be several test execution cycles necessary to complete all the necessary types of testing required for your application. provide an objective selection of the best tool(s). test automation can offer a dramatic increase in productivity. the type of test. failed or were not executed. and the completion status. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Without an adequate test plan in place to control your entire test process. Phase II: Tool Implementation Preparation Execution Page 116 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Test Execution Statistics . and test team. Other Phases in Automation Phase I: Tool Acquisition Assessment Evaluation/Selection Installation With the right tool. Application Defects . The secret to a controlled test execution is comprehensive planning. The problems experienced in test execution are usually attributed to not properly performing steps from earlier in the process. A complete and thorough test plan will identify this need and many of the test cases can be used for both test cycles. Determine Application Status . for example: ready for release. For example. you may inadvertently cause problems for subsequent testing. Specific elements to be measured and analyzed include: Test Execution Log Review .The Log Review compiles a listing of the activities of all test cases.This summary identifies the total number of tests that were executed. Additionally. The first and most important step in the process is acquiring a tool that is suitable for your application.Handout – Software Testing The test execution phase of your software test process will control how the test gets applied to the application.

Handout – Software Testing Selecting the right test tool is only the beginning of a successful test automation effort. Cognizant Technology Solutions. reusable automated test environment. The benefit of this approach is that the captured session can be re-run at some later point in time to ensure that the system performs the required behavior. design. Testing can be done with both positive and negative approach simultaneously. This allows one script to test multiple sets of positive data. Select the script that needs to be executed and run it… Wait until execution is done. Automation Methods Capture/Playback Approach The Capture/Playback tools capture the sequence of manual operations in a test script that are entered by the test engineer. necessary data table or data pool updation needs to be taken care. and execute the tests. Prerequisite for running the scripts such as tool settings. Tools like Winrunner provide a scripting language. The short-comings of Capture/Playback are that in many cases. we will prepare the test environment. This sometimes reduces the effort over the completely manual approach. These sequences are played back during the test execution. Steps to be followed before execution of scripts: Test tool to be installed in the machine. This is applicable when large volume and different sets of data need to be fed to the application and tested for correctness. The benefit of this approach is that the time consumed is less and accurate than manually testing it. it is how you use it that counts. if the system functionality changes. Test environment /application to be tested to be installed in the machine. the capture/playback session will need to be completely re-run to capture the new sequence of user interactions. Data Driven Approach Data driven approach is a test that plays back the same user actions but with varying input values. This process will result in a robust. Although test automation tools can save time through unattended execution. and it is possible for engineers to edit and maintain such scripts. Test Script execution: In this phase we execute the scripts that are already created. design the test cases. however overall savings is usually minimal. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . As with any tool. playback options. it takes time to define. develop the automated scripts. Page 117 ©Copyright 2007. and automate tests. Scripts need to be reviewed and validated for results and accepted as functioning as expected before they are used live. During the implementation phase. Analysis the results via Test manager or in the logs.

Empirix/RSW.Handout – Software Testing Test script execution process: Automation tool comparison Anyone who has contemplated the implementation of an automated test tool has quickly realized the wide variety of options on the market in terms of both the kinds of test tools being offered and the number of vendors. 2 = Good support but lacking or another tool provides more effective support. Page 118 ©Copyright 2007. and vendor qualification. In general a set of criteria can be built up by using this matrix and an indicative score obtained to help in the evaluation process. and Segue. Rational. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Mercury. test reporting capability. which in turn will dictate how automation will be invoked to support the process. 1 = Excellent support for this functionality. 4 = This is only supported by use of an API call or third party add-in but not included in the general test tool/below average. performance testing and analysis. Each category in the matrix is given a rating of 1 – 5. The best tool for any particular situation depends on the system engineering environment that applies and the testing methodology that will be used. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 3 = Basic/ support only. This appendix evaluates major tool vendors on their test tool characteristics. The following tool vendors evaluated are Compuware. tool integration capability. 5 = No support. Usually the lower the score the better but this is subjective and is based on the experience of the author and the test professionals opinions used to create this document. test execution capability. Functional Test Tool Matrix The Tool Matrix is provided for quick and easy reference to the capabilities of the test tools.

etc changes) fail? How easy is it to read the recorded script. So the cost to set up a test environment is usually greater than for a client server test where the environment is fairly well defined. Are there facilities that will allow me to programmatically look for objects of a certain type on a web page or locate a specific object? Can I extract data from the web page itself? E. is this in an array. this is the first thing that most test professionals will do. This is very similar to recording a macro in say Microsoft Access. Does the tool support low-level recording (mouse drags. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Record and Playback This category details how easy it is to record & playback a test. A person may be connecting from the USA or Africa. connect using MAC. etc. They will record a simple script.g. Web testing can be riddled with problems if various considerations are not taken into account. etc all of them support a universal query language known as SQL and a protocol for communicating with these databases called ODBC (JDBC can be used on java environments). will have fast connections and slow connections. look at the code and then playback. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Oracle. frames. Eventually record and playback becomes less and less part of the automation process as it is usually more robust to use the built-in functions to directly test objects. As such. SQLServer. a variable. databases. However this should be done as a minimum in the evaluation process because if the tool of choice cannot recognize the applications objects then the automation process will be a very tedious experience.g. DOM.g. the applications and so on but on the web it is far different. Sybase. DB2. etc. etc. This is usually achieved by holding the data in a Database. they may use various browsers. etc. various platforms for browsers. They will speak different languages. In judging the rating for this category I looked at the tools native support for HTML tables. the title? A hidden form element? With Client server testing the target customer is usually well defined you know what network operating system you will be using. Linux or Windows. I have looked at all the tools support for SQL. As such the test tool should provide good web based test functionality in addition to its client/server functions. does it contain data. Because of the many databases available e. a cursor. Database Tests Most applications will provide the facility to preserve data outside of itself. Web site maps and links. Ingres.Handout – Software Testing A detailed description is given below of each of the categories used in the matrix. When automating. etc. and the screen resolution on their computer will be different. Informix. Web Testing Web based functionality on most applications is now a part of everyday life. they may be disabled. exact screen location)? Is there object recognition when recording and playing back or does it appear to record ok but then on playback (without environment change or unique id’s. ODBC and how they hold returned data e. checking what is in the backend database usually verifies the proper validation of tests carried out on the front end of an application. How does the tool manipulate this returned data? Can it call stored procedures and supply required input variables? What is the range of functions supplied for this testing? Page 119 ©Copyright 2007. Here are a few examples Are there functions to tell me when the page has finished loading? Can I tell the test tool to wait until an image appears? Can I test whether links are valid or not? Can I test web based objects functions like is it enabled.

The added benefit (as I have found) is this functionality can be used for a production reason e. Most custom objects will behave like a similar standard control here are a few standard objects that are seen in everyday applications. etc to create. spreadsheet or database. classes. Does the tool allow you to specify the type of data you want? Can you automatically generate data? Can you interface with files. to datadriven to framework testing. databases. Data-driven tests are tests that replace hard coded names. input data. Cognizant Technology Solutions. spreadsheets. methods etc that is used to call the underlying applications. we will need to create data to input into the application. These functions are also very important as you move from the record/playback phase. etc. A test framework has parallels to Software frameworks where you develop an encapsulation layer of software (framework) around the applications. extract data? Can you randomise the access to that data? Is the data access truly random? This functionality is normally more important than database tests as the databases will usually have their own interface for running queries.Handout – Software Testing Data Functions As mentioned above applications usually provide a facility for storing data off line. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . return data. skilled resources and money to facilitate the first two. for the aforementioned bulk data input sometimes carried out in data migration or application upgrades. Object Mapping If you are in a role that can help influence the design of a product. However you may find that most (hopefully) of the application has been implemented using standard objects supported by your test tool vendor but there may be a few objects that are custom ones. numbers. databases etc and expose functions. Frameworks are usually the ultimate goal in deploying automation test tools. etc with variables supplied from an external source usually a CSV (Comma Separated variable) file. So to test this. address. try to get the development/design team to use standard and not custom objects.g. etc. However to do this requires a lot of time. I have looked at all the tools facilities for creating and manipulating data. This allows an inexperienced tester/user to run tests by just running/providing the test framework with know commands/variables. Then hopefully you will not need this functionality. Pushbuttons Checkboxes Radio buttons List views Edit boxes Combo boxes If you have a custom object that behaves like one of these are you able to map (tell the test tool that the custom control behaves like the standard) control? Does it support all the standard controls methods? Can you add the custom control to it’s own class of control? Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. Frameworks provide an interface to all the applications under test by exposing a suitable list of functions. However applications (except for manual input) do not usually provide facilities for bulk data input.

can be programmed to reference windows and object names in one place (say via a variable) and that variable can be used throughout the script (where that object appears). I have looked at these facilities in the base tool set. Object Name Map As you test your application using the test tool of your choice you will notice that it records actions against the objects that it interacts with. Suppose the application crashes while I am testing what can I do? If a function does not receive the correct information how can I handle this? If I get an error message how do I deal with that? If I access a web site and get a warning what do I do? I cannot get a database connection how do I skip those tests? The test tool should provide facilities to handle the above questions.Handout – Software Testing Image Testing Lets hope this is not a major part of your testing effort but occasionally you may have to use this to test bit map and similar images. Also when the application has painted controls like those in the calculator app found on a lot of windows applications you may need to use this. The premise is it is better to change the reference in one place rather than having to go through each of the scripts to replace it there. I looked at built in wizards of the test tools for standard test recovery (when you finish tests or when a script fails). Does the Object Name Map allow you to alias the name or change the name given by the tool to some more meaningful name? Object Identity Tool Once you become more proficient with automation testing one of the primary means of identifying objects will be via an ID Tool. At least one of the tools allows you to map painted controls to standard controls but to do this you have to rely on the screen co-ordinates of the image. object ID. The last and least desirable should be by coordinates on the screen. All tools provide a search and replace facility but the best implementations are those that provide a central repository to store these object identities. how it recovers from errors. I found this to be true but not as big a point as some have stated because those tools that don’t support the central repository scheme. ID and similar. Once you are well into automation and build up 10’s and 100’s of scripts that reference these objects you will want to have a mechanism that provides an easy update if the application being tested changes. Does the tool provide OCR (optical character recognition)? Can it compare one image against another? How fast does the compare take? If the compare fails how long does that take? Does the tool allow you to mask certain areas of the screen when comparing. name. Firstly the tool should provide services to uniquely identify each object it interacts with and by various means. How easy is it to build this into your code? The rating given will depend on how much errors the tool can capture. Test/Error recovery This can be one of the most difficult areas to automate but if it is automated. the types of errors. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Error recovery caused by the application and environment. Page 121 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. These objects are either identified through the coordinates on the screen or preferably via some unique object reference referred to as a tag. index. A sort of spy that looks at the internals of the object givi ng you details like the object ame. etc. etc. it provides the foundation to produce a truly robust test suite.

Handout – Software Testing
This will allow you to reference that object within a function call. The tool should give you details of some of the object’s properties, especially those associated with uniquely identifying the object or window. The tool will usually provide the tester with a point and ID service where you can use the mouse to point at the object and in some window you will see all of that objects ID’s and properties. A lot of the tools will allow you to search all the open applications in one swoop and show you the result in a tree that you can look at when required. Extensible Language Here is a question that you will here time and time again in automation forums. “How do I get {insert test tool name here} to do such and such”, there will be one of four answers. I don’t know It can’t do it It can do it using the function x, y or Z It can’t in the standard language but you can do it like this What we are concerned with in this section is the last answer e.g. if the standard test language does not support it can I create a DLL or extend the language in some way to do it? This is usually an advanced topic and is not encountered until the trained tester has been using the tool for at least 6 – 12 months. However when this is encountered the tool should support language extension. If via DLL’s then the tester must have knowledge of a traditional development language e.g. C, C++ or VB. For instance if I wanted to extend a tool that could use DLL’s created by VB I would need to have Visual Basic then open say an ActiveX dll project, create a class containing various methods (similar to functions) then I would make a dll file. Register it on the machine then reference that dll from the test tool calling the methods according to their specification. This will sound a lot clearer as you go on in the tools and this document will be updated to include advanced topics like this in extending the tools capabilities. Some tools provide extension by allowing you to create user defined functions, methods, classes, etc but these are normally a mixture of the already supported data types, functions, etc rather than extending the tool beyond it’s released functionality. Because this is an advanced topic I have not taken into account ease of use, as those people who have got to this level should have already exhausted the current capabilities of the tools. So want to use external functions like win32api functions and so on and should have a good grasp of programming. Environment Support How many environments does the tool support out the box? Does it support the latest Java release, what Oracle, Powerbuilder, WAP, etc. Most tools can interface to unsupported environments if the developers in that environment provide classes, dll’s etc that expose some of the applications details but whether a developer will or has time to do this is another question. Ultimately this is the most important part of automation. Environment support. If the tool does not support your environment/application then you are in trouble and in most cases you will need to revert to manually testing the application (more shelf ware).

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Handout – Software Testing
Integration How well does the tool integrate with other tools. This is becoming more and more important. Does the tool allow you to run it from various test management suites? Can you raise a bug directly from the tool and feed the information gathered from your test logs into it? Does it integrate with products like word, excel or requirements management tools? When managing large test projects with an automation team greater than five and testers totaling more than ten. The management aspect and the tools integration moves further up the importance ladder. An example could be a major Bank wants to redesign its workflow management system to allow faster processing of customer queries. The anticipated requirements for the new workflow software numbers in the thousands. To test these requirements 40,000 test cases have been identified 20,000 of these can be automated. How do I manage this? This is where a test management tool comes in real handy. Also how do I manage the bugs raised as a result of automation testing, etc? Integration becomes very important rather than having separate systems that don’t share data that may require duplication of information. The companies that will score larger on these are those that provide tools outside the testing arena as they can build in integration to their other products and so when it comes down to the wire on some projects, we have gone with the tool that integrated with the products we already had. Cost In my opinion cost is the least significant in this matrix, why? Because all the tools are similar in price except Visual Test that is at least 5 times cheaper than the rest but as you will see from the matrix there is a reason. Although very functional it does not provide the range of facilities that the other tools do. Price typically ranges from $2,900 - $5,000 (depending on quantity brought, packages, etc) in the US and around £2,900 - £5,000 in the UK for the base tools included in this document. So you know the tools will all cost a similar price it is usually a case of which one will do the job for me rather than which is the cheapest. Visual Test I believe will prove to be a bigger hit as it expands its functional range it was not that long ago where it did not support web based testing. The prices are kept this high because they can. All the tools are roughly the same price and the volumes of sales is low relative to say a fully blown programming language IDE like JBuilder or Visual C++ which are a lot more function rich and flexible than any of the test tools. On top of the above prices you usually pay an additional maintenance fee of between 10 and 20%. There are not many applications I know that cost this much per license not even some very advanced operating systems. However it is all a matter of supply. The bigger the supply the less the price as you can spread the development costs more. However I do not anticipate a move on the prices upwards as this seems to be the price the market will tolerate. Visual Test also provides a free runtime license.

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Handout – Software Testing
Ease Of Use This section is very subjective but I have used testers (my guinea pigs) of various levels and got them from scratch to use each of the tools. In more cases than not they have agreed on which was the easiest to use (initially). Obviously this can change as the tester becomes more experienced and the issues of say extensibility, script maintenance, integration, data-driven tests, etc are required. However this score is based on the productivity that can be gained in say the first three months when those issues are not such a big concern. Ease of use includes out the box functions, debugging facilities, layout on screen, help files and user manuals. Support In the UK this can be a problem as most of the test tool vendors are based in the USA with satellite branches in the UK. Just from my own experience and the testers I know in the UK. We have found Mercury to be the best for support, then Compuware, Rational and last Segue. However having said that you can find a lot of resources for Segue on the Internet including a forum at www.betasoft.com that can provide most of the answers rather than ringing the support line. On their website Segue and Mercury provide many useful user and vendor contributed material. I have also included various other criteria like the availability of skilled resources, online resources, validity of responses from the helpdesk, speed of responses and similar Object Tests Now presuming the tool of choice does work with the application you wish to test what services does it provide for testing object properties? Can it validate several properties at once? Can it validate several objects at once? Can you set object properties to capture the application state? This should form the bulk of your verification as far as the automation process is concerned so I have looked at the tools facilities on client/server as well as web based applications. Matrix What will follow after the matrix is a tool-by-tool comparison under the appropriate heading (as listed above) so that the user can get a feel for the tools functionality side by side. Each category in the matrix is given a rating of 1 – 5. 1 = Excellent support for this functionality, 2 = Good support but lacking or another tool provides more effective support, 3 = Basic/ support only. 4 = This is only supported by use of an API call or third party add-in but not included in the general test tool/below average, 5 = No

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Page 125 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Matrix score Win Runner = 24 QARun = 25 SilkTest = 24 Visual Test = 39 Robot = 24 SUMMARY Automated testing is automating the manual testing process currently in use. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Owing to the size and complexity of today’s advanced software applications. manual testing is no longer a viable option for most testing situations. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

RequistePro.g. A baseline version of RequisitePro is included with Rational Test Manager. Rational Purify is a comprehensive C/C+ + run-time error checking tool that automatically pinpoints run-time errors and memory leaks in all components of an application. Rational Clear Quest is a change-request management tool that tracks and manages defects and change requests throughout the development process. etc. When it comes to Object Oriented development they are the acknowledged leaders with most of the leading OO experts working for them. Use Load Test to schedule and play back the scripts. A client/server system includes client applications accessing a database or application server. enabling developers to quickly find. and run tests. you can access it in Test Manager. and to capture and analyze the results. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and browsers accessing a Web server. RequisitePro organizes your requirements by linking Microsoft Word to a requirements repository and providing traceability and change management throughout the project lifecycle. Their Unified Process is a very good development model that allows mapping of requirements to use cases. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Rational Robot. test cases and a whole set of tools to support the process. you will be able to: Work with Rational Testing tool Sample Test Automation Tool Rational offers the most complete lifecycle toolset (including testing) of these vendors for the windows platform. When you define a test requirement in RequisitePro. Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. Rational Suite Performance Studio is a sophisticated tool for automating performance tests on client/server systems. and documentation modifications. Use Robot to record client/server conversations and store them in scripts. With Clear Quest. defect reports. organize. Rational Suite of tools Rational RequisitePro is a requirements management tool that helps project teams control the development process. prioritize and eliminate performance bottlenecks within an application. Some of their products are worldwide leaders e. including thirdparty libraries.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 9: Sample Test Automation Tool Learning Objective After completing this chapter. you can manage every type of change activity associated with software development. including enhancement requests. Performance Studio includes Rational Robot and Rational Load Test. Allows you to write. Rational Robot. Rational Pure Coverage is a customizable code coverage analysis tool that provides detailed application analysis and ensures that all code has been exercised. Clear case. Facilitates functional and performance testing by automating record and playback of test scripts. ensuring that code is reliable Rational Quantify is an advanced performance profiler that provides application performance analysis. preventing untested code from reaching the end-user. Rational Rose.

Rational administrator is used to create and manage rational repositories. Tests an entire application. Automates testing by combining automatic test generation with ourcecode coverage analysis. You can use the Rational Administrator to create and manage projects.Handout – Software Testing Rational Test Factory. Rational Load Test can emulate hundreds. The tools that are to discussed here are Rational Administrator Rational Robot Rational Test Manager Rational Administrator What is a Rational Project? A Rational project is a logical collection of databases and data stores that associates the data you use when working with Rational Suite. and multiple Rose models and RequisitePro projects. How to create a new project? Page 127 ©Copyright 2007. one Clear Quest databases. Rational Test categorizes test information within a repository by project. of users placing heavy loads and stress on your database and Web servers. including all GUI features and all lines of source code. one RequisitePro database. During playback. A Rational project is associated with one Rational Test data store. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. even thousands. users and groups and manage security privileges. and optionally places them under configuration management.

In the configure project window displayed click the Create button.Handout – Software Testing Open the Rational administrator and go to File->New Project. Click Finish. Once the Create button in the Configure project window is chosen. Page 128 ©Copyright 2007. which is required to connect to. To manage the requirements assets connect to Requisite Pro. Click Next. Cognizant Technology Solutions. configure or delete the project. enter the Password if you want to protect the project with password. the below seen Create Test Data store window will be displayed. to manage test assets create associated test data store and for defect management connect to Clear quest database. In the corresponding window displayed. In the above window opened enter the details like Project name and location. Accept the default path and click OK button. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Rational Administrator will display your “TestProject” details as below: Page 129 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Once the below window is displayed it is confirmed that the Test datastore is successfully created and click OK to close the window. Click OK in the configure project window and now your first Rational project is ready to play with….

and VU scripting environments. Test objects even if they are not visible in the application's interface. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Rational Robot Rational Robot to develop three kinds of scripts: GUI scripts for functional testing and VU and VB scripts for performance testing. The Object-Oriented Recording technology in Robot lets you generate scripts quickly by simply running and using the application-under-test. HTML. Quantify. Record and play back scripts that navigate through your application and test the state of objects through verification points. and Java. Use Robot and TestManager together to record and play back scripts that help you determine whether a multi-client system is performing within user-defined standards under varying loads. not by screen coordinates. VB. Create and edit scripts using the SQABasic. You can play back scripts under a diagnostic tool and see the results in the log. The Robot editor provides color-coded commands with keyword Help for powerful integrated programming during script development. PowerBuilder. Collect diagnostic information about an application during script playback. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If objects change locations or their text changes. Robot still finds them on playback. Robot can be used to: Perform full functional testing. Robot is integrated with Rational Purify. Test applications developed with IDEs such as Visual Basic. Page 130 ©Copyright 2007. Oracle Forms. and PureCoverage. Perform full performance testing. Robot uses Object-Oriented Recording to identify objects by their internal object names.

including the object's properties and data.Handout – Software Testing The Object Testing technology in Robot lets you test any object in the application-under-test. Once logged you will see the robot window. Go to File-> New->Script In the above screen displayed enter the name of the script say “First Script” by which the script is referred to from now on and any description (Not mandatory). whether they are visible in the interface or hidden. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .The type of the script is GUI for functional testing and VU for performance testing. Page 131 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. You can test standard Windows objects and IDEspecific objects.

To display the Output window: Click View ® Output. Also displays certain system messages from Robot. How to record a play back script? To record a script just go to Record->Insert at cursor Then perform the navigation in the application to be tested and once recording is done stop the recording. It has two panes: Asset pane (left) – Lists the names of all verification points and low-level scripts for this script.Handout – Software Testing The GUI Script top pane) window displays GUI scripts that you are currently recording. editing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The Output window bottom pane) has two tabs: Build – Displays compilation results for all scripts compiled in the last operation. Line numbers are enclosed in parentheses to indicate lines in the script with warnings and errors. Record-> Stop Page 132 ©Copyright 2007. Console – Displays messages that you send with the SQAConsoleWrite command. or debugging. Script pane (right) – Displays the script. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Handout – Software Testing

In this window we can set general options like identification of lists, menus, recording think time in General tab: Web browser tab: Mention the browser type IE or Netscape… Robot Window: During recording how the robot should be displayed and hotkeys details… Object Recognition Order: the order in which the recording is to happen. For ex: Select a preference in the Object order preference list. If you will be testing C++ applications, change the object order preference to C++ Recognition Order.

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Go to Tools-> Playback options to set the options needed while running the script. This will help you to handle unexpected window during playback, error recovery, mention the time out period, to manage log and log data. Verification points A verification point is a point in a script that you create to confirm the state of an object across builds of the application-under-test. During recording, the verification point captures object information (based on the type of verification point) and stores it in a baseline data file. The information in this file becomes the baseline of the expected state of the object during subsequent builds When you play back the script against a new build, Robot retrieves the information in the baseline file for each verification point and compares it to the state of the object in the new build. If the captured object does not match the baseline, Robot creates an actual data file. The information in this file shows the actual state of the object in the build. After playback, the results of each verification point appear in the log in Test Manager. If a verification point fails (the baseline and actual data do not match), you can select the verification point in the log and click View ® Verification Point to open the appropriate Comparator. The Comparator displays the baseline and actual files so that you can compare them. Verification point
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Handout – Software Testing
is stored in the project and is always associated with a script. When you create a verification point, its name appears in the Asset (left) pane of the Script window. The verification point script command, which always begins with Result =, appears in the Script (right) pane. Because verification points are assets of a script, if you delete a script, Robot also deletes all of its associated verification points. You can easily copy verification points to other scripts if you want to reuse them. List of Verification Points The following table summarizes each Robot verification point.

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Handout – Software Testing Page 136 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

You can specify another location by clicking Tools ® General Options. Adding Declarations to the Global Header File For your convenience. Robot will check this location first. Type the comment (60 characters maximum).sbh).Handout – Software Testing About SQABasic Header Files SQABasic header files let you declare custom procedures. Set the file type to Header Files (*. Robot ignores comments at compile time. If recording. Inserting a Comment into a GUI Script: During recording or editing. it will look in the SQABas32 directory. and then click Open. click the Display GUI Insert Toolbar button on the GUI Record toolbar. Robot inserts the comment into the script (in green by default) preceded by a single quotation mark. Select global. It supplies data values to the variables in a script during script playback. constants. If the file is not there. If editing.SQABasic files are stored in the SQABas32 folder of the project. To open Global.sbh. You can use Robot to create and edit SQABasic header files. Global. and variables that you want to use with multiple scripts or SQABasic library source files. use the Browse button to find the location. Cognizant Technology Solutions. You can add declarations to this global header file and/or create your own. Page 137 ©Copyright 2007. Click OK to continue recording or editing. unless you specify another location. For example: This is a comment in the script To change lines of text into comments or to uncomment text: Highlight the text. Click the Comment button on the GUI Insert toolbar.sbh is a project-wide header file stored in SQABas32 in the project. you can insert lines of comment text into a GUI script. SQABasic header files have the extension . Robot provides a blank header file called Global. position the pointer in the script and click the Display GUI Insert Toolbar button on the Standard toolbar. Click the Preferences tab. Comments are helpful for documenting and editing scripts. Datapools let you automatically pump test data to virtual testers under high-volume conditions that potentially involve hundreds of virtual testers performing thousands of transactions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . About Data pools A datapool is a test dataset.sbh. Under SQABasic path. Click Edit ® Comment Line or Edit ® Uncomment Line.sbh. To insert a comment into a script during recording or editing. They can be accessed by all modules within the project.sbh: Click File ® Open ® SQABasic File.

Although there are differences in setting up datapool access in GUI scripts and sessions. Page 138 ©Copyright 2007. For example. and so forth. Using Datapools with GUI Scripts If you are providing one or more values to the client application during GUI recording. A GUI script can access a datapool when it is played back in Robot. Robot compiles the script if it has been modified since it last ran. A single virtual tester that performs the same transaction multiple times can send realistic data to the server in each transaction. If you plan to repeat the transaction multiple times during playback. The SQADatapoolOpen command defines the access method to use for the datapool. You can also compile scripts and SQABasic library source files manually. you might want a datapool to supply those values during playback. you use a datapool so that: Each virtual tester that runs the script can send realistic data (which can include unique data) to the server. Debug menu The Debug menu has the following commands: Go Go Until Cursor Animate Pause Stop Set or Clear Breakpoints Clear All Breakpoints Step Over Step Into Step Out Note: The Debug menu commands are for use with GUI scripts only. Also. part name. or when you debug a GUI script. There is no DATAPOOL_CONFIG statement in a GUI script. Cognizant Technology Solutions. There are differences in the way GUI scripts and sessions are set up for datapool access: You must add datapool commands to GUI scripts manually while editing the script in Robot. Robot adds datapool commands to VU scripts automatically. Compiling the script When you play back a GUI script or VU script. when a GUI script is played back in a TestManager suite. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . you define a datapool for either type of script using TestManager in exactly the same way. you might want to provide a different set of values each time. the GUI script can access the same datapool as other scripts.Handout – Software Testing Typically. you might be filling out a data entry form and providing values such as order number.

the Build tab in the Output window displays compilation results and error messages with line numbers for all compiled scripts and library source files. Page 139 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing During compilation. The compilation results can be viewed in the Build tab of the Output window. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

it provides the entire team with one place to go to determine the state of the system at any time. Rational Test Manager Test Manager is the open and extensible framework that unites all of the tools. most importantly. and data both related to and produced by the testing effort. and run reports. builds. Cognizant Technology Solutions. manage. log folders. In Test Manager you can plan. implement. and logs. The results need to be analyzed in the Test Manager. execute tests and evaluate results. assets. all participants in the testing effort can define and refine the quality goals they are working toward. design. and test documents. With Test manager we can: Create. Create and manage builds.Handout – Software Testing Compilation errors After the script is created and compiled and errors fixed it can be executed. and track test coverage and progress. The reporting tools help you track assets such as scripts. Under this single framework. Create and manage data pools and data types Page 140 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is where the team defines the plan it will implement to meet those goals. And.

you could see the results stored. The folder in which the log is to stored and the log name needs to be given in this window. In the Results tab of the Test Manager. Cognizant Technology Solutions. From Test Manager you can know start time of the script and Page 141 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing When the script execution is started the following window will be displayed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .0 or later Netscape navigator (limited support) Page 142 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Supported environments Operating system WinNT4. Cognizant Technology Solutions.0 with service pack 5 Win2000 WinXP(Rational 2002) Win98 Win95 with service pack1 Protocols Oracle SQL server HTTP Sybase Tuxedo SAP People soft Web browsers IE4.

RequistePro. Rational Robot.com SUMMARY Rational offers the most complete lifecycle toolset (including testing) of these vendors for the windows platform. Page 143 ©Copyright 2007. Development environments Visual basic 4. etc.rational.0 and above The basic product supports Visual basic. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Clear case. For more details visit www. you have to download and run a free enabler program from Rational’s website. Cognizant Technology Solutions. To test these types of application.g.0 or above Visual C++ Java Oracle forms 4. When it comes to Object Oriented development they are the acknowledged leaders with most of the leading OO experts working for them.Handout – Software Testing Markup languages HTML and DHTML pages on IE4. Some of their products are worldwide leaders e.0 or later. VC++ and basic web pages.5 Delphi Power builder 5. Rational Rose.

and low utilization. The main objective of a performance testing is to demonstrate that the system functions to specification with acceptable response times while processing the required transaction volumes in real-time production database. As the user base grows. A systematic approach like performance analysis is essential to extract maximum benefit from an existing system. Post-deployment realities create a need for the tuning the existing system. Page 144 ©Copyright 2007. it is still an issue. In general. performance is a secondary issue to features. more than one alternative presents itself. throughput. and utilization of the web site while simulating attempts by virtual users to simultaneously access the site. the cost of failure becomes increasingly unbearable. the evaluation of a design alternative is the prime mover for an analysis. are automated test scripts and an infrastructure to be used to execute automated tests for extended periods. we want to measure the latency. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . analysis must be done to forecast performance under load. Cognizant Technology Solutions. high throughput.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 10: Performance Testing Learning Objective After completing this chapter. Maintaining optimum Web application performance is a top priority for application developers and administrators. you will be able to: Test performance of a software What is Performance testing? The performance testing is a measure of the performance characteristics of an application. When a system resource is exhausted. completely exercise the application) in an attempt to find errors. Typically to debug applications. In such cases. The objective of a performance test is to demonstrate that the system meets requirements for transaction throughput and response times simultaneously. some system resource. The main deliverables from such a test. Performance testing of an application is basically the process of understanding how the web application and its operating environment respond at various user load levels. One of the main objectives of performance testing is to maintain a web site with low latency. Identification of bottlenecks in a system is more of an effort at troubleshooting.e. however. prior to execution. To increase confidence and to provide an advance warning of potential problems in case of load conditions. or exhaustion of. the system is unable to scale to higher levels of performance. This helps to replace and focus efforts at improving overall system response. developers would execute their applications using different execution streams (i.. Performance analysis is also carried for various purposes such as: During a design or redesign of a module or a part of the system. Why Performance testing? Performance problems are usually the result of contention for. When looking for errors in the application.

Handout – Software Testing Performance Testing Objectives The objective of a performance test is to demonstrate that the system meets requirements for transaction throughput and response times simultaneously. but rather. Defines specific customer scenarios. a sensible comparison can be derived. Measure database components performance under various loads. relevant. Quantitative . performance requirements should be agreed prior to the test. This infrastructure is an asset and an expensive one too. Realistic . Measure Application Server components performance under various loads. Bases performance goals on customer requirements. realistic. Page 145 ©Copyright 2007. measurable. The following attributes will help to have a meaningful performance comparison. so it pays to make as much use of this infrastructure as possible.expressed in quantifiable terms such that when response times are measured. this infrastructure is a test bed. This helps in determining whether or not the system meets the stated requirements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Not all of these need be in place prior to planning or preparing the test (although this might be helpful). achievable requirements As a foundation to all tests. Quantitative.a response time should be defined such that it can be measured using a tool or stopwatch and at reasonable cost.a response time must be relevant to a business process. Monitor system resources under various loads. The performance testing goals are: End-to-end transaction response time measurements.response time requirements should be justifiable when compared with the durations of the activities within the business process the system supports. Measurable . Fortunately. Measure the network delay between the server and clients Pre-requisites for Performance Testing We can identify five pre-requisites for a performance test. Relevant . A comprehensive test strategy would define a test infrastructure to enable all these objectives be met. which can be re-used for other tests with broader objectives. First and foremost thing is. Achievable . the design specification or a separate performance requirements document should: Defines specific performance goals for each feature that is instrumented.response times should take some account of the cost of achieving them. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the list defines what is required before a test can be executed.

users normally focus attention on response times. If the software crashes regularly.Handout – Software Testing Stable system A test team attempting to construct a performance test of a system whose software is of poor quality is unlikely to be successful. the test environment should be comparable to the actual production environment. Often this is not possible. but others are less critical and response time requirements can be less stringent. middleware or operating systems crash. Realistic test environment The test environment should ideally be the production environment or a close simulation and be dedicated to the performance test team for the duration of the test. which must be supported by the system. However. depending on the business application. A test environment which bears no similarity to the actual production environment may be useful for finding obscure errors in the code. for the results of the test to be realistic. but is. Even with an environment which is somewhat different from the production environment. it should still be possible to interpret the results obtained using a model of the system to predict. it will probably not withstand the relatively minor stress of repeated use. the behavior of the target environment. Load profiles The second component of performance requirements is a schedule of load profiles. A load profile is the level of system loading expected to occur during a specific business scenario. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . however. Typically. defining the numbers of table rows which should be present in the database after a specified period of live running complete the load profile. Performance Testing Requirements Performance requirements normally comprise three components: Response time requirements Transaction volumes detailed in ‘Load Profiles’ Database volumes Response time requirements When asked to specify performance requirements. Some functions are critical and require short response times. data volumes estimated to exist after one year’s use of the systems are used. with some confidence. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. A single response time requirement for all transactions might be simple to define from the user’s point of view. Testers will not be able to record scripts in the first instance. and often wishes to define requirements in terms of generic response times. but two year volumes or greater might be used in some circumstances. Business scenarios might cover different situations when the users’ organization has different levels of activity or involve a varying mix of activities. but is unreasonable. useless for a performance test. or may not be able to execute a test for a reasonable length of time before the software. Database volumes Data volumes. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Handout – Software Testing Performance Testing Process Page 147 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Hardware Platform Server Machines Processors Memory Disk Storage Load Machines configuration Network configuration Page 148 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Phase 1 – Requirements Study This activity is carried out during the business and technical requirements identification phase. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Hardware & Software components and Usage Model. Response Time Transactions Per Second Hits Per Second Workload No of con current users Volume of data Data growth rate Resource usage Hardware and Software configurations Phase 2 – Test Plan The following configuration information will be identified as part of performance testing environment requirement identification. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The objective is to understand the performance test requirements. It is important to understand as accurately and as objectively as possible the nature of load that must be generated. Following are the important performance test requirement that needs to be captured during this phase.

During the test design period the following activities will be carried out: Scenario design Detailed test execution plan Dedicated test environment setup Script Recording/ Programming Script Customization (Delay. Synchronizations points) Data Generation Parameterization/ Data pooling Page 149 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Checkpoints.Handout – Software Testing Software Configuration Operating System Server Software Client Machine Software Applications Phase 3 – Test Design Based on the test strategy detailed test scenarios would be prepared. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. The following artifacts will be produced during test execution period: Test logs Test Result Page 150 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Phase 4 –Scripting Phase 5 – Test Execution The test execution will follow the various types of test as identified in the test plan. Virtual user loads are simulated based on the usage pattern and load levels applied as stated in the performance test strategy. All the scenarios identified will be executed.

Network throughput. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Transaction/second. Think time.Handout – Software Testing Phase 6 – Test Analysis Phase 7 – Preparation of Reports The test logs and results generated are analyzed based on Performance under various load. Transaction Distribution and Data handling. The following performance test reports/ graphs can be generated as part of performance testing:Transaction Response time Transactions per Second Transaction Summary graph Transaction performance Summary graph Transaction Response graph – Under load graph Virtual user Summary graph Page 151 ©Copyright 2007. Network delay. Resource usage. Manual and automated results analysis methods can be used for performance results analysis. database throughput.

Metrics. suggestions on improvement or tuning will be provided to the design team: Performance improvements to application software. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Error Statistics graph Hits per second graph Throughput graph Down load per second graph Based on the Performance report analysis. middleware. Common Mistakes in Performance Testing No Goals No general purpose model Goals =>Techniques. database organization. Workload Not trivial Biased Goals ‘To show that OUR system is better than THEIRS” Analysts = Jury Unsystematic Approach Analysis without Understanding the Problem Incorrect Performance Metrics Unrepresentative Workload Wrong Evaluation Technique Overlook Important Parameters Ignore Significant Factors Inappropriate Experimental Design Inappropriate Level of Detail No Analysis Erroneous Analysis Page 152 ©Copyright 2007. Changes to server system parameters. Cognizant Technology Solutions. network capacity or routing. Upgrades to client or server hardware.

Performance issues must be identified as soon as possible to prevent further degradation. Establish incremental performance goals throughout the product development cycle. Design the build verification test (BVT) suite to ensure that no new bugs are injected into the build that would prevent the performance test suite from successfully completing. All the members in the team should agree that a performance issue is not just a bug. Design the performance test suite to measure response times and not to identify bugs in the product. Performance goals need to be ensured. without a clear purpose. Significant changes to the performance test suite skew or make obsolete all previous data. The performance tests should not be used to find functionality-type bugs. the management team must decide to enforce the goals. Page 153 ©Copyright 2007. This typically means measuring performance on "clean" test environments. Cognizant Technology Solutions. keep the performance test suite fairly static throughout the product development cycle. Therefore. The Web Capacity Analysis (WebCAT) tool provides Web server performance analysis.Handout – Software Testing No Sensitivity Analysis Ignoring Errors in Input Improper Treatment of Outliers Assuming No Change in the Future Ignoring Variability Too Complex Analysis Improper Presentation of Results Ignoring Social Aspects Omitting Assumptions and Limitations Benchmarking Lessons Ever build needs to be measured. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Therefore. Creating an automated test suite to measure performance is time-consuming and labor-intensive. it is important to define concrete performance goals. Without defined performance goals or requirements. we should run the performance test suite under controlled conditions from build to build. Also. If we decide to make performance a goal and a measure of the quality criteria for release. testers must guess. at how to instrument tests to best measure various response times. If the design or requirements change and you must modify a test. The performance tests should be modified consistently. We should run the automated performance test suite against every build and compare the results against previous results. Performance testing of Web services and applications is paramount to ensuring an excellent customer experience on the Internet. perturb only one variable at a time for each build. the tool can also assess Internet Server Application Programming Interface and application server provider (ISAPI/ASP) applications. it is a software architectural problem.

Using a minimum of hardware resources. it is probably wasted data. You should reuse automated performance tests Automated performance tests can often be reused in many other automated test suites. it gathers results at a per-client. LoadRunner enables you to test your system under controlled and peak load conditions.5x. WebLoad 4.Handout – Software Testing Strive to achieve the majority of the performance goals early in the product development cycle because: Most performance issues require architectural change. Cognizant Technology Solutions.5 and Webload 4. The tools used for performance testing are Loadrunner 6. LoadRunner runs thousands of Virtual Users that are distributed over a network. proxies. Tools used for testing would be the tool pecified in the requirement specification. For example. LoadRunner 6. including cookies. Use WebLoad to test how well your web site will perform under realworld conditions by combining performance. incorporate the performance test suite into the stress test suite to validate stress scenarios and to identify potential performance issues under different stress conditions. per-transaction and per-instance level from the computers that are generating the load. SSL. Webload supports HTTP1. client certificates. Although secondary metrics look good on wall charts and in reports. To generate load. Repeatable and measurable load to execute your client/server system just as real users would. authentifications. Performance Testing Tools Testing for most applications will be automated. It can measure the performance of your application under any load conditions. Page 154 ©Copyright 2007. these Virtual users provide consistent.0 and 1. Achieving performance goals early also helps to ensure that the ship date is met because a product rarely ships if it does not meet performance goals. Ensure that you know what you are measuring and why. When Webload runs the test. if the data is not going to be used in a meaningful way to make improvements in the engineering cycle. Webload can also gather information server’s performance monitor. Tests are capturing secondary metrics when the instrumented tests have nothing to do with measuring clear and established performance goals. Load Runner’s in depth reports and graphs provide the information that you need to evaluate the performance of your client/server system. Performance is known to degrade slightly during the stabilization phase of the development cycle. Webload generates load by creating virtual clients that emulate network traffic.Webload displays them in graphs and tables in real-time and you can save and export the results when the test is finished.1. load and functional tests or by running them individually. You can watch the results as they occur. You create test scripts (called agendas) using Java Scripts that instruct those virtual clients about what to do. functionality and performance of Web-based applications – both Internet and Intranet. TSL. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .5 LoadRunner is Mercury Interactive’s tool for testing the performance of client/server systems. persistent connections and chunked transfer coding.5 Webload is a testing tool for testing the scalability.

Handout – Software Testing Performance Testing Tools . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.summary and comparison Page 155 ©Copyright 2007.

Handout – Software Testing Page 156 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Page 157 ©Copyright 2007.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Page 158 ©Copyright 2007.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Defining the right placement and composition of software instances can help in vertical scalability of the system without addition of hardware resources.Handout – Software Testing Architecture Benchmarking Hardware Benchmarking . Page 159 ©Copyright 2007. This is achieved through software benchmark test. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is significantly different from capacity planning exercise in that it is done after development and before deployment Software Benchmarking .Hardware benchmarking is performed to size the application with the planned Hardware platform.

each test requires a certain type of workload. Performance Metrics The Common Metrics selected /used during the performance testing is as below Response time Turnaround time = the time between the submission of a batch job and the completion of its output. Usable capacity: Maximum throughput achievable without exceeding a pre-specified response-time limit Efficiency: Ratio usable capacity to nominal capacity. Throughput: Rate (requests per unit of time) Examples: Jobs per second Requests per second Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS) Millions of Floating Point Operations Per Second (MFLOPS) Packets Per Second (PPS) Bits per second (bps) Transactions Per Second (TPS) Capacity: Nominal Capacity: Maximum achievable throughput under ideal workload conditions. This methodology specification provides information on the appropriate script of pages or transactions for the user. Or. Utilization: The fraction of time the resource is busy servicing requests. Time estimate: a rough estimate of the amount of time that the test may take to complete. Type of workload: in order to properly achieve the goals of the test. Cognizant Technology Solutions.g. along with some simple background information that might be helpful during testing. What to look for: contains information on behaviors. issues and errors to pay attention to during and after the test. Stretch Factor: The ratio of the response time with single user to that of concurrent users. bandwidth in bits per second.. The methodologies below are generic.Handout – Software Testing General Tests What follows is a list of tests adaptable to assess the performance of most systems. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Constraints: details any constraints and values that should not be exceeded during testing. the ratio of the performance of an nprocessor system to that of a one-processor system is its efficiency. allowing one to use a wide range of tools to conduct the assessments. Page 160 ©Copyright 2007. Purpose: explains the value and focus of the test. Methodology Definitions Result: provide information about what the test will accomplish. Methodology: a list of suggested steps to take in order to assess the system under test. The response time at maximum throughput is too high. E.

It is very typical of the project manager to be overtaken by time and resource pressures Page 161 ©Copyright 2007. should be collected. However.. Without the rigor described in this paper.Processor Utilization. if executed systematically with appropriate planning. memory. execution. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Average Fraction used for memory. As tests are executed. SQL Queries Transaction Profiling Code Block Analysis Network Statistics Bandwidth Utilization Network delay time Network Segment delay time Conclusion Performance testing is an independent discipline and involves all the phases as the mainstream testing lifecycle i. Cognizant has built custom monitoring tools to collect the statistics. Client Side Statistics Running Vusers Hits per Second Throughput HTTP Status Code HTTP responses per Second Pages downloaded per Second Transaction response time Page Component breakdown time Page Download time Component size Analysis Error Statistics Errors per Second Total Successful/Failed Transactions Server Side Statistics System Resources . metrics such as response times for transactions. Third party monitoring tools are also used based on the requirement. It is also important to monitor and collect the statistics such as CPU utilization. design. JDBC Connection Pool Database Server Resources–Wait Events. Cache Hit Ratio Application Server Resources–Heap size. analysis and reporting.e strategy. Cognizant Technology Solutions. disk space and network usage on individual web. executing performance testing does not yield anything more than finding more defects in the system. HTTP requests per second. throughput etc. Memory and Disk Space Web Server Resources–Threads. application and database servers and make sure those numbers recede as load decreases. plan. performance testing can unearth issues that otherwise cannot be done through mainstream testing.

business can confidently and proactively execute strategic corporate initiatives for the benefit of shareholders and customers alike. businesses can begin to take charge and leverage information technology assets to their competitive advantage. Once these solutions are properly adopted and utilized. it may be too late in the software development cycle to correct serious performance issues. leveraging an ongoing. Fortunately. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . performance testing to check if it offers an acceptable response time and load testing to see what hardware or software configuration will be required to provide acceptable response time and handle the load that will created by the real users of the system Why is load testing important? Load Testing increases the uptime for critical web applications by helping you spot the bottlenecks in the system under large user stress scenarios before they happen in a production environment. Automated load testing tools and services are available to meet the critical need of measuring and optimizing complex and dynamic application and infrastructure performance. However there is an important point to be noted here. Cognizant Technology Solutions. When should load testing be done? Load testing should be done when the probable cost of the load test is likely less than the cost of a failed application deployment. Page 162 ©Copyright 2007. The discipline helps businesses succeed in leveraging Web technologies to their best advantage. enabling new business opportunity lowering transaction costs and strengthening profitability. If not. By continuously testing and monitoring the performance of critical software applications.Handout – Software Testing leading not enough budget being allocated for performance testing. Load testing gives the greatest line of defense against poor performance and accommodates complementary strategies for performance management and monitoring of a production environment. Load Testing Load Testing is creation of a simulated load on a real computer system by using virtual users who submit work as real users would do at real client workstations and thus testing the systems ability to support such workload. Thus a load testing is accomplished by stressing the real application under simulated load provided by virtual users. robust and viable solutions exist to help fend off disasters that result from poor performance. Before testing the system for performance requirements. the consequences of which could be disastrous to the final system. There is another flip side of the coin. the system should have been architect and designed for meeting the required performance goals. lifecycle-focused approach. Testing of critical web applications during its development and before its deployment should include functional testing to confirm to the specifications. Web-enabled applications and infrastructures must be able to execute evolving business processes with speed and precision while sustaining high volumes of changing and unpredictable user audiences.

. A system including software.Handout – Software Testing Volume and Stress Testing Volume testing: Volume Testing. Provide input to the defect trend analysis effort. blackbox application that attempts to cause failures involving how its performance varies under extreme but valid conditions (e. Help determine the extent to which the application is ready for launch. extreme utilization. as its name implies. amount of data). number of users. Volume Testing is conducted in conjunction with Component. is testing that purposely subjects a system (both hardware and software) to a series of tests where the volume of data being processed is the subject of the test. For example. number of transactions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Huge (e.g. fixed. Volume testing will seek to verify the physical and logical limits to a system's capacity and ascertain whether such limits are acceptable to meet the projected capacity of the organization's business processing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Such systems can be transactions processing systems capturing real time sales or could be database updates and or data retrieval. Determine how an application degrades and eventually fails. queries with an extreme number of restrictions.e. Stress testing is the system testing of an integrated. analyzed. Objectives The typical objectives of stress testing are to: Partially validate the application (i.. extreme numbers of transactions. and dependency on over-utilized shared resources). Page 163 ©Copyright 2007. Provide data that will assist systems engineers in making intelligent decisions regarding future scaling needs. and prevented in the future. queries that return the entire contents of a database. as conditions become extreme. Configuration and/or Stress Testing. and data components. Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. Batch with no realtime requirements. or an entry at the maximum amount of data in a field. Goals The typical goals of stress testing are to: Cause the application to fail to scale gracefully under extreme conditions so that the underlying defects can be identified.g. Examples Typical examples include stress testing of an application that is: Software only. to determine if it fulfills its scalability requirements). hardware. stress testing could involve an extreme number of simultaneous users. Determine if the application will support "worst case" production load conditions.. insufficient memory inadequate hardware.

human reaction times). Business-critical or safety-critical.. cruise-control software).. automotive engine control). Client/server or n-tier distributed.Handout – Software Testing Soft realtime (i. radar. Tasks Stress testing typically involves the independent test team performing the following testing tasks using the following techniques: Test Planning Test Reuse Test Design: o o Use Case Based Testing Workload analysis to determine the maximum production workloads.. avionics. Preconditions Stress test execution can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The scalability requirements to be tested have been specified. load testing can begin prior to the distribution of the software components onto the hardware components).g. Test Implementation: o Develop test scripts o Simulating extreme workloads. The test suites for every scheduled scalability requirement execute successfully. The independent test team is adequately staffed and trained in stress testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The test environment is ready.e. The relevant software components have passed unit testing. Completion Criteria Stress testing is typically complete when the following postconditions hold: At least one stress test suite exists for each scalability requirement.e. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Software integration has occurred (i. flight-control software. Embeded within another system (e. The relevant system components have passed system integration testing.. Test Execution: o o Regression Testing Profiling Test Reporting Environments Load testing is typically performed on the following environments using the following tools: Test Environment: o Test Harness o Use case modeling tool o Performance analyzer o Profiler Page 164 ©Copyright 2007. Hard realtime (e. A research prototype that will not be placed into service.g.

Handout – Software Testing Work Products Stress testing typically results in the production of all or part of the following work products from the test work product set: Documents: o Project Test Plan o Master Test List o Test Procedures o Test Report o Test Summary Report Software and Data: o o o o o Phases Test Harness Test Scripts Test Suites Test Cases Test Data (*) Optional stress testing of COTS software components during the technology analysis and technology vendor selection tasks. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. (**) Optional stress testing of the executable architecture as well as the COTS components during the vendor and tool evaluation and vendor and tool selection tasks. Page 165 ©Copyright 2007.

The objective of a performance test is to demonstrate that the system meets requirements for transaction throughput and response times simultaneously. The main objective of a performance testing is to demonstrate that the system functions to specification with acceptable response times while processing the required transaction volumes in real-time production database. are automated test scripts and an infrastructure to be used to execute automated tests for extended periods. prior to execution. The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that stress testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. To the extent practical. Page 166 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Perform stress testing for several minutes to several hours. reuse functional test cases as stress test cases. Stress testing can elicit failures prior to launch. Stress testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur.Handout – Software Testing Guidelines A system can fulfilits operational requirements and still be a failure if it does not scale. The main deliverables from such a test. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Develop test scripts simulating exceptional workloads. SUMMARY The performance testing is a measure of the performance characteristics of an application.

Test case complexity for that requirement OR Interface with other Test cases OR No. A Simple requirement is one. which can be given a value in the scale of 1 to3. The TCP counts are nothing but ranking the requirements and the test cases that are to be written for those requirements into simple. This is also used as an estimation technique to calculate the size and effort of a testing project. A Complex requirement is ranked between 8 and 10. The test cases for a particular requirement are classified into Simple. we can have ‘Login and Authentication’ as a module and rank that particular module as Simple. you will be able to: Describe TCP and TCP Analysis What is a Test Case Point (TCP)? TCP is a measure of estimating the complexity of an application. In this courseware we shall give an overview about Test Case Points and not elaborate on using TCP as an estimation technique. Average and Complex based on the number and complexity of the requirements for that module. average and complex and quantifying the same into a measure of complexity. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . of verification points OR Baseline Test data Refer the test case classification table given below Page 167 ©Copyright 2007. Test Case Point Analysis Calculating the Test Case Points Based on the Functional Requirement Document (FRD). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Average and Complex based on the following four factors. the application is classified into various modules like say for a web application. An Average requirement is ranked between 4 and 7.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 11: Test Case Point Learning Objective After completing this chapter.

From the break up of Complexity of Requirements done in the first step. we get the simple. which interfaces with or interacts with another application is classified as 'Complex' Any verification point consisting of report verification is considered as 'Complex' A verification point comprising Search functionality may be classified as 'Complex' or 'Average' depending on the complexity Depending on the respective project. Based on the test case type an adjustment factor is assigned for simple. we can get the number of simple. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The Adjustment Factor in the table mentioned below is pre-determined and must not be changed for every project.Handout – Software Testing A sample guideline for classification of test cases is given below. average and complex test case types. Any verification point containing a calculation is considered 'Complex' Any verification point. By multiplying the number of requirements with it s corresponding adjustment factor. This adjustment factor has been calculated after a thorough study and analysis done on many testing projects. we arrive at the count of Total Test Case Points. the complexity needs to be identified in a similar manner. Page 168 ©Copyright 2007. Summing up the three results. average and complex test cases. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . average and complex test case points.

which is an indirect measure of quality. If the execution time in some procedures is zero. whose job is really to measure performance bottlenecks. A test coverage analyzer automates this process. But this measure of test coverage is so coarse-grained it's not very practical. Test coverage analysis can be used to assure quality of the set of tests. Also an optional aspect of test coverage analysis is: Identifying redundant test cases that do not increase coverage. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which compares test program behavior against a requirements specification. Structural testing examines how the program works. This simple statistic is typically available from execution profiling tools. Test coverage measures A large variety of coverage measures exist. Test coverage analysis is sometimes called code coverage analysis. The two terms are synonymous. and not the quality of the actual product. Here is a description of some fundamental measures and their strengths and weaknesses Procedure-Level Test Coverage Probably the most basic form of test coverage is to measure what procedures were and were not executed during the test suite. Code coverage analysis is a structural testing technique (white box testing). taking into account possible pitfalls in the structure and logic. The academic world more often uses the term "test coverage" while practitioners more often use "code coverage". without regard to how it works internally. This contrasts with functional testing (black-box testing). Page 169 ©Copyright 2007. Coverage analysis requires access to test program source code and often requires recompiling it with a special command. Functional testing examines what the program accomplishes. Cognizant Technology Solutions. you need to write new tests that hit those procedures. and Determining a quantitative measure of code coverage. Test Coverage analysis is the process of: Finding areas of a program not exercised by a set of test cases. Creating additional test cases to increase coverage.Handout – Software Testing Test Coverage Test Coverage is an important measure of quality for software systems. Structural testing compares test program behavior against the apparent intention of the source code.

Executable Instrumentation Probes can also be added to a completed executable file. etc. file. You need condition coverage to know. This. If the test suite is large and timeconsuming.g. you can see exactly what functionality has not been tested. or project level giving a percentage of the code that was executed. allowing you to see exactly which lines of code were executed and which were not. This type of instrumentation is dependent on programming language -. But it can be somewhat independent of operating environment (processor.the provider of the tool must explicitly choose which languages to support. Condition Coverage and Other Measures It's easy to find cases where line coverage doesn't really tell the whole story.) than other forms of instrumentation. If that code is shown as executed. A large project that achieved 90% code coverage might be considered a well-tested product. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and then create a new. Typically the line coverage information is also presented at the source code level. most available code coverage tools do not provide much beyond basic line coverage. Adding probes to the program will make it bigger and slower. However. Proponents claim this technique can provide higher levels of code coverage measurement (condition coverage. The probes exist only in the inmemory copy of the executable file. such as debug (un optimized) and release (optimized) needs to be maintained. test coverage tools generally "instrument" the program by inserting "probes". or virtual machine). the file itself is not modified. Such a tool may not actually generate new source files with the additional code. is often the key to writing more tests that will increase coverage: By studying the unexecuted code. However. Source-Level Instrumentation Some products add probes at the source level. There are many other test coverage measures. One drawback of this technique is the need to modify the build process. consider a block of code that is skipped under certain conditions (e. just executing it will not automatically start code coverage (as it would with the other methods of Page 170 ©Copyright 2007. But in practice. you should have more. This result is often presented in a summary at the procedure.Handout – Software Testing Line-Level Test Coverage The basic measure of a dedicated test coverage tool is tracking which lines of code are executed. Runtime Instrumentation Probes need not be added until the program is actually run. The tool will analyze the existing executable. A separate version namely. For example. intercept the compiler after parsing but before code generation to insert the changes they need.. it is an enviable commitment to quality! How Test Coverage Tools Work To monitor execution. Some products. How and when this instrumentation phase happens can vary greatly between different products. The same executable file used for product release testing should be used for code coverage. of course. OS. you don't know whether you have tested the case when it is skipped.the provider of the tool must explicitly choose which processors or virtual machines to support. for example. instrumented one. a statement in an if clause). and add additional code (such as calls to a code coverage runtime) that will record where the program reached. They analyze the source code as written. it is dependent on operating environment -. and which are not. code coverage version in addition to other versions. In theory. if you achieve 95+% line coverage and still have time and budget to commit to further testing improvements. the performance factor may be significant. Because the file is not modified in any way. This type of instrumentation is independent of programming language.

Each project must choose a minimum percent coverage for release criteria based on available testing resources and the importance of preventing post-release failures. It helps most in the absence of a detailed. Instead. the code coverage tool will add a tiny bit of instrumentation to the executable. Runtime Instrumentation is independent of programming language but dependent on operating environment. and does nothing if the coverage tool is not waiting. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Clearly. the code coverage tool must start program execution directly or indirectly. Page 171 ©Copyright 2007. Like Executable Instrumentation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. We must set a higher coverage goal for unit testing than for system testing since a failure in lower-level code may affect multiple high-level callers. up-to-date requirements specification. This new code will wake up and connect to a waiting coverage tool whenever the program executes. This added code does not affect the size or performance of the executable.Handout – Software Testing instrumentation). Test Coverage Tools at a Glance Coverage analysis is a structural testing technique that helps eliminate gaps in a test suite. Alternatively. safety-critical software should have a high goal.

Validation code at client side function save() { var flag. so that effectively reduces the network traffic.name1. flag=0. if (document.0 and above.name1.. In the personal information page. These entries can be modified directly from here by clicking the edit button. It uses ASP in the server side and java script in the client side. Note that the pages are not submitted to the server for this action. The database is Microsoft Access. The Personal Address book is designed for people to access their contacts online from a central database on the server.value=="") { alert ("Please Fill in the name"). Phone no. Cognizant Technology Solutions.frm. This is also used as an estimation technique to calculate the size and effort of a testing project. document. along with email is displayed. The details that can be stored are Name. Address2.frm. Test your Understanding Assignment 1 There is an application on personal address book. The entries can be seen in a tabular form also by choosing the search by list option. find the independent paths b) Develop Test cases based on that. an additional field for credit card number is provided. } if (document. Address1. State. The view only pages are reached through the results page on clicking the hyperlinks. However the system is not compatible with Netscape browser and is designed specifically for the IE 5.Handout – Software Testing SUMMARY TCP is a measure of estimating the complexity of an application. return false. Country.phone.value=="") Page 172 ©Copyright 2007. As a whole it is designed for personal use and security was not a concern while designing it. Case Study: Application Personal Address book.frm. Email address. you need to submit the following artifacts: a) Draw the flow chart.focus(). However only the name and phone numbers are mandatory fields. The phone number and credit card number are numeric and email address is also verified for a character '@'. The search page provides with facility to search by name or place and the results are displayed in a tabular form where the essential fields name and phone no. c) Also develop other test cases for complete testing. City. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

i++) { if (document.select().frm. document.i<document.length.email. } } if (flag!=1) { alert ("Please Fill email in correct format").value.phone.frm. return false. } if (document. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .focus().email. } Page 173 ©Copyright 2007.submit(). } if (isNaN(document.value)==true) { alert ("Phone number should be numeric").frm.email.frm. return true. document.email. } } document. document.frm. document.frm. return false. return false.focus().frm.phone.charAt(i)=="@") { flag=1. document. break.phone.Handout – Software Testing { alert ("Please Fill in the Phone number").frm.focus().select().value.phone. Cognizant Technology Solutions.email.value!="") { for (i=0.frm.frm.

com/ http://www. Nguyen. by. Jorgensen. by.mtsu.tripod. Elfriede Dustin.softwaretestinginstitute.Michael Hacke & Robert Johnson Software Testing: A Craftsman's Approach. Boris Beizer Client Server Software Testing on the Desktop and the Web.html http://www. by.sqatester. by.com/~bazman/ http://www.co. John Paul & Paperback Practical Tools and Techniques for Managing Hardware and Software Testing.aptest.Handout – Software Testing REFERENCES WEBSITES http://members. by. by.uk/ http://www. Bret Pettichord Page 174 ©Copyright 2007. Mark Fewster & Dorothy Graham The craft of software testing.edu/~storm/ http://www. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Paulc. Hayes Automating Specification-Based Software Testing.nildram.softwareqatest. by.testing. by. Jeff Rashka.Bob Johnson .com/ http://www. Rex Black 50 Ways to improve your testing. Boris Beizer Testing Applications on the Web: Test Planning for Mobile and Internet-Based Systems. by. Poston. Elfriede Dustin Effective use of Test automation tools. Cognizant Technology Solutions. IEEE Black Box Testing. Linda G. Management. Glenford J. Nguyen Software Test Automation. Daniel J. Robert M.softwaretesting. Mosley Fundamental Concepts for the Software Quality Engineer. by. Paul Jorgensen Automated Software Testing: Introduction. by. Brian Marick Software test automation. and Performance. by. by.com/ Cognizant eResources: http://elibrary/ \\ctsintcosaca\library BOOKS The Art of Software Testing. by.com/ http://www. Hung Q. by. Boris Beizer Automated Testing Handbook. Taz Daughtrey Testing Applications on the Web.com/resources. by. Mark Fewster & Dorothy Graham Black-Box Testing . by. Myers The Complete Guide to Software Testing. by. Bill Hetzel Software Testing Techniques. Hung Q. by.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing STUDENT NOTES: Page 175 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

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