Handout: Software Testing

Version: ST/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

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Handout – Software Testing

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................5 About this Module .........................................................................................................................5 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................5 Module Objectives ........................................................................................................................5 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................5 Chapter 1: Introduction to Testing ...............................................................................................6 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................6 What is Software Testing..............................................................................................................6 Testing Life Cycle .........................................................................................................................6 Broad Categories of Testing .........................................................................................................7 The Testing Techniques ...............................................................................................................7 Types of Testing ...........................................................................................................................8 SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................................8 Test your Understanding ..............................................................................................................9 Chapter 2: Black Box Vs. White Box Testing ............................................................................10 Learning Objective:.....................................................................................................................10 Introduction to Black Box and White Box testing........................................................................10 Black box testing ........................................................................................................................10 Black box testing - without user involvement .............................................................................11 Black box testing - with user involvement ..................................................................................11 White Box Testing ......................................................................................................................14 Black Box (Vs) White Box...........................................................................................................18 SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................20 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................20 Chapter 3: Other Testing Types ..................................................................................................21 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................21 What is GUI Testing? .................................................................................................................21 Regression Testing.....................................................................................................................31 Integration Testing ......................................................................................................................38 Acceptance Testing ....................................................................................................................43 Configuration Testing & Installation Testing ...............................................................................45 Alpha testing and Beta testing ....................................................................................................48 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................52
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Handout – Software Testing
Chapter 4: Levels of Testing .......................................................................................................53 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................53 Unit Testing.................................................................................................................................53 Integration Testing ......................................................................................................................60 System Testing ...........................................................................................................................61 SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................64 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................64 Chapter 5: JUnit Testing ..............................................................................................................65 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................65 JUNIT Testing - Introduction.......................................................................................................65 Simple Test Case .......................................................................................................................65 Fixture .........................................................................................................................................66 Test Case ...................................................................................................................................67 Suite............................................................................................................................................67 TestRunner .................................................................................................................................68 Chapter 6: Testing Artifacts ........................................................................................................70 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................70 Test Strategy and Test Plan .......................................................................................................70 Test Plan.....................................................................................................................................75 Test Case .................................................................................................................................100 SUMMARY ...............................................................................................................................103 Test your Understanding ..........................................................................................................103 Chapter 7: Defect Management .................................................................................................104 Learning Objective ....................................................................................................................104 What is a Defect? .....................................................................................................................104 Defect Lifecycle ........................................................................................................................105 Defect Reporting and Tracking .................................................................................................105 SUMMARY ...............................................................................................................................107 Test your Understanding ..........................................................................................................108 Chapter 8: Automation ...............................................................................................................109 Learning Objective ....................................................................................................................109 What is Automation? ................................................................................................................109 Automation Benefits .................................................................................................................109 Automation Life Cycle...............................................................................................................111 Test Environment Setup ...........................................................................................................113 Other Phases in Automation.....................................................................................................116
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..........................................154 Volume and Stress Testing .......................................................................143 Chapter 10: Performance Testing ..........................142 SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................130 Rational Test Manager ...................174 STUDENT NOTES: .....................................................................................................................................167 Learning Objective ....................................................................................146 Performance Testing Process .....................167 What is a Test Case Point (TCP)? ................................................................................................................................................174 WEBSITES ....................................................................163 SUMMARY ...............................................................175 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007........................................................................126 Sample Test Automation Tool ......................................................................................................140 Supported environments ...........117 Automation tool comparison ....................................................................................................................................................Handout – Software Testing Automation Methods.........................................................................................................................................................................................167 Test Case Point Analysis.................................................172 REFERENCES ..........................................................................172 Test your Understanding ..............126 Learning Objective .............................................................................................................................144 Learning Objective ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................126 Rational Administrator .....................127 Rational Robot ............................................................................144 Performance Testing Requirements .............................................................. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Cognizant Technology Solutions.................................................................................................................................147 Performance Testing Tools .................144 What is Performance testing? ......................................................................125 Chapter 9: Sample Test Automation Tool ...................................................................................................167 SUMMARY .............126 Rational Suite of tools..................................................................................................................118 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................166 Chapter 11: Test Case Point ..........................................................................174 BOOKS .

Handout – Software Testing Introduction About this Module This module provides you with a brief description of the module. Target Audience Entry Level Trainees Module Objectives After completing this module. suggested prerequisites and module objectives. Cognizant Technology Solutions. audience. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the student will be able to: Explain Software Testing List the types of testing Explain Test Strategy Describe Test Plan Describe Test Design Describe Test Cases Describe Test Data Explain Test Execution Perform Defect reporting and analyzing the defects List Test Automation advantages and disadvantages Work with Winrunner Describe Performance Testing Work with Loadrunner Too Work with Test Director Pre-requisite This module does not require any prerequisite Page 5 ©Copyright 2007.

" where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. completeness and quality of developed computer software.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 1: Introduction to Testing Learning Objectives After completing this topic you will be able to: Explain the need for Software testing What is Software Testing Software testing is a process used to identify the correctness. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. Testing Life Cycle Every testing project has to follow the waterfall model of the testing process. maintainability and usability.putting the product through its paces. the scope of testing can be tailored. not prove that there are none. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. Actually. Software Testing has been accepted as a separate discipline to the extent that there is a separate life cycle for the testing activity. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product-. testing can never establish the correctness of computer software. It can only find defects. Cognizant Technology Solutions. There are many approaches to software testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. stability. as this can only be done by formal verification (and only when there is no mistake in the formal verification process). According to the respective projects. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. portability. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. but the process mentioned above is common to any testing activity. Involving software testing in all phases of the software Page 6 ©Copyright 2007. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure.

These topics will be elaborated in the coming chapters Page 7 ©Copyright 2007. it is called Dynamic Testing. The Testing Techniques To perform these types of testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .) (But expected results still come requirements). Cognizant Technology Solutions. White-Box testing technique: This technique us used for testing based on analysis of internal logic (design. user documentation. Right from the Requirements study till the implementation. walkthrough and audits. Black-Box testing technique: This technique is used for testing based solely on analysis of requirements (specification. there needs to be testing done on Software Testing every phase.Handout – Software Testing development life cycle has become a necessity as part of the software quality assurance process. The V-Model of the Software Testing Life Cycle along with the Software Development Life cycle given below indicates the various phases or levels of testing. design review. Broad Categories of Testing Based on the V-Model mentioned above. code. code review. Also known as Structural testing. etc.). Static Testing Dynamic Testing The kind of verification we do on the software work products before the process of compilation and creation of an executable is more of Requirement review. The above said testing types are performed based on the following testing techniques. there are two widely used testing techniques. Also known as functional testing. namely. we see that there are two categories of testing activities that can be done on software. This type of testing is called Static Testing. When we test the software by executing and comparing the actual & expected results.

Unit testing. User Acceptance testing etc. Performance Testing: To evaluate the time taken or response time of the system to perform it’s required functions in comparison Stress Testing: To evaluate a system beyond the limits of the specified requirements or system resources (such as disk space. processor utilization) to ensure the system do not break unexpectedly Load Testing: Load Testing. which enables a customer to determine whether to accept the system or not. namely. Unit Testing: The testing done to a unit or to a smallest piece of software. verifies that a web site can handle a particular number of concurrent users while maintaining acceptable response times Alpha Testing: Testing of a software product or system conducted at the developer’s site by the Customer Beta Testing: Testing conducted at one or more customer sites by the end user of a delivered software product system. SUMMARY “Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors” Evolution of Software Testing The Testing process and lifecycle Broad categories of testing Widely employed Types of Testing The Testing Techniques Page 8 ©Copyright 2007.e.Handout – Software Testing Types of Testing From the V-model. we see that are various levels or phases of testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Let us see a brief definition on the widely employed types of testing. memory. System testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. integrated) to form higher-level elements Regression Testing: Selective re-testing of a system to verify the modification (bug fixes) have not caused unintended effects and that system still complies with its specified requirements. Done to verify if it satisfies its functional specification or its intended design structure. a subset of stress testing. Integration Testing: Testing which takes place as sub elements are combined (i. Integration testing. System Testing: Testing the software for the required specifications on the intended hardware Acceptance Testing: Formal testing conducted to determine whether or not a system satisfies its acceptance criteria.

The primary objective of testing is a) To show that the program works b) To provide a detailed indication of quality c) To find errors d) To protect the end –user Answers: 1) c Page 9 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Test your Understanding 1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

stress tests. It is because of this that black box testing can be considered testing with respect to the specifications. While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. Cognizant Technology Solutions. For this testing. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. avoiding programmer bias toward his own work. when black box testing is applied to software engineering. and how to build and maintain test data. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. It is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. and benchmarks. functional. there are two types of black box test that involve users. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". glass-box and clear-box. recovery testing. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. i. In practice. There are 2 primary methods by which tests can be designed and they are: Black box White box Black-box test design treats the system as a literal "black-box". Among the most important black box tests that do not involve users are functionality testing. field and laboratory tests. It is used to detect errors by means of execution-oriented test cases. White Box Testing Learning Objective: After completing this chapter. the tester and the programmer can be independent of one another. you will be able to: Explain the methods of testing Introduction to Black Box and White Box testing Test Design refers to understanding the sources of test cases. Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether!!! Black box testing Black Box Testing is testing without knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested. test coverage. test groups are often used. In the following the most important aspects of these black box tests will be described briefly. Some call this "graybox" or "translucent-box" test design. volume tests. the tester would only know the "legal" inputs and what the expected outputs should be. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. but not how the program actually arrives at those outputs. how to develop and document test cases. Though centered around the knowledge of user requirements. Additionally. For example. For this reason. and closedbox. black box tests do not necessarily involve the participation of users.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 2: Black Box Vs. but it's still discouraged.e. no other knowledge of the program is necessary. opaque-box. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box".

e. or. recovery testing is very important. how the technical integration of the system works. in the NLP area.Handout – Software Testing Black box testing . some also consider user tests that compare the efficiency of different software systems as benchmark tests.without user involvement The so-called ``functionality testing'' is central to most testing exercises. sending e-mails. Does the system provide possibilities to recover all of the data or part of it? How much can be recovered and how? Is the recovered data still correct and consistent? Particularly for software that needs high reliability standards. One is the testing of each program feature or function in sequence. Whereas for most software engineers benchmark tests are concerned with the quantitative measurement of specific operations. The term ``scenario'' has entered software evaluation in the early 1990s . i. In the following only a rough description of field and laboratory tests will be given. The objective of volume tests is to find the limitations of the software by processing a huge amount of data. During a stress test. field tests are particularly useful for assessing the interoperability of the software system. A volume test can uncover problems that are related to the efficiency of a system. In the context of this document. Rather. a consumption of too much memory space. each function where it is called first.g.g. Black box testing . benchmark tests only denote operations that are independent of personal variables. i. methodological considerations are rare in SE literature.e. Particularly in the NLP environment Page 11 ©Copyright 2007. performing a standardised task. A typical example could be to perform the same function from all workstations connected in a LAN within a short period of time (e. the system has to process a huge amount of data or perform many function calls within a short period of time. to modify a term bank via different terminals simultaneously). Its primary objective is to assess whether the program does what it is supposed to do. In short it involves putting the system into its intended use by its envisaged type of user. or only show that an error message would be needed telling the user that the system cannot process the given amount of data. The efficiency of a piece of software strongly depends on the hardware environment and therefore benchmark tests always consider the soft/hardware combination. In field tests users are observed while using the software system at their normal working place. Scenario Tests.g. E. The aim of recovery testing is to make sure to which extent data can be recovered after a system breakdown. however. Apart from general usability-related aspects. There are different approaches to functionality testing. The notion of benchmark tests involves the testing of program efficiency. what is specified in the requirements. field tests are the only real means to elucidate problems of the organizational integration of the software system into existing procedures. The other is to test module by module. i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. e. incorrect buffer sizes. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Moreover. A scenario test is a test case which aims at a realistic user background for the evaluation of software as it was defined and performed It is an instance of black box testing where the major objective is to assess the suitability of a software product for every-day routines. one may find practical test reports that distinguish roughly between field and laboratory tests.e.with user involvement For tests involving users.

Any dirty tests not covered by the above. Black box testing Methods Graph-based Testing Methods Black-box methods based on the nature of the relationships (links) among the program objects (nodes). and state testing. Special techniques as appropriate--syntax. Since laboratory tests provide testers with many technical possibilities. Testing Strategies/Techniques Black box testing should make use of randomly generated inputs (only a test range should be specified by the tester). individual translators are not too motivated to change their working habits. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . test cases are designed to traverse the entire graph Transaction flow testing (nodes represent steps in some transaction and links represent logical connections between steps that need to be validated) Page 12 ©Copyright 2007. Finite state machine models can be used as a guide to design functional tests According to Beizer the following is a general order by which tests should be designed: o o o o o o Clean tests against requirements. Due to the high laboratory equipment costs laboratory tests are mostly only performed at big software houses such as IBM or Microsoft. data collection and analysis are easier than for field tests. loop. etc. logic testing. last but not least. syntax testing. Domain tests not covered by the above. Additional tests for data-flow coverage as needed. where the major implementation problem is not the technical environment. Additional structural tests for branch coverage. that neither source texts nor target texts are properly organised and stored and. to eliminate any guess work by the tester as to the methods of the function Data outside of the specified input range should be tested to check the robustness of the program Boundary cases should be tested (top and bottom of specified range) to make sure the highest and lowest allowable inputs produce proper output The number zero should be tested when numerical data is to be input Stress testing should be performed (try to overload the program with inputs to see where it reaches its maximum capacity). Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing this problem has frequently been underestimated. A typical example of the organizational problem of implementing a translation memory is the language service of a big automobile manufacturer. state. as needed. Laboratory tests are mostly performed to assess the general usability of the system. especially with real time systems Crash testing should be performed to see what it takes to bring the system down Test monitoring tools should be used whenever possible to track which tests have already been performed and the outputs of these tests to avoid repetition and to aid in the software maintenance Other functional testing techniques include: transaction testing. domain testing. but the fact that many clients still submit their orders as print-out.

one valid and one invalid equivalence class is defined Boundary Value Analysis Black-box technique that focuses on the boundaries of the input domain rather than its center BVA guidelines: If input condition specifies a range bounded by values a and b. test cases should exercise the minimum and maximum numbers.Handout – Software Testing Finite state modeling (nodes represent user observable states of the software and links represent transitions between states) Data flow modeling (nodes are data objects and links are transformations from one data object to another) Timing modeling (nodes are program objects and links are sequential connections between these objects. test cases should be designed to produce the minimum and maxim output reports If internal program data structures have boundaries (e. Cognizant Technology Solutions.g. be certain to test the boundaries Comparison Testing Black-box testing for safety critical systems in which independently developed implementations of redundant systems are tested for conformance to specifications Often equivalence class partitioning is used to develop a common set of test cases for each implementation Orthogonal Array Testing Black-box technique that enables the design of a reasonably small set of test cases that provide maximum test coverage Focus is on categories of faulty logic likely to be present in the software component (without examining the code) Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. test cases should include a and b. size limitations). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . values just above and just below a and b If an input condition specifies and number of values. as well as values just above and just below the minimum and maximum values Apply guidelines 1 and 2 to output conditions. one valid and one invalid equivalence class is defined If an input condition is Boolean. one valid and two invalid equivalence classes are defined If an input condition requires a specific value. one valid and two invalid equivalence classes are defined If an input condition specifies a member of a set. link weights are required execution times) Equivalence Partitioning Black-box technique that divides the input domain into classes of data from which test cases can be derived An ideal test case uncovers a class of errors that might require many arbitrary test cases to be executed before a general error is observed Equivalence class guidelines: o o o o o If input condition specifies a range.

Structural testing is sometimes referred to as clear-box testing since white boxes are considered opaque and do not really permit visibility into the code. to test every possible input stream would take nearly forever Without clear and concise specifications. Synonyms for white box testing Glass Box testing Structural testing Clear Box testing Page 14 ©Copyright 2007. including specific programming languages Tester and programmer are independent of each other Tests are done from a user's point of view Will help to expose any ambiguities or inconsistencies in the specifications Test cases can be designed as soon as the specifications are complete Disadvantages of Black Box Testing Only a small number of possible inputs can actually be tested. test cases are hard to design There may be unnecessary repetition of test inputs if the tester is not informed of test cases the programmer has already tried May leave many program paths untested Cannot be directed toward specific segments of code which may be very complex (and therefore more error prone) Most testing related research has been directed toward glass box testing White Box Testing Software testing approaches that examine the program structure and derive test data from the program logic.Handout – Software Testing Priorities for assessing tests using an orthogonal array Detect and isolate all single mode faults Detect all double mode faults Multimode faults Specialized Testing Graphical user interfaces Client/server architectures Documentation and help facilities Real-time systems o o o o Task testing (test each time dependent task independently) Behavioral testing (simulate system response to external events) Inter task testing (check communications errors among tasks) System testing (check interaction of integrated system software and hardware) Advantages of Black Box Testing More effective on larger units of code than glass box testing Tester needs no knowledge of implementation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

These are test cases that exercise basic set will execute every statement at least once. Establishment and maintenance of regression test suites and procedures. white-box testing practices have the following considerations: The allocation of resources to perform class and method analysis and to document and review the same. results verification and documentation capabilities. Perform complete coverage at the component level. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 15 ©Copyright 2007. Practices: This section outlines some of the general practices comprising white-box testing process. Developing a test harness made up of stubs.1 Basis Path Testing A testing mechanism proposed by McCabe whose aim is to derive a logical complexity measure of a procedural design and use this as a guide for defining a basic set of execution paths. document and manage a test history library. Allocation of resources to design. naming conventions and libraries. The purpose of white box testing Initiate a strategic initiative to build quality throughout the life cycle of a software product or service. The means to develop or acquire tool support for automation of capture/replay/compare. drivers and test object libraries. In general.1. Improve quality by optimizing performance.Handout – Software Testing Open Box Testing Types of White Box testing A typical rollout of a product is shown in figure 1 below. 1. Provide a complementary function to black box testing. Development and use of standard procedures. 1 Code Coverage Analysis 1.1 Flow Graph Notation A notation for representing control flow similar to flow charts and UML activity diagrams. test suite execution.

concatenated. Cognizant Technology Solutions.e. they are redesigned. and unstructured. where E1 and E2 are arithmetic expressions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .2.2. Compound condition: composed of two or more simple conditions. 2). nested. 3).1 Conditions Testing Condition testing aims to exercise all logical conditions in a program module.. Can define loops as simple. Cyclomatic complexity provides upper bound for number of tests required to guarantee coverage of all program statements.Handout – Software Testing 1.1. possibly proceeded by a NOT operator.2 Control Structure testing 1. Boolean operators and parentheses. 1. An independent path is any path through a program that introduces at least one new set of processing statements or a new condition (i. 4). 1. a new edge). Boolean expression: Condition without Relational expressions. and an upper bound for the number of tests to ensure that each statement is executed at least once. Relational expression: (E1 op E2). Examples: Note that unstructured loops are not to be tested rather. They may define: 1). 1. This value gives the number of independent paths in the basis set. Simple condition: Boolean variable or relational expression.3 Loop Testing Loops fundamental to many algorithms. Page 16 ©Copyright 2007.2.2 Data Flow Testing Selects test paths according to the location of definitions and use of variables.2 Cyclomatic Complexity The cyclomatic complexity gives a quantitative measure of 4the logical complexity.

parasoft. Consistency. Cognizant Technology Solutions.com/products/jtract/index. These contracts specify such requirements as: Conditions that the client must meet before a method is invoked. the code specification is expressed unambiguously using a formal language that describes the code's implicit contracts. may be validated to ensure that ACID (Atomicity. 4 Error Handling Exception and error handling is checked thoroughly are simulating partial and complete fail-over by operating on error causing test vectors.Handout – Software Testing 2 Design by Contract (DbC) DbC is a formal way of using comments to incorporate specification information into the code itself. Basically. Advantages of White Box Testing Forces test developer to reason carefully about implementation Approximate the partitioning done by execution equivalence Reveals errors in "hidden" code Beneficent side-effects Disadvantages of White Box Testing Expensive Cases omitted in the code could be missed out. 3 Profiling Profiling provides a framework for analyzing Java code performance for speed and heap memory use. These include the use of Microsoft Java Profiler API and Sun’s profiling tools that are bundled with the JDK. Isolation. Transactions are checked thoroughly for partial/complete commits and rollbacks encompassing databases and other XA compliant transaction processors.html] may also be used to perform this function. Durability). Each of the individual parameters is tested individually against a reference data set. Conditions that a method must meet after it executes.htm] are used to perform this function. Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. notification and logging are checked against references to validate program design. It identifies routines that are consuming the majority of the CPU time so that problems may be tracked down to improve performance.ibm. 5 Transactions Systems that employ transaction. Third party tools such as JaViz [http://www.research. Proper error recovery.com/journal/sj/391/kazi. local or distributed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Assertions that a method must satisfy at specific points of its execution Tools that check DbC contracts at runtime such as Jcontract [http://www.

Black box testing begins with a metaphor. The distinction here is based on what the person knows or can understand. Effective security testing also requires a detailed understanding of the code and the system architecture. To help understand the different ways that software testing can be divided between black box and white box techniques. but with software. Code-based testing is often called “white box” because it makes sure that all the code (the statements. By analogy. paths. and you can’t see beyond its surface. apply probes internally and maybe even disassemble parts of it. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . see how the circuits are wired. These terms are commonly used. Thus. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Boundary testing and other attack-based techniques are targeted at common coding errors. Another is to contrast testing that aims to cover all the requirements with testing that aims to cover all the code. however. switches. It’s housed in a black box with lights. Imagine you’re testing an electronics system. Risks: Why are you testing? Sometimes testing is targeted at particular risks. these techniques might be Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. You have to see if it works just by flipping switches (inputs) and seeing what happens to the lights and dials (outputs). This is one way to think about coverage. and dials on the outside. any testing by users or other non-developers is sometimes called “black box” testing. These are the two most commonly used coverage criteria. Black box software testing is doing the same thing. And testing the units inside the box becomes white box testing. You must test it without opening it up. Both are supported by extensive literature and commercial tools. This is black box testing. The actual meaning of the metaphor. “black box” testing becomes another name for system testing. An opposite test approach would be to open up the electronics system. Coverage: What is tested? If we draw the box around the system as a whole. depends on how you define the boundary of the box and what kind of access the “blackness” is blocking. People: Who do the testing? Some people know how software works (developers) and others just use it (users).Handout – Software Testing Black Box (Vs) White Box An easy way to start up a debate in a software testing forum is to ask the difference between black box and white box testing. yet everyone seems to have a different idea of what they mean. consider the Five-Fold Testing System. or decisions) is exercised. Accordingly. Requirements-based testing could be called “black box” because it makes sure that all the customer requirements have been verified. It lays out five dimensions that can be used for examining testing: People (who do the testing) Coverage (what gets tested) Risks (why you are testing) Activities (how you are testing) Evaluation (how you know you’ve found a bug) Let’s use this system to understand and clarify the characteristics of black box and white box testing. Developer testing is called “white box” testing. this is called white box testing.

Testing is then categorized based on the types of tools used. The advice given is to start test planning with a black box test approach as soon as the specification is available. Since behavioral testing is based on external functional definition.Handout – Software Testing classified as “white box”. Another set of risks concerns whether the software will actually provide value to users. since they use code instrumentation to make the internal workings of the software more visible. the metaphor maps test execution (dynamic testing) with black box testing. In this case. These are two design approaches. In order to fully test a software product both black and white box testing are required. White box testing is testing against the implementation and will discover faults of commission. Some tool vendors refer to code-coverage tools as white box tools. Thus black box testing is testing against the specification and will discover faults of omission. it is often called “black box. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007. and tools that facilitate applying inputs and capturing inputs—most notably GUI capture replay tools—as black box tools. White box testing is much more expensive than black box testing. it cannot guarantee that the complete specification has been implemented. it cannot guarantee that all parts of the implementation have been tested. They may be masked by fault tolerance or simply luck. White box testing is concerned only with testing the software product. Memory leaks and wild pointers are examples. It requires the source code to be produced before the tests can be planned and is much more laborious in the determination of suitable input data and the determination if the software is or is not correct. Related techniques capture code history and stack information when faults occur. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Evaluation: How do you know if you’ve found a bug? There are certain kinds of software faults that don’t always lead to obvious failures. Certain test techniques seek to make these kinds of problems more visible. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The paths should then be checked against the black box test plan and any additional required test runs determined and applied. The consequences of test failure at this stage may be very expensive. and maps code inspection (static testing) with white box testing. Black box testing is concerned only with testing the specification. indicating that part of the implementation is faulty. To conclude. All of these techniques could be considered white box test techniques. These contrast with black box techniques that simply look at the official outputs of a program. indicating that part of the specification has not been fulfilled. with the production of flowgraphs and determination of paths. apart from the above described analytical methods of both glass and black box testing.” Indeed. there are further constructive means to guarantee high quality software end products. and could be termed “black box.” while structural testing—based on the code internals—is called “white box. Assertions are another technique for helping to make problems more visible. Usability testing focuses on this risk. White box planning should commence as soon as all black box tests have been successfully passed. which defines tests based on the code itself.” Activities: How do you test? A common distinction is made between behavioral test design. We could also focus on the tools used. this is probably the most commonly cited definition for black box and white box testing. A failure of a white box test may result in a change which requires all black box testing to be repeated and the redetermination of the white box paths. Another activity-based distinction contrasts dynamic test execution with formal code inspection. which defines tests based on functional requirements. and structural test design. helping with diagnosis.

usability testing (risk). the integration of CASE tools. on the other hand. unit or code-coverage testing (coverage). and last but not least the involvement of users in both software development and testing procedures SUMMARY Black box testing can sometimes describe user-based testing (people). or behavioral testing or capture replay automation (activities). c Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . rapid prototyping. system or requirements-based testing (coverage). Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. At a minimum. It is used to detect errors by means of execution-oriented test cases. opaque-box. and closed-box White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box".Handout – Software Testing Among the most important constructive means are the usage of object-oriented programming tools. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. inspection or code-coverage automation (activities). white-box test case design requires that you have a) Source code b) An operational program c) A detailed procedural design d) The program architecture Answers: 1). boundary or security testing (risks). and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. and logs (evaluation). or testing based on probes. d 2). White box testing. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. structural testing. glass-box and clear-box. Test your Understanding 1. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. can sometimes describe developer-based testing (people). Equivalence partitioning is a black-box testing method that a) Looks for equivalent data values in the program b) Looks for classes of output c) Focuses on output errors d) Defines classes of input 2. assertions. functional. Black-box test design treats the system as a literal "black-box".

Check if the title of the window make sense. If Window has a Minimize Button. and a bigger pictorial representation of the icon. you will be able to Explain the methods of testing What is GUI Testing? GUI is the abbreviation for Graphic User Interface. English and clarity. Double Click the Icon to return the Window to its original size. Tab order should be left to right. especially on the top of the screen. then use all ungrayed options. No Login is necessary. Use SHIFT+TAB to move focus backwards. The main window of the application should have the same caption as the caption of the icon in Program Manager. Tabbing to an entry field with text in it should highlight the entire text in the field. This should not be allowed . Closing the application should result in an "Are you Sure" message box Attempt to start application twice. These should be checked for spelling. If there is no hour glass. Try this for every grayed control. Use TAB to move focus around the Window. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Check all text on window for Spelling/Tense and Grammar.e. clarity and non-updateable etc. then the hour glass should be displayed. The window caption for every application should have the name of the application and the window name . or it can refer to testing the functionality of each and every component involved. then some enquiry in progress message should be displayed. If a field is disabled (grayed) then it should not get focus.Windows Compliance Testing Application Start Application by Double Clicking on its ICON. Window should return to an icon on the bottom of the screen. and Up to Down within a group box on the screen.Check for spelling.you should be returned to main window. The text in the Micro Help line should change . if the application is busy. Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. version number. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the screen has a Control menu. or cursor. Hence it becomes very essential to test the GUI components of any application. It should not be possible to select them with either the mouse or by using TAB. All controls should get focus .indicated by dotted box. Try to start the application twice as it is loading. The Loading message should show the application name. The following is a set of guidelines to ensure effective GUI Testing and can be used even as a checklist while testing a product / application.) F1 key should work the same. click it.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 3: Other Testing Types Learning Objective After completing this chapter. Section 1 . This icon should correspond to the Original Icon under Program Manager. GUI Testing can refer to just ensuring that the look-and-feel of the application is acceptable to the user. On each window. It is absolutely essential that any application has to be user-friendly. The end user should be comfortable while using all the components on screen and the components should also perform their functionality with utmost clarity.especially the error messages. All screens should have a Help button (i.

Spacing should be compatible with the existing windows spacing (word etc. Tab to another type of control (not a command button). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and should be done for EVERY command Button.Handout – Software Testing Never updateable fields should be displayed with black text on a gray background with a black label. the label text and contents changes from black to gray depending on the current status. All text should be left justified.Press RETURN . Selection should also be possible with mouse. Pressing ‘Ctrl . shouldn't have a blank line at the bottom. Items should be in alphabetical order with the exception of blank/none. followed by a colon tight to it. Command Buttons If Command Button leads to another Screen. In general. So should Up and Down. In general. or on the text should SET/UNSET the box. Refer to previous page. Pressing Return in ANY no command button control should activate it. Make sure there is no duplication. Double Click should select all text in box. Drop down with the item selected should be display the list with the selected item on the top. Enter text into Box Try to overflow the text by typing to many characters – should be stopped Check the field width with capitals W.F4’ should open/drop down the list box.This should activate The above are VERY IMPORTANT. Check Boxes Clicking with the mouse on the box. Option (Radio Buttons) Left and Right arrows should move 'ON' Selection. everything can be done using both the mouse and the keyboard. One button on the screen should be default (indicated by a thick black border).g.). All Buttons except for OK and Cancel should have a letter Access to them. Select with mouse by clicking. . Cursor should change from arrow to Insert Bar. and if the user can enter or change details on the other screen then the Text on the button should be followed by three dots. Pressing ALT+Letter should activate the button. Drop Down List Boxes Pressing the Arrow should give list of options. try strange characters like + . Page 22 ©Copyright 2007. in All fields.* etc. there should be a message phrased positively with Yes/No answers where Yes results in the completion of the action. If it doesn't then the text in the box should be gray or non-updateable. Make sure only one space appears. In a field that may or may not be updateable. Click each button once with the mouse . Enter invalid characters . All others are gray. double-clicking is not essential. then pressing <Esc> should activate it. which is at the top or the bottom of the list box. SHIFT and Arrow should Select Characters.Letters in amount fields. closing an action step. List boxes are always white background with black text whether they are disabled or not. You should not be able to type text in the box. If there is a Cancel Button on the screen.Press SPACE This should activate Tab to each button . All tab buttons should have a distinct letter. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If pressing the Command button results in uncorrectable data e. Text Boxes Move the Mouse Cursor over all Enterable Text Boxes.This should activate Tab to each button . This List may be scrollable. Pressing a letter should bring you to the first item in the list with that start with that letter. SPACE should do the same. This is indicated by a letter underlined in the button text.

then clicking the command button. which have failed validation tests? Have any fields got multiple validation rules and if so are all rules being applied? If the user enters an invalid value and clicks on the OK button (i. should act in the same way as selecting and item in the list box. If there is a 'View' or 'Open' button besides the list box then double clicking on a line in the List Box.e. Clicking Arrow should allow user to choose from list List Boxes Should allow a single selection to be chosen. are the field prompts of the correct color? In read-only mode. Section 2 . Assure that all dialog boxes have a consistent look and feel. by clicking with the mouse.Handout – Software Testing Combo Boxes Should allow text to be entered. Cognizant Technology Solutions. are the field backgrounds of the correct color? Are all the screen prompts specified in the correct screen font? Is the text in all fields specified in the correct screen font? Are all the field prompts aligned perfectly on the screen? Are all the field edit boxes aligned perfectly on the screen? Are all group boxes aligned correctly on the screen? Should the screen be resizable? Should the screen be allowed to minimize? Are all the field prompts spelt correctly? Are all character or alphanumeric fields left justified? This is the default unless otherwise specified. Is all the micro-help text spelt correctly on this screen? Is all the error message text spelt correctly on this screen? Is all user input captured in UPPER case or lowercase consistently? Where the database requires a value (other than null) then this should be defaulted into fields. or using the Up and Down Arrow keys. Pressing a letter should take you to the first item in the list starting with that letter. Validation Conditions: Does a failure of validation on every field cause a sensible user error message? Is the user required to fix entries. Force the scroll bar to appear. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . make sure all the data can be seen in the box. does not TAB off the field) is the invalid entry identified and highlighted correctly with an error message? Page 23 ©Copyright 2007.Screen Validation Checklist Aesthetic Conditions: Is the general screen background of the correct color? Are the field prompts of the correct color? Are the field backgrounds of the correct color? In read-only mode. The user must either enter an alternative valid value or leave the default value intact. Are all numeric fields right justified? This is the default unless otherwise specified. Assure that all windows have a consistent look and feel.

Handout – Software Testing
Is validation consistently applied at screen level unless specifically required at field level? For all numeric fields check whether negative numbers can and should be able to be entered. For all numeric fields check the minimum and maximum values and also some midrange values allowable? For all character/alphanumeric fields check the field to ensure that there is a character limit specified and that this limit is exactly correct for the specified database size? Do all mandatory fields require user input? If any of the database columns don't allow null values then the corresponding screen fields must be mandatory. (If any field, which initially was mandatory, has become optional then check whether null values are allowed in this field.) Navigation Conditions: Can the screen be accessed correctly from the menu? Can the screen be accessed correctly from the toolbar? Can the screen be accessed correctly by double clicking on a list control on the previous creen? Can all screens accessible via buttons on this screen be accessed correctly? Can all screens accessible by double clicking on a list control be accessed correctly? Is the screen modal? (i.e.) Is the user prevented from accessing other functions when this screen is active and is this correct? Can a number of instances of this screen be opened at the same time and is this correct? Usability Conditions: Are all the dropdowns on this screen sorted correctly? Alphabetic sorting is the default unless otherwise specified. Is all date entry required in the correct format? Have all pushbuttons on the screen been given appropriate Shortcut keys? Do the Shortcut keys work correctly? Have the menu options that apply to your screen got fast keys associated and should they have? Does the Tab Order specified on the screen go in sequence from Top Left to bottom right? This is the default unless otherwise specified. Are all read-only fields avoided in the TAB sequence? Are all disabled fields avoided in the TAB sequence? Can the cursor be placed in the microhelp text box by clicking on the text box with the mouse? Can the cursor be placed in read-only fields by clicking in the field with the mouse? Is the cursor positioned in the first input field or control when the screen is opened? Is there a default button specified on the screen? Does the default button work correctly? When an error message occurs does the focus return to the field in error when the user cancels it?
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Handout – Software Testing
When the user Alt+Tab's to another application does this have any impact on the screen upon return to the application? Do all the fields edit boxes indicate the number of characters they will hold by there length? e.g. a 30 character field should be a lot longer Data Integrity Conditions: Is the data saved when the window is closed by double clicking on the close box? Check the maximum field lengths to ensure that there are no truncated characters? Where the database requires a value (other than null) then this should be defaulted into fields. The user must either enter an alternative valid value or leave the default value intact. Check maximum and minimum field values for numeric fields? If numeric fields accept negative values can these be stored correctly on the database and does it make sense for the field to accept negative numbers? If a set of radio buttons represents a fixed set of values such as A, B and C then what happens if a blank value is retrieved from the database? (In some situations rows can be created on the database by other functions, which are not screen based, and thus the required initial values can be incorrect.) If a particular set of data is saved to the database check that each value gets saved fully to the database. (i.e.) Beware of truncation (of strings) and rounding of numeric values. Modes (Editable Read-only) Conditions: Are the screen and field colors adjusted correctly for read-only mode? Should a read-only mode be provided for this screen? Are all fields and controls disabled in read-only mode? Can the screen be accessed from the previous screen/menu/toolbar in read-only mode? Can all screens available from this screen be accessed in read-only mode? Check that no validation is performed in read-only mode. General Conditions: Assure the existence of the "Help" menu. Assure that the proper commands and options are in each menu. Assure that all buttons on all tool bars have a corresponding key commands. Assure that each menu command has an alternative (hot-key) key sequence, which will invoke it where appropriate. In drop down list boxes, ensure that the names are not abbreviations / cut short In drop down list boxes, assure that the list and each entry in the list can be accessed via appropriate key / hot key combinations. Ensure that duplicate hot keys do not exist on each screen Ensure the proper usage of the escape key (which is to undo any changes that have been made) and generates a caution message "Changes will be lost - Continue yes/no" Assure that the cancel button functions the same as the escape key.
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Handout – Software Testing
Assure that the Cancel button operates, as a Close button when changes have been made that cannot be undone. Assure that only command buttons, which are used by a particular window, or in a particular dialog box, are present. – (i.e) make sure they don't work on the screen behind the current screen. When a command button is used sometimes and not at other times, assures that it is grayed out when it should not be used. Assure that OK and Cancel buttons are grouped separately from other command buttons. Assure that command button names are not abbreviations. Assure that all field labels/names are not technical labels, but rather are names meaningful to system users. Assure that command buttons are all of similar size and shape, and same font & font size. Assure that each command button can be accessed via a hot key combination. Assure that command buttons in the same window/dialog box do not have duplicate hot keys. Assure that each window/dialog box has a clearly marked default value (command button, or other object) which is invoked when the Enter key is pressed - and NOT the Cancel or Close button Assure that focus is set to an object/button, which makes sense according to the function of the window/dialog box. Assure that all option buttons (and radio buttons) names are not abbreviations. Assure that option button names are not technical labels, but rather are names meaningful to system users. If hot keys are used to access option buttons, assure that duplicate hot keys do not exist in the same window/dialog box. Assure that option box names are not abbreviations. Assure that option boxes, option buttons, and command buttons are logically grouped together in clearly demarcated areas "Group Box" Assure that the Tab key sequence, which traverses the screens, does so in a logical way. Assure consistency of mouse actions across windows. Assure that the color red is not used to highlight active objects (many individuals are redgreen color blind). Assure that the user will have control of the desktop with respect to general color and highlighting (the application should not dictate the desktop background characteristics). Assure that the screen/window does not have a cluttered appearance Ctrl + F6 opens next tab within tabbed window Shift + Ctrl + F6 opens previous tab within tabbed window Tabbing will open next tab within tabbed window if on last field of current tab Tabbing will go onto the 'Continue' button if on last field of last tab within tabbed window Tabbing will go onto the next editable field in the window Banner style & size & display exact same as existing windows
Page 26 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Assure that century change is validated correctly & does not cause errors/miscalculations.should be no need to scroll Errors on continue will cause user to be returned to the tab and the focus should be on the field causing the error. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Assure that fields with a blank in the last position are processed or reported as an error an error. 30 is reported as an error. Assure that numeric fields with a blank in position 1 are processed or reported as an error. Assure that both + and . 29. 28. Assure that invalid values are logged and reported. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Assure that valid values are handles by the correct procedure.Handout – Software Testing If 8 or less options in a list box. Numeric Fields Assure that lowest and highest values are handled correctly.e the tab is opened. display all options on open of list box . Assure that Feb. Assure that out of cycle dates are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. On open of tab focus will be on first editable field All fonts to be the same Alt+F4 will close the tabbed window and return you to main screen or previous screen (as appropriate). 30 are validated correctly & do not cause errors/ miscalculations. Assure that day values 00 and 32 are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. generating "changes will be lost" message if necessary. Page 27 ©Copyright 2007. Assure that division by zero does not occur. Assure that month code 00 and 13 are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations.values are correctly processed. Assure that 00 and 13 are reported as errors. Microhelp text for every enabled field & button Ensure all fields are disabled in read-only mode Progress messages on load of tabbed screens Return operates continue If retrieve on load of tabbed window fails window should not open Specific Field Tests Date Field Checks Assure that leap years are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. (i. highlighting the field with the error on it) Pressing continue while on the first tab of a tabbed window (assuming all fields filled correctly) will not open all the tabs. Assure that Feb.

(i. Include lowest and highest values. Assure that upper and lower values in ranges are handled correctly. Validation Testing . Include data items with first position blank. Include out of range values above the maximum and below the minimum. continue saving changes or additions) Add View Change Delete Cancel .(i. Include data items with last position blank. Include maximum and minimum range values.e. Include at least one in-range value.Invalid data Different Check Box / Radio Box combinations Scroll Lists / Drop Down List Boxes Help Fill Lists and Scroll Tab Tab Sequence Shift Tab Page 28 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Include value zero in all calculations.e.Standard Actions Examples of Standard Actions . Include valid characters.Substitute your specific commands Add View Change Delete Continue . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Include invalid characters & symbols.Valid data Fill each field . abandon changes or additions) Fill each field . Alpha Field Checks Use blank and non-blank data.

Handout – Software Testing Shortcut keys / Hot Keys Note: The following keys are used in some windows applications. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 29 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and are included as a guide.

Handout – Software Testing * These shortcuts are suggested for text formatting applications. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . in the context for which they make sense. Page 30 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Applications may use other modifiers for these operations.

The selective retesting of a software system that has been modified to ensure that any bugs have been fixed and that no other previously working functions have failed as a result of the reparations and that newly added features have not created problems with previous versions of the software. Page 31 ©Copyright 2007. Also referred to as verification testing Regression testing is initiated after a programmer has attempted to fix a recognized problem or has added source code to a program that may have inadvertently introduced errors. the old test cases are run against the new version to make sure that all the old capabilities still work. Test Execution Test Execution is the heart of the testing process. It is a quality control measure to ensure that the newly modified code still complies with its specified requirements and that unmodified code has not been affected by the maintenance activity. Example: You can create another set of tests for a particular module in your application. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Before a new version of a software product is released. Each time your application changes.Handout – Software Testing Regression Testing What is Regression Testing? Regression testing is the process of testing changes to computer programs to make sure that the older programming still works with the new changes. Regression testing is a normal part of the program development process. to determine the application's stability before beginning more rigorous testing. refer to the testing goals you defined at the beginning of the process. Test department coders develop code test scenarios and exercises that will test new units of code after they have been written. you will want to execute the relevant parts of your test plan in order to locate defects and assess quality. The reason they might not work because changing or adding new code to a program can easily introduce errors into code that is not intended to be changed. Usually you do not run all the tests at once. and can include both manual and automated tests Example: You can create a cycle containing basic tests that run on each build of the application throughout development. This test cycle includes tests that check that module in depth. Create Test Cycles During this stage you decide the subset of tests from your test database you want to execute. you need to execute different tests in order to address specific goals. A related group of tests is called a test cycle. To decide which test cycles to build. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . You can run the cycle each time a new build is ready. Also consider issues such as the current state of the application and whether new functions have been added or modified. At different stages of the quality assurance process.

Regression cycle tests maintenance builds. Change Request Initiating a Change Request A user or developer wants to suggest a modification that would improve an existing application. containing both positive and negative checks. It then imports results. sorting the files alphabetically by the second field rather than numerically by the first field makes them easier to find) Enhancement Page 32 ©Copyright 2007. and log the results. Advanced cycle tests both breadth and depth. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a letter is allowed to be entered in a number field) Change a modification of the existing application. compare the application output with the expected output. (for example. Any major or minor request is considered a problem with an application and will be entered as a change request. The tests in the cycle cover the entire application (breadth). (for example. During Automated Test Execution you create a batch of tests and launch the entire batch at once. For each test step you assign either pass or fail status. You use the application. Normal cycle tests the system a little more in depth than the sanity cycle. A regression cycle includes sanity-level tests for testing the entire software. This cycle can group medium-level tests. you begin executing the tests in the cycle. The goal of this type of cycle is to verify that a change to one part of the software did not break the rest of the application. rather than depth) to see that it is functional and stable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Testing Tools executes automated tests for you. as well as in-depth tests for the specific area of the application that was modified. Type of Change Request Bug the application works incorrectly or provides incorrect information. This cycle should include basic-level tests containing mostly positive checks. and also test advanced options in the application (depth). A test cycle is complete only when all tests-automatic and manual-have been run. And have to identify all the failed steps in the tests and to determine whether a bug has been detected. Testing Tools runs the tests one at a time. providing outcome summaries for each test. With Manual Test Execution you follow the instructions in the test steps of each test. This cycle can be run when more time is available for testing. enter input. or wants to recommend an enhancement. You perform manual tests using the test steps. notices a problem with an application. or if the expected result needs to be updated. Analyze Test Results After every test run one analyze and validate the test results. Run Test Cycles (Automated & Manual Tests) Once you have created cycles that cover your testing objectives.Handout – Software Testing Following are examples of some general categories of test cycles to consider: Sanity cycle checks the entire system at a basic level (breadth.

The Quality Assurance manager or Project manager periodically reviews all New bugs and decides which should be fixed. verified. a new field. Traceability Matrix A traceability matrix is created by associating requirements with the products that satisfy them. There can be more things Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. You also make sure that the QA and development personnel involved in fixing the bug are notified. all members of the development and quality assurance team must be well informed in order to insure that bugs information is up to date and that the most important problems are addressed. you report the bugs (or defects) that you detected. it is Closed. If a bug is detected again. and end-users in all phases of the testing process. and follow up the bug. Critical the application does not work. This also applies to any Section 508 infraction. The bugs are stored in a database so that you can manage them and analyze the status of your application. job functions are impaired and there is no work around. Bug Tracking Locating and repairing software bugs is an essential part of software development. testers.Tests are associated with the requirements on which they are based and the product tested tomeet the requirement. Track and Analyze Bugs The lifecycle of a bug begins when it is reported and ends when it is fixed. When you report a bug. Below is a simple traceability matrix structure. Bug Tracking involves two main stages: reporting and tracking. QA personnel test a new build of the application. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . High the application works. (for example. a new report. These bugs are given the status Open and are assigned to a member of the development team. Report Bugs Once you execute the manual and automated tests in a cycle. it is reopened. or a new button) Priority for the request Low the application works but this would make the function easier or more user friendly. If a bug does not reoccur. Information about bugs must be detailed and organized in order to schedule bug fixes and determine software release dates. Software developers fix the Open bugs and assign them the status Fixed. fix. but this is necessary to perform a job. you record all the information necessary to reproduce and fix it. Bugs can be detected and reported by engineers. Communication is an essential part of bug tracking. You can use data analysis tools such as re-ports and graphs in interpret bug data. and provide all necessary information to reproduce. and closed. First you report New bugs to the database. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing new functionality or item added to the application. The number of open or fixed bugs is a good indicator of the quality status of your application.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. SAMPLE TRACEABILITY MATRIX A traceability matrix is a report from the requirements database or repository. User requirement identifiers begin with "U" and system requirements with "S. Traceability ensures completeness. or the traceability corrected. that all lower level requirements derive from higher level requirements. rewritten. The examples below show traceability between user and system requirements. Numbers for products are established in a configuration management (CM) plan. and that all higher level requirements are allocated to lower level requirements. Traceability is also used in managing change and provides the basis for test planning. Page 34 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Traceability requires unique identifiers for each requirement and product." Tracing S12 to its source makes it clear this requirement is erroneous: it must be eliminated.Handout – Software Testing included in a traceability matrix than shown below.

The integration of this code with the internal code is the important objective. Determine their information needs and document the information that will be associated with the requirements when you set up your requirements database or repository. Acceptance Testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . other reports are necessary to manage requirements. Installation.) Types and Phases of Testing Page 35 ©Copyright 2007. Techniques can be used in any stage that tests the system as a whole (System testing. etc. What goes into each report depends on the information needs of those receiving the report(s). Goal is to evaluate the system as a whole. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing In addition to traceability matrices. Phases of Testing The primary objective of testing effort is to determine the conformance to requirements specified in the contracted documents. not its parts Techniques can be structural or functional. Unit testing.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Page 36 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

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performing rigorous testing of the entire software involved in each integration phase involves a lot of wasteful duplication of effort across phases. bottom-up. the more important the integration strategy. Second. However. Performing only cursory testing at early integration phases and then applying a more rigorous criterion for the final stage is really just a variant of the high-risk "big bang" approach. For most real systems. critical piece first. most integration testing has been traditionally limited to ``black box'' techniques. then assembling subsystems into larger subsystems. satisfying any white box testing criterion would be very difficult. this is impractical for two major reasons. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . testing at each phase helps detect errors early and keep the system under control. or by first integrating functional subsystems and then integrating the subsystems in separate phases using any of the basic strategies. Integration may be performed all at once. beginning with assembling modules into lowlevel subsystems. and finally assembling the highest level subsystems into the complete system. To be most effective. the system would fail in so many places at once that the debugging and retesting effort would be impractical. top-down. First. The key is to Page 38 ©Copyright 2007. In a multi-phase integration.Handout – Software Testing Integration Testing One of the most significant aspects of a software development project is the integration strategy. an integration testing technique should fit well with the overall integration strategy. In fact. Very small systems are often assembled and tested in one phase. the larger the project. Cognizant Technology Solutions. because of the vast amount of detail separating the input data from the individual code modules. In general. Large systems may require many integration phases.

However. Then. so an integration testing method should be flexible enough to accommodate them all. this trivial kind of generalization does not take advantage of the differences between module and integration testing. in effect using the entire program as a test driver environment for each module. and then performing pure integration testing at higher levels. It is important to understand the relationship between module testing and integration testing. As discussed in the previous subsection. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Each of these views of integration testing may be appropriate for any given project. Generalization of module testing criteria Module testing criteria can often be generalized in several possible ways to support integration testing. for example. Many projects compromise. modules are rigorously tested in isolation using stubs and drivers before any integration is attempted. combining module testing with the lowest level of subsystem integration testing. the most obvious generalization is to satisfy the module testing criterion in an integration context. integration testing concentrates entirely on module interactions. Applying it to each phase of a multiphase integration strategy. module and integration testing can be combined. Page 39 ©Copyright 2007. At the other extreme. verifying the details of each module's implementation in an integration context. assuming that the details within each module are accurate. Cognizant Technology Solutions. In one view.Handout – Software Testing leverage the overall integration structure to allow rigorous testing at each phase while minimizing duplication of effort. leads to an excessive amount of redundant testing.

can be generalized to require each module call statement to be exercised during integration testing. at which point the design reduction is complete. The sequential rule eliminates sequences of non-call ("white dot") nodes. the appropriate generalization to the integration level requires that just the decision logic involved with calls to other modules be tested independently. the approach is the same. Although not strictly a reduction rule. they each reduce cyclomatic complexity by one. Since structured testing at the module level requires that all the decision logic in a module's control flow graph be tested independently. Since the repetitive. The idea behind design reduction is to start with a module control flow graph. The statement coverage module testing criterion. remove all control structures that are not involved with module calls. there must be a path from the module entry to the top of the loop and a path from the bottom of the loop to the module exit. Figure below shows a systematic set of rules for performing design reduction. and looping rules each remove one edge from the flow graph. Page 40 ©Copyright 2007. The remaining rules work together to eliminate the parts of the flow graph that are not involved with module calls. conditional. since for poorlystructured code it may be hard to distinguish the ``top'' of the loop from the ``bottom. the call rule states that function call ("black dot") nodes cannot be reduced. The conditional rule eliminates conditional statements that do not contain calls in their bodies. it leaves the cyclomatic complexity unchanged.Handout – Software Testing More useful generalizations adapt the module testing criterion to focus on interactions between modules rather than attempting to test all of the details of each module's implementation in an integration context. The design reduction technique helps identify those decision outcomes. However. By this process. and then use the resultant "reduced" flow graph to drive integration testing. so that it is possible to exercise them independently during integration testing. It is important to preserve the module's connectivity when using the looping rule. in which each statement is required to be exercised during module testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it does simplify the graph so that the other rules can be applied. The repetitive rule eliminates top-test loops that are not involved with module calls. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Rules 1 through 4 are intended to be applied iteratively until none of them can be applied. The looping rule eliminates bottom-test loops that are not involved with module calls. even very complex logic can be eliminated as long as it does not involve any module calls. Although the specifics of the generalization of structured testing are more detailed. Module design complexity Rather than testing all decision outcomes within a module independently.'' For the rule to apply. Since application of this rule removes one node and one edge from the flow graph. structured testing at the integration level focuses on the decision outcomes that are involved with module calls.

which simplifies the derivation of data sets that test interactions among components. To extend statement coverage to support incremental integration. it is required that all module call statements from one component into a different component be exercised at each integration stage. The remainder of this section extends the integration testing techniques of structured testing to handle the general case of incremental integration. The key principle is to test just the interaction among components at each integration stage. and it is important to limit the corresponding stages of testing as well. it is required that each statement be executed during the first phase (which may be anything from single modules to the entire Page 41 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . including support for hierarchical design. Hierarchical design is most effective when the coupling among sibling components decreases as the component size increases. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Incremental integration Hierarchical system design limits each stage of development to a manageable effort. avoiding redundant testing of previously integrated sub-components. To form a completely flexible "statement testing" criterion.

Given hierarchical integration stages with good cohesive partitioning properties.Handout – Software Testing program). Cognizant Technology Solutions. and that at each integration phase all call statements that cross the boundaries of previously integrated components are tested. this limits the testing effort to a small fraction of the effort to cover each statement of the system at each integration phase. Page 42 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

as have modules B and D. only two additional tests are required to complete the integration testing. including Users. the means by which 'Acceptance' will be achieved. yielding component-reduced graphs. As in any system though. acceptance testing is formal testing conducted to determine whether a system satisfies its acceptance criteria and thus whether the customer should accept the system. Acceptance Testing checks the system against the "Requirements". The main types of software testing are: Component. The test procedures that lead to formal 'acceptance' of new or changed systems. Release. and exclude from consideration all modules that do not contain any cross-component calls. System. Interface. an Acceptance Test Plan should be developed in order to plan precisely. The customer. the testing should be planned in order to provide a realistic and adequate exposure of the system to all reasonably expected events. Figure 7-7 illustrates the structured testing approach to incremental integration. Acceptance. To be of real use. the component module design complexity of module A is 1. Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. Modules B and D are removed from consideration because they do not contain cross-component calls. The key is to perform design reduction at each integration phase using just the module call nodes that cross component boundaries. in general. but at all times they are informed by the business needs. Acceptance Testing checks that the system delivers what was requested. and in detail. Factors influencing Acceptance Testing The User Acceptance Test Plan will vary from system to system but. The final part of the UAT can also include a parallel run to prove the system against the current system. It would take three tests to integrate this system in a single phase. It is similar to systems testing in that the whole system is checked but the important difference is the change in focus: Systems Testing checks that the system that was specified has been delivered. The testing can be based upon the User Requirements Specification to which the system should conform. and not the developer should always do acceptance testing. However. problems will arise and it is important to have determined what will be the expected and required responses from the various parties concerned. User Acceptance Testing is a critical phase of any 'systems' project and requires significant participation by the 'End Users'. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Structured testing can be extended to cover the fully general case of incremental integration in a similar manner. and the component module design complexity of module C is 2. The forms of the tests may follow those in system testing. since the design predicates decision to call module D from module B has been tested in a previous phase. Acceptance Testing In software engineering. The customer knows what is required from the system to achieve value in the business and is the only person qualified to make that judgment. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Modules A and C have been previously integrated.

Handout – Software Testing Project Team. these will be known in advance and your organization is forewarned. These levels will range from (say) 1 to 6 and will represent the relative severity. must then agree upon the responsibilities and required actions for each category of problem. Because no system is entirely fault free. These conditions need to be analyzed as they may. found during testing. the maximum number of acceptable 'outstanding' in any particular category. testing can continue and the system is likely to go live with only minimal departure from agreed business processes. both testing and live operations may progress. Cognizant Technology Solutions. To avoid the risk of lengthy and protracted exchanges over the categorization of problems. In some cases. it is crucial to agree the Criteria for Acceptance. Caution. but little or no changes to business processes are envisaged. Here is an example which has been used successfully.e. or if there are. and '6' has the least impact: 'Show Stopper' i. it is impossible to continue with the testing because of the severity of this error / bug. it must be agreed between End User and vendor. 'Cosmetic' Problem e. Vendors and possibly Consultants / Contractors. or. pitch size However. Medium Problem. in terms of business / commercial impact. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . you may demand that any problems in severity level 1. users may agree to accept ('sign off') the system subject to a range of conditions. of a problem with the system. testing can continue but we cannot go into production (live) with this problem. Finally. seek additional functionality which could be classified as scope creep. For example. receive priority response and that all testing will cease until such level 1 problems are resolved. '1' is the most severe. the allocation of a problem into its appropriate severity level can be subjective and open to question. The users of the system. any and all fixes from the software developers. must be subjected to rigorous System Testing and. fonts.B. Minor Problem . if such features are key to the business requirements they will warrant a higher severity level. testing can continue but live this feature will cause severe disruption to business processes in live operation.g. colours. in consultation with the executive sponsor of the project. This problem should be corrected. we strongly advised that a range of examples are agreed in advance to ensure that there are no fundamental areas of disagreement. prior consideration of this is advisable. the End Users and the Project Team need to develop and agree a range of 'Severity Levels'. Major Problem. perhaps unintentionally. Critical Problem. N. In order to agree what such responses should be. where appropriate Regression Testing. Page 44 ©Copyright 2007. Even where the severity levels and the responses to each have been agreed by all parties. In any event. Again.

Determine the effect of adding or modifying hardware resources such as: o o o o Memory Disk and tape resources Processors Load balancers Determine an optimal system configuration. Internationalization (e.e. Cause failures concerning the configurability requirements that help identify defects that are not efficiently found during unit and integration testing: o o o Functional Variants. and prevented in the future. Personalization Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. Software integration testing has started. taxes and tariffs.. The relevant system components have passed system integration testing. etc. analyzed. The test environment is ready.g.Handout – Software Testing Configuration Testing & Installation Testing Configuration testing: Testing to determine whether the program operates properly when the software or hardware is configured in a required manner. time zones. However. The relevant software components have passed unit testing. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007.). Objectives The typical objectives of configuration testing are to: Partially validate the application (i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. to determine if it fulfills its configurability requirements). currencies.. configuration testing can begin prior to the distribution of the software components onto the hardware components. The typical goals of configuration testing are to cause the application to fail to meet its configurability requirements so that the underlying defects can be identified. Examples Typical examples include configuration testing of an application that must: Have multiple functional variants. fixed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Support internationalization. The independent test team is adequately staffed and trained in configuration testing. Multiple variants of the application exist. Preconditions Configuration testing can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The configurability requirements to be tested have been specified. Support personalization. multiple languages.

Handout – Software Testing Completion Criteria Configuration testing is typically complete when the following postconditions hold: At least one configuration test suite exists for each configurability requirement. The test suites for every scheduled configurability requirement execute successfully on the appropriate configuration. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Tasks Configurability testing typically involves the independent test team performing the following testing tasks: Test Planning Test Reuse Test Design Test Implementation Test Execution Test Reporting Environments Configuration testing is performed on the following environments using the following techniques: Test Environment: Test Harness Work Products Configuration testing typically results in the production of all or part of the following work products from the test work product set: Documents: Project Test Plan Master Test List Test Procedures Test Report Test Summary Report Software and Data: Test Harness Test Scripts Test Suites Test Cases Test Data Phases Configuration testing typically consists of the following tasks being performed during the following phases: Page 46 ©Copyright 2007.

To avoid confusion. Quality System Regulations require installation and inspection procedures (including testing where appropriate) and documentation of inspection and testing to demonstrate proper installation. reuse functional test cases as configuration test cases. However.Handout – Software Testing Guidelines The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that configuration testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. and automated systems be validated for their intended use. installation testing is defined as any testing that takes place outside of the developer's controlled environment. To the extent practical. Terminology in this testing area can be confusing. site validation. and installation verification have all been used to describe installation testing. in some areas. The testing is accomplished through either actual or simulated use of the software being tested within the environment in which it is intended to function. Installation testing: Testing to identify the ways in which the installation procedures lead to incorrect results. Likewise. Cognizant Technology Solutions. there are specific site validation requirements that need to be considered in the planning of installation testing. and for the purposes of this document. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Test planners should check with Soft Solutions International to determine whether there are any additional regulatory requirements for installation testing. Installation testing is any testing that takes place at a user's site with the actual hardware and software that will be part of the installed system configuration. Guidance contained here is general in nature and is applicable to any installation testing. Terms such as beta test. manufacturing equipment must meet specified requirements. Page 47 ©Copyright 2007. user acceptance test. Configuration testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur.

Acceptance testing. The testing instructions should encourage use through the full range of operating conditions and should continue for a sufficient time to allow the system to encounter a wide spectrum of conditions and events in an effort to detect any latent faults. Launch. which are encountered. Some of the evaluations that have been performed earlier by the software developer at the developer's site should be repeated at the site of actual use. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the developers are involved. Help determine the extent to which the application is ready for: o o o Beta testing. warnings. The revision of the system to compensate for faults detected during this installation testing should follow the same procedures and controls as any other software change. These may include tests for a high volume of data. Records should be maintained during installation testing of both the system's capability to properly perform and the system's failures. etc. the definition of expected test results. there should be an evaluation of the ability of the users of the system to understand and correctly interface with it. tolerance. Alpha testing and Beta testing Alpha testing is the launch testing consisting of the development organization’s initial internal dry runs of the application’s acceptance tests in the production environment.Handout – Software Testing Installation testing should follow a pre-defined plan with a formal summary of testing and a record of formal acceptance. The developer may be able to furnish the user with some of the test data sets to be used for this purpose. test input data and test results. Measures should ensure that all system components are exercised during the testing and that the versions of these components are those specified. fault testing (avoidance. The developers of the software may or may not be involved in the installation testing. which are not apparent during more normal activities. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . error messages. There should be evidence that hardware and software are installed and configured as specified. Objectives The typical objectives of alpha testing are to: Cause failures that only tend to occur in the production environment. In addition to an evaluation of the system's ability to properly perform its intended functions. Page 48 ©Copyright 2007. it is all the more important that the user have persons knowledgeable in software engineering who understand the importance of such matters as careful test planning. implementation of safety requirements. Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. if any. security. Operators should be able to perform the intended operations and respond in an appropriate and timely manner to all alarms. and the recording of all test outputs. errors. and serviceability. detection. and recovery). If the developers are not involved. There should be retention of documented evidence of all testing procedures. heavy loads or stresses. they may seamlessly carry over to the user's site the last portions of design-level systems testing.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Environments Alpha testing is typically performed on the following environments with the following tools: o Production Environments None o o o o Page 49 ©Copyright 2007. The acceptance tests execute on the production environment.Handout – Software Testing Provide input to the defect trend analysis effort. Update the alpha testing subsection of Project Test Plan (PTP) Test Design: Select an adequate subset of the system test suites of test cases (both functional and quality) to be repeated on the production environment during alpha testing. The application has been ported to the production environment. The delivery phase has begun. Test Execution: Execute the alpha test suites on the production environment. Test Implementation: Fix any defects in the test suites found during evaluation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The independent test team is adequately staffed. Tasks Typically involves the following teams performing the following testing tasks: Independent Test Team: o Test Planning: Determine alpha testing completion criteria. The customer representative has approved these acceptance test suites. Test Reporting: Report failures that occurred during testing to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. Completion Criteria Alpha testing is typically complete when the following post conditions hold: An initial version of the acceptance test suites exists. Severity two defects that do not have adequate work arounds. Acceptance testing does not discover any: o o Severity one defects. Preconditions Execution of alpha tests can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The application has passed all system tests. The production environment is ready.

The application has passed alpha testing. Preconditions Beta test execution can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The application has passed all system tests. Objectives The typical objectives of beta testing are to: Cause failures that only tend to occur during actual usage by the user community rather than during formal testing.Handout – Software Testing Phases Alpha testing typically involves the following tasks being performed during the following phases: Guidelines To the extent practical. Provide input to the defect trend analysis effort. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . reuse the tests from system testing when performing alpha testing rather than producing new tests. The production environment is ready. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Definition Beta testing is the launch testing of the application in the production environment by a few select users prior to acceptance testing and the release of the application to its entire user community. Launch. Obtain additional user community feedback beyond that received during usability testing. Page 50 ©Copyright 2007. Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. The delivery phase has begun. Help determine the extent to which the system is ready for: o o Acceptance testing.

Handout – Software Testing The application has been ported to the production environment. These failures have been passed on to the development teams. Test Reporting . Tasks Beta testing typically involves the following producers performing the following testing tasks: Independent Test Team: o Test Planning . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Test Implementation . The selected group of users is ready. Completion Criteria Beta testing is typically complete when: The time period scheduled for beta testing ends. Test Execution .Pass on reported failures to developer organization. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Customer Organization: o o o o Environments Beta testing is typically performed on the following environments (limited to a select group of users) using the following tools: Production Environments: Client Environment Contact Center Environment Content Management Environment Data Center Environment Tools: Defect reporting tool.Use application under normal conditions of operation.Update beta testing subsection of Project Test Plan (PTP). User Organizations: Page 51 ©Copyright 2007. The users have reported any failures observed to the development organization.Select beta test user group.Report failures to customer organization. Test Reporting .

Test your Understanding 1.Handout – Software Testing Phases Beta testing typically involves the following tasks being performed during the following phases: Guidelines Limit the user test group to users who are willing to use a lower quality version of the application in exchange for obtaining it early and having input into its iteration. The testing that ensures that no unwanted changes were introduced is a) Unit Testing b) System Testing c) Acceptance Testing d) Regression Testing Answers: 1) a 2) d Page 52 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Beta testing often uses actual live data rather than data created for testing purposes. Alpha testing is differentiated from beta testing by a) the location where the tests are conducted b) the types of tests conducted c) the people doing the testing d) the degree to which white-box techniques are used 2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Beta testing is critical if formal usability testing was not performed during system testing.

If the scope is too narrow. and then the unit test will be there to help you fix it. The unit test will motivate the code that you write. Need for Unit Test How do you know that a method doesn't need a unit test? First. it is a little design document that says. Generally. If error handling is performed in a method.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 4: Levels of Testing Learning Objective After completing this chapter. and they also identify those segments of code that are related. Another good litmus test is to look at the code and see if it throws an error or catches an error. because it may break at some time. then the tests will be trivial and the objects might pass the tests. you will be able to: List different levels of testing Unit Testing Unit testing: Isn't that some annoying requirement that we're going to ignore? Many developers get very nervous when you mention unit tests. In a sense. then that method can break. The developer should know when this is the case. can it be tested by inspection? If the code is simple enough that the developer can just look at it and verify its correctness then it is simple enough to not require a unit test. "What will these clusters of objects do?" The crucial issue in constructing a unit test is scope. Just because we don't test every method explicitly doesn't mean that methods can get away with not being tested. Unit tests will most likely be defined at the method level. The programmer should know that their unit testing is complete when the unit tests cover at the very least the functional requirements of all the code. but not relevant in most programming projects. "What will this bit of code do?" Or. because they test for failures. which is not an effective test strategy. People who revisit the code will use the unit tests to discover which objects are related. Usually this is the case when the method involves a cluster of objects. The danger of not implementing a unit test on every method is that the coverage may be incomplete. then there is a high chance that not every component of the new code will get tested. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. if the scope is too broad. in the language of object oriented programming. It's important. Usually this is a vision of a grand table with every single method listed. interactions of objects are the crux of any object oriented design. but there will be no design of their interactions. Unit tests that isolate clusters of objects for testing are doubly useful. Certainly. along with the expected results and pass/fail date. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The careful programmer will know that their unit testing is complete when they have verified that their unit tests cover every cluster of objects that form their application. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Likewise. The programmer is then reduced to testing-by-poking-around. Hence: Unit tests isolate clusters of objects for future developers. or which objects form a cluster. so the art is to define the unit test on the methods that cannot be checked by inspection. any method that can break is a good candidate for having a unit test.

and Prepare a test case with a high probability of finding an as-yet undiscovered error. As it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code..e.. from Requirements till User Acceptance Testing. The main Objective to Unit Testing are as follows : To execute a program with the intent of finding an error.Handout – Software Testing Life Cycle Approach to Testing Testing will occur throughout the project lifecycle i. Types of Errors detected The following are the Types of errors that may be caught Error in Data Structures Performance Errors Logic Errors Validity of alternate and exception flows Identified at analysis/design stages Page 54 ©Copyright 2007. To test particular functions or code modules. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. Levels of Unit Testing UNIT 100% code coverage INTEGRATION SYSTEM ACCEPTANCE MAINTENANCE AND REGRESSION Concepts in Unit Testing: The most 'micro' scale of testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. To uncover an as-yet undiscovered error .

Page 55 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Unit Testing – Black Box Approach Field Level Check Field Level Validation User Interface Check Functional Level Check Unit Testing – White Box Approach STATEMENT COVERAGE DECISION COVERAGE CONDITION COVERAGE MULTIPLE CONDITION COVERAGE (nested conditions) CONDITION/DECISION COVERAGE PATH COVERAGE Unit Testing – Field Level Checks Null / Not Null Checks Uniqueness Checks Length Checks Date Field Checks Numeric Checks Negative Checks Unit Testing – Field Level Validations Test all Validations for an Input field Date Range Checks (From Date/To Date’s) Date Check Validation with System date Unit Testing – User Interface Checks Readability of the Controls Tool Tips Validation Ease of Use of Interface Across Tab related Checks User Interface Dialog GUI compliance checks Unit Testing .Functionality Checks Screen Functionalities Field Dependencies Auto Generation Algorithms and Computations Normal and Abnormal terminations Specific Business Rules if any.

Also known as: line coverage. Page 56 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Unit Testing . This measure reports whether each executable statement is encountered. Basic block coverage is the same as statement coverage except the unit of code measured is each sequence of non-branching statements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. segment coverage and basic block coverage. Select the unique set of test cases.Other Measures Function coverage Loop coverage Race coverage Execution of Unit Tests Design a test case for every statement to be executed.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Page 57 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Handout – Software Testing Unit Testing Flow : Advantage of Unit Testing Can be applied directly to object code and does not require processing source code. Method for Statement Coverage Design a test-case for the pass/failure of every decision point Select unique set of test cases Page 58 ©Copyright 2007. Disadvantage of Unit Testing Insensitive to some control structures (number of iterations) Does not report whether loops reach their termination condition Statement coverage is completely insensitive to the logical operators (|| and &&). Performance profilers commonly implement this measure. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. The entire Boolean expression is considered one true-or-false predicate regardless of whether it contains logical-and or logical-or operators.Handout – Software Testing This measure reports whether Boolean expressions tested in control structures (such as the if-statement and while-statement) evaluated to both true and false. Method for Condition Coverage: Test if every condition (sub-expression) in decision for true/false Select unique set of test cases. exception handlers. The test cases required for full multiple condition coverage of a condition are given by the logical operator truth table for the condition. Also known as predicate coverage. when present. separated by logical-and and logical-or if they occur. Reports whether every possible combination of boolean sub-expressions occurs. this measure includes coverage of switch-statement cases. It has the advantage of simplicity but without the shortcomings of its component measures This measure reports whether each of the possible paths in each function have been followed. A path is a unique sequence of branches from the function entry to the exit. As with condition coverage. Reports the true or false outcome of each Boolean sub-expression. Predicate coverage views paths as possible combinations of logical conditions Path coverage has the advantage of requiring very thorough testing Page 59 ©Copyright 2007. decisionpath testing. Advantage: Simplicity without the problems of statement coverage Disadvantage This measure ignores branches within boolean expressions which occur due to shortcircuit operators. Also known as: branch coverage. Condition coverage measures the sub-expressions independently of each other. all-edges coverage. Additionally. "Basis path" testing selects paths that achieve decision coverage. basis path coverage. and interrupt handlers. the sub-expressions are separated by logical-and and logical-or. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Disadvantage: Tedious to determine the minimum set of test cases required. especially for very complex Boolean expressions Number of test cases required could vary substantially among conditions that have similar complexity Condition/Decision Coverage is a hybrid measure composed by the union of condition coverage and decision coverage.

Helps detect failure to synchronize access to resources. shallow testing finds gross deficiencies in a test suite quickly. Objectives The typical objectives of integration testing are to: Determine if components will work properly together. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Software Integration Software integration testing is the incremental integration testing of two or more integrated software components on a single platform to produce failures caused by interface defects.Handout – Software Testing Function Coverage: This measure reports whether you invoked each function or procedure. system integration testing is the testing of software components that have been distributed across multiple platforms (e. and more than once. Loop Coverage This measure reports whether you executed each loop body zero times. Kinds of Integration Testing Integration testing includes the following kinds of testing: Commercial Component Integration Commercial component integration testing is the integration testing of multiple commercialoff.e. information not reported by others measure. twice and more than twice (consecutively).g. Integration Testing Integration testing is the testing of a partially integrated application to identify defects involving the interaction of collaborating components. It is useful during preliminary testing to assure at least some coverage in all areas of the software. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Race Coverage This measure reports whether multiple threads execute the same code at the same time. loop coverage reports whether you executed the body exactly once. application server. exactly once. System Integration System integration testing is the integration testing of two or more system components. For do-while loops. if they contain any interface defects).theshelf (COTS) software components to determine if they are not interoperable (i. web server. The valuable aspect of this measure is determining whether while-loops and for-loops execute more than once. client. Useful for testing multi-threaded programs such as in an operating system. Identify defects that are not easily identified during unit testing.. Broad. and database Page 60 ©Copyright 2007. Specifically..

Handout – Software Testing server) to produce failures caused by system integration defects (i. development costs and improved 'time to market' for new systems. the validation process does not often receive the required attention. automotive. Guidelines The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that integration testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. In other words. because this would be too redundant. this again includes the question. system testing does not only deal with this more economical problem. The main goal is rather to demonstrate the discrepancies of the product from its requirements and its documentation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Industry sectors such as telecom. railway. an online casino or games testing. whether testing a financial system. the validation process is close to other activities such as conformance. it is one of the most important. We test for errors that users are likely to make as they interact with the application as well as your application’s ability to trap errors gracefully. it is beyond doubt that this test cannot be done completely. These techniques can be applied flexibly. and nevertheless. acceptance and qualification testing. System Testing For most organizations. while this is one of the most incomplete test methods. Systems with software components and software-intensive systems are more and more complex everyday. This does not mean that now single functions of the whole program are tested. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . defects involving distribution and back-office integration). like a mulituser network or whetever. using different strategies for test data selection. Moreover. Integration testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur. The difference between function testing and system testing is that now the focus is on the whole application and its environment . It is often agreed that testing is essential to manufacture reliable products. Once again. Making this function more effective can deliver a range of benefits including reductions in risk. Even security guide lines have to be included. it also contains some aspects that are orientated on the word ``system'' .e. This means that those tests should be done in the environment for which the program was designed. Page 61 ©Copyright 2007. Therefore the program has to be given completely.. ``Did we build the product right?'' However. are good examples. However. ecommerce. In this paper we examine the results of applying several types of Poisson-process models to the development of a large system for which system test was performed in two parallel tracks. integrating with which-ever type of development methodology you are applying. and aeronautical and space. software and system testing represents a significant element of a project's cost in terms of money and management time. A number of time-domain software reliability models attempt to predict the growth of a system's reliability during the system test phase of the development life cycle. ``Did we build the right product?'' and not just. We will test that the functionality of your systems meets with your specifications.

increased independence naturally increases objectivity. etc. etc. installation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Your test strategy must take into consideration the risks to your organisation. not its parts Techniques can be structural or functional Techniques can be used in any stage that tests the system as a whole (acceptance. also encompass many other types of testing. users.test performance in terms of speed. Execution testing. when appropriate.test adherence to standards Page 62 ©Copyright 2007.test how the system recovers from a disaster. System Testing Techniques Goal is to evaluate the system as a whole. commercial and technical. speed.Handout – Software Testing System Testing is more than just functional testing.) Techniques not mutually exclusive Structural techniques Stress testing . how it handles corrupted data. etc. Cognizant Technology Solutions. has been proven over the last 3decades to deliver real business benefits including: These benefits are achieved as a result of some fundamental principles of testing. etc.test larger-than-normal capacity in terms of transactions. data. You will have a personal interest in its success in which case it is only human for your objectivity to be compromised. for example. such as: Security Load/stress Performance Browser compatibility Localisation Need for System Testing Effective software testing. and can. however. as a part of software engineering.test how the system fits in with existing operations and procedures in the user organization Compliance testing . Operations testing . precision. Recovery testing .

component. then pick a test case from each partition Boundary value .each branch of an if/then statement is exercised Conditional testing .test that the system is compatible with other systems in the environment Control testing . and average values Equivalence partitioning . low. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .) in isolation Techniques can be structural or functional In practice.feed same input into two versions of the system to make sure they Produce the same output Unit Testing Goal is to evaluate some piece (file.test required error-handling functions (usually user error) Manual-support testing .Handout – Software Testing Security testing .every path is exercised (impossible in practice) Error-based techniques Page 63 ©Copyright 2007.test required control mechanisms Parallel testing .choose test cases with input values at the boundary (both inside and outside) of the allowable range Syntax checking .partition the range of allowable input so that the program is expected to behave similarly for all inputs in a given partition.each truth statement is exercised both true and false Expression testing .make sure unchanged functionality remains unchanged errorhandling testing . etc. it’s usually ad-hoc and looks a lot like debugging More structured approaches exist Functional techniques Input domain testing .choose test cases that violate the format rules for input Special values .test that the system can be used properly .fundamental form of testing .includes user documentation Intersystem handling testing .pick test cases that will produce output at the extremes of the output domain Structural techniques Statement testing . program. module.every part of every expression is exercised Path testing .design test cases that use input values that represent special situations Output domain testing .test security requirements Functional techniques Requirements testing . including high.makes sure the system does what it’s required to do Regression testing .pick test cases representative of the range of allowable input. Cognizant Technology Solutions.ensure the set of test cases exercises every statement at least once Branch testing .

the software engineer c. especially with the top-down method.an organization keeps records of the average numbers of defects in the products it produces. SQA d. then test until they are all found Mutation testing . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Unit testing is predominantly a. Test your Understanding 1). unit testing is performed by: a.create mutants of the program by making single changes.Handout – Software Testing Basic idea is that if you know something about the nature of the defects in the code. none of the above 2). then run test cases until all mutants have been killed Historical test data . then tests a new product until the number of defects found approaches the expected number SUMMARY Testing irrespective of the phases of testing should encompass the following: Cost of Failure associated with defective products getting shipped and used by customer is enormous To find out whether the integrated product work as per the customer requirements To evaluate the product with an independent perspective To identify as many defects as possible before the customer finds To reduce the risk of releasing the product Hence the system Test phase should begin once modules are integrated enough to perform tests in a whole system environment. In general. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .put a certain number of known faults into the code. an independent test group b. you can estimate whether or not you’ve found all of them or not Fault seeding . both black-and-white-box oriented d. System testing can occur in parallel with integration test. The customer Answers: 1) a 2) b Page 64 ©Copyright 2007. white-box oriented b. black-box oriented c.

and it is easy to run many of them at the same time. Override the method runTest() When you want to check a value. "CHF").Introduction JUnit is a simple framework to write repeatable tests. write: public void testSimpleAdd() { Money m12CHF= new Money(12. When you need to test something. JUnit tests do not require human judgment to interpret. "CHF"). Money m14CHF= new Money(14. they don't compose nicely. to test that the sum of two Moneys with the same currency contains a value which is the sum of the values of the two Moneys. It is an instance of the xUnit architecture for unit testing frameworks. here is what you do: Create an instance of Test Case: Create a constructor which accepts a String as a parameter and passes it to the superclass. Page 65 ©Copyright 2007. You can change debug expressions without recompiling. Both styles of tests are limited because they require human judgment to analyze their results. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .you can only execute one debug expression at a time and a program with too many print statements causes the dreaded "Scroll Blindness". Also.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 5: JUnit Testing Learning Objective After completing this chapter. and you can wait to decide what to write until you have seen the running objects. call assertTrue() and pass a boolean that is true if the test succeeds For example. JUNIT Testing . You can also write test expressions as statements which print to the standard output stream. Cognizant Technology Solutions. JUnit features include: Assertions for testing expected results Test fixtures for sharing common test data Test suites for easily organizing and running tests Graphical and textual test runners JUnit was originally written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck Simple Test Case How do you write testing code? The simplest way is as an expression in a debugger. you will be able to: Write a Junit Testing.

f28USD= new Money(28. and 28 US Dollars. Money result= m12CHF. you can write as many Test Cases as you'd like. Page 66 ©Copyright 2007. you can make writing the fixture code easier by paying careful attention to the constructors you write. To some extent. } If you want to write a test similar to one you have already written. Each case will send slightly different messages or parameters to the fixture and will check for different results. "CHF"). Cognizant Technology Solutions. When you have a common fixture. protected void setUp() { f12CHF= new Money(12. "CHF"). Fixture What if you have two or more tests that operate on the same or similar sets of objects? Tests need to run against the background of a known set of objects.add(m14CHF). When you want to run more than one test. Often. private Money f28USD. Add an instance variable for each part of the fixture Override setUp() to initialize the variables Override tearDown() to release any permanent resources you allocated in setUp For example.equals(result)). When you are writing tests you will often find that you spend more time writing the code to set up the fixture than you do in actually testing values. write a Fixture instead. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . to write several test cases that want to work with different combinations of 12 Swiss Francs. However.Handout – Software Testing Money expected= new Money(26. a much bigger savings comes from sharing fixture code. 14 Swiss Francs. private Money f14CHF. assertTrue(expected. "USD"). here is what you do: Create a subclass of TestCase Create a constructor which accepts a String as a parameter and passes it to the superclass. } } Once you have the Fixture in place. "CHF"). first create a fixture: public class MoneyTest extends TestCase { private Money f12CHF. create a Suite. This set of objects is called a test fixture. f14CHF= new Money(14. you will be able to use the same fixture for several different tests.

the name of the test is used to look up the method to run. f28USD }. Be sure to make it public. to test the addition of a Money and a MoneyBag.Handout – Software Testing Test Case How do you write and invoke an individual test case when you have a Fixture? Writing a test case without a fixture is simple. For example. You could run the tests one at a time yourself. } Create an instance of of MoneyTest that will run this test case like this: new MoneyTest("testMoneyMoneyBag") When the test is run. after a few such tests you would notice that a large percentage of your lines of code are sacrificed to syntax. assertEquals(expected. For example.add(f28USD. TestSuite which runs any number of test cases together. However. To do so you pass the class of your Test Case to the TestSuite constructor.run(). suite. Suite How do you run several tests at once? As soon as you have two tests. Once you have several tests. write: public void testMoneyMoneyBag() { // [12 CHF] + [14 CHF] + [28 USD] == {[26 CHF][28 USD]} Money bag[]= { f26CHF. TestResult result= suite.addTest(new MoneyTest("testSimpleAdd")). suite. You write test cases for a Fixture the same way. MoneyBag expected= new MoneyBag(bag). f12CHF. Cognizant Technology Solutions. JUnit provides a more concise way to write a test against a Fixture. Here is what you do: Write the test case method in the fixture class. To create a suite of two test cases and run them together. execute: TestSuite suite= new TestSuite().override runTest in an anonymous subclass of TestCase. organize them into a Suite.run(). or it can't be invoked through reflection. you execute: TestResult result= (new MoneyTest("testMoneyMoneyBag")). you'll want to run them together. Page 67 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Another way is to let JUnit extract a suite from a TestCase.Create an instance of the TestCase class and pass the name of the test case method to the constructor. Instead. to run a single test case. but you would quickly grow tired of that. by making a subclass of TestCase for your set up code and then making anonymous subclasses for the individual test cases.addTest(new MoneyTest("testMoneyEquals")). JUnit provides an object.add(f14CHF))).

} If a TestCase class doesn't define a suite method a TestRunner will extract a suite and fill it with all the methods starting with "test". A run button to start the test.TestRunner or junit. TestResult result= suite.run(). suite. A failure is anticipated and checked for with assertions.addTest(new MoneyTest("testMoneyEquals")). to make a MoneyTest suite available to a TestRunner.swingui.addTest(new MoneyTest("testSimpleAdd")). TestSuites don't only have to contain TestCases.run().addTest(Erich. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A list of failed tests.awtui. you can create a TestSuite in your code and I can create one in mine. The graphical user interface presents a window with: A field to type in the name of a class with a suite method. You make your suite accessible to a TestRunner tool with a static method suite that returns a test suite For example.suite()). suite. Errors are unanticipated problems like an Page 68 ©Copyright 2007.suite()).Start it by typing java junit. JUnit distinguishes between failures and errors. Cognizant Technology Solutions.class). suite. They contain any object that implements the Test interface.TestRunner. TestRunner How do you run your tests and collect their results? Once you have a test suite. JUnit provides both a graphical and a textual version of a TestRunner tool. For example. return suite. suite. A progress indicator that turns from red to green in the case of a failed test. It avoids you having to update the suite creation code when you add a new test case. add the following code to MoneyTest: public static Test suite() { TestSuite suite= new TestSuite(). you'll want to run it. In the case of an unsuccessful test JUnit reports the failed tests in a list at the bottom. and we can run them together by creating a TestSuite that contains both: TestSuite suite= new TestSuite(). Use the manual way when you want a suite to only contain a subset of the test cases.addTest(Kent. JUnit provides tools to define the suite to be run and to display its results. Otherwise the automatic suite extraction is the preferred way. TestResult result= suite.Handout – Software Testing TestSuite suite= new TestSuite(MoneyTest.

to start the batch TestRunner for MoneyTest. There is a batch interface to JUnit. write: public static void main(String args[]) { junit. As an alternative JUnit's AWT and Swing UIs use junit.This feature can be disabled by unchecking the 'Reload classes every run' checkbox.LoadingTestCollector . This LoadingTestCollector reloads all your classes for each test run. In a dynamic programming environment like VisualAge for Java which supports hot code update you can leave the JUnit window up all the time. The following figure shows an example of a failed test.run(suite()). } With this definition of main you can run your tests by simply typing java MoneyTest at an operating system prompt. An alternative way to invoke the batch interface is to define a main method in your TestCase class. Cognizant Technology Solutions.TestRunner followed by the name of the class with a suite method at an operating system prompt. also. For example. The batch interface shows the result as text output. To use it typejava junit. For using either the graphical or the textual version make sure that the junit. This is tedious and time consuming.textui. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException.TestRunner.textui.jar file is on your CLASSPATH.runner. Page 69 ©Copyright 2007. In other environments you have to restart the graphical version for each run.

Test monitoring and assessment – ongoing monitoring and assessment of the integrity of the development and construction. and in support of. Test organization also involves the determination of configuration standards and the definition of the test environment. Any test support tools introduced should be aligned with. It is the role of test management to ensure that new or modified service products meet the business requirements for which they have been developed or enhanced. The testing strategy also forms the basis for the creation of a standardized documentation set. Test management is also concerned with both test resource and test environment management. the test strategy. The status of the configuration items should be reviewed against the phase plans and test progress reports prepared providing some assurance of the verification and validation activities. A detailed test plan and schedule is prepared with key test responsibilities being indicated. The Testing strategy should define the objectives of all test stages and the techniques that apply. and facilitates communication of the test process and its implications outside of the test discipline. Key elements of Test Management: Test organization –the set-up and management of a suitable test organizational structure and explicit role definition. you will be able to: Create a test plans and test cases Test Strategy and Test Plan Introduction This Document entails you towards the better insight of the Test Strategy and its methodology. Test planning – the requirements definition and design specifications facilitate in the identification of major test items and these may necessitate the test strategy to be updated. The test environment should also be under configuration control and test data and results stored for future evaluation. The required outcome of each test must be known before the test is attempted. Test specifications – required for all levels of testing and covering all categories of test. The project framework under which the testing activities will be carried out is reviewed. Unit. Page 70 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . integration and system testing – configuration items are verified against the appropriate specifications and in accordance with the test plan.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 6: Testing Artifacts Learning Objective After completing this chapter. high level test phase plans prepared and resource schedules considered. Test Approach/Test Architecture are the acronyms for Test Strategy.

Handout – Software Testing Product assurance – the decision to negotiate the acceptance testing program and the release and commissioning of the service product is subject to the ‘product assurance’ role being satisfied with the outcome of the verification activities. Risks requiring contingency measures? Are test processes and practices reviewed regularly to assure that the testing processes continue to meet specific business needs? For example. e. Product assurance may oversee some of the test activity and may participate in process reviews.g. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . identifying: The items to be tested. Traditionally the responsibility for testing and commissioning is buried deep within the supply chain as a sub-contract of a subcontract. The time necessary for testing and commissioning will vary from project to project depending upon the complexity of the systems and services that have been installed. stress and security etc? Does the test plan prescribe the approach to be taken for intended test activities. Reporting requirements. A common criticism of construction programmers is that insufficient time is frequently allocated to the testing and commissioning of the building systems together with the involvement and subsequent training of the Facilities Management team. e-commerce testing may involve new user interfaces and a business focus on usability may mean that the organization must review its testing strategies. It is possible to gain greater control of this process and the associated risk through the use of specialists such as Systems Integration who can be appointed as part of the professional team. The Project Sponsor should ensure that the professional team and the contractor consider realistically how much time is needed. Page 71 ©Copyright 2007. The testing to be performed. Fitness for purpose checklist: Is there a documented testing strategy that defines the objectives of all test stages and the techniques that may apply. Sufficient time must be dedicated to testing and commissioning as ensuring the systems function correctly is fairly fundamental to the project’s success or failure. Test schedules. Evaluation criteria. Testing and commissioning is often considered by teams as a secondary activity and given a lower priority particularly as pressure builds on the program towards completion. Resource and facility requirements. non-functional testing and the associated techniques such as performance.

Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. Test Strategy – Selection Selection of the Test Strategy is based on the following factors Product o Test Strategy based on the Application to help people and teams of people in making decisions. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected Based on the Key Potential Risks o o o o o o o o o o o o Determination of Actual Risk.Handout – Software Testing Test Strategy Flow: Test Cases and Test Procedures should manifest Test Strategy. Create complex scenarios and compare them. People will use the Product Incorrectly Incorrect comparison of scenarios. Scenarios may be corrupted. Simulate the Algorithm in parallel. Test for sensitivity to user Error. . Review Documentation and Help. Suggestion of Wrong Ideas. Generate large number of decision scenarios. Understand the underlying Algorithm. Unable to handle Complex Decisions. Capability test each major function.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. This will be done using the GUI test Automation system or through the direct generation of Decide Right scenario files that would be loaded into the product during test. The system concerns on risks then establish the objectives for the test process. The difficulty of automating decision tests. General Testing Strategies Top-down Bottom-up Thread testing Stress testing Back-to-back testing Need for Test Strategy The objective of testing is to reduce the risks inherent in computer systems. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and the design of the user interface and functionality for its sensitivity to user error. Create a means to generate and apply large numbers of decision scenarios to the product. The two components of the testing strategy are the Test Factors and the Test Phase. Review the Documentation.Handout – Software Testing Test Strategy Execution: Understand the decision Algorithm and generate the parallel decision analyzer using the Perl or Excel that will function as a reference for high volume testing of the app. Page 73 ©Copyright 2007. Test the product for the risk of silent failures or corruptions in decision analysis. The strategy must address the risks and present a process that can reduce those risks. Test with decision scenarios that are near the limit of complexity allowed by the product Compare complex scenarios. Issues in Execution of the Test Strategy The difficulty of understanding and simulating the decision algorithm The risk of coincidal failure of both the simulation and the product.

Test Phase – The Phase of the systems development life cycle in which testing will occur. Developing a Test Strategy The test Strategy will need to be customized for any specific software system. The strategy will select those factors that need to be addressed in the testing of a specific application system. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Four test steps must be followed to develop a customized test strategy. For example the test phases in as traditional waterfall life cycle methodology will be much different from the phases in a Rapid Application Development methodology. Select and rank Test Factors Identify the System Developmental Phases Identify the Business risks associated with the System under Development. Place risks in the Matrix Page 74 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Test Factor – The risk or issue that needs to be addressed as part of the test strategy. The development team will need to select and rank the test factors for the specific software systems being developed. The test phase will vary based on the testing methodology used. Not all the test factors will be applicable to all software systems. The applicable test factors would be listed as the phases in which the testing must occur. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

It is in this respect that reviews and a sign-off are very important since it means that everyone is in agreement of the contents of the test plan and this also helps in case of any dispute during the course of the project (especially between the developers and the testers). The system accordingly focuses on risks thereby establishes the objectives for the test process. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It identifies test items. It should be thorough enough to be useful but not so thorough that no one outside the test group will read it. the features to be tested.Handout – Software Testing Conclusion: Test Strategy should be developed in accordance with the business risks associated with the software when the test team develop the test tactics. Thus the Test team needs to acquire and study the test strategy that should question the following: What is the relationship of importance among the test factors? Which of the high level risks are the most significant? What damage can be done to the business if the software fails to perform correctly? What damage can be done to the business if the business if the software is not completed on time? Who are the individuals most knowledgeable in understanding the impact of the identified business risks? Hence the Test Strategy must address the risks and present a process that can reduce those risks. deadlines and deliverables for the project. resources and schedule of intended test activities. Test Plan A Test Plan can be defined as a document that describes the scope. Purpose of preparing a Test Plan A Test Plan is a useful way to think through the efforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software product. responsibilities. The main purpose of preparing a Test Plan is that everyone concerned with the project are in sync with regards to the scope. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Contents of a Test Plan Purpose Scope Test Approach Entry Criteria Resources Tasks / Responsibilities Exit Criteria Schedules / Milestones Page 75 ©Copyright 2007. the testing tasks. approach. who will do each task. and any risks requiring contingency planning. The completed document will help people outside the test group understand the 'why' and 'how' of product validation.

Page 76 ©Copyright 2007. database. restoring system to pre-test environment. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . starting the web server / app server. For example: Timely environment set up. Test Approach This would contain details on how the testing is to be performed and whether any specific strategy is to be followed (including configuration management). mainframe processes etc). successful implementation of the latest build etc. Entry Criteria This section explains the various steps to be performed before the start of a test (i. Resources This section should list out the people who would be involved in the project and their designation etc. Tasks / Responsibilities This section talks about the tasks to be performed and the responsibilities assigned to the various members in the project. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Hardware / Software Requirements Risks & Mitigation Plans Tools to be used Deliverables References Procedures Templates Standards/Guidelines Annexure Sign-Off Contents (in detail) Purpose This section should contain the purpose of preparing the test plan Scope This section should talk about the areas of the application which are to be tested by the QA team and specify those areas which are definitely out of scope (screens.e. Schedules / Milestones This sections deals with the final delivery date and the various milestone dates to be met in the course of the project. database refresh etc. Exit criteria Contains tasks like bringing down the system / server.) prerequisites.

end of the project etc. the simulated conditions used. and good data can help improve functional testing.g. Good test data can be structured to improve understanding and testability.g. WinSQL. Test data should however. connectivity related issues etc. PCOM. Sign-Off This should contain the mutual agreement between the client and the QA team with both leads / managers signing off their agreement on the Test Plan. ADD. Its contents. Test Procedure.) templates used for reports.Introduction A System is programmed by its data. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Risks & Mitigation Plans This section should list out all the possible risks that can arise during the testing and the mitigation plans that the QA team plans to implement incase the risk actually turns into a reality. References Procedures Templates (Client Specific or otherwise) Standards / Guidelines (e. test cases etc. Referenced documents can also be attached here. can reduce maintenance effort and allow flexibility. be prepared which is representative of normal business transactions. Status Reports. Functional testing can suffer if data is poor. FSD etc) Annexure This could contain embedded documents or links to documents which have been / will be used in the course of testing (e. start of the project. Test Matrices. Test Data Preparation . Test Scripts etc. Preparation of the data can help to focus the business where requirements are vague. Each separate test should be given a unique reference number which will identify the Business Process being recorded. These could include Test Plans. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the persons involved in the testing Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. correctly chosen.) WinRunner. It is recommended that a full test environment be set up for use in the applicable circumstances. weekly. The first stage of any recogniser development project is data preparation. Templates for all these could also be attached.) QView Project related documents (RSD. Tools to be used This would list out the testing tools or utilities (if any) that are to be used in the project (e.g. Deliverables This section contains the various deliverables that are due to the client at various points of time (i. Test Director.e. specific software that needs to be installed on the systems to get the application running or to connect to the database.Handout – Software Testing Hardware / Software Requirements This section would contain the details of PC’s / servers required (with the configuration) to install the application or perform the testing.) daily. Actual customer names or contact details should also not be used for such tests.

Data is manipulated. A business may look to an application's configurability to allow them to keep up with the market without being slowed by the development process. Data is a crucial part of most functional testing. You must understand the limits inherent in the tests themselves. data manipulation. you must know how it's supposed to work. This will enable the monitoring and testing reports to be co-coordinated with any feedback received. an individual may look for a personalized experience from commonly-available software. as input data has the greatest influence on functional testing and is the simplest to manipulate. is close enough good enough? You should have a good idea of a methodology for the test. presentation and user interface. You should have a definition of what success and failure are. Effective quality control testing requires some basic goals and understanding: You must understand what you are testing. is the medium through which the tester influences the software. you have to decide such things as what exactly you are testing and testing for. Cognizant Technology Solutions. you should design test cases. the way the test is going to be run and applied. rather than output data or the transitional states the data passes through during processing. etc. Configuration data can dictate control flow. You must have a consistent schedule for testing. summarized and referenced by the functionality under test. performing a specific set of tests at appropriate points in the process is more important than running the tests at a specific time. Roles of Data in Functional Testing Testing consumes and produces large amounts of data. if you're testing a specific functionality. and will show that testing can be improved by a careful choice of input data. In doing this. the more formal a plan the better. Tests must be planned and thought out a head of time. those which use databases or are heavily influenced by the data they hold. Testing is the process of creating. etc. This paper sets out to illustrate some of the ways that data can influence the test process. work (almost) seamlessly with a variety of cooperative systems and provide tailored experiences to a host of different users. how the protocols behave. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Data describes the initial conditions for a test. massive datasets and environmental tuning. implementing and evaluating tests. what steps are required. extrapolated. forms the input. which finally spews forth yet more data to be checked against expectations. A System Is Programmed By Its Data Many modern systems allow tremendous flexibility in the way their basic functionality can be used. such as operational profiles. Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. A system can be configured to fit several business models.Handout – Software Testing process and the date the test was carried out. The paper will not consider areas where data is important to non-functional testing. The paper will focus on input data. the paper will concentrate most on data-heavy applications. In other words.

whether they are good or bad. Good data can greatly assist in speedy diagnosis and rapid re-testing. Regression testing and automated test maintenance can be made speedier and easier by using good data. Poor data tends to result in poor tests. effective reporting. Good Data Is Vital To Reliable Test Results An important goal of functional testing is to allow the test to be repeated with the same result. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a nominated testing and across the organization. Good Data Can Help Testing Stay On Schedule An easily comprehensible and well-understood dataset is a tool to help communication. one or more members of the Business Continuity Planning (BCP) Team should be nominated to co-ordinate the testing process within each business unit. and allows tests to be repeated with confidence. Each business process should be thoroughly tested and the coordinator should ensure that each business unit observes the necessary rules associated with ensuring that the testing process is carried out within a realistic environment. Without this. the tests should be independently monitored. Identify Who is to Control and Monitor the Tests In order to ensure consistency when measuring the results. they may be hard to maintain. It should also list the duties of the appointed co-ordinators. or require lengthy and difficult setup. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Identify Who is to Conduct the Tests In order to ensure consistency of the testing process throughout the organization. They may obscure problems or avoid them altogether. Page 79 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Functional Testing Suffers If Data Is Poor Tests with poor data may not describe the business model effectively. for example: Project and quality assumptions Project background information Resources Schedule & timeline Entry and exit criteria Test milestones Tests to be performed Use cases and/or test cases Criteria for Test Data Collection This section of the Document specifies the description of the test data needed to test recovery of each business process. that take longer to execute. and it can become difficult to have confidence in the QA team's results. Good data allows diagnosis. This section of the BCP should contain the names of the BCP Team members nominated to coordinate the testing process. A formal test plan is a document that provides and records important information about a test project. it is hard to communicate problems to coders. and varied to allow diagnosis. while an elegantly-chosen dataset can often allow new tests without the overhead of new data. This task would normally be carried out by a nominated member of the Business Recovery Team or a member of the Business Continuity Planning Team.

This is probably best handled in a workshop environment and should be presented by the persons responsible for developing the emergency procedures. Training Core Testing Team for each Business Unit In order for the testing process to proceed smoothly. It should be noted whenever part of the costs is already incorporated with the organization’s overall budgeting process. Where the costs are significant they should be approved separately with a specific detailed budget for the establishment costs and the ongoing maintenance costs. The 'Preparing for a Possible Emergency' Phase of the BCP process will involve the identification and implementation of strategies for back up and recovery of data files or a part of a business process. This will enable observations and comments to be recorded whilst the event is still fresh in the persons mind. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. The forms should be completed either during the tests (to record a specific issue) or as soon after finishing as practical. This section of the BCP should contain a template for a Feedback Questionnaire. Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. It is important that clear instructions are given to the Core Testing Team regarding the simulated conditions which have to be observed. It is inevitable that these back up and recovery processes will involve additional costs. it is necessary for the core testing team to be trained in the emergency procedures. It should be mandatory for the management of a business unit to be present when that unit is involved with conducting the tests. Prepare Budget for Testing Phase Each phase of the BCP process which incurs a cost requires that a budget be prepared and approved. Prepare Feedback Questionnaires It is vital to receive feedback from the persons managing and participating in each of the tests. It will also contain a list of the duties to be undertaken by the monitoring staff. This section of the BCP will contain a list of the testing phase activities and a cost for each. Conducting the Tests The tests must be carried out under authentic conditions and all participants must take the process seriously. Critical parts of the business process such as the IT systems. This section of the BCP should contain a list of the core testing team for each of the business units who will be responsible for coordinating and undertaking the Business Recovery Testing process.Handout – Software Testing This section of the BCP will contain the names of the persons nominated to monitor the testing process throughout the organization. This feedback will hopefully enable weaknesses within the Business Recovery Process to be identified and eliminated. Completion of feedback forms should be mandatory for all persons participating in the testing process. It is important that all persons who are likely to be involved with recovering a particular business process in the event of an emergency should participate in the testing process. may require particularly expensive back up strategies to be implemented.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Where.if not.if not. a large numberof persons are to be contacted. This section of the BCP is to contain a list of each business process with a test schedule and information on the simulated conditions being used. The training should be assessed to verify that it has achieved its objectives and is relevant for the procedures involved. Every part of the procedures included as part of the recovery process is to be tested to ensure validity and relevance. Training Staff in the Business Recovery Process All staff should be trained in the business recovery process. adequate or requiring further testing. This will enable alternative contact routes to be used. This training may be integrated with the training phase or handled separately. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Training may be delivered either using in-house resources or external resources depending upon available skills and related costs. a hierarchical process could be used whereby one person contacts five others. The testing co-ordination and monitoring will endeavor to ensure that the simulated environments are maintained throughout the testing process. in a realistic manner.if not. This process must have safety features incorporated to ensure that if one person is not contactable for any reason then this is notified to a nominated controller.if not. Page 81 ©Copyright 2007. provide further comment Was test data representative . Assess Test Results Prepare a full assessment of the test results for each business process. provide further comment What were the main comments received in the feedback questionnaires Each test should be assessed as fully satisfactory.Handout – Software Testing Test each part of the Business Recovery Process In so far as it is practical. each critical part of the business recovery process should be fully tested. in the event of an emergency occurring outside of normal business hours. All contact numbers are to be validated for all involved employees. provides further comment Were simulated conditions reasonably "authentic" . This is particularly important for management and key employees who are critical to the success of the recovery process. Test Accuracy of Employee and Vendor Emergency Contact Numbers During the testing process the accuracy of employee and vendor emergency contact information is to be re-confirmed. provide further comment Did the tests proceed without any problems . The following questions may be appropriate: Were objectives of the Business Recovery Process and the testing process met . This is particularly important when the procedures are significantly different from those pertaining to normal operations. The training should be carefully planned and delivered on a structured basis. This activity will usually be handled by the HRM Department or Division.

Prepare Training Schedule Once it has been agreed who requires training and the training materials have been prepared a detailed training schedule should be drawn up. as appropriate. what specific training is required.Handout – Software Testing Managing the Training Process For the BCP training phase to be successful it has to be both well managed and structured. an estimate of resources and an estimate of the completion date. who needs it and a budget prepared for the additional costs associated with this phase. This will enable the training to be consistent and organized in a manner where the results can be measured. It will be necessary to identify the objective and scope for the training. These manual procedures must be fully understood by the persons who are required to carry them out. For larger organizations it may be practical to carry out the training in a classroom environment. it could delay the organization in reaching an adequate level of preparedness. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Develop Objectives and Scope of Training The objectives and scope of the BCP training activities are to be clearly stated within the plan. It is necessary for all new or revised processes to be explained carefully to the staff. For example it may be necessary to carry out some process manually if the IT system is down for any length of time. The BCP should contain a description of the objectives and scope of the training phase. This section of the BCP contains information on each of the training programmes with details of the training materials to be developed. Page 82 ©Copyright 2007. and the training fine tuned. The training will cover all aspects of the Business Recovery activities section of the BCP including IT systems recovery". This section of the BCP will identify for each business process what type of training is required and which persons or group of persons need to be trained. Training Materials Development Schedule Once the training needs have been identified it is necessary to specify and develop suitable training materials. however. for smaller organizations the training may be better handled in a workshop style. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The objectives for the training could be as follows : "To train all staff in the particular procedures to be followed during the business recovery process". This can be a time consuming task and unless priorities are given to critical training programmes. Training Needs Assessment The plan must specify which person or group of persons requires which type of training. Consideration should also be given to the development of a comprehensive corporate awareness program for communicating the procedures for the business recovery process. The scope of the training could be along the following lines: o "The training is to be carried out in a comprehensive and exhaustive manner so that staff become familiar with all aspects of the recovery process.

It should be noted whenever part of the costs is already incorporated with the organization’s overall budgeting process. A separate communication should be sent to the managers of the business units advising them of the proposed training schedule to be attended by their staff. Completion of feedback forms should be mandatory for all persons participating in the training process. Cognizant Technology Solutions. training incurs additional costs and these should be approved by the appropriate authority within the organization. Depending upon the cross charging system employed by the organization. However. Communication to Staff Once the training is arranged to be delivered to the employees. it is necessary to advise them about the training programmes they are scheduled to attend. This feedback will enable weaknesses within the Business Recovery Process. Assessing the Training The individual BCP training programmes and the overall BCP training process should be assessed to ensure its effectiveness and applicability. it has to be recognized that. The communication should provide for feedback from the staff member where the training dates given are inconvenient. The forms should be completed either during the training (to record a specific issue) or as soon after finishing as practical. Feedback Questionnaires Assess Feedback Feedback Questionnaires It is vital to receive feedback from the persons managing and participating in each of the training programmes. Prepare Budget for Training Phase Each phase of the BCP process which incurs a cost requires that a budget be prepared and approved.Handout – Software Testing This section of the BCP contains the overview of the training schedule and the groups of persons receiving the training. This section of the BCP contains a draft communication to be sent to each member of staff to advise them about their training schedule. or the training. the training costs will vary greatly. Each member of staff will be given information on their role and responsibilities applicable in the event of an emergency. or the process. Identified weaknesses should be notified to the BCP Team Leader and the process strengthened accordingly. The key issues raised by the trainees should be noted and consideration given to whether the findings are critical to the process or not. This information will be gathered from the trainers and also the trainees through the completion of feedback questionnaires. This section of the BCP should contain a template for a Feedback Questionnaire for the training phase. If there are a significant number of negative issues raised then consideration should be given to possible retraining once the training materials. This section of the BCP will contain a list of the training phase activities and a cost for each. have been improved. Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. however well justified. This section of the BCP will contain a format for assessing the training feedback. to be identified and eliminated. This will enable observations and comments to be recorded whilst the event is still fresh in the persons mind. Assess Feedback The completed questionnaires from the trainees plus the feedback from the trainers should be assessed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

A Change request Form / Change Order form is to be prepared and approved in respect of each proposed change to the BCP. Whenever changes are made to the BCP they are to be fully tested and appropriate amendments should be made to the training materials. Test All Changes to Plan The BCP Team will nominate one or more persons who will be responsible for co-ordinating all the testing processes and for ensuring that all changes to the plan are properly tested. Responsibilities for Maintenance of Each Part of the Plan Each part of the plan will be allocated to a member of the BCP Team or a Senior Manager with the organization who will be charged with responsibility for updating and maintaining the plan. Maintaining the BCP It is necessary for the BCP updating process to be properly structured and controlled. Whenever changes are made or proposed to the BCP. This section of the BCP contains a draft communication from the BCP Co-ordinator to affected business units and contains information about the changes which require testing or re-testing. This will involve the use of formalized change control procedures under the control of the BCP Team Leader. It is important that the relevant BCP coordinator and the Business Recovery Team are kept fully informed regarding any approved changes to the plan. Similarly. Advise Person Responsible for BCP Training A member of the BCP Team will be given responsibility for co-ordinating all training activities (BCP Training Co-ordinator). Products and services change and also their method of delivery. The BCP Team Leader will remain in overall control of the BCP but business unit heads will need to keep their own sections of the BCP up to date at all times. An assessment should be made on whether the change necessitates any re-training activities. The BCP Testing Co-ordinator will then be responsible for notifying all affected units and for arranging for any further testing activities. The BCP Team Leader will notify the BCP Training Co-ordinator of all approved changes to the BCP in order that the training materials can be updated. It is necessary for the BCP to keep pace with these changes in order for it to be of use in the event of a disruptive emergency. Change Controls for Updating the Plan It is recommended that formal change controls are implemented to cover any changes required to the BCP.Handout – Software Testing Keeping the Plan Up-to-date Changes to most organizations occur all the time. This chapter deals with updating the plan and the managed process which should be applied to this updating activity. have significantly increased the level of dependency upon the availability of systems and information for the business to function effectively. Page 84 ©Copyright 2007. the BCP Testing Co-ordinator will be notified. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This is necessary due to the level of complexity contained within the BCP. HRM Department will be responsible to ensure that all emergency contact numbers for staff are kept up to date. The increase in technological based processes over the past ten years. and particularly within the last five. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This section of the BCP will contain a Change Request Form / Change Order to be used for all such changes to the BCP. These changes are likely to continue and probably the only certainty is that the pace of change will continue to increase.

Poor data can make these reports hard to understand. If not spotted at the time of generation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Everybody makes mistakes. Requirements problems can be hidden in inadequate data. or of a failure to recognize all the data that is influential on the system. Confusion between developers.recognizing them early can allow their effects to be mitigated. testers stand a greater chance of missing important diagnostic features of a failure. the cost increases further. Reduced flexibility in test execution If datasets are large or hard to set up. An assessment should be made on whether the change necessitates any re-training activities.Handout – Software Testing Advise Person Responsible for BCP Training A member of the BCP Team will be given responsibility for co-ordinating all training activities (BCP Training Co-ordinator). they can cause hard-to-diagnose failures that may be apparently unrelated to the original fault. If the datasets are poorly constructed. evidence of the fault is lost. unrecognized database corruption. Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. Larger proportion of problems can be traced to poor data. It is important to consider inputs and outputs of a process for requirements modeling. as the data is restored. Less time spent hunting bugs the more time spent doing unproductive testing or ineffective test maintenance. The following list details the most common problems familiar to the author. Restoring the data to a clean set gets rid of the symptom. Most projects experience these problems at some stage . Poor data will cause more of these problems. Simpler to make test mistakes. testers and business. A proportion of all failures logged will be found. Furthermore. If that data is itself hard to understand or manipulate. or indeed of missing the failure entirely. Obscure results and bug reports without clearly comprehensible data. it may not be time-effective to construct further data to support investigator tests. the less time spent testing. some tests may be excluded from a test run. after further analysis. Increased test maintenance cost If each test has its own data. Confusing or over-large datasets can make data selection mistakes more common. but the original fault is undiagnosed and can carry on into live operation and perhaps future releases. Most reports make reference to the input data and the actual and expected results. Problems which can be caused by Poor Test Data Most testers are familiar with the problems that can be caused by poor data. This can be a symptom of an uncontrolled environment. Each of these groups has different data requirements. Unreliable test results Running the same test twice produces inconsistent results. Inadequate data can lead to ambiguous or incomplete requirements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the cost of test maintenance is correspondingly increased. Data can play a significant role in these failures. A failure to understand each others data can lead to ongoing confusion. The BCP Team Leader will notify the BCP Training Co-ordinator of all approved changes to the BCP in order that the training materials can be updated. Degradation of test data over time Program faults can introduce inconsistency or corruption into a database. not to be faults at all.

setup data causes different functionality to apply to otherwise similar data. and may lend themselves to automated testing / sanity checks. orders. It might include a cross reference between country and delivery cost or method. a complex dataset will positively hinder diagnosis. The following broad categories allow data to be handled and discussed more easily. Although it is perhaps simpler to discuss data in these terms. directory trees and paths and environmental variables. business can offer new intangible products without developing new functionality . Test requirements. or tests. This can not only cause false results. Input data Input data is the information input by day-to-day system functions. many references are made to "The Data" or "Data Problems". it is useful to split the categorization once more. Business data not representatively tested.Handout – Software Testing Unwieldy volumes of data.as can be seen in the mobile phone industry. Small datasets can be manipulated more easily than large datasets. A readily understandable dataset can allow straightforward diagnosis. documents can all be input data. it can be hard for the business or the end users to feel confidence in the test effort if they feel distanced from it. A few datasets are easier to manage than many datasets. The current date and time can be seen as environmental data. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If a large number of testers. Page 86 ©Copyright 2007. Accounts. and can be seen as part of the test conditions. where new billing products are supported and indeed created by additions to the setup data. it is useful to be able to classify the data according to the way it is used. they can influence and corrupt each others results as they change the data in the system. Classification of Test Data Types In the process of testing a system. Environmental data Environmental data tells the system about its technical environment. share the same dataset. but can lead to database integrity problems and data corruption. While this may arguably lead to broad testing for a variety of purposes. A few well-known datasets can be more easily be checked than a large number of complex datasets. Fixed Input Data Fixed input data is available before the start of the test. particularly in configuration data. It includes communications addresses. Poor database/environment integrity. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . products. actions. Typically. often don't reflect the way the system will be used in practice. With an effective approach to setup data. or methods of debt collection from different kinds of customers. Setup data Setup data tells the system about the business rules. Inability to spot data corruption caused by bugs. For the purposes of testing. This can make portions of the application untestable for many testers simultaneously.

It is most effective when the following conditions are satisfied.Handout – Software Testing Consumable Input Data Consumable input data forms the test input It can also be helpful to qualify data after the system has started to use it. Organizing the data A key part of any approach to data is the way the data is organized. influenced by the uses that are planned for it. To sum up. This method is most appropriate when used. reports and database updates. and easy to manipulate dataset is capable of supporting many tests. Most are also familiar with the ways in which this generally vast set can be cut down. Good data assists testing. but its state can be inferred from actions that the system has taken. Typically held in internal system variables. for non-trivial sets. adhoc.which also allows a wide range of tests. This small. As such. these criteria apply to many traditional database-based systems: Fixed input data consists of many rows Fields are independent You want to do many tests without loading / you do not load fixed input data for each test. permutation helps because: Permutation is familiar from test planning. It generally has a correspondence with the input data (cf. easy to handle dataset . the way it is chosen and described. It allows complete pairwise coverage. it is temporary and is lost at the end of processing. This allows a small. Achieves good test coverage without having to construct massive datasets Page 87 ©Copyright 2007. as above. reduces data maintenance time and can help improve the test process. Pair wise. Jackson's Structured Programming methodology). it does not directly influence the quality of the tests. Output Data Output data is all the data that a system outputs as a result of processing input data and events. rather than hinders it. on fixed input data. but can also include test measurements. Finally. test handles and instrumentation make it output data). and includes not only files. Fortunately. transmissions. this method of working with fixed input data can help greatly in testing the setup data. Permutations Most testers are familiar with the concept of permutation. A good approach increases data reliability. the test data can contain all possible pairs of permutations in a far smaller set than that which contains all possible permutations. this produces a far smaller set of tests than the brute-force approach for all permutations. The same techniques can be applied to test data. or combinatorial testing addresses this problem by generating a set of tests that allow all possible pairs of combinations to be tested. Transitional data is not seen outside the system (arguably. Cognizant Technology Solutions. but the data maintenance required will be greatly lessened by the small size of the dataset and the amount of reuse it allows. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . or diagnostic tests. Database changes will affect it. Typically. Transitional data Transitional data is data that exists only within the program. generating tests so that all possible permutations of inputs are tested. during processing of input data. A subset of the output data is generally compared with the expected results at the end of test execution. and so is comprehensive enough to allow a great many new.

Handout – Software Testing
Can perform investigative testing without having to set up more data Reduces the impact of functional/database changes Can be used to test other data - particularly setup data Partitioning Partitions allow data access to be controlled, reducing uncontrolled changes in the data. Partitions can be used independently; data use in one area will have no effect on the results of tests in another. Data can be safely and effectively partitioned by machine / database / application instance, although this partitioning can introduce configuration management problems in software version, machine setup, environmental data and data load/reload. A useful and basic way to start with partitions is to set up, not a single environment for each test or tester, but to set up three shared by many users, so allowing different kinds of data use. These three have the following characteristics: Safe area o Used for enquiry tests, usability tests etc. o No test changes the data, so the area can be trusted. o Many testers can use simultaneously Change Area o o o Used for tests which update/change data. Data must be reset or reloaded after testing. Used by one test/tester at a time.

Scratch area o Used for investigative update tests and those which have unusual requirements. o Existing data cannot be trusted. o Used at tester's own risk! o Testing rarely has the luxury of completely separate environments for each test and each tester. Controlling data, and the access to data, in a system can be fraught. Many different stakeholders have different requirements of the data, but a common requirement is that of exclusive use. While the impact of this requirement should not be underestimated, a number of stakeholders may be able to work with the same environmental data, and to a lesser extent, setup data – and their work may not need to change the environmental or setup data. The test strategy can take advantage of this by disciplined use of text / value fields, allowing the use of 'soft' partitions. 'Soft' partitions allow the data to be split up conceptually, rather than physically. Although testers are able to interfere with each others tests, the team can be educated to avoid each others work. If, for instance, tester 1's tests may only use customers with Russian nationality and tester 2's tests only with French, the two sets of work can operate independently in the same dataset. A safe area could consist of London addresses, the change area Manchester addresses, and the scratch area Bristol addresses. Typically, values in free-text fields are used for soft partitioning.

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Handout – Software Testing
Data partitions help because: Allow controlled and reliable data, reducing data corruption / change problems Can reduce the need for exclusive access to environments/machines Clarity Permutation techniques may make data easier to grasp by making the datasets small and commonly used, but we can make our data clearer still by describing each row in its own free text fields, allowing testers to make a simple comparison between the free text (which is generally displayed on output), and actions based on fields which tend not to be directly displayed. Use of free text fields with some correspondence to the internals of the record allows output to be checked more easily. Testers often talk about items of data, referring to them by anthropomorphic personification – that is to say, they give them names. This allows shorthand, but also acts as jargon, excluding those who are not in the know. Setting this data, early on in testing, to have some meaningful value can be very useful, allowing testers to sense check input and output data, and choose appropriate input data for investigative tests. Reports, data extracts and sanity checks can also make use of these; sorting or selecting on a free text field that should have some correspondence with a functional field can help spot problems or eliminate unaffected data. Data is often used to communicate and illustrate problems to coders and to the business. However, there is generally no mandate for outside groups to understand the format or requirements of test data. Giving some meaning to the data that can be referred to directly can help with improving mutual understanding. Clarity helps because: Improves communication within and outside the team Reduces test errors caused by using the wrong data Allows another method way of doing sanity checks for corrupted or inconsistent data Helps when checking data after input Helps in selecting data for investigative tests Data Load and Data Maintenance An important consideration in preparing data for functional testing is the ways in which the data can be loaded into the system, and the possibility and ease of maintenance. Loading the data Data can be loaded into a test system in three general ways. Using the system you're trying to test o The data can be manually entered, or data entry can be automated by using a capture/replay tool.

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Handout – Software Testing
o This method can be very slow for large datasets. It uses the system's own validation and insertion methods, and can both be hampered by faults in the system, and help pinpoint them. If the system is working well, data integrity can be ensured by using this method, and internally assigned keys are likely to be effective and consistent. Data can be well-described in test scripts, or constructed and held in flat files. It may, however, be input in an ad-hoc way, which is unlikely to gain the advantages of good data listed above. Data load tools directly manipulate the system's underlying data structures. As they do not use the system's own validation, they can be the only way to get broken data into the system in a consistent fashion. As they do not use the system to load the data, they can provide a convenient workaround to known faults in the system's data load routines. However, they may come up against problems when generating internal keys, and can have problems with data integrity and parent/child relationships. Data loaded can have a range of origins. In some cases, all new data is created for testing. This data may be complete and well specified, but can be hard to generate. A common compromise is to use old data from an existing system, selected for testing, filtered for relevance and duplicates and migrated to the target data format. In some cases, particularly for minor system upgrades, the complete set of live data is loaded into the system, but stripped of personal details for privacy reasons. While this last method may seem complete, it has disadvantages in that the data may not fully support testing, and that the large volume of data may make test results hard to interpret.

o

Using a data load tool o

o

Not loaded at all o Some tests simply take whatever is in the system and try to test with it. This can be appropriate where a dataset is known and consistent, or has been set up by a prior round of testing. It can also be appropriate in environments where data cannot be reloaded, such as the live system. However, it can be symptomatic of an uncontrolled approach to data, and is not often desirable. o Environmental data tends to be manually loaded, either at installation or by manipulating environmental or configuration scripts. Large volumes of setup data can often be generated from existing datasets and loaded using a data load tool, while small volumes of setup data often have an associated system maintenance function and can be input using the system.Fixed input data may be generated or migrated and is loaded using any and all of themethods above, while consumable input data is typically listed in test scripts or generated as an input to automation tools. When data is loaded, it can append itself to existing data, overwrite existing data, or delete existing data first. Each is appropriate in different circumstances, and due consideration should be given to the consequences. Testing the Data A theme bought out at the start of this paper was 'A System is Programmed by its Data'. In order to test the system, one must also test the data it is configured with; the environmental and setup data. Environmental data is necessarily different between the test and live environment. Although testing can verify that the environmental variables are being read and used correctly, there is little point in testing their values on a system other than the target system. Environmental data is often checked
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throughout testing.Handout – Software Testing manually on the live system during implementation and rollout. it is important to have a well-known set of fixed input data and consumable input data. Common data problems can be avoided or reduced with preparation and automation. Well-planned data can allow flexibility and help reduce the cost of test maintenance. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and the wide variety of possible methods will not be discussed further here. This allows the effects of changes made to the setup data to be assessed repeat ably and allows results to be compared. Setup data can change often. Effective testing of setup data is a necessary part of system testing. and good data can be used as a tool to enable and improve communication throughout the project. Does the planned/current setup data induce the functionality that the business requires? Will changes made to the setup data have the desired effect? Testing for these two questions only becomes possible when that data is controlled. The setup data should be organized to allow a good variety of scenarios to be considered The setup data needs to be able to be loaded and maintained easily and repeatable The business needs to become involved in the data so that their setup for live can be properly tested When testing the setup data. Aspects of all the elements above come into play. as the business environment changes – particularly if there is a long period between requirements gathering and live rollout. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The advantages of testing the setup data include: Overall testing will be improved if the quality of the setup data improves Problems due to faults in the live setup data will be reduced The business can re-configure the software for new business needs with increased confidence Data-related failures in the live system can be assessed in the light of good data testing Conclusion Data can be influential on the quality of testing. and make its structure and content transparent Use the data to improve understanding throughout testing and the business Test setup data as you would test functionality Page 91 ©Copyright 2007. The following points summarize the actions that can influence the quality of the data and the effectiveness of its usage: Plan the data for maintenance and flexibility Know your data. Testing done on the setup data needs to cover two questions.

The ‘What is”: can be called the statement of condition. When one or more these attributes is missing. the first essential step toward development of a problem statement has occurred. Identification of the cause is the necessary as a basis for corrective action.Essentially the user compares” what is” with “what should be”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and the criteria.Introduction Test Problem is a condition that exists within the software system that needs to be addressed. The statement of condition should document as many of the following attributes as appropriate of the problem. Criteria – Tells what should be. making up the statement of condition. These two attributes are the basis for a finding. attributes of a problem statement. The “What should be” shall be called the “Criteria”. The following four attributes should be developed for all the test problems: Statement of condition –Tells what it is. the I/S professional will need to ensure that the information is accurate. It is difficult to visualize any type of problem that is not in some way characterized by this deviation. When a deviation is identified between what is found to actually exist and what the user thinks is correct or proper . What is a fact? The statement of condition will of course depend on the nature and extent of the evidence or support that is examined and noted. The statement of condition is uncovering and documenting the facts. Effect: Tells why the difference between what is and what should be is significant Cause: Tells the reasons for the deviation. as they currently exist. and worded as clearly and precisely as possible. questions almost arise. The actual deviation will be the difference or gap between “what –is” and “ what is desired”.Handout – Software Testing Test Logs . Carefully and completely documenting a test problem is the first step in correcting the problem. Page 92 ©Copyright 2007. For those facts. such as Criteria: Why is the current state inadequate? Effect: How significant is it? Cause: What could have cause of the problem? Factors defining the Test Log Generation Document Deviation: Problem statements begin to emerge by process of comparision. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If a comparison between the two gives little or no practical consequence. These concepts are the first two and the most basic . A well developed problem statement will include each of these attributes. The documenting of the deviation is describing the conditions. as they exist. well supported. no finding exists. which represents what the user desires.

Handout – Software Testing Activities Involved:.individuvals. – The specific step-by –step activities that are utilized in producing the output from the identical activities. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Users/Customers served –The organization . Deficiencies noted – The status of the results of executing this activity and any appropriate interpretation of those facts. it could indicate the need to reduce the complaints or delays as well as desired processing turn around time.The specific business or administered activities that are being performed during Test Log generation are as follows: Procedures used to perform work. Work Paper to describe the problem. For example .or documents that cause this activity to be executed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and document the statement of condition and the statement of criteria. It can be stated in the either negative or positive terms.The triggers. Inputs . Outputs /Deliverables – The products that are produced from the activity. For example the following Work paper provides the information for Test Log Documentation: Page 93 ©Copyright 2007. The Criterion is the user’s statement of what is desired.events.or class users/customers serviced by this activity.

These are explained in the following paragraphs. Test Suites. which will be based on software requirements. the validation of which becomes the Test Objective.The hardware and Software environment in which the software system will operate. Test Results Data This data will include. Reviews: Verification that the process deliverables / phases are meeting the user’s true needs. Business Objective –The validation that specific business objectives have been met. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Functions/Sub functions .Identifiable Software components normally associated with the requirements of the software.Handout – Software Testing Collecting Status Data Four categories of data will be collected during testing. and Test Events These are the test products produced by the test team to perform testing. Inspections – A verification of process deliverables against deliverable specifications. Defect This category includes a Description of the individual defects uncovered during the testing process. Interface Objectives .Validation that data/Objects can be correctly passed among Software components.The smallest identifiable software components Platform. This description includes but not limited to : Data the defect uncovered Name of the Defect Location of the Defect Page 94 ©Copyright 2007. Units. Test factors -The factors incorporated in the plan. Test Transactions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Test transactions/events: The type of tests that will be conducted during the execution of tests.

Developing Test Status Reports Report Software Status Establish a Measurement Team Inventory Existing Project Measures Develop a Consistent Set of Project metrics Define Process Requirements Develop and Implement the Process Monitor the Process The Test process should produce a continuous series of reports that describe the status of testing. the test that will be performed to determine the status of that component. As described the most common test Report is a simple Spread sheet . The test reports are for use of testers. The intersection can be coded with a number or symbol to indicate the following: 1=Test is needed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. which indicates the project component for which the status is requested. Many organizations use spreadsheet package to maintain test results. and the software development team. when it was corrected. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Severity of the Defect Type of Defect How the defect was uncovered (Test Data/Test Script) The Test Logs should add to this information in the form of where the defect originated . and the results of testing at any point of time. test managers. and when it was entered for retest. Storing Data Collected during Testing It is recommended that a database be established in which to store the results collected during testing. Use of Function/Test matrix: This shows which tests must be performed in order to validate the functions and also used to determine the status of testing. The frequency of the test reports should be based on the discretion of the team and extensiveness of the test process. but not performed 2=Test currently being performed 3=Minor defect noted 4=Major defect noted 5=Test complete and function is defect free for the criteria included in this test Page 95 ©Copyright 2007. It is also suggested that the database be put in online through client/server systems so that with a vested interest in the status of the project can be readily accessed for the status update.

Some Database test tools like Data Vision is a database reporting tool similar to Crystal Reports. troff. delimited ASCII text file or a SQL query to a RDBMS and produces a report listing. DocBook. defect tracking. From the Report Manager. HTML or any other kind of ASCII based output format can be produced just as easily. and data base management products. Status Report Word Processing Tests or Keypad Tests Basic Skills Tests or Data Entry Tests Progress Graph Game Scores Test Report for each test Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . order entry systems.Handout – Software Testing Methods of Test Reporting Reporting Tools . Individual Reports include all of the following information. Reports can be viewed and printed from the application or output as HTML.or comma-separated text files. Some query tools available for Linux based databases include: MySQL dbMetrix PgAccess Cognos Powerhouse This is not yet available for Linux.Use of word processing. or tab. From the LaTeX2e and DocBook output files you can in turn produce PDF. A one-page summary report may be printed with either the Report Manager program or from the individual keyboard or keypad software at any time. XML. LaTeX2e. but plain ASCII text. you can quickly scan through any number of these reports and see how each person's history compares. composing and revising text.'' GRG . database. Word –Processing: One way of increasing the utility of computers and word processors for the teaching of writing may be to use software that will guide the processes of generating. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Cognos is looking into what interest people have in the product to assess what their strategy should be with respect to the Linux ``market.GNU Report Generator The GRG program reads record and field information from a dBase3+ file. email editors. text. The program was loosely designed to produce TeX/LaTeX formatted output. however. and more. and graphic tools to prepare test reports. HTML. This allows each person to use the normal functions of the computer keyboard that are common to all word processors. PostScript. organizing. PostScript.

o Average duration between defect detection and defect correction o Average effort to correct a defect o Total number of defects remaining at delivery o Software performance data us usually generated during system testing. Statistical Analysis . defect statistics can be used for production planning Provides Anytime. business analysts and Client can participate and contribute to the testing process Traceability throughout the testing process Test Cases can be mapped to requirements providing adequate visibility over the test coverage of requirements Test Director links requirements to test cases and test cases to defects Manages Both Manual and Automated Testing Test Director can manage both manual and automated tests (Win Runner) Scheduling of automated tests can be effectively done using Test Director Test Report Standards .Handout – Software Testing Test Director: Facilitates consistent and repetitive testing process Central repository for all testing assets facilitates the adoption of a more consistent testing process.Defining the components that should be included in a test report. once the software has been integrated and functional testing is complete. o Average CPU utilization o Average memory Utilization o Measured I/O transaction rate Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. tester. Testing Data used for metrics Testers are typically responsible for reporting their test status at regular intervals. Anywhere access to Test Assets Using Test Director’s web interface. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Ability to draw statistically valid conclusions from quantitative test results. test execution progress. run schedules. developers. which can be repeated throughout the application life cycle Provides Analysis and Decision Support Graphs and reports help analyze application readiness at any point in the testing process Requirements coverage. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The following measurements generated during testing are applicable: o Total number of tests o Number of Tests executed to date o Number of tests executed successfully to date o Data concerning software defects include o Total number of defects corrected in each activity o Total number of defects entered in each activity.

to assess the potential consequences and initiate appropriate actions to minimize those consequences. as paper report will summarize the data. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Given is the Individual Project test report except that conditions tested are interfaces. The second long term purpose is to use the data to analyze the rework process for making changes to prevent the defects from occurring in the future. The Third long term purpose is to show what was accomplished in case of an Y2K lawsuit. they should prepare a report on their results. and if so. if the function matrix is maintained electronically. Page 98 ©Copyright 2007.9 . The test report can be a combination of electronic data and hard copy. draws appropriate conclusions and present recommendations. could eliminate or minimize the occurrence of high frequency defects. Individual Project Test Report These reports focus on the Individual projects(software system).when different testers should test individual projects.Handout – Software Testing Test Reporting A final test report should be prepared at the conclusion of each test activity. Integration Test Report Integration testing tests the interfaces between individual projects.Purpose of a Test Report: The test report has one immediate and three long term purposes. A good test plan will identify the interfaces and institute test conditions that will validate interfaces. For example. The first of the three long term uses is for the project to trace problems in the event the application malfunctions in production. The immediate purpose is to provide information to customers of the software system so that they can determine whether the system is ready for production . This includes the following Individual Project Test Report Integration Test Report System Test Report Acceptance test Report These test reports are designed to document the results of testing as defined in the testplan. These defect prone components identify tasks/steps that if improved. Knowing which functions have been correctly tested and which ones still contain defects can assist in taking corrective actions. there is no reason to print that. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

The data can also be used to analyze the developmental process to make changes to prevent defects from occurring in the future. The system test Report should present the results of executing the test plan. Knowing which functions have been correctly tested and which ones still contain defects can assist in taking corrective actions. which includes people skills and attitudes. testing should have accomplished this objective. These defect prone components identify tasks/steps that if improved. Acceptance Test Report There are two primary objectives of Acceptance testing Report: The first is to ensure that the system as implemented meets the real operating needs of the user/customer. changing business conditions. and when tests should occur. If the defined requirements are those true needs. time pressures. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 99 ©Copyright 2007. The second objective is to ensure that software system can operate in the real world user environment. how was it to be tested. could eliminate or minimize the occurrence of high frequency defects in future. and so forth. then it need only be referenced .Handout – Software Testing System Test Reports A System Test plan standard that identified the objective of testing . if so the potential consequences and appropriate actions to minimize these consequences. The project can use the test report to trace problems in the event the application malfunction in production. what was to be tested. The Acceptance Test Report should encompass these criteria’s for the User acceptance respectively. One Long term objective is for the Project and the other is for the information technology function. not included in the report. Conclusion The Test Logs obtained from the execution of the test results and finally the test reports should be designed to accomplish the following objectives: Provide Information to the customer whether the system should be placed into production. If these details are maintained Electronically .

Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. This document would contain a summary of the entire project and would have to be presented in a way that any person who has not worked on the project would also get a good overview of the testing effort.. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Contents of a Test Report The contents of a test report are as follows: Executive Summary Overview Application Overview Testing Scope Test Details Test Approach Types of testing conducted Test Environment Tools Used Metrics Test Results Test Deliverables Recommendations Test Case A test case is a testing work product that automatically performs a single test on an executable work product.g. Help developers understand the behavior of the item under test. use case path and class responsibilities) of the item under test.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Help developers improve the quality of the specifications (e.g. the objectives of a single test case include: Document the purpose of the test case (i. Help improve the quality of the item under test. Document the producer of the test case.. the part of the item under test being tested. Objectives To support these goals. a single test of a use case path or class method).e. the type of failures to be elicited). Cause failures that uncover underlying defects so that they can be identified and removed. Goals The goals of a test case is to automate or document the following: Perform a single test (e.Handout – Software Testing Test Report A Test Report is a document that is prepared once the testing of a software product is complete and the delivery is to be made to the customer.

and the collaborators of the item under test into their correct pretest states. The Architecture Team for architecture model test cases.g.g. postconditions) to the expected responses to identify failures that imply the existence of defects in the item under test.Handout – Software Testing Prepare the item under test for testing (i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. Compare the actual responses (i. Observe how the item responds (e. The Independent Test Team for system test cases. Documents a single test in terms of objective. Benefits A test case provides the following benefits: Automates a single test. thereby supporting regression testing.g.e. exceptions raised. Evaluator: Test Inspection Team Approvers: None.. Stimulate the item (e. send it test messages.. Contents Test case objectives Test preparation (e. Documents test results Failure to produce test cases increases the probability that the item under test will contain defects that will make the application fail to meet its requirements. etc. oracle. Maintainers: o The Requirements Team for requirements model test cases. raise test exceptions).e. values returned.. o The Software Development Team for design model and unit test cases. o The Architecture Team for architecture model test cases. Report the results of the associated test.. to send test messages or raise test exceptions) Expected behavior (i. and provide the necessary test data).e. to place objects under test into the appropriate pre-test states) Test stimuli (e. place the item under test. The SoftwareDevelopment Team for design model and unit test cases. test oracle) Test reporting script Test finalization script Stakeholders Producers: o o o o o The Requirements Team for requirements model test cases.g.. Failure to automate test cases makes regression testing more expensive and less likely to occur.. changes in state and messages sent) to the test stimuli. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007. The Integration Team for integration test cases. the test stimuli.

Use case model 2). method signatures. Unit testing of the software components 3). The Integration Team for performing integration testing. or design are completed. Domain object model The Architecture Team for: 1). The relevant test suite is started. 4). architecture. assertions. Unit testing of the software architecture prototype The SoftwareDevelopment Team for 1).. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The relevant team is staffed.Handout – Software Testing o o Users: o Tumultuous 1). The Independent Test Team for system test cases. Model testing of the software architecture 2). o o Phases Initiation: Completed Construction: Completed Delivery: Completed Usage: Maintained Retirement: Archived Preconditions A test case typically can be started if the following preconditions hold: The relevant sections of the Project Test Plan are completed. The Test Team for performing system testing. Model testing of the software design 2). The relevant requirements.g. The Integration Team for integration test cases. branching and looping logic) Stakeholders: None Page 102 ©Copyright 2007. The relevant item under test is started. Inputs Work products: Project Test Plan System Requirements Specification System Architecture Document Software Architecture Document Javadoc including responsibilities Software components (e. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Test Environment (Hardware. integration testing. If the quality of the test cases is not at least as good as the quality of the item under test. Guidelines A test case is constrained by the following conventions: Content and Format Standard Inspection Checklist SUMMARY A test plan contains description of testing objectives and Goals. Communication etc. Test Log d. When performed manually. Test Plan c. Test Case d. Test Strategy/Approach based on customer priorities. Network.) Features to test with priority/criticality. test cases need to be evaluated for defects. Test Specification b. Test your Understanding 1).. Test harness 2). execution conditions and expected results. which are documented in the associated test report. Thus. and the test case developer can make mistakes. model testing. test cases will be automated whenever practical. A series of test data that is logically tested together is a. Test Script Answers: 1) c 2) c Page 103 ©Copyright 2007. then it will be difficult to know if the defect causing the failure is in the item under test or in the test case.Handout – Software Testing Guidelines Test cases will be used at all levels of testing (e. Test cases do not document the results of the tests. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A test case has set of test inputs.g. Test cases need not document how to perform the test unless they are automated. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Software. A test reflects what tests need to be performed. and system testing). unit testing. Test Result c. The document that describes the expected output as well as inputs is a. The oracle can be incorrect. this information is documented in the associated test procedure. Test Case b. Test Deliverables. To support regression testing.

and reporting What is a Defect? A mismatch in the application and its specification is a defect.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 7: Defect Management Learning Objective After completing this chapter. you will be able to: Describe defect lifecycle. Such an evaluation estimates the current system reliability and predicts how the reliability will grow if testing and defect removal continue. An evaluation of defects discovered during testing provides the best indication of software quality. Defects include such things as omissions and imperfections found during testing phases. tracking. The actual data about defect rates are then fit to the model. Defect Classification The severity of bugs will be classified as follows: Page 104 ©Copyright 2007. Symptoms (flaws) of faults contained in software that is sufficiently mature for production will be considered as defects. Rigorous evaluation uses assumptions about the arrival or discovery rates of defects during the testing process. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This evaluation is described as system reliability growth modelling. Defect evaluation is based on methods that range from simple number count to rigorous statistical modeling. Quality is the indication of how well the system meets the requirements. So in this context defects are identified as any failure to meet the system requirements. A deviation from expectation that is to be tracked and resolved is also termed a defect. A software error is present when the program does not do what its end user expects it to do. A Defect is a product anomaly or flaw. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

how to get it and what needs to be changed. Summarize what you think the problem is. This can be broken down into 5 points: Give a brief description of the problem List the steps that are needed to reproduce the bug or problem Supply all relevant information such as version. Cognizant Technology Solutions. For example: cosmetic errors may only require a brief description of the screen. but the more complex the problem– the more information the developer is going to need. Simple problems can have a simple report.Handout – Software Testing Defect Lifecycle Defect Reporting and Tracking The key to making a good report is providing the development staff with as much information as necessary to reproduce the bug. When you are reporting a defect the more information you supply. project and data used. Page 105 ©Copyright 2007. the easier it will be for the developers to determine the problem and fix it. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Supply a copy of all relevant reports and data including copies of the expected results.

list them. The complexity of reproducing the bug. This includes spread sheets. Data: Unless you are reporting something very simple.Handout – Software Testing However. Go through the process again and see if there are any steps that can be removed. such as a cosmetic error on a screen. If you’re reporting a processing error. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Product: If you are developing more than one product– Identify the product in question. The report should explain exactly how to reproduce the problem and an explanation of exactly what the problem is. an earlier version of the software and any formulas used) Documentation on what actually happened. The level of the processing. Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. supply the exact data entered. If specific data is involved. Documentation on what was expected. Steps: List the steps taken to recreate the bug. one before the process and one after. In most cases the product is not static. Copies of any output should be included. As a rule the detail of your report will increase based on The severity of the bug. They have to give developers something to work with so that they can successfully reproduce the problem. After you’ve finished writing down the steps. If there are parameters. you should include two versions of the dataset. developers can trace what is happening. Identify the individual items that are wrong. you should include a dataset that exhibits the error. don’t abbreviate and don’t assume anything. In most cases the more information/ correct information given the better. (Expected results) The source of the expected results. follow them . The basic items in a report are as follows: Version: This is very important. If the dataset from before the process is not included. If you have to enter any data. if available. Include all proper menu names. (Perceived results) An explanation of how the results differed. a copy of the data both before and after the process should be included. In either case. When you report the steps they should be the clearest steps to recreating the bug. developers will have been working on it and if they’ve found a bug– it may already have been reported or even fixed. Anatomy of a bug report Bug reports need to do more than just describe the bug. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . an error in processing will require a more detailed description. they need to know which version to use when testing out the bug.make sure you’ve included everything you type and do to get to the problem. such as: The name of the process and how to get to it. developers will be forced to try and find the bug based on forensic evidence. With the data.

The report must also say what the system should be doing. Invalid Bug – The reported bug is not valid one as per the requirements/design As Designed – This is an intended functionality as per the requirements/design Deferred –This will be an enhancement. Document – Once it is set to any of the above statuses apart from Open. it is set to Closed. which will follow the same cycle as an open defect. On re-testing the defect. what data was used. The Project Lead of the development team will review the defect and set it to one of the following statuses: o o o o o o Open – Accepts the bug and assigns it to a developer.Try to weed out any extraneous information. It should include information about the product. the status is set to REOPENED. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Once the development team has started working on the defect the status is set to WIP ((Work in Progress) or if the development team is waiting for a go ahead or some technical feedback. Remember report one problem at a time. Include what you expected. don’t combine bugs in one report. If the fixed defect satisfies the requirements/passes the test case. The developers need it to reproduce the bug. Page 107 ©Copyright 2007. supply documentation. It is not enough to say that something is wrong. include the version number and the dataset used) This information should be stored in a centralized location so that Developers and Testers have access to the information. include a copy of the report with the problem areas highlighted. The report should be written in clear concise steps. Defect Tracking After a defect has been found. Supporting documentation: If available. Include a list of what was expected. Duplicate – The bug has already been reported. In order to work it must supply all necessary information to not only identify the problem but what is needed to fix it as well. and the defect still exists. SUMMARY A bug report is a case against a product. and the testing team does not agree with the development team it is set to document status. After the development team has fixed the defect. identify it and fix it. If you have a report to compare against.Handout – Software Testing Description: Explain what is wrong . the status is set to FIXED. which means the defect is ready to re-test. but detail what is wrong. so that someone who has never seen the system can follow the steps and reproduce the problem. Testers will need this information for later regression testing and verification. include it and its source information (if it’s a printout from a previous version. they will set to Dev Waiting. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it must be reported to development so that it can be fixed. including the version number. The Initial State of a defect will be ‘New’. If the process is a report.

Logging a defect b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Finding the person who introduced the defect d. Preventing defects Answers: 1) a&b 2) c Page 108 ©Copyright 2007. Tracking a defect to closure c. Unexpected error/event that needs investigation c. Software problem that requires corrective action b. Defect is defined as a. The following is NOT a defect management activity a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All the above 2). Temporary problem that is not related to the software d.Handout – Software Testing Test your Understanding 1).

testing is a repetitive activity. Automation allows the tester to reduce or eliminate the required “think time” or “read time” necessary for the manual interpretation of when or where to click the mouse or press the enter key. Reducing Testing Costs The cost of performing manual testing is prohibitive when compared to automated methods. Automation of testing processes allows machines to complete the tedious. In the past. they remain repetitious throughout the development lifecycle. Therefore. Automation Benefits Today. Every organization has unique reasons for automating software quality activities. the need is greatly increased for testing methods that support business objectives. and with fewer errors than individuals. repetitive work while human personnel perform other tasks. and time-consuming manual test procedures. and have the ability to support business processes. Imagine performing a load test on a typical distributed client/server application on which 50 concurrent users were planned. some types of testing. As more organizations develop mission-critical systems to support their business activities. such as load/stress testing. An automated test executes the next operation in the test hierarchy at machine speed. Many automated testing tools can replicate the activity of a large number of users (and their associated transactions) using a single computer. allowing tests to be completed many times faster than the fastest individual. are virtually impossible to perform manually. The very nature of application software development dictates that no matter which methods are employed to carry out testing (manual or automated). This required a large staff of test personnel to perform expensive.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 8: Automation Learning Objective After completing this chapter. you will be able to: Explain automated testing What is Automation? Automated testing is automating the manual testing process currently in use. but several reasons are common across industries. It is necessary to ensure that these systems are reliable. load/stress testing using automated methods require only a fraction of the computer hardware that would be necessary to complete a manual test. Using Testing Effectively By definition. rigorous application testing is a critical part of virtually all software development projects. most software tests were performed using manual methods. built according to specification. Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. Owing to the size and complexity of today’s advanced software applications. Furthermore. manual testing is no longer a viable option for most testing situations. Many internal and external factors are forcing organizations to ensure a high level of software quality and reliability. The reason is that computers can execute instructions many times faster. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

automated tests can be built that extract variable data from external files or applications and then run a test using the data as an input value. When applications need to be deployed across different hardware or software platforms. automated tests can be executed as many times as necessary without requiring a user to recreate a test script each time the test is run. With an automated scenario. an available network. Using automated tests enforces consistent procedures that allow developers to evaluate the effect of various application modifications as well as the effect of various user actions. 50 application users employing 50 PCs with associated software. the entire test operation could be created on a single machine having the ability to run and rerun the test as necessary. As another example. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and how the tests will be executed. In some industries such as healthcare and pharmaceuticals. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007. at night or on weekends without having to assemble an army of end users. and a cadre of coordinators to relay instructions to the users would be required. Repeatability and Control By using automated techniques.Handout – Software Testing To do the testing manually. Greater application test coverage also reduces the risk of exposing users to malfunctioning or non-compliant software. organizations are required to comply with strict quality regulations as well as being required to document their quality assurance efforts for all parts of their systems. Most importantly. Greater Application Coverage The productivity gains delivered by automated testing allow and encourage organizations to test more often and more completely. the tester has a very high degree of control over which types of tests are being performed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . imagine the same application used by hundreds or thousands of users. For example. Replicating Testing Across Different Platforms Automation allows the testing organization to perform consistent and repeatable tests. It is easy to see why manual methods for load/stress testing is an expensive and logistical nightmare. standard or benchmark tests can be created and repeated on target platforms to ensure that new platforms operate consistently.

These automated modules can be used again and again without having to rebuild the test scripts.Most. Examples include: creating customer records. Mission-critical processes are prime candidates for automated testing. it is also a prime candidate for automation. sales order entry and other core activities. invoicing and other high volume activities where software failures would occur frequently. the company can face extreme disruptions in critical operations. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the application fails.In many situations. Certain types of tests like user comprehension tests. Critical Business Processes . Examples include: financial month-end closings. Any application with a high-degree of risk associated with a failure is a good candidate for test automation. Repetitive Testing . The following are examples of criteria that can be used to identify tests that are prime candidates for automation. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007. For example.Handout – Software Testing Automation Life Cycle Identifying Tests Requiring Automation .If a testing procedure can be reused many times. but not all. common outline files can be created to establish a testing session. and tests that require constant human intervention are usually not worth the investment to automate. close a testing session and apply testing values. production planning.Automated testing can be used to verify the performance of application paths that are used with a high degree of frequency when the software is running in full production. types of tests can be automated. tests that run only once. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . software applications can literally define or control the core of a company’s business. High Path Frequency . This modular approach saves time and money when compared to creating a new end-to-end script for each and every test.

What to Look For in a Testing Tool Choosing an automated software testing tool is an important step. a testing tool that requires programming skills is unusable by most organizations. the architecture of the testing tool environment should be open to support interaction with other technologies such as defect or bug tracking packages. Finally. provide organization for testing components. Internet/Intranet Testing A good tool will have the ability to support testing within the scope of a web browser. easy-to-understand language.Handout – Software Testing Applications with a Long Life Span . Test components built for performing functional tests should also support other types of testing including regression and load/stress testing. which should be addressed when selecting an application testing solution. allowing users to evaluate application readiness based upon the application's ability to support the business requirements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It should also allow users to include non-automated testing procedures within automated test plans and test results. the testing tool itself should have a short learning curve. and should automatically adjust for different load times and performance levels. Load and Performance Testing The selected testing solution should allow users to perform meaningful load and performance tests to accurately measure system performance. User training and experience gained in performing one testing task should be transferable to other testing tasks. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and create meaningful end-user and management reports. The tests created for testing Internet or intranet-based applications should be portable across browsers. Page 112 ©Copyright 2007. A robust tool will allow users to integrate existing test results into an automated test plan. easy-to-modify tests. Test component reusability should be a cornerstone of the product architecture. Ease of Use Testing tools should be engineered to be usable by non-programmers and application endusers. an automated test should be able to link business requirements to test results. With much of the testing responsibility shifting from the development staff to the departmental level. Even if programmers are responsible for testing.If an application is planned to be in production for a long period of time. All products within the testing product environment should be based upon a common. and one which often poses enterprise-wide implications. Here are several key issues. GUI and Client/Server Testing A robust testing tool should support testing with a variety of user interfaces and create simple-to manage. It should also provide test results in an easy-tounderstand reporting format. the greater the benefits are from automation. Testing Product Integration Testing tools should provide tightly integrated modules that support test component reusability. Test Planning and Management A robust testing tool should have the capability to manage the testing process. Also.

and the procedures needed for installation and restoration of the environment. The time invested in detailed planning significantly improves the benefits resulting from test automation. you are ready to re-execute tests or prepare for a different set of tests. all user groups and the Page 113 ©Copyright 2007. or to print a salary check.Finally. a business requirement for a payroll application might be to calculate a salary. the test environment can be prepared. The definition of these tasks. Make sure that other groups that might share these resources are informed of this schedule. those evaluating test automation should consider these fundamental planning steps.Identify any support needed from other parts of your organization. Operational Support . This plan is very much a “living document” that should evolve as the application functions become more clearly defined.Handout – Software Testing Test Environment Setup Once the test cases have been created. or business requirements. Restoration Procedures . outline those procedures needed to restore the test environment to its original state. The test environment is defined as the complete set of steps necessary to execute the test as described in the test plan. These business requirements should be defined in such a way as to make it abundantly clear that the software system correctly (or incorrectly) performs the necessary business functions. The test environment includes initial set up and description of the environment. Installation Procedures . A good testing plan should be reviewed and approved by the test team. the software development team. This enables the testing team to define the tests. Evaluating Business Requirements Begin the automated testing process by defining exactly what tasks your application software should accomplish in terms of the actual business activities of the end-user. To guarantee the best possible result from an automated testing program.Identify the times during which your testing facilities will be used for a given test.Outline the procedures necessary to install the application software to be tested. locate and configure test-related hardware and software products and coordinate the human resources required to complete all testing.Document the technical environment needed to execute the tests. Creating a Test Plan For the greatest return on automated testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . functional requirements of the software system in question. defines the high-level. Test Schedule . Inputs to the Test Environment Preparation Process Technical Environment Descriptions Approved Test Plan Test Execution Schedules Resource Allocation Schedule Application Software to be installed Test Planning Careful planning is the key to any successful process. For example. Description . a testing plan should be created at the same time the software application requirements are defined. By doing this.

These expected results will be used to measure the acceptance criteria. The following items detail the input and output components of the test planning process. the action to be completed. and the expected application values for the procedure being tested.Each test case must have a unique name.Document all screen identifier(s) and expected value(s) that must be verified as part of the test. Expected Results .Take note of the sources for extracting test data if it is not included in the test case. Test Data Sources .When is the scheduled release? When are updates or enhancements planned? Are there any specific events or actions that are dependent upon the application? Acceptance Criteria for implementation . Inputs to the Test Planning Process Application Requirements . A test case identifies the specific input values that will be sent to the application. Test Case Execution Order .What critical actions must the application accomplish before it can be deployed? This information forms the basis for making informed decisions on whether or not the application is ready to deploy. The type and number of test cases needed will be dictated by the testing plan. A proper test case will include the following key components: Test Case Name(s) . the procedures for applying those inputs. Input Values . Test Procedures – Identify the application steps necessary to complete the test case. if necessary. run orders and dependencies that might exist between test cases. Test Design and Development After the test components have been defined.What is the application intended to do? These should be stated in the terms of the business requirements of the end users.Specify any relationships. so that the results of these test elements can be traced and analyzed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the standardized test cases can be created that will be used to test the application.This section of the test case identifies the values to be supplied to the application as input including. Page 114 ©Copyright 2007. Application Implementation Schedules .Handout – Software Testing organization’s management. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Test Case Prerequisites . and therefore the ultimate success of the test.Identify set up or testing criteria that must be established before a test can be successfully executed.

documents the results. This step applies the test cases identified by the test plan. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Specific performance measurements of the test execution phase include: Application of Test Cases – The test cases previously created are applied to the target software application as described in the testing environment Documentation . test execution environment Standardized Test Logging Procedures Outputs from the Test Execution Process Test Execution Log(s) Restored test environment Page 115 ©Copyright 2007. and validates those results against expected performance. test execution and restoration Executing the Test The test is now ready to be run. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Activities within the test execution are logged and analyzed as follows: Actual Results achieved during test execution are compared to expected application behavior from the test cases Test Case completion status (Pass/Fail) Actual results of the behavior of the technical test environment Deviations taken from the test plan or test process Inputs to the Test Execution Process Approved Test Plan Documented Test Cases Stabilized.Handout – Software Testing Inputs to the Test Design and Construction Process Test Case Documentation Standards Test Case Naming Standards Approved Test Plan Business Process Documentation Business Process Flow Test Data sources Outputs from the Test Design and Construction Process Revised Test Plan Test Procedures for each Test Case Test Case(s) for each application function described in the test plan Procedures for test set up. repeatable.

A complete and thorough test plan will identify this need and many of the test cases can be used for both test cycles. Determine Application Status . This step of the process can range from very chaotic to very simple and schedule driven. test automation can offer a dramatic increase in productivity. there may be several test execution cycles necessary to complete all the necessary types of testing required for your application. For example. The problems experienced in test execution are usually attributed to not properly performing steps from earlier in the process.Handout – Software Testing The test execution phase of your software test process will control how the test gets applied to the application. needs more testing. Other Phases in Automation Phase I: Tool Acquisition Assessment Evaluation/Selection Installation With the right tool. Specific elements to be measured and analyzed include: Test Execution Log Review . noting those that passed. The first and most important step in the process is acquiring a tool that is suitable for your application. operating environment. provide an objective selection of the best tool(s). Application Defects .The Log Review compiles a listing of the activities of all test cases. for example: ready for release. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . including application processes that need to be analyzed further. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Without an adequate test plan in place to control your entire test process. and the completion status. Measuring the Results This step evaluates the results of the test as compared to the acceptance criteria set down in the test plan.This summary identifies the total number of tests that were executed. a test execution may be required for the functional testing of an application. the type of test. Test Execution Statistics . and install and configure the tool(s) for your application and environment. failed or were not executed. and a separate test execution cycle may be required for the stress/volume testing of the same application. and test team.This step identifies the overall status of the application after testing. An automation assessment allows us to evaluate your tool needs. Phase II: Tool Implementation Preparation Execution Page 116 ©Copyright 2007. you may inadvertently cause problems for subsequent testing. etc.This final and very important report identifies potential defects in the software. Additionally. The secret to a controlled test execution is comprehensive planning.

if the system functionality changes. reusable automated test environment. Testing can be done with both positive and negative approach simultaneously. Cognizant Technology Solutions. design the test cases. and it is possible for engineers to edit and maintain such scripts. the capture/playback session will need to be completely re-run to capture the new sequence of user interactions. This is applicable when large volume and different sets of data need to be fed to the application and tested for correctness. This sometimes reduces the effort over the completely manual approach. The short-comings of Capture/Playback are that in many cases. design. playback options. Test environment /application to be tested to be installed in the machine. The benefit of this approach is that the time consumed is less and accurate than manually testing it. and automate tests. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Steps to be followed before execution of scripts: Test tool to be installed in the machine. Page 117 ©Copyright 2007. it takes time to define. Although test automation tools can save time through unattended execution. develop the automated scripts. This process will result in a robust. it is how you use it that counts. however overall savings is usually minimal. During the implementation phase. and execute the tests. Tools like Winrunner provide a scripting language. The benefit of this approach is that the captured session can be re-run at some later point in time to ensure that the system performs the required behavior. Scripts need to be reviewed and validated for results and accepted as functioning as expected before they are used live. Automation Methods Capture/Playback Approach The Capture/Playback tools capture the sequence of manual operations in a test script that are entered by the test engineer. As with any tool. Data Driven Approach Data driven approach is a test that plays back the same user actions but with varying input values. Test Script execution: In this phase we execute the scripts that are already created.Handout – Software Testing Selecting the right test tool is only the beginning of a successful test automation effort. necessary data table or data pool updation needs to be taken care. Select the script that needs to be executed and run it… Wait until execution is done. This allows one script to test multiple sets of positive data. we will prepare the test environment. Prerequisite for running the scripts such as tool settings. These sequences are played back during the test execution. Analysis the results via Test manager or in the logs.

test reporting capability. 2 = Good support but lacking or another tool provides more effective support. 4 = This is only supported by use of an API call or third party add-in but not included in the general test tool/below average. This appendix evaluates major tool vendors on their test tool characteristics. 3 = Basic/ support only. 5 = No support. Usually the lower the score the better but this is subjective and is based on the experience of the author and the test professionals opinions used to create this document. The best tool for any particular situation depends on the system engineering environment that applies and the testing methodology that will be used. Rational. Each category in the matrix is given a rating of 1 – 5. Mercury. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 1 = Excellent support for this functionality. and vendor qualification. performance testing and analysis.Handout – Software Testing Test script execution process: Automation tool comparison Anyone who has contemplated the implementation of an automated test tool has quickly realized the wide variety of options on the market in terms of both the kinds of test tools being offered and the number of vendors. Empirix/RSW. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Functional Test Tool Matrix The Tool Matrix is provided for quick and easy reference to the capabilities of the test tools. test execution capability. and Segue. which in turn will dictate how automation will be invoked to support the process. tool integration capability. The following tool vendors evaluated are Compuware. Page 118 ©Copyright 2007. In general a set of criteria can be built up by using this matrix and an indicative score obtained to help in the evaluation process.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . etc. DOM. I have looked at all the tools support for SQL. exact screen location)? Is there object recognition when recording and playing back or does it appear to record ok but then on playback (without environment change or unique id’s. the applications and so on but on the web it is far different. How does the tool manipulate this returned data? Can it call stored procedures and supply required input variables? What is the range of functions supplied for this testing? Page 119 ©Copyright 2007. look at the code and then playback. databases.Handout – Software Testing A detailed description is given below of each of the categories used in the matrix. Ingres. Does the tool support low-level recording (mouse drags. They will record a simple script. ODBC and how they hold returned data e. When automating. A person may be connecting from the USA or Africa. Oracle. So the cost to set up a test environment is usually greater than for a client server test where the environment is fairly well defined. Cognizant Technology Solutions. SQLServer. This is usually achieved by holding the data in a Database. the title? A hidden form element? With Client server testing the target customer is usually well defined you know what network operating system you will be using. This is very similar to recording a macro in say Microsoft Access. etc all of them support a universal query language known as SQL and a protocol for communicating with these databases called ODBC (JDBC can be used on java environments). Informix. and the screen resolution on their computer will be different. In judging the rating for this category I looked at the tools native support for HTML tables.g.g. they may be disabled. various platforms for browsers. checking what is in the backend database usually verifies the proper validation of tests carried out on the front end of an application. Are there facilities that will allow me to programmatically look for objects of a certain type on a web page or locate a specific object? Can I extract data from the web page itself? E. Here are a few examples Are there functions to tell me when the page has finished loading? Can I tell the test tool to wait until an image appears? Can I test whether links are valid or not? Can I test web based objects functions like is it enabled. Web Testing Web based functionality on most applications is now a part of everyday life. etc changes) fail? How easy is it to read the recorded script. Web site maps and links. However this should be done as a minimum in the evaluation process because if the tool of choice cannot recognize the applications objects then the automation process will be a very tedious experience. etc. etc. Eventually record and playback becomes less and less part of the automation process as it is usually more robust to use the built-in functions to directly test objects. Linux or Windows. They will speak different languages. Web testing can be riddled with problems if various considerations are not taken into account. DB2. Record and Playback This category details how easy it is to record & playback a test. is this in an array. Sybase. frames. a variable. etc. As such. they may use various browsers. a cursor. this is the first thing that most test professionals will do. etc. Database Tests Most applications will provide the facility to preserve data outside of itself. As such the test tool should provide good web based test functionality in addition to its client/server functions. connect using MAC.g. does it contain data. Because of the many databases available e. will have fast connections and slow connections.

Data-driven tests are tests that replace hard coded names. A test framework has parallels to Software frameworks where you develop an encapsulation layer of software (framework) around the applications. databases etc and expose functions.Handout – Software Testing Data Functions As mentioned above applications usually provide a facility for storing data off line. Does the tool allow you to specify the type of data you want? Can you automatically generate data? Can you interface with files. Frameworks provide an interface to all the applications under test by exposing a suitable list of functions. address. Pushbuttons Checkboxes Radio buttons List views Edit boxes Combo boxes If you have a custom object that behaves like one of these are you able to map (tell the test tool that the custom control behaves like the standard) control? Does it support all the standard controls methods? Can you add the custom control to it’s own class of control? Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. Most custom objects will behave like a similar standard control here are a few standard objects that are seen in everyday applications. I have looked at all the tools facilities for creating and manipulating data. spreadsheets. However you may find that most (hopefully) of the application has been implemented using standard objects supported by your test tool vendor but there may be a few objects that are custom ones. So to test this. numbers. return data. input data. The added benefit (as I have found) is this functionality can be used for a production reason e. etc. This allows an inexperienced tester/user to run tests by just running/providing the test framework with know commands/variables. we will need to create data to input into the application. Object Mapping If you are in a role that can help influence the design of a product. However applications (except for manual input) do not usually provide facilities for bulk data input. spreadsheet or database. skilled resources and money to facilitate the first two. to datadriven to framework testing. etc with variables supplied from an external source usually a CSV (Comma Separated variable) file. extract data? Can you randomise the access to that data? Is the data access truly random? This functionality is normally more important than database tests as the databases will usually have their own interface for running queries. Frameworks are usually the ultimate goal in deploying automation test tools. These functions are also very important as you move from the record/playback phase. etc to create. methods etc that is used to call the underlying applications. Cognizant Technology Solutions. for the aforementioned bulk data input sometimes carried out in data migration or application upgrades. databases.g. However to do this requires a lot of time. Then hopefully you will not need this functionality. etc. classes. try to get the development/design team to use standard and not custom objects. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Error recovery caused by the application and environment. The premise is it is better to change the reference in one place rather than having to go through each of the scripts to replace it there. Test/Error recovery This can be one of the most difficult areas to automate but if it is automated. The last and least desirable should be by coordinates on the screen. Also when the application has painted controls like those in the calculator app found on a lot of windows applications you may need to use this. I looked at built in wizards of the test tools for standard test recovery (when you finish tests or when a script fails). it provides the foundation to produce a truly robust test suite. At least one of the tools allows you to map painted controls to standard controls but to do this you have to rely on the screen co-ordinates of the image. Once you are well into automation and build up 10’s and 100’s of scripts that reference these objects you will want to have a mechanism that provides an easy update if the application being tested changes. I have looked at these facilities in the base tool set. How easy is it to build this into your code? The rating given will depend on how much errors the tool can capture. object ID. Firstly the tool should provide services to uniquely identify each object it interacts with and by various means.Handout – Software Testing Image Testing Lets hope this is not a major part of your testing effort but occasionally you may have to use this to test bit map and similar images. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A sort of spy that looks at the internals of the object givi ng you details like the object ame. index. how it recovers from errors. etc. Suppose the application crashes while I am testing what can I do? If a function does not receive the correct information how can I handle this? If I get an error message how do I deal with that? If I access a web site and get a warning what do I do? I cannot get a database connection how do I skip those tests? The test tool should provide facilities to handle the above questions. These objects are either identified through the coordinates on the screen or preferably via some unique object reference referred to as a tag. Object Name Map As you test your application using the test tool of your choice you will notice that it records actions against the objects that it interacts with. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 121 ©Copyright 2007. Does the Object Name Map allow you to alias the name or change the name given by the tool to some more meaningful name? Object Identity Tool Once you become more proficient with automation testing one of the primary means of identifying objects will be via an ID Tool. I found this to be true but not as big a point as some have stated because those tools that don’t support the central repository scheme. can be programmed to reference windows and object names in one place (say via a variable) and that variable can be used throughout the script (where that object appears). etc. name. Does the tool provide OCR (optical character recognition)? Can it compare one image against another? How fast does the compare take? If the compare fails how long does that take? Does the tool allow you to mask certain areas of the screen when comparing. the types of errors. ID and similar. All tools provide a search and replace facility but the best implementations are those that provide a central repository to store these object identities.

Handout – Software Testing
This will allow you to reference that object within a function call. The tool should give you details of some of the object’s properties, especially those associated with uniquely identifying the object or window. The tool will usually provide the tester with a point and ID service where you can use the mouse to point at the object and in some window you will see all of that objects ID’s and properties. A lot of the tools will allow you to search all the open applications in one swoop and show you the result in a tree that you can look at when required. Extensible Language Here is a question that you will here time and time again in automation forums. “How do I get {insert test tool name here} to do such and such”, there will be one of four answers. I don’t know It can’t do it It can do it using the function x, y or Z It can’t in the standard language but you can do it like this What we are concerned with in this section is the last answer e.g. if the standard test language does not support it can I create a DLL or extend the language in some way to do it? This is usually an advanced topic and is not encountered until the trained tester has been using the tool for at least 6 – 12 months. However when this is encountered the tool should support language extension. If via DLL’s then the tester must have knowledge of a traditional development language e.g. C, C++ or VB. For instance if I wanted to extend a tool that could use DLL’s created by VB I would need to have Visual Basic then open say an ActiveX dll project, create a class containing various methods (similar to functions) then I would make a dll file. Register it on the machine then reference that dll from the test tool calling the methods according to their specification. This will sound a lot clearer as you go on in the tools and this document will be updated to include advanced topics like this in extending the tools capabilities. Some tools provide extension by allowing you to create user defined functions, methods, classes, etc but these are normally a mixture of the already supported data types, functions, etc rather than extending the tool beyond it’s released functionality. Because this is an advanced topic I have not taken into account ease of use, as those people who have got to this level should have already exhausted the current capabilities of the tools. So want to use external functions like win32api functions and so on and should have a good grasp of programming. Environment Support How many environments does the tool support out the box? Does it support the latest Java release, what Oracle, Powerbuilder, WAP, etc. Most tools can interface to unsupported environments if the developers in that environment provide classes, dll’s etc that expose some of the applications details but whether a developer will or has time to do this is another question. Ultimately this is the most important part of automation. Environment support. If the tool does not support your environment/application then you are in trouble and in most cases you will need to revert to manually testing the application (more shelf ware).

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Handout – Software Testing
Integration How well does the tool integrate with other tools. This is becoming more and more important. Does the tool allow you to run it from various test management suites? Can you raise a bug directly from the tool and feed the information gathered from your test logs into it? Does it integrate with products like word, excel or requirements management tools? When managing large test projects with an automation team greater than five and testers totaling more than ten. The management aspect and the tools integration moves further up the importance ladder. An example could be a major Bank wants to redesign its workflow management system to allow faster processing of customer queries. The anticipated requirements for the new workflow software numbers in the thousands. To test these requirements 40,000 test cases have been identified 20,000 of these can be automated. How do I manage this? This is where a test management tool comes in real handy. Also how do I manage the bugs raised as a result of automation testing, etc? Integration becomes very important rather than having separate systems that don’t share data that may require duplication of information. The companies that will score larger on these are those that provide tools outside the testing arena as they can build in integration to their other products and so when it comes down to the wire on some projects, we have gone with the tool that integrated with the products we already had. Cost In my opinion cost is the least significant in this matrix, why? Because all the tools are similar in price except Visual Test that is at least 5 times cheaper than the rest but as you will see from the matrix there is a reason. Although very functional it does not provide the range of facilities that the other tools do. Price typically ranges from $2,900 - $5,000 (depending on quantity brought, packages, etc) in the US and around £2,900 - £5,000 in the UK for the base tools included in this document. So you know the tools will all cost a similar price it is usually a case of which one will do the job for me rather than which is the cheapest. Visual Test I believe will prove to be a bigger hit as it expands its functional range it was not that long ago where it did not support web based testing. The prices are kept this high because they can. All the tools are roughly the same price and the volumes of sales is low relative to say a fully blown programming language IDE like JBuilder or Visual C++ which are a lot more function rich and flexible than any of the test tools. On top of the above prices you usually pay an additional maintenance fee of between 10 and 20%. There are not many applications I know that cost this much per license not even some very advanced operating systems. However it is all a matter of supply. The bigger the supply the less the price as you can spread the development costs more. However I do not anticipate a move on the prices upwards as this seems to be the price the market will tolerate. Visual Test also provides a free runtime license.

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Handout – Software Testing
Ease Of Use This section is very subjective but I have used testers (my guinea pigs) of various levels and got them from scratch to use each of the tools. In more cases than not they have agreed on which was the easiest to use (initially). Obviously this can change as the tester becomes more experienced and the issues of say extensibility, script maintenance, integration, data-driven tests, etc are required. However this score is based on the productivity that can be gained in say the first three months when those issues are not such a big concern. Ease of use includes out the box functions, debugging facilities, layout on screen, help files and user manuals. Support In the UK this can be a problem as most of the test tool vendors are based in the USA with satellite branches in the UK. Just from my own experience and the testers I know in the UK. We have found Mercury to be the best for support, then Compuware, Rational and last Segue. However having said that you can find a lot of resources for Segue on the Internet including a forum at www.betasoft.com that can provide most of the answers rather than ringing the support line. On their website Segue and Mercury provide many useful user and vendor contributed material. I have also included various other criteria like the availability of skilled resources, online resources, validity of responses from the helpdesk, speed of responses and similar Object Tests Now presuming the tool of choice does work with the application you wish to test what services does it provide for testing object properties? Can it validate several properties at once? Can it validate several objects at once? Can you set object properties to capture the application state? This should form the bulk of your verification as far as the automation process is concerned so I have looked at the tools facilities on client/server as well as web based applications. Matrix What will follow after the matrix is a tool-by-tool comparison under the appropriate heading (as listed above) so that the user can get a feel for the tools functionality side by side. Each category in the matrix is given a rating of 1 – 5. 1 = Excellent support for this functionality, 2 = Good support but lacking or another tool provides more effective support, 3 = Basic/ support only. 4 = This is only supported by use of an API call or third party add-in but not included in the general test tool/below average, 5 = No

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manual testing is no longer a viable option for most testing situations.Handout – Software Testing Matrix score Win Runner = 24 QARun = 25 SilkTest = 24 Visual Test = 39 Robot = 24 SUMMARY Automated testing is automating the manual testing process currently in use. Page 125 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Owing to the size and complexity of today’s advanced software applications.

Use Load Test to schedule and play back the scripts. you can manage every type of change activity associated with software development. etc. Rational Robot. including enhancement requests. enabling developers to quickly find. Cognizant Technology Solutions. including thirdparty libraries. and run tests. you will be able to: Work with Rational Testing tool Sample Test Automation Tool Rational offers the most complete lifecycle toolset (including testing) of these vendors for the windows platform. Rational Suite of tools Rational RequisitePro is a requirements management tool that helps project teams control the development process. prioritize and eliminate performance bottlenecks within an application. Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. Clear case. Rational Purify is a comprehensive C/C+ + run-time error checking tool that automatically pinpoints run-time errors and memory leaks in all components of an application. Allows you to write. test cases and a whole set of tools to support the process. Rational Clear Quest is a change-request management tool that tracks and manages defects and change requests throughout the development process. Their Unified Process is a very good development model that allows mapping of requirements to use cases. Rational Suite Performance Studio is a sophisticated tool for automating performance tests on client/server systems. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Rational Pure Coverage is a customizable code coverage analysis tool that provides detailed application analysis and ensures that all code has been exercised. preventing untested code from reaching the end-user. you can access it in Test Manager. Use Robot to record client/server conversations and store them in scripts. RequisitePro organizes your requirements by linking Microsoft Word to a requirements repository and providing traceability and change management throughout the project lifecycle. and to capture and analyze the results. A client/server system includes client applications accessing a database or application server.g. defect reports. organize. Performance Studio includes Rational Robot and Rational Load Test. With Clear Quest. and documentation modifications. Some of their products are worldwide leaders e. ensuring that code is reliable Rational Quantify is an advanced performance profiler that provides application performance analysis. Facilitates functional and performance testing by automating record and playback of test scripts. Rational Robot. and browsers accessing a Web server. Rational Rose.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 9: Sample Test Automation Tool Learning Objective After completing this chapter. When you define a test requirement in RequisitePro. A baseline version of RequisitePro is included with Rational Test Manager. When it comes to Object Oriented development they are the acknowledged leaders with most of the leading OO experts working for them. RequistePro.

and multiple Rose models and RequisitePro projects. How to create a new project? Page 127 ©Copyright 2007. Rational Test categorizes test information within a repository by project. Automates testing by combining automatic test generation with ourcecode coverage analysis. including all GUI features and all lines of source code. A Rational project is associated with one Rational Test data store. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Tests an entire application. Rational Load Test can emulate hundreds. users and groups and manage security privileges. Rational administrator is used to create and manage rational repositories. You can use the Rational Administrator to create and manage projects. one Clear Quest databases.Handout – Software Testing Rational Test Factory. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The tools that are to discussed here are Rational Administrator Rational Robot Rational Test Manager Rational Administrator What is a Rational Project? A Rational project is a logical collection of databases and data stores that associates the data you use when working with Rational Suite. During playback. and optionally places them under configuration management. even thousands. one RequisitePro database. of users placing heavy loads and stress on your database and Web servers.

to manage test assets create associated test data store and for defect management connect to Clear quest database. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Open the Rational administrator and go to File->New Project. enter the Password if you want to protect the project with password. Accept the default path and click OK button. Click Finish. Once the Create button in the Configure project window is chosen. In the configure project window displayed click the Create button. Page 128 ©Copyright 2007. In the corresponding window displayed. configure or delete the project. which is required to connect to. To manage the requirements assets connect to Requisite Pro. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Click Next. In the above window opened enter the details like Project name and location. the below seen Create Test Data store window will be displayed.

Click OK in the configure project window and now your first Rational project is ready to play with…. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Rational Administrator will display your “TestProject” details as below: Page 129 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Once the below window is displayed it is confirmed that the Test datastore is successfully created and click OK to close the window.

Oracle Forms. and VU scripting environments. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . VB. and PureCoverage. HTML. Create and edit scripts using the SQABasic. Robot still finds them on playback. Collect diagnostic information about an application during script playback. Test applications developed with IDEs such as Visual Basic. Record and play back scripts that navigate through your application and test the state of objects through verification points. Robot uses Object-Oriented Recording to identify objects by their internal object names. Perform full performance testing. Test objects even if they are not visible in the application's interface.Handout – Software Testing Rational Robot Rational Robot to develop three kinds of scripts: GUI scripts for functional testing and VU and VB scripts for performance testing. You can play back scripts under a diagnostic tool and see the results in the log. Robot is integrated with Rational Purify. Quantify. If objects change locations or their text changes. Page 130 ©Copyright 2007. and Java. The Object-Oriented Recording technology in Robot lets you generate scripts quickly by simply running and using the application-under-test. not by screen coordinates. PowerBuilder. The Robot editor provides color-coded commands with keyword Help for powerful integrated programming during script development. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Robot can be used to: Perform full functional testing. Use Robot and TestManager together to record and play back scripts that help you determine whether a multi-client system is performing within user-defined standards under varying loads.

Handout – Software Testing The Object Testing technology in Robot lets you test any object in the application-under-test. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 131 ©Copyright 2007. Go to File-> New->Script In the above screen displayed enter the name of the script say “First Script” by which the script is referred to from now on and any description (Not mandatory). Once logged you will see the robot window. including the object's properties and data. whether they are visible in the interface or hidden. You can test standard Windows objects and IDEspecific objects.The type of the script is GUI for functional testing and VU for performance testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

or debugging. It has two panes: Asset pane (left) – Lists the names of all verification points and low-level scripts for this script. Script pane (right) – Displays the script. How to record a play back script? To record a script just go to Record->Insert at cursor Then perform the navigation in the application to be tested and once recording is done stop the recording. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . editing. Line numbers are enclosed in parentheses to indicate lines in the script with warnings and errors. Console – Displays messages that you send with the SQAConsoleWrite command. Record-> Stop Page 132 ©Copyright 2007. Also displays certain system messages from Robot.Handout – Software Testing The GUI Script top pane) window displays GUI scripts that you are currently recording. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The Output window bottom pane) has two tabs: Build – Displays compilation results for all scripts compiled in the last operation. To display the Output window: Click View ® Output.

Handout – Software Testing

In this window we can set general options like identification of lists, menus, recording think time in General tab: Web browser tab: Mention the browser type IE or Netscape… Robot Window: During recording how the robot should be displayed and hotkeys details… Object Recognition Order: the order in which the recording is to happen. For ex: Select a preference in the Object order preference list. If you will be testing C++ applications, change the object order preference to C++ Recognition Order.

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Handout – Software Testing

Go to Tools-> Playback options to set the options needed while running the script. This will help you to handle unexpected window during playback, error recovery, mention the time out period, to manage log and log data. Verification points A verification point is a point in a script that you create to confirm the state of an object across builds of the application-under-test. During recording, the verification point captures object information (based on the type of verification point) and stores it in a baseline data file. The information in this file becomes the baseline of the expected state of the object during subsequent builds When you play back the script against a new build, Robot retrieves the information in the baseline file for each verification point and compares it to the state of the object in the new build. If the captured object does not match the baseline, Robot creates an actual data file. The information in this file shows the actual state of the object in the build. After playback, the results of each verification point appear in the log in Test Manager. If a verification point fails (the baseline and actual data do not match), you can select the verification point in the log and click View ® Verification Point to open the appropriate Comparator. The Comparator displays the baseline and actual files so that you can compare them. Verification point
Page 134 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Handout – Software Testing
is stored in the project and is always associated with a script. When you create a verification point, its name appears in the Asset (left) pane of the Script window. The verification point script command, which always begins with Result =, appears in the Script (right) pane. Because verification points are assets of a script, if you delete a script, Robot also deletes all of its associated verification points. You can easily copy verification points to other scripts if you want to reuse them. List of Verification Points The following table summarizes each Robot verification point.

Page 135 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Page 136 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

sbh: Click File ® Open ® SQABasic File. Datapools let you automatically pump test data to virtual testers under high-volume conditions that potentially involve hundreds of virtual testers performing thousands of transactions. constants. Page 137 ©Copyright 2007. Click the Comment button on the GUI Insert toolbar. Select global. and variables that you want to use with multiple scripts or SQABasic library source files.Handout – Software Testing About SQABasic Header Files SQABasic header files let you declare custom procedures. You can add declarations to this global header file and/or create your own. Adding Declarations to the Global Header File For your convenience. You can specify another location by clicking Tools ® General Options. Click Edit ® Comment Line or Edit ® Uncomment Line. Global. If editing. unless you specify another location. They can be accessed by all modules within the project.sbh is a project-wide header file stored in SQABas32 in the project. About Data pools A datapool is a test dataset. and then click Open.sbh. you can insert lines of comment text into a GUI script. it will look in the SQABas32 directory.sbh. Click the Preferences tab. Under SQABasic path. Set the file type to Header Files (*. position the pointer in the script and click the Display GUI Insert Toolbar button on the Standard toolbar. You can use Robot to create and edit SQABasic header files. Robot provides a blank header file called Global.sbh. click the Display GUI Insert Toolbar button on the GUI Record toolbar. Cognizant Technology Solutions. use the Browse button to find the location. Robot will check this location first. To insert a comment into a script during recording or editing. Robot inserts the comment into the script (in green by default) preceded by a single quotation mark. Robot ignores comments at compile time. For example: This is a comment in the script To change lines of text into comments or to uncomment text: Highlight the text. To open Global.sbh). Comments are helpful for documenting and editing scripts. Click OK to continue recording or editing. Type the comment (60 characters maximum). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It supplies data values to the variables in a script during script playback. SQABasic header files have the extension .SQABasic files are stored in the SQABas32 folder of the project. If the file is not there. If recording. Inserting a Comment into a GUI Script: During recording or editing.

you use a datapool so that: Each virtual tester that runs the script can send realistic data (which can include unique data) to the server. Robot adds datapool commands to VU scripts automatically. part name. and so forth. Also. There is no DATAPOOL_CONFIG statement in a GUI script. you might want a datapool to supply those values during playback.Handout – Software Testing Typically. Although there are differences in setting up datapool access in GUI scripts and sessions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the GUI script can access the same datapool as other scripts. For example. Debug menu The Debug menu has the following commands: Go Go Until Cursor Animate Pause Stop Set or Clear Breakpoints Clear All Breakpoints Step Over Step Into Step Out Note: The Debug menu commands are for use with GUI scripts only. you define a datapool for either type of script using TestManager in exactly the same way. when a GUI script is played back in a TestManager suite. you might be filling out a data entry form and providing values such as order number. you might want to provide a different set of values each time. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If you plan to repeat the transaction multiple times during playback. Robot compiles the script if it has been modified since it last ran. The SQADatapoolOpen command defines the access method to use for the datapool. You can also compile scripts and SQABasic library source files manually. or when you debug a GUI script. A single virtual tester that performs the same transaction multiple times can send realistic data to the server in each transaction. A GUI script can access a datapool when it is played back in Robot. Page 138 ©Copyright 2007. Using Datapools with GUI Scripts If you are providing one or more values to the client application during GUI recording. Compiling the script When you play back a GUI script or VU script. There are differences in the way GUI scripts and sessions are set up for datapool access: You must add datapool commands to GUI scripts manually while editing the script in Robot.

the Build tab in the Output window displays compilation results and error messages with line numbers for all compiled scripts and library source files. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 139 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing During compilation. The compilation results can be viewed in the Build tab of the Output window.

It is where the team defines the plan it will implement to meet those goals. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Create and manage builds. execute tests and evaluate results. it provides the entire team with one place to go to determine the state of the system at any time. Under this single framework. Rational Test Manager Test Manager is the open and extensible framework that unites all of the tools. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and data both related to and produced by the testing effort. design. implement. The results need to be analyzed in the Test Manager. Create and manage data pools and data types Page 140 ©Copyright 2007. assets. And. and test documents. and track test coverage and progress. The reporting tools help you track assets such as scripts. and run reports. all participants in the testing effort can define and refine the quality goals they are working toward. manage. In Test Manager you can plan.Handout – Software Testing Compilation errors After the script is created and compiled and errors fixed it can be executed. With Test manager we can: Create. builds. most importantly. log folders. and logs.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In the Results tab of the Test Manager. From Test Manager you can know start time of the script and Page 141 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing When the script execution is started the following window will be displayed. you could see the results stored. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The folder in which the log is to stored and the log name needs to be given in this window.

0 with service pack 5 Win2000 WinXP(Rational 2002) Win98 Win95 with service pack1 Protocols Oracle SQL server HTTP Sybase Tuxedo SAP People soft Web browsers IE4.0 or later Netscape navigator (limited support) Page 142 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Supported environments Operating system WinNT4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Rational Robot.Handout – Software Testing Markup languages HTML and DHTML pages on IE4. To test these types of application.g. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . etc.0 or later. RequistePro. Clear case. Page 143 ©Copyright 2007.5 Delphi Power builder 5. Rational Rose. Development environments Visual basic 4.0 and above The basic product supports Visual basic. you have to download and run a free enabler program from Rational’s website. Cognizant Technology Solutions.0 or above Visual C++ Java Oracle forms 4.rational. Some of their products are worldwide leaders e. When it comes to Object Oriented development they are the acknowledged leaders with most of the leading OO experts working for them.com SUMMARY Rational offers the most complete lifecycle toolset (including testing) of these vendors for the windows platform. VC++ and basic web pages. For more details visit www.

To increase confidence and to provide an advance warning of potential problems in case of load conditions. the evaluation of a design alternative is the prime mover for an analysis. The main objective of a performance testing is to demonstrate that the system functions to specification with acceptable response times while processing the required transaction volumes in real-time production database. we want to measure the latency. The objective of a performance test is to demonstrate that the system meets requirements for transaction throughput and response times simultaneously. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A systematic approach like performance analysis is essential to extract maximum benefit from an existing system.. or exhaustion of. The main deliverables from such a test. Performance testing of an application is basically the process of understanding how the web application and its operating environment respond at various user load levels. In general. however. Page 144 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 10: Performance Testing Learning Objective After completing this chapter. Post-deployment realities create a need for the tuning the existing system. more than one alternative presents itself. Why Performance testing? Performance problems are usually the result of contention for. high throughput. some system resource. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the cost of failure becomes increasingly unbearable. completely exercise the application) in an attempt to find errors. analysis must be done to forecast performance under load. prior to execution. performance is a secondary issue to features. Maintaining optimum Web application performance is a top priority for application developers and administrators. throughput. the system is unable to scale to higher levels of performance. are automated test scripts and an infrastructure to be used to execute automated tests for extended periods. it is still an issue. One of the main objectives of performance testing is to maintain a web site with low latency. When a system resource is exhausted. you will be able to: Test performance of a software What is Performance testing? The performance testing is a measure of the performance characteristics of an application. and low utilization. and utilization of the web site while simulating attempts by virtual users to simultaneously access the site. When looking for errors in the application. In such cases. developers would execute their applications using different execution streams (i. Typically to debug applications.e. Identification of bottlenecks in a system is more of an effort at troubleshooting. As the user base grows. Performance analysis is also carried for various purposes such as: During a design or redesign of a module or a part of the system. This helps to replace and focus efforts at improving overall system response.

Achievable . Quantitative. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Performance Testing Objectives The objective of a performance test is to demonstrate that the system meets requirements for transaction throughput and response times simultaneously. Measure the network delay between the server and clients Pre-requisites for Performance Testing We can identify five pre-requisites for a performance test. Realistic . the design specification or a separate performance requirements document should: Defines specific performance goals for each feature that is instrumented. First and foremost thing is. realistic. Bases performance goals on customer requirements.a response time must be relevant to a business process. Fortunately. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A comprehensive test strategy would define a test infrastructure to enable all these objectives be met. The performance testing goals are: End-to-end transaction response time measurements. Measurable . Not all of these need be in place prior to planning or preparing the test (although this might be helpful).response time requirements should be justifiable when compared with the durations of the activities within the business process the system supports. This infrastructure is an asset and an expensive one too. Page 145 ©Copyright 2007. achievable requirements As a foundation to all tests. this infrastructure is a test bed. This helps in determining whether or not the system meets the stated requirements. Relevant . Monitor system resources under various loads. Defines specific customer scenarios.expressed in quantifiable terms such that when response times are measured. Measure Application Server components performance under various loads. Measure database components performance under various loads. relevant. but rather.response times should take some account of the cost of achieving them. a sensible comparison can be derived. which can be re-used for other tests with broader objectives. measurable. Quantitative . so it pays to make as much use of this infrastructure as possible.a response time should be defined such that it can be measured using a tool or stopwatch and at reasonable cost. performance requirements should be agreed prior to the test. The following attributes will help to have a meaningful performance comparison. the list defines what is required before a test can be executed.

the test environment should be comparable to the actual production environment. useless for a performance test. Load profiles The second component of performance requirements is a schedule of load profiles. but is. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. Database volumes Data volumes. A single response time requirement for all transactions might be simple to define from the user’s point of view. defining the numbers of table rows which should be present in the database after a specified period of live running complete the load profile. which must be supported by the system. but others are less critical and response time requirements can be less stringent. Performance Testing Requirements Performance requirements normally comprise three components: Response time requirements Transaction volumes detailed in ‘Load Profiles’ Database volumes Response time requirements When asked to specify performance requirements. Even with an environment which is somewhat different from the production environment. Business scenarios might cover different situations when the users’ organization has different levels of activity or involve a varying mix of activities. A test environment which bears no similarity to the actual production environment may be useful for finding obscure errors in the code. it should still be possible to interpret the results obtained using a model of the system to predict. the behavior of the target environment. but is unreasonable. Testers will not be able to record scripts in the first instance. If the software crashes regularly. Some functions are critical and require short response times. depending on the business application. it will probably not withstand the relatively minor stress of repeated use. for the results of the test to be realistic. but two year volumes or greater might be used in some circumstances. However. data volumes estimated to exist after one year’s use of the systems are used. users normally focus attention on response times. or may not be able to execute a test for a reasonable length of time before the software. however. Cognizant Technology Solutions. with some confidence. A load profile is the level of system loading expected to occur during a specific business scenario.Handout – Software Testing Stable system A test team attempting to construct a performance test of a system whose software is of poor quality is unlikely to be successful. middleware or operating systems crash. Often this is not possible. Typically. Realistic test environment The test environment should ideally be the production environment or a close simulation and be dedicated to the performance test team for the duration of the test. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and often wishes to define requirements in terms of generic response times.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Performance Testing Process Page 147 ©Copyright 2007.

Hardware & Software components and Usage Model. It is important to understand as accurately and as objectively as possible the nature of load that must be generated. Response Time Transactions Per Second Hits Per Second Workload No of con current users Volume of data Data growth rate Resource usage Hardware and Software configurations Phase 2 – Test Plan The following configuration information will be identified as part of performance testing environment requirement identification. The objective is to understand the performance test requirements. Following are the important performance test requirement that needs to be captured during this phase.Handout – Software Testing Phase 1 – Requirements Study This activity is carried out during the business and technical requirements identification phase. Hardware Platform Server Machines Processors Memory Disk Storage Load Machines configuration Network configuration Page 148 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Checkpoints.Handout – Software Testing Software Configuration Operating System Server Software Client Machine Software Applications Phase 3 – Test Design Based on the test strategy detailed test scenarios would be prepared. During the test design period the following activities will be carried out: Scenario design Detailed test execution plan Dedicated test environment setup Script Recording/ Programming Script Customization (Delay. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Synchronizations points) Data Generation Parameterization/ Data pooling Page 149 ©Copyright 2007.

Handout – Software Testing Phase 4 –Scripting Phase 5 – Test Execution The test execution will follow the various types of test as identified in the test plan. Virtual user loads are simulated based on the usage pattern and load levels applied as stated in the performance test strategy. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The following artifacts will be produced during test execution period: Test logs Test Result Page 150 ©Copyright 2007. All the scenarios identified will be executed.

Handout – Software Testing Phase 6 – Test Analysis Phase 7 – Preparation of Reports The test logs and results generated are analyzed based on Performance under various load. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Transaction Distribution and Data handling. Manual and automated results analysis methods can be used for performance results analysis. Think time. Network throughput. Network delay. The following performance test reports/ graphs can be generated as part of performance testing:Transaction Response time Transactions per Second Transaction Summary graph Transaction performance Summary graph Transaction Response graph – Under load graph Virtual user Summary graph Page 151 ©Copyright 2007. Resource usage. database throughput. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Transaction/second.

database organization. Common Mistakes in Performance Testing No Goals No general purpose model Goals =>Techniques. Workload Not trivial Biased Goals ‘To show that OUR system is better than THEIRS” Analysts = Jury Unsystematic Approach Analysis without Understanding the Problem Incorrect Performance Metrics Unrepresentative Workload Wrong Evaluation Technique Overlook Important Parameters Ignore Significant Factors Inappropriate Experimental Design Inappropriate Level of Detail No Analysis Erroneous Analysis Page 152 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Error Statistics graph Hits per second graph Throughput graph Down load per second graph Based on the Performance report analysis. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Changes to server system parameters. middleware. Upgrades to client or server hardware. network capacity or routing. suggestions on improvement or tuning will be provided to the design team: Performance improvements to application software. Metrics.

Without defined performance goals or requirements. Performance issues must be identified as soon as possible to prevent further degradation. Performance goals need to be ensured. without a clear purpose. at how to instrument tests to best measure various response times. Establish incremental performance goals throughout the product development cycle. If we decide to make performance a goal and a measure of the quality criteria for release. testers must guess. The Web Capacity Analysis (WebCAT) tool provides Web server performance analysis. The performance tests should not be used to find functionality-type bugs. the tool can also assess Internet Server Application Programming Interface and application server provider (ISAPI/ASP) applications. Creating an automated test suite to measure performance is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Significant changes to the performance test suite skew or make obsolete all previous data. the management team must decide to enforce the goals. Also. Cognizant Technology Solutions. keep the performance test suite fairly static throughout the product development cycle. Page 153 ©Copyright 2007. We should run the automated performance test suite against every build and compare the results against previous results. it is important to define concrete performance goals.Handout – Software Testing No Sensitivity Analysis Ignoring Errors in Input Improper Treatment of Outliers Assuming No Change in the Future Ignoring Variability Too Complex Analysis Improper Presentation of Results Ignoring Social Aspects Omitting Assumptions and Limitations Benchmarking Lessons Ever build needs to be measured. Therefore. perturb only one variable at a time for each build. If the design or requirements change and you must modify a test. it is a software architectural problem. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Performance testing of Web services and applications is paramount to ensuring an excellent customer experience on the Internet. Design the performance test suite to measure response times and not to identify bugs in the product. we should run the performance test suite under controlled conditions from build to build. Therefore. The performance tests should be modified consistently. This typically means measuring performance on "clean" test environments. Design the build verification test (BVT) suite to ensure that no new bugs are injected into the build that would prevent the performance test suite from successfully completing. All the members in the team should agree that a performance issue is not just a bug.

5 and Webload 4. Tests are capturing secondary metrics when the instrumented tests have nothing to do with measuring clear and established performance goals. TSL. persistent connections and chunked transfer coding. It can measure the performance of your application under any load conditions. Webload supports HTTP1. You should reuse automated performance tests Automated performance tests can often be reused in many other automated test suites. The tools used for performance testing are Loadrunner 6.Handout – Software Testing Strive to achieve the majority of the performance goals early in the product development cycle because: Most performance issues require architectural change.Webload displays them in graphs and tables in real-time and you can save and export the results when the test is finished. LoadRunner enables you to test your system under controlled and peak load conditions. Cognizant Technology Solutions.5 LoadRunner is Mercury Interactive’s tool for testing the performance of client/server systems. You can watch the results as they occur. LoadRunner runs thousands of Virtual Users that are distributed over a network. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it is probably wasted data. these Virtual users provide consistent. Tools used for testing would be the tool pecified in the requirement specification. Repeatable and measurable load to execute your client/server system just as real users would. Using a minimum of hardware resources.5x. incorporate the performance test suite into the stress test suite to validate stress scenarios and to identify potential performance issues under different stress conditions. To generate load.1. client certificates. WebLoad 4. Although secondary metrics look good on wall charts and in reports. per-transaction and per-instance level from the computers that are generating the load.0 and 1. You create test scripts (called agendas) using Java Scripts that instruct those virtual clients about what to do. Webload generates load by creating virtual clients that emulate network traffic. Page 154 ©Copyright 2007. Performance is known to degrade slightly during the stabilization phase of the development cycle. Performance Testing Tools Testing for most applications will be automated. For example. authentifications. Achieving performance goals early also helps to ensure that the ship date is met because a product rarely ships if it does not meet performance goals. Load Runner’s in depth reports and graphs provide the information that you need to evaluate the performance of your client/server system. functionality and performance of Web-based applications – both Internet and Intranet. When Webload runs the test.5 Webload is a testing tool for testing the scalability. SSL. Use WebLoad to test how well your web site will perform under realworld conditions by combining performance. Ensure that you know what you are measuring and why. LoadRunner 6. if the data is not going to be used in a meaningful way to make improvements in the engineering cycle. Webload can also gather information server’s performance monitor. load and functional tests or by running them individually. proxies. it gathers results at a per-client. including cookies.

Handout – Software Testing Performance Testing Tools . Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .summary and comparison Page 155 ©Copyright 2007.

Handout – Software Testing Page 156 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Page 157 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Handout – Software Testing Page 158 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

It is significantly different from capacity planning exercise in that it is done after development and before deployment Software Benchmarking .Defining the right placement and composition of software instances can help in vertical scalability of the system without addition of hardware resources. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Hardware benchmarking is performed to size the application with the planned Hardware platform.Handout – Software Testing Architecture Benchmarking Hardware Benchmarking . This is achieved through software benchmark test. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 159 ©Copyright 2007.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . issues and errors to pay attention to during and after the test. along with some simple background information that might be helpful during testing. The methodologies below are generic. E. Stretch Factor: The ratio of the response time with single user to that of concurrent users. Performance Metrics The Common Metrics selected /used during the performance testing is as below Response time Turnaround time = the time between the submission of a batch job and the completion of its output. Page 160 ©Copyright 2007. allowing one to use a wide range of tools to conduct the assessments. Or. This methodology specification provides information on the appropriate script of pages or transactions for the user. Utilization: The fraction of time the resource is busy servicing requests. the ratio of the performance of an nprocessor system to that of a one-processor system is its efficiency. Constraints: details any constraints and values that should not be exceeded during testing. Throughput: Rate (requests per unit of time) Examples: Jobs per second Requests per second Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS) Millions of Floating Point Operations Per Second (MFLOPS) Packets Per Second (PPS) Bits per second (bps) Transactions Per Second (TPS) Capacity: Nominal Capacity: Maximum achievable throughput under ideal workload conditions.Handout – Software Testing General Tests What follows is a list of tests adaptable to assess the performance of most systems. each test requires a certain type of workload. Methodology Definitions Result: provide information about what the test will accomplish.g. bandwidth in bits per second. Type of workload: in order to properly achieve the goals of the test. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Purpose: explains the value and focus of the test. Usable capacity: Maximum throughput achievable without exceeding a pre-specified response-time limit Efficiency: Ratio usable capacity to nominal capacity. The response time at maximum throughput is too high.. Time estimate: a rough estimate of the amount of time that the test may take to complete. Methodology: a list of suggested steps to take in order to assess the system under test. What to look for: contains information on behaviors.

throughput etc. HTTP requests per second. Without the rigor described in this paper. design. executing performance testing does not yield anything more than finding more defects in the system.Processor Utilization. if executed systematically with appropriate planning. execution. SQL Queries Transaction Profiling Code Block Analysis Network Statistics Bandwidth Utilization Network delay time Network Segment delay time Conclusion Performance testing is an independent discipline and involves all the phases as the mainstream testing lifecycle i. As tests are executed. It is very typical of the project manager to be overtaken by time and resource pressures Page 161 ©Copyright 2007. However. plan. application and database servers and make sure those numbers recede as load decreases. Cognizant Technology Solutions.. memory. Memory and Disk Space Web Server Resources–Threads. Cognizant has built custom monitoring tools to collect the statistics. disk space and network usage on individual web. analysis and reporting. Cache Hit Ratio Application Server Resources–Heap size.Handout – Software Testing Average Fraction used for memory. Third party monitoring tools are also used based on the requirement. JDBC Connection Pool Database Server Resources–Wait Events.e strategy. It is also important to monitor and collect the statistics such as CPU utilization. metrics such as response times for transactions. should be collected. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Client Side Statistics Running Vusers Hits per Second Throughput HTTP Status Code HTTP responses per Second Pages downloaded per Second Transaction response time Page Component breakdown time Page Download time Component size Analysis Error Statistics Errors per Second Total Successful/Failed Transactions Server Side Statistics System Resources . performance testing can unearth issues that otherwise cannot be done through mainstream testing.

Once these solutions are properly adopted and utilized. By continuously testing and monitoring the performance of critical software applications. performance testing to check if it offers an acceptable response time and load testing to see what hardware or software configuration will be required to provide acceptable response time and handle the load that will created by the real users of the system Why is load testing important? Load Testing increases the uptime for critical web applications by helping you spot the bottlenecks in the system under large user stress scenarios before they happen in a production environment. The discipline helps businesses succeed in leveraging Web technologies to their best advantage. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Load Testing Load Testing is creation of a simulated load on a real computer system by using virtual users who submit work as real users would do at real client workstations and thus testing the systems ability to support such workload. Automated load testing tools and services are available to meet the critical need of measuring and optimizing complex and dynamic application and infrastructure performance. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Before testing the system for performance requirements. Thus a load testing is accomplished by stressing the real application under simulated load provided by virtual users.Handout – Software Testing leading not enough budget being allocated for performance testing. enabling new business opportunity lowering transaction costs and strengthening profitability. the consequences of which could be disastrous to the final system. However there is an important point to be noted here. Web-enabled applications and infrastructures must be able to execute evolving business processes with speed and precision while sustaining high volumes of changing and unpredictable user audiences. Fortunately. it may be too late in the software development cycle to correct serious performance issues. leveraging an ongoing. robust and viable solutions exist to help fend off disasters that result from poor performance. If not. Page 162 ©Copyright 2007. There is another flip side of the coin. business can confidently and proactively execute strategic corporate initiatives for the benefit of shareholders and customers alike. When should load testing be done? Load testing should be done when the probable cost of the load test is likely less than the cost of a failed application deployment. Load testing gives the greatest line of defense against poor performance and accommodates complementary strategies for performance management and monitoring of a production environment. lifecycle-focused approach. Testing of critical web applications during its development and before its deployment should include functional testing to confirm to the specifications. businesses can begin to take charge and leverage information technology assets to their competitive advantage. the system should have been architect and designed for meeting the required performance goals.

Volume Testing is conducted in conjunction with Component. as its name implies. Huge (e. number of users.g. Goals The typical goals of stress testing are to: Cause the application to fail to scale gracefully under extreme conditions so that the underlying defects can be identified. extreme numbers of transactions. blackbox application that attempts to cause failures involving how its performance varies under extreme but valid conditions (e. Cognizant Technology Solutions. fixed. extreme utilization... A system including software. Determine if the application will support "worst case" production load conditions. Batch with no realtime requirements.Handout – Software Testing Volume and Stress Testing Volume testing: Volume Testing. Volume testing will seek to verify the physical and logical limits to a system's capacity and ascertain whether such limits are acceptable to meet the projected capacity of the organization's business processing. Examples Typical examples include stress testing of an application that is: Software only. and data components. Provide input to the defect trend analysis effort. Such systems can be transactions processing systems capturing real time sales or could be database updates and or data retrieval. For example. is testing that purposely subjects a system (both hardware and software) to a series of tests where the volume of data being processed is the subject of the test. Help determine the extent to which the application is ready for launch.g. queries with an extreme number of restrictions. Determine how an application degrades and eventually fails. amount of data). Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed.e. and dependency on over-utilized shared resources). number of transactions. or an entry at the maximum amount of data in a field. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. Provide data that will assist systems engineers in making intelligent decisions regarding future scaling needs. Objectives The typical objectives of stress testing are to: Partially validate the application (i. queries that return the entire contents of a database. insufficient memory inadequate hardware. Configuration and/or Stress Testing. and prevented in the future. stress testing could involve an extreme number of simultaneous users. hardware. to determine if it fulfills its scalability requirements). Page 163 ©Copyright 2007. as conditions become extreme. analyzed. Stress testing is the system testing of an integrated.

. The independent test team is adequately staffed and trained in stress testing. Tasks Stress testing typically involves the independent test team performing the following testing tasks using the following techniques: Test Planning Test Reuse Test Design: o o Use Case Based Testing Workload analysis to determine the maximum production workloads. radar. Software integration has occurred (i.. A research prototype that will not be placed into service.g. Test Execution: o o Regression Testing Profiling Test Reporting Environments Load testing is typically performed on the following environments using the following tools: Test Environment: o Test Harness o Use case modeling tool o Performance analyzer o Profiler Page 164 ©Copyright 2007. cruise-control software).g. flight-control software. Completion Criteria Stress testing is typically complete when the following postconditions hold: At least one stress test suite exists for each scalability requirement. load testing can begin prior to the distribution of the software components onto the hardware components). Embeded within another system (e. avionics. automotive engine control). The relevant system components have passed system integration testing. Test Implementation: o Develop test scripts o Simulating extreme workloads.e.. Business-critical or safety-critical. The test environment is ready.Handout – Software Testing Soft realtime (i. Client/server or n-tier distributed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . human reaction times).e. The test suites for every scheduled scalability requirement execute successfully. Cognizant Technology Solutions.. Preconditions Stress test execution can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The scalability requirements to be tested have been specified. The relevant software components have passed unit testing. Hard realtime (e.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. (**) Optional stress testing of the executable architecture as well as the COTS components during the vendor and tool evaluation and vendor and tool selection tasks. Page 165 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Work Products Stress testing typically results in the production of all or part of the following work products from the test work product set: Documents: o Project Test Plan o Master Test List o Test Procedures o Test Report o Test Summary Report Software and Data: o o o o o Phases Test Harness Test Scripts Test Suites Test Cases Test Data (*) Optional stress testing of COTS software components during the technology analysis and technology vendor selection tasks.

reuse functional test cases as stress test cases. Page 166 ©Copyright 2007. The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that stress testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. Perform stress testing for several minutes to several hours. Stress testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur. To the extent practical. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Stress testing can elicit failures prior to launch.Handout – Software Testing Guidelines A system can fulfilits operational requirements and still be a failure if it does not scale. SUMMARY The performance testing is a measure of the performance characteristics of an application. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The main objective of a performance testing is to demonstrate that the system functions to specification with acceptable response times while processing the required transaction volumes in real-time production database. are automated test scripts and an infrastructure to be used to execute automated tests for extended periods. prior to execution. The objective of a performance test is to demonstrate that the system meets requirements for transaction throughput and response times simultaneously. The main deliverables from such a test. Develop test scripts simulating exceptional workloads.

Test case complexity for that requirement OR Interface with other Test cases OR No. The test cases for a particular requirement are classified into Simple. you will be able to: Describe TCP and TCP Analysis What is a Test Case Point (TCP)? TCP is a measure of estimating the complexity of an application. we can have ‘Login and Authentication’ as a module and rank that particular module as Simple. The TCP counts are nothing but ranking the requirements and the test cases that are to be written for those requirements into simple. of verification points OR Baseline Test data Refer the test case classification table given below Page 167 ©Copyright 2007. This is also used as an estimation technique to calculate the size and effort of a testing project. An Average requirement is ranked between 4 and 7. In this courseware we shall give an overview about Test Case Points and not elaborate on using TCP as an estimation technique. which can be given a value in the scale of 1 to3. Average and Complex based on the following four factors. Cognizant Technology Solutions. average and complex and quantifying the same into a measure of complexity.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 11: Test Case Point Learning Objective After completing this chapter. Test Case Point Analysis Calculating the Test Case Points Based on the Functional Requirement Document (FRD). Average and Complex based on the number and complexity of the requirements for that module. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the application is classified into various modules like say for a web application. A Complex requirement is ranked between 8 and 10. A Simple requirement is one.

we can get the number of simple. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Any verification point containing a calculation is considered 'Complex' Any verification point. Summing up the three results. we arrive at the count of Total Test Case Points. average and complex test case points. Cognizant Technology Solutions. From the break up of Complexity of Requirements done in the first step. average and complex test cases.Handout – Software Testing A sample guideline for classification of test cases is given below. Page 168 ©Copyright 2007. we get the simple. average and complex test case types. which interfaces with or interacts with another application is classified as 'Complex' Any verification point consisting of report verification is considered as 'Complex' A verification point comprising Search functionality may be classified as 'Complex' or 'Average' depending on the complexity Depending on the respective project. The Adjustment Factor in the table mentioned below is pre-determined and must not be changed for every project. the complexity needs to be identified in a similar manner. This adjustment factor has been calculated after a thorough study and analysis done on many testing projects. Based on the test case type an adjustment factor is assigned for simple. By multiplying the number of requirements with it s corresponding adjustment factor.

The academic world more often uses the term "test coverage" while practitioners more often use "code coverage". This contrasts with functional testing (black-box testing). Functional testing examines what the program accomplishes. Code coverage analysis is a structural testing technique (white box testing). If the execution time in some procedures is zero. whose job is really to measure performance bottlenecks. taking into account possible pitfalls in the structure and logic. Here is a description of some fundamental measures and their strengths and weaknesses Procedure-Level Test Coverage Probably the most basic form of test coverage is to measure what procedures were and were not executed during the test suite. This simple statistic is typically available from execution profiling tools. Test coverage analysis is sometimes called code coverage analysis. Page 169 ©Copyright 2007. and not the quality of the actual product. which is an indirect measure of quality. Test coverage analysis can be used to assure quality of the set of tests. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Creating additional test cases to increase coverage. you need to write new tests that hit those procedures.Handout – Software Testing Test Coverage Test Coverage is an important measure of quality for software systems. Structural testing compares test program behavior against the apparent intention of the source code. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . But this measure of test coverage is so coarse-grained it's not very practical. Structural testing examines how the program works. which compares test program behavior against a requirements specification. A test coverage analyzer automates this process. without regard to how it works internally. The two terms are synonymous. Also an optional aspect of test coverage analysis is: Identifying redundant test cases that do not increase coverage. Test coverage measures A large variety of coverage measures exist. Test Coverage analysis is the process of: Finding areas of a program not exercised by a set of test cases. and Determining a quantitative measure of code coverage. Coverage analysis requires access to test program source code and often requires recompiling it with a special command.

However. They analyze the source code as written. Cognizant Technology Solutions. of course. Proponents claim this technique can provide higher levels of code coverage measurement (condition coverage. consider a block of code that is skipped under certain conditions (e. Such a tool may not actually generate new source files with the additional code.the provider of the tool must explicitly choose which languages to support. This type of instrumentation is independent of programming language. the file itself is not modified. just executing it will not automatically start code coverage (as it would with the other methods of Page 170 ©Copyright 2007. intercept the compiler after parsing but before code generation to insert the changes they need. The same executable file used for product release testing should be used for code coverage. test coverage tools generally "instrument" the program by inserting "probes". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Executable Instrumentation Probes can also be added to a completed executable file. etc. In theory. The tool will analyze the existing executable. Runtime Instrumentation Probes need not be added until the program is actually run. you should have more. and then create a new. How and when this instrumentation phase happens can vary greatly between different products. But in practice. This type of instrumentation is dependent on programming language -. The probes exist only in the inmemory copy of the executable file. or virtual machine). the performance factor may be significant. A separate version namely.) than other forms of instrumentation. code coverage version in addition to other versions. instrumented one. You need condition coverage to know. and add additional code (such as calls to a code coverage runtime) that will record where the program reached. it is an enviable commitment to quality! How Test Coverage Tools Work To monitor execution. you don't know whether you have tested the case when it is skipped.Handout – Software Testing Line-Level Test Coverage The basic measure of a dedicated test coverage tool is tracking which lines of code are executed. OS. If that code is shown as executed. However. is often the key to writing more tests that will increase coverage: By studying the unexecuted code. or project level giving a percentage of the code that was executed. A large project that achieved 90% code coverage might be considered a well-tested product.. file. such as debug (un optimized) and release (optimized) needs to be maintained. There are many other test coverage measures. If the test suite is large and timeconsuming. This result is often presented in a summary at the procedure. allowing you to see exactly which lines of code were executed and which were not. and which are not. For example. Some products. for example. But it can be somewhat independent of operating environment (processor. Condition Coverage and Other Measures It's easy to find cases where line coverage doesn't really tell the whole story. Source-Level Instrumentation Some products add probes at the source level. Because the file is not modified in any way. One drawback of this technique is the need to modify the build process.the provider of the tool must explicitly choose which processors or virtual machines to support.g. you can see exactly what functionality has not been tested. Adding probes to the program will make it bigger and slower. most available code coverage tools do not provide much beyond basic line coverage. if you achieve 95+% line coverage and still have time and budget to commit to further testing improvements. This. a statement in an if clause). Typically the line coverage information is also presented at the source code level. it is dependent on operating environment -.

Instead. Runtime Instrumentation is independent of programming language but dependent on operating environment. Each project must choose a minimum percent coverage for release criteria based on available testing resources and the importance of preventing post-release failures. up-to-date requirements specification.Handout – Software Testing instrumentation). Test Coverage Tools at a Glance Coverage analysis is a structural testing technique that helps eliminate gaps in a test suite. It helps most in the absence of a detailed. This new code will wake up and connect to a waiting coverage tool whenever the program executes. Alternatively. This added code does not affect the size or performance of the executable. Clearly. the code coverage tool must start program execution directly or indirectly. and does nothing if the coverage tool is not waiting. Like Executable Instrumentation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 171 ©Copyright 2007. We must set a higher coverage goal for unit testing than for system testing since a failure in lower-level code may affect multiple high-level callers. the code coverage tool will add a tiny bit of instrumentation to the executable. safety-critical software should have a high goal. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

The search page provides with facility to search by name or place and the results are displayed in a tabular form where the essential fields name and phone no. City. The entries can be seen in a tabular form also by choosing the search by list option. The phone number and credit card number are numeric and email address is also verified for a character '@'. along with email is displayed. The database is Microsoft Access. The Personal Address book is designed for people to access their contacts online from a central database on the server. c) Also develop other test cases for complete testing. Email address. you need to submit the following artifacts: a) Draw the flow chart. return false.focus(). Test your Understanding Assignment 1 There is an application on personal address book.Handout – Software Testing SUMMARY TCP is a measure of estimating the complexity of an application. document. Case Study: Application Personal Address book.name1.value=="") { alert ("Please Fill in the name"). if (document. Validation code at client side function save() { var flag. It uses ASP in the server side and java script in the client side. Cognizant Technology Solutions. State.0 and above. The view only pages are reached through the results page on clicking the hyperlinks. The details that can be stored are Name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . so that effectively reduces the network traffic.frm.phone. As a whole it is designed for personal use and security was not a concern while designing it. } if (document. Address2. Phone no. an additional field for credit card number is provided.frm. However the system is not compatible with Netscape browser and is designed specifically for the IE 5. Country.value=="") Page 172 ©Copyright 2007. However only the name and phone numbers are mandatory fields. Address1. This is also used as an estimation technique to calculate the size and effort of a testing project.name1.. Note that the pages are not submitted to the server for this action.frm. flag=0. find the independent paths b) Develop Test cases based on that. These entries can be modified directly from here by clicking the edit button. In the personal information page.

i<document.value.submit().value.Handout – Software Testing { alert ("Please Fill in the Phone number").phone.focus().frm. return false. } if (isNaN(document. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . document.focus().email.email. return false. } } if (flag!=1) { alert ("Please Fill email in correct format").phone. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } } document.phone. return true. document.frm. } Page 173 ©Copyright 2007.i++) { if (document.frm.value!="") { for (i=0.frm.frm.charAt(i)=="@") { flag=1.frm.frm. return false.email. document.email.frm. break.frm.select(). } if (document.email. document.select().phone.focus().frm.length. document.value)==true) { alert ("Phone number should be numeric").

softwaretestinginstitute.co. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Daniel J. by. by. by. John Paul & Paperback Practical Tools and Techniques for Managing Hardware and Software Testing. by. by. Hayes Automating Specification-Based Software Testing.mtsu.aptest. and Performance. Mosley Fundamental Concepts for the Software Quality Engineer.softwaretesting.com/ http://www. Paulc. by. by.sqatester. Glenford J. Bret Pettichord Page 174 ©Copyright 2007.com/~bazman/ http://www. Mark Fewster & Dorothy Graham The craft of software testing. Robert M. Poston. Jeff Rashka. by. by. Elfriede Dustin.testing.Handout – Software Testing REFERENCES WEBSITES http://members. by. by.com/ http://www.com/ Cognizant eResources: http://elibrary/ \\ctsintcosaca\library BOOKS The Art of Software Testing. Boris Beizer Testing Applications on the Web: Test Planning for Mobile and Internet-Based Systems. Myers The Complete Guide to Software Testing.Bob Johnson . Nguyen. Boris Beizer Client Server Software Testing on the Desktop and the Web. Nguyen Software Test Automation.Michael Hacke & Robert Johnson Software Testing: A Craftsman's Approach. Taz Daughtrey Testing Applications on the Web. Jorgensen. Hung Q. by.edu/~storm/ http://www. Rex Black 50 Ways to improve your testing. Brian Marick Software test automation. Elfriede Dustin Effective use of Test automation tools. Mark Fewster & Dorothy Graham Black-Box Testing . IEEE Black Box Testing.com/resources.uk/ http://www. Paul Jorgensen Automated Software Testing: Introduction. Hung Q. by. Management. Linda G. Cognizant Technology Solutions.html http://www. by. by.com/ http://www. by. Boris Beizer Automated Testing Handbook. by. by.tripod. Bill Hetzel Software Testing Techniques. by.nildram.softwareqatest.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing STUDENT NOTES: Page 175 ©Copyright 2007.

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