Handout: Software Testing

Version: ST/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

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Handout – Software Testing

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................5 About this Module .........................................................................................................................5 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................5 Module Objectives ........................................................................................................................5 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................5 Chapter 1: Introduction to Testing ...............................................................................................6 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................6 What is Software Testing..............................................................................................................6 Testing Life Cycle .........................................................................................................................6 Broad Categories of Testing .........................................................................................................7 The Testing Techniques ...............................................................................................................7 Types of Testing ...........................................................................................................................8 SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................................8 Test your Understanding ..............................................................................................................9 Chapter 2: Black Box Vs. White Box Testing ............................................................................10 Learning Objective:.....................................................................................................................10 Introduction to Black Box and White Box testing........................................................................10 Black box testing ........................................................................................................................10 Black box testing - without user involvement .............................................................................11 Black box testing - with user involvement ..................................................................................11 White Box Testing ......................................................................................................................14 Black Box (Vs) White Box...........................................................................................................18 SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................20 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................20 Chapter 3: Other Testing Types ..................................................................................................21 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................21 What is GUI Testing? .................................................................................................................21 Regression Testing.....................................................................................................................31 Integration Testing ......................................................................................................................38 Acceptance Testing ....................................................................................................................43 Configuration Testing & Installation Testing ...............................................................................45 Alpha testing and Beta testing ....................................................................................................48 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................52
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Handout – Software Testing
Chapter 4: Levels of Testing .......................................................................................................53 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................53 Unit Testing.................................................................................................................................53 Integration Testing ......................................................................................................................60 System Testing ...........................................................................................................................61 SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................64 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................64 Chapter 5: JUnit Testing ..............................................................................................................65 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................65 JUNIT Testing - Introduction.......................................................................................................65 Simple Test Case .......................................................................................................................65 Fixture .........................................................................................................................................66 Test Case ...................................................................................................................................67 Suite............................................................................................................................................67 TestRunner .................................................................................................................................68 Chapter 6: Testing Artifacts ........................................................................................................70 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................70 Test Strategy and Test Plan .......................................................................................................70 Test Plan.....................................................................................................................................75 Test Case .................................................................................................................................100 SUMMARY ...............................................................................................................................103 Test your Understanding ..........................................................................................................103 Chapter 7: Defect Management .................................................................................................104 Learning Objective ....................................................................................................................104 What is a Defect? .....................................................................................................................104 Defect Lifecycle ........................................................................................................................105 Defect Reporting and Tracking .................................................................................................105 SUMMARY ...............................................................................................................................107 Test your Understanding ..........................................................................................................108 Chapter 8: Automation ...............................................................................................................109 Learning Objective ....................................................................................................................109 What is Automation? ................................................................................................................109 Automation Benefits .................................................................................................................109 Automation Life Cycle...............................................................................................................111 Test Environment Setup ...........................................................................................................113 Other Phases in Automation.....................................................................................................116
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143 Chapter 10: Performance Testing .................167 Test Case Point Analysis.......................................................................126 Learning Objective ..........................................................167 Learning Objective ...................................117 Automation tool comparison .........................................................................125 Chapter 9: Sample Test Automation Tool ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ...............................................................................175 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007................................................................................130 Rational Test Manager .........................................................................................................................166 Chapter 11: Test Case Point ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................118 SUMMARY ............................................163 SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................................Handout – Software Testing Automation Methods..........146 Performance Testing Process ................140 Supported environments .......................................................................174 WEBSITES .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................144 What is Performance testing? ...........126 Sample Test Automation Tool .........................167 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................127 Rational Robot ............. Cognizant Technology Solutions.....................................................................................................142 SUMMARY ......174 STUDENT NOTES: ...............................................126 Rational Administrator ..........................................172 Test your Understanding ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................167 What is a Test Case Point (TCP)? ...............174 BOOKS ..........................................................................................147 Performance Testing Tools ................................154 Volume and Stress Testing .............144 Learning Objective .....................................................172 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................................................................................144 Performance Testing Requirements .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................126 Rational Suite of tools................

the student will be able to: Explain Software Testing List the types of testing Explain Test Strategy Describe Test Plan Describe Test Design Describe Test Cases Describe Test Data Explain Test Execution Perform Defect reporting and analyzing the defects List Test Automation advantages and disadvantages Work with Winrunner Describe Performance Testing Work with Loadrunner Too Work with Test Director Pre-requisite This module does not require any prerequisite Page 5 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. suggested prerequisites and module objectives. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Introduction About this Module This module provides you with a brief description of the module. Target Audience Entry Level Trainees Module Objectives After completing this module. audience.

The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 1: Introduction to Testing Learning Objectives After completing this topic you will be able to: Explain the need for Software testing What is Software Testing Software testing is a process used to identify the correctness. testing can never establish the correctness of computer software. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Testing Life Cycle Every testing project has to follow the waterfall model of the testing process. Software Testing has been accepted as a separate discipline to the extent that there is a separate life cycle for the testing activity." where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. not prove that there are none. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product-. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. portability. the scope of testing can be tailored. It can only find defects. as this can only be done by formal verification (and only when there is no mistake in the formal verification process). There are many approaches to software testing.putting the product through its paces. but the process mentioned above is common to any testing activity. According to the respective projects. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. Actually. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it. maintainability and usability. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. completeness and quality of developed computer software. stability. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. Involving software testing in all phases of the software Page 6 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

code review. we see that there are two categories of testing activities that can be done on software.Handout – Software Testing development life cycle has become a necessity as part of the software quality assurance process. etc. Also known as Structural testing. there are two widely used testing techniques. Also known as functional testing. Broad Categories of Testing Based on the V-Model mentioned above. user documentation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . code. When we test the software by executing and comparing the actual & expected results. Black-Box testing technique: This technique is used for testing based solely on analysis of requirements (specification. This type of testing is called Static Testing.) (But expected results still come requirements). These topics will be elaborated in the coming chapters Page 7 ©Copyright 2007. namely. it is called Dynamic Testing. White-Box testing technique: This technique us used for testing based on analysis of internal logic (design.). walkthrough and audits. design review. The above said testing types are performed based on the following testing techniques. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The V-Model of the Software Testing Life Cycle along with the Software Development Life cycle given below indicates the various phases or levels of testing. Static Testing Dynamic Testing The kind of verification we do on the software work products before the process of compilation and creation of an executable is more of Requirement review. Right from the Requirements study till the implementation. there needs to be testing done on Software Testing every phase. The Testing Techniques To perform these types of testing.

SUMMARY “Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors” Evolution of Software Testing The Testing process and lifecycle Broad categories of testing Widely employed Types of Testing The Testing Techniques Page 8 ©Copyright 2007. we see that are various levels or phases of testing. Done to verify if it satisfies its functional specification or its intended design structure. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Let us see a brief definition on the widely employed types of testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Types of Testing From the V-model. processor utilization) to ensure the system do not break unexpectedly Load Testing: Load Testing. verifies that a web site can handle a particular number of concurrent users while maintaining acceptable response times Alpha Testing: Testing of a software product or system conducted at the developer’s site by the Customer Beta Testing: Testing conducted at one or more customer sites by the end user of a delivered software product system. Unit Testing: The testing done to a unit or to a smallest piece of software.. memory. Integration Testing: Testing which takes place as sub elements are combined (i. Unit testing. Performance Testing: To evaluate the time taken or response time of the system to perform it’s required functions in comparison Stress Testing: To evaluate a system beyond the limits of the specified requirements or system resources (such as disk space. integrated) to form higher-level elements Regression Testing: Selective re-testing of a system to verify the modification (bug fixes) have not caused unintended effects and that system still complies with its specified requirements. a subset of stress testing. User Acceptance testing etc. Integration testing. System testing.e. System Testing: Testing the software for the required specifications on the intended hardware Acceptance Testing: Formal testing conducted to determine whether or not a system satisfies its acceptance criteria. which enables a customer to determine whether to accept the system or not. namely.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Test your Understanding 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The primary objective of testing is a) To show that the program works b) To provide a detailed indication of quality c) To find errors d) To protect the end –user Answers: 1) c Page 9 ©Copyright 2007.

It is used to detect errors by means of execution-oriented test cases. there are two types of black box test that involve users. field and laboratory tests. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". avoiding programmer bias toward his own work. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. White Box Testing Learning Objective: After completing this chapter. black box tests do not necessarily involve the participation of users. volume tests. For this reason. Among the most important black box tests that do not involve users are functionality testing. the tester would only know the "legal" inputs and what the expected outputs should be. For this testing.e. Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. functional. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is because of this that black box testing can be considered testing with respect to the specifications. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. stress tests. i. and benchmarks. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether!!! Black box testing Black Box Testing is testing without knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested. when black box testing is applied to software engineering. While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. recovery testing. Additionally. and closedbox. you will be able to: Explain the methods of testing Introduction to Black Box and White Box testing Test Design refers to understanding the sources of test cases. how to develop and document test cases. For example. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. test groups are often used. Some call this "graybox" or "translucent-box" test design. the tester and the programmer can be independent of one another. There are 2 primary methods by which tests can be designed and they are: Black box White box Black-box test design treats the system as a literal "black-box". Though centered around the knowledge of user requirements. but it's still discouraged. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. In practice. but not how the program actually arrives at those outputs. glass-box and clear-box. In the following the most important aspects of these black box tests will be described briefly.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 2: Black Box Vs. test coverage. no other knowledge of the program is necessary. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. opaque-box. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". and how to build and maintain test data.

what is specified in the requirements. Whereas for most software engineers benchmark tests are concerned with the quantitative measurement of specific operations. The notion of benchmark tests involves the testing of program efficiency. benchmark tests only denote operations that are independent of personal variables.e. Particularly in the NLP environment Page 11 ©Copyright 2007. to modify a term bank via different terminals simultaneously). incorrect buffer sizes. field tests are particularly useful for assessing the interoperability of the software system.g. Apart from general usability-related aspects.without user involvement The so-called ``functionality testing'' is central to most testing exercises. Its primary objective is to assess whether the program does what it is supposed to do. Moreover.Handout – Software Testing Black box testing . The objective of volume tests is to find the limitations of the software by processing a huge amount of data. A volume test can uncover problems that are related to the efficiency of a system. The efficiency of a piece of software strongly depends on the hardware environment and therefore benchmark tests always consider the soft/hardware combination. Scenario Tests. There are different approaches to functionality testing.g. however. The other is to test module by module. A scenario test is a test case which aims at a realistic user background for the evaluation of software as it was defined and performed It is an instance of black box testing where the major objective is to assess the suitability of a software product for every-day routines. i.with user involvement For tests involving users. In field tests users are observed while using the software system at their normal working place. i. In the following only a rough description of field and laboratory tests will be given.e. performing a standardised task. one may find practical test reports that distinguish roughly between field and laboratory tests. Rather. e. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . E.g. In the context of this document. how the technical integration of the system works. the system has to process a huge amount of data or perform many function calls within a short period of time. in the NLP area. In short it involves putting the system into its intended use by its envisaged type of user. Black box testing . methodological considerations are rare in SE literature. recovery testing is very important. During a stress test. The aim of recovery testing is to make sure to which extent data can be recovered after a system breakdown. or only show that an error message would be needed telling the user that the system cannot process the given amount of data. field tests are the only real means to elucidate problems of the organizational integration of the software system into existing procedures. A typical example could be to perform the same function from all workstations connected in a LAN within a short period of time (e. or. some also consider user tests that compare the efficiency of different software systems as benchmark tests. a consumption of too much memory space. The term ``scenario'' has entered software evaluation in the early 1990s . sending e-mails. each function where it is called first. Does the system provide possibilities to recover all of the data or part of it? How much can be recovered and how? Is the recovered data still correct and consistent? Particularly for software that needs high reliability standards.e. Cognizant Technology Solutions. i. One is the testing of each program feature or function in sequence.

Any dirty tests not covered by the above. individual translators are not too motivated to change their working habits. Special techniques as appropriate--syntax.Handout – Software Testing this problem has frequently been underestimated. Additional tests for data-flow coverage as needed. etc. Since laboratory tests provide testers with many technical possibilities. syntax testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Testing Strategies/Techniques Black box testing should make use of randomly generated inputs (only a test range should be specified by the tester). test cases are designed to traverse the entire graph Transaction flow testing (nodes represent steps in some transaction and links represent logical connections between steps that need to be validated) Page 12 ©Copyright 2007. Due to the high laboratory equipment costs laboratory tests are mostly only performed at big software houses such as IBM or Microsoft. last but not least. where the major implementation problem is not the technical environment. Laboratory tests are mostly performed to assess the general usability of the system. Finite state machine models can be used as a guide to design functional tests According to Beizer the following is a general order by which tests should be designed: o o o o o o Clean tests against requirements. logic testing. data collection and analysis are easier than for field tests. domain testing. Black box testing Methods Graph-based Testing Methods Black-box methods based on the nature of the relationships (links) among the program objects (nodes). as needed. but the fact that many clients still submit their orders as print-out. A typical example of the organizational problem of implementing a translation memory is the language service of a big automobile manufacturer. that neither source texts nor target texts are properly organised and stored and. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and state testing. especially with real time systems Crash testing should be performed to see what it takes to bring the system down Test monitoring tools should be used whenever possible to track which tests have already been performed and the outputs of these tests to avoid repetition and to aid in the software maintenance Other functional testing techniques include: transaction testing. Additional structural tests for branch coverage. loop. Domain tests not covered by the above. state. to eliminate any guess work by the tester as to the methods of the function Data outside of the specified input range should be tested to check the robustness of the program Boundary cases should be tested (top and bottom of specified range) to make sure the highest and lowest allowable inputs produce proper output The number zero should be tested when numerical data is to be input Stress testing should be performed (try to overload the program with inputs to see where it reaches its maximum capacity).

link weights are required execution times) Equivalence Partitioning Black-box technique that divides the input domain into classes of data from which test cases can be derived An ideal test case uncovers a class of errors that might require many arbitrary test cases to be executed before a general error is observed Equivalence class guidelines: o o o o o If input condition specifies a range. Cognizant Technology Solutions. size limitations). test cases should include a and b.Handout – Software Testing Finite state modeling (nodes represent user observable states of the software and links represent transitions between states) Data flow modeling (nodes are data objects and links are transformations from one data object to another) Timing modeling (nodes are program objects and links are sequential connections between these objects. test cases should be designed to produce the minimum and maxim output reports If internal program data structures have boundaries (e. be certain to test the boundaries Comparison Testing Black-box testing for safety critical systems in which independently developed implementations of redundant systems are tested for conformance to specifications Often equivalence class partitioning is used to develop a common set of test cases for each implementation Orthogonal Array Testing Black-box technique that enables the design of a reasonably small set of test cases that provide maximum test coverage Focus is on categories of faulty logic likely to be present in the software component (without examining the code) Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. values just above and just below a and b If an input condition specifies and number of values.g. test cases should exercise the minimum and maximum numbers. one valid and two invalid equivalence classes are defined If an input condition specifies a member of a set. as well as values just above and just below the minimum and maximum values Apply guidelines 1 and 2 to output conditions. one valid and two invalid equivalence classes are defined If an input condition requires a specific value. one valid and one invalid equivalence class is defined If an input condition is Boolean. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . one valid and one invalid equivalence class is defined Boundary Value Analysis Black-box technique that focuses on the boundaries of the input domain rather than its center BVA guidelines: If input condition specifies a range bounded by values a and b.

test cases are hard to design There may be unnecessary repetition of test inputs if the tester is not informed of test cases the programmer has already tried May leave many program paths untested Cannot be directed toward specific segments of code which may be very complex (and therefore more error prone) Most testing related research has been directed toward glass box testing White Box Testing Software testing approaches that examine the program structure and derive test data from the program logic. including specific programming languages Tester and programmer are independent of each other Tests are done from a user's point of view Will help to expose any ambiguities or inconsistencies in the specifications Test cases can be designed as soon as the specifications are complete Disadvantages of Black Box Testing Only a small number of possible inputs can actually be tested.Handout – Software Testing Priorities for assessing tests using an orthogonal array Detect and isolate all single mode faults Detect all double mode faults Multimode faults Specialized Testing Graphical user interfaces Client/server architectures Documentation and help facilities Real-time systems o o o o Task testing (test each time dependent task independently) Behavioral testing (simulate system response to external events) Inter task testing (check communications errors among tasks) System testing (check interaction of integrated system software and hardware) Advantages of Black Box Testing More effective on larger units of code than glass box testing Tester needs no knowledge of implementation. Synonyms for white box testing Glass Box testing Structural testing Clear Box testing Page 14 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Structural testing is sometimes referred to as clear-box testing since white boxes are considered opaque and do not really permit visibility into the code. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . to test every possible input stream would take nearly forever Without clear and concise specifications.

Provide a complementary function to black box testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Open Box Testing Types of White Box testing A typical rollout of a product is shown in figure 1 below. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Development and use of standard procedures. These are test cases that exercise basic set will execute every statement at least once. results verification and documentation capabilities. Practices: This section outlines some of the general practices comprising white-box testing process. Page 15 ©Copyright 2007. 1 Code Coverage Analysis 1. naming conventions and libraries. 1. document and manage a test history library. In general.1. Improve quality by optimizing performance.1 Basis Path Testing A testing mechanism proposed by McCabe whose aim is to derive a logical complexity measure of a procedural design and use this as a guide for defining a basic set of execution paths. drivers and test object libraries. Establishment and maintenance of regression test suites and procedures. Developing a test harness made up of stubs. white-box testing practices have the following considerations: The allocation of resources to perform class and method analysis and to document and review the same. Perform complete coverage at the component level. Allocation of resources to design. The purpose of white box testing Initiate a strategic initiative to build quality throughout the life cycle of a software product or service.1 Flow Graph Notation A notation for representing control flow similar to flow charts and UML activity diagrams. test suite execution. The means to develop or acquire tool support for automation of capture/replay/compare.

Simple condition: Boolean variable or relational expression. Boolean operators and parentheses. Relational expression: (E1 op E2). and an upper bound for the number of tests to ensure that each statement is executed at least once.e.3 Loop Testing Loops fundamental to many algorithms. 1. Can define loops as simple. where E1 and E2 are arithmetic expressions.2. An independent path is any path through a program that introduces at least one new set of processing statements or a new condition (i. nested. Cognizant Technology Solutions.2 Cyclomatic Complexity The cyclomatic complexity gives a quantitative measure of 4the logical complexity. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .1.1 Conditions Testing Condition testing aims to exercise all logical conditions in a program module. a new edge).2. 2). Cyclomatic complexity provides upper bound for number of tests required to guarantee coverage of all program statements. they are redesigned. 3). Compound condition: composed of two or more simple conditions.2 Control Structure testing 1.2.2 Data Flow Testing Selects test paths according to the location of definitions and use of variables. They may define: 1). and unstructured. 1. possibly proceeded by a NOT operator. 1. concatenated. Boolean expression: Condition without Relational expressions. Page 16 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing 1.. Examples: Note that unstructured loops are not to be tested rather. 4). This value gives the number of independent paths in the basis set.

Durability). Basically.research. Isolation. These contracts specify such requirements as: Conditions that the client must meet before a method is invoked.parasoft. Transactions are checked thoroughly for partial/complete commits and rollbacks encompassing databases and other XA compliant transaction processors. Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. notification and logging are checked against references to validate program design. may be validated to ensure that ACID (Atomicity. Assertions that a method must satisfy at specific points of its execution Tools that check DbC contracts at runtime such as Jcontract [http://www. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Third party tools such as JaViz [http://www. Proper error recovery. 4 Error Handling Exception and error handling is checked thoroughly are simulating partial and complete fail-over by operating on error causing test vectors. the code specification is expressed unambiguously using a formal language that describes the code's implicit contracts. Consistency. Cognizant Technology Solutions.html] may also be used to perform this function.com/products/jtract/index.com/journal/sj/391/kazi. Advantages of White Box Testing Forces test developer to reason carefully about implementation Approximate the partitioning done by execution equivalence Reveals errors in "hidden" code Beneficent side-effects Disadvantages of White Box Testing Expensive Cases omitted in the code could be missed out. It identifies routines that are consuming the majority of the CPU time so that problems may be tracked down to improve performance. Each of the individual parameters is tested individually against a reference data set.Handout – Software Testing 2 Design by Contract (DbC) DbC is a formal way of using comments to incorporate specification information into the code itself. local or distributed.htm] are used to perform this function. These include the use of Microsoft Java Profiler API and Sun’s profiling tools that are bundled with the JDK. 3 Profiling Profiling provides a framework for analyzing Java code performance for speed and heap memory use. Conditions that a method must meet after it executes.ibm. 5 Transactions Systems that employ transaction.

Imagine you’re testing an electronics system. This is one way to think about coverage. depends on how you define the boundary of the box and what kind of access the “blackness” is blocking. Black box software testing is doing the same thing. these techniques might be Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. The actual meaning of the metaphor. apply probes internally and maybe even disassemble parts of it. Risks: Why are you testing? Sometimes testing is targeted at particular risks. Code-based testing is often called “white box” because it makes sure that all the code (the statements. By analogy. and dials on the outside. These terms are commonly used. These are the two most commonly used coverage criteria. Developer testing is called “white box” testing. however. Accordingly. paths. An opposite test approach would be to open up the electronics system. switches. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It’s housed in a black box with lights.Handout – Software Testing Black Box (Vs) White Box An easy way to start up a debate in a software testing forum is to ask the difference between black box and white box testing. and you can’t see beyond its surface. yet everyone seems to have a different idea of what they mean. Effective security testing also requires a detailed understanding of the code and the system architecture. Cognizant Technology Solutions. consider the Five-Fold Testing System. To help understand the different ways that software testing can be divided between black box and white box techniques. Thus. You must test it without opening it up. Another is to contrast testing that aims to cover all the requirements with testing that aims to cover all the code. see how the circuits are wired. The distinction here is based on what the person knows or can understand. but with software. any testing by users or other non-developers is sometimes called “black box” testing. or decisions) is exercised. Boundary testing and other attack-based techniques are targeted at common coding errors. this is called white box testing. Black box testing begins with a metaphor. Requirements-based testing could be called “black box” because it makes sure that all the customer requirements have been verified. This is black box testing. You have to see if it works just by flipping switches (inputs) and seeing what happens to the lights and dials (outputs). And testing the units inside the box becomes white box testing. People: Who do the testing? Some people know how software works (developers) and others just use it (users). It lays out five dimensions that can be used for examining testing: People (who do the testing) Coverage (what gets tested) Risks (why you are testing) Activities (how you are testing) Evaluation (how you know you’ve found a bug) Let’s use this system to understand and clarify the characteristics of black box and white box testing. Coverage: What is tested? If we draw the box around the system as a whole. “black box” testing becomes another name for system testing. Both are supported by extensive literature and commercial tools.

this is probably the most commonly cited definition for black box and white box testing. there are further constructive means to guarantee high quality software end products. White box testing is concerned only with testing the software product. It requires the source code to be produced before the tests can be planned and is much more laborious in the determination of suitable input data and the determination if the software is or is not correct. Certain test techniques seek to make these kinds of problems more visible. Related techniques capture code history and stack information when faults occur. White box testing is testing against the implementation and will discover faults of commission. Another set of risks concerns whether the software will actually provide value to users. Memory leaks and wild pointers are examples. and could be termed “black box. and maps code inspection (static testing) with white box testing. apart from the above described analytical methods of both glass and black box testing. it cannot guarantee that all parts of the implementation have been tested. the metaphor maps test execution (dynamic testing) with black box testing. The advice given is to start test planning with a black box test approach as soon as the specification is available. Black box testing is concerned only with testing the specification. In this case. since they use code instrumentation to make the internal workings of the software more visible. White box testing is much more expensive than black box testing.” Activities: How do you test? A common distinction is made between behavioral test design. White box planning should commence as soon as all black box tests have been successfully passed. The paths should then be checked against the black box test plan and any additional required test runs determined and applied. Since behavioral testing is based on external functional definition.” while structural testing—based on the code internals—is called “white box.Handout – Software Testing classified as “white box”. and tools that facilitate applying inputs and capturing inputs—most notably GUI capture replay tools—as black box tools. A failure of a white box test may result in a change which requires all black box testing to be repeated and the redetermination of the white box paths. and structural test design. These are two design approaches. We could also focus on the tools used. with the production of flowgraphs and determination of paths. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007. These contrast with black box techniques that simply look at the official outputs of a program. it is often called “black box. The consequences of test failure at this stage may be very expensive. indicating that part of the specification has not been fulfilled. Thus black box testing is testing against the specification and will discover faults of omission. indicating that part of the implementation is faulty. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it cannot guarantee that the complete specification has been implemented. To conclude. Some tool vendors refer to code-coverage tools as white box tools. All of these techniques could be considered white box test techniques. helping with diagnosis. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Usability testing focuses on this risk. which defines tests based on functional requirements. Assertions are another technique for helping to make problems more visible. Testing is then categorized based on the types of tools used. Evaluation: How do you know if you’ve found a bug? There are certain kinds of software faults that don’t always lead to obvious failures.” Indeed. Another activity-based distinction contrasts dynamic test execution with formal code inspection. They may be masked by fault tolerance or simply luck. which defines tests based on the code itself. In order to fully test a software product both black and white box testing are required.

Synonyms for white-box include: structural. rapid prototyping. assertions. on the other hand. Equivalence partitioning is a black-box testing method that a) Looks for equivalent data values in the program b) Looks for classes of output c) Focuses on output errors d) Defines classes of input 2. unit or code-coverage testing (coverage). structural testing.Handout – Software Testing Among the most important constructive means are the usage of object-oriented programming tools. or testing based on probes. d 2). the integration of CASE tools. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. usability testing (risk). white-box test case design requires that you have a) Source code b) An operational program c) A detailed procedural design d) The program architecture Answers: 1). can sometimes describe developer-based testing (people). boundary or security testing (risks). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . White box testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Black-box test design treats the system as a literal "black-box". It is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. functional. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. opaque-box. and logs (evaluation). system or requirements-based testing (coverage). and last but not least the involvement of users in both software development and testing procedures SUMMARY Black box testing can sometimes describe user-based testing (people). Test your Understanding 1. glass-box and clear-box. It is used to detect errors by means of execution-oriented test cases. At a minimum. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. or behavioral testing or capture replay automation (activities). inspection or code-coverage automation (activities). c Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. and closed-box White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box".

Closing the application should result in an "Are you Sure" message box Attempt to start application twice. Try this for every grayed control. then use all ungrayed options. If there is no hour glass. GUI Testing can refer to just ensuring that the look-and-feel of the application is acceptable to the user. if the application is busy.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 3: Other Testing Types Learning Objective After completing this chapter. then some enquiry in progress message should be displayed. Section 1 . It is absolutely essential that any application has to be user-friendly. Use TAB to move focus around the Window. especially on the top of the screen.indicated by dotted box. If a field is disabled (grayed) then it should not get focus. This icon should correspond to the Original Icon under Program Manager. version number. These should be checked for spelling. Check if the title of the window make sense. The end user should be comfortable while using all the components on screen and the components should also perform their functionality with utmost clarity.e.you should be returned to main window. Use SHIFT+TAB to move focus backwards. Tabbing to an entry field with text in it should highlight the entire text in the field. or it can refer to testing the functionality of each and every component involved. then the hour glass should be displayed. Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. Check all text on window for Spelling/Tense and Grammar. click it. Window should return to an icon on the bottom of the screen.) F1 key should work the same. The window caption for every application should have the name of the application and the window name . and a bigger pictorial representation of the icon. Tab order should be left to right. All controls should get focus . On each window.Check for spelling. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the screen has a Control menu. you will be able to Explain the methods of testing What is GUI Testing? GUI is the abbreviation for Graphic User Interface.especially the error messages. It should not be possible to select them with either the mouse or by using TAB. All screens should have a Help button (i. and Up to Down within a group box on the screen. Try to start the application twice as it is loading. The Loading message should show the application name. The following is a set of guidelines to ensure effective GUI Testing and can be used even as a checklist while testing a product / application. No Login is necessary. If Window has a Minimize Button. Double Click the Icon to return the Window to its original size. The text in the Micro Help line should change . clarity and non-updateable etc.Windows Compliance Testing Application Start Application by Double Clicking on its ICON. or cursor. Hence it becomes very essential to test the GUI components of any application. The main window of the application should have the same caption as the caption of the icon in Program Manager. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . English and clarity. This should not be allowed .

All Buttons except for OK and Cancel should have a letter Access to them. In a field that may or may not be updateable. Pressing ‘Ctrl . then pressing <Esc> should activate it. All text should be left justified. You should not be able to type text in the box.This should activate Tab to each button . Selection should also be possible with mouse. the label text and contents changes from black to gray depending on the current status. Enter text into Box Try to overflow the text by typing to many characters – should be stopped Check the field width with capitals W. This is indicated by a letter underlined in the button text. Pressing Return in ANY no command button control should activate it. If there is a Cancel Button on the screen. Pressing a letter should bring you to the first item in the list with that start with that letter. One button on the screen should be default (indicated by a thick black border). Tab to another type of control (not a command button).Letters in amount fields. and if the user can enter or change details on the other screen then the Text on the button should be followed by three dots. Drop Down List Boxes Pressing the Arrow should give list of options.Press SPACE This should activate Tab to each button .* etc. Cursor should change from arrow to Insert Bar.g. Select with mouse by clicking. All tab buttons should have a distinct letter. double-clicking is not essential. Command Buttons If Command Button leads to another Screen. Double Click should select all text in box. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Press RETURN . Drop down with the item selected should be display the list with the selected item on the top. List boxes are always white background with black text whether they are disabled or not. In general. This List may be scrollable. If pressing the Command button results in uncorrectable data e. . Click each button once with the mouse . everything can be done using both the mouse and the keyboard. or on the text should SET/UNSET the box. followed by a colon tight to it. there should be a message phrased positively with Yes/No answers where Yes results in the completion of the action. Text Boxes Move the Mouse Cursor over all Enterable Text Boxes. closing an action step. in All fields. Items should be in alphabetical order with the exception of blank/none. try strange characters like + . If it doesn't then the text in the box should be gray or non-updateable. Pressing ALT+Letter should activate the button.Handout – Software Testing Never updateable fields should be displayed with black text on a gray background with a black label. Spacing should be compatible with the existing windows spacing (word etc. Page 22 ©Copyright 2007.This should activate The above are VERY IMPORTANT. SHIFT and Arrow should Select Characters. Check Boxes Clicking with the mouse on the box. Make sure there is no duplication. and should be done for EVERY command Button. Make sure only one space appears.F4’ should open/drop down the list box. Enter invalid characters . Cognizant Technology Solutions. So should Up and Down. Refer to previous page. SPACE should do the same. shouldn't have a blank line at the bottom.). Option (Radio Buttons) Left and Right arrows should move 'ON' Selection. In general. which is at the top or the bottom of the list box. All others are gray.

or using the Up and Down Arrow keys. should act in the same way as selecting and item in the list box. are the field backgrounds of the correct color? Are all the screen prompts specified in the correct screen font? Is the text in all fields specified in the correct screen font? Are all the field prompts aligned perfectly on the screen? Are all the field edit boxes aligned perfectly on the screen? Are all group boxes aligned correctly on the screen? Should the screen be resizable? Should the screen be allowed to minimize? Are all the field prompts spelt correctly? Are all character or alphanumeric fields left justified? This is the default unless otherwise specified. Is all the micro-help text spelt correctly on this screen? Is all the error message text spelt correctly on this screen? Is all user input captured in UPPER case or lowercase consistently? Where the database requires a value (other than null) then this should be defaulted into fields.Handout – Software Testing Combo Boxes Should allow text to be entered. does not TAB off the field) is the invalid entry identified and highlighted correctly with an error message? Page 23 ©Copyright 2007. Pressing a letter should take you to the first item in the list starting with that letter. Section 2 . The user must either enter an alternative valid value or leave the default value intact. are the field prompts of the correct color? In read-only mode. Clicking Arrow should allow user to choose from list List Boxes Should allow a single selection to be chosen.e.Screen Validation Checklist Aesthetic Conditions: Is the general screen background of the correct color? Are the field prompts of the correct color? Are the field backgrounds of the correct color? In read-only mode. which have failed validation tests? Have any fields got multiple validation rules and if so are all rules being applied? If the user enters an invalid value and clicks on the OK button (i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Assure that all dialog boxes have a consistent look and feel. Assure that all windows have a consistent look and feel. then clicking the command button. make sure all the data can be seen in the box. by clicking with the mouse. Are all numeric fields right justified? This is the default unless otherwise specified. If there is a 'View' or 'Open' button besides the list box then double clicking on a line in the List Box. Validation Conditions: Does a failure of validation on every field cause a sensible user error message? Is the user required to fix entries. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Force the scroll bar to appear.

Handout – Software Testing
Is validation consistently applied at screen level unless specifically required at field level? For all numeric fields check whether negative numbers can and should be able to be entered. For all numeric fields check the minimum and maximum values and also some midrange values allowable? For all character/alphanumeric fields check the field to ensure that there is a character limit specified and that this limit is exactly correct for the specified database size? Do all mandatory fields require user input? If any of the database columns don't allow null values then the corresponding screen fields must be mandatory. (If any field, which initially was mandatory, has become optional then check whether null values are allowed in this field.) Navigation Conditions: Can the screen be accessed correctly from the menu? Can the screen be accessed correctly from the toolbar? Can the screen be accessed correctly by double clicking on a list control on the previous creen? Can all screens accessible via buttons on this screen be accessed correctly? Can all screens accessible by double clicking on a list control be accessed correctly? Is the screen modal? (i.e.) Is the user prevented from accessing other functions when this screen is active and is this correct? Can a number of instances of this screen be opened at the same time and is this correct? Usability Conditions: Are all the dropdowns on this screen sorted correctly? Alphabetic sorting is the default unless otherwise specified. Is all date entry required in the correct format? Have all pushbuttons on the screen been given appropriate Shortcut keys? Do the Shortcut keys work correctly? Have the menu options that apply to your screen got fast keys associated and should they have? Does the Tab Order specified on the screen go in sequence from Top Left to bottom right? This is the default unless otherwise specified. Are all read-only fields avoided in the TAB sequence? Are all disabled fields avoided in the TAB sequence? Can the cursor be placed in the microhelp text box by clicking on the text box with the mouse? Can the cursor be placed in read-only fields by clicking in the field with the mouse? Is the cursor positioned in the first input field or control when the screen is opened? Is there a default button specified on the screen? Does the default button work correctly? When an error message occurs does the focus return to the field in error when the user cancels it?
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Handout – Software Testing
When the user Alt+Tab's to another application does this have any impact on the screen upon return to the application? Do all the fields edit boxes indicate the number of characters they will hold by there length? e.g. a 30 character field should be a lot longer Data Integrity Conditions: Is the data saved when the window is closed by double clicking on the close box? Check the maximum field lengths to ensure that there are no truncated characters? Where the database requires a value (other than null) then this should be defaulted into fields. The user must either enter an alternative valid value or leave the default value intact. Check maximum and minimum field values for numeric fields? If numeric fields accept negative values can these be stored correctly on the database and does it make sense for the field to accept negative numbers? If a set of radio buttons represents a fixed set of values such as A, B and C then what happens if a blank value is retrieved from the database? (In some situations rows can be created on the database by other functions, which are not screen based, and thus the required initial values can be incorrect.) If a particular set of data is saved to the database check that each value gets saved fully to the database. (i.e.) Beware of truncation (of strings) and rounding of numeric values. Modes (Editable Read-only) Conditions: Are the screen and field colors adjusted correctly for read-only mode? Should a read-only mode be provided for this screen? Are all fields and controls disabled in read-only mode? Can the screen be accessed from the previous screen/menu/toolbar in read-only mode? Can all screens available from this screen be accessed in read-only mode? Check that no validation is performed in read-only mode. General Conditions: Assure the existence of the "Help" menu. Assure that the proper commands and options are in each menu. Assure that all buttons on all tool bars have a corresponding key commands. Assure that each menu command has an alternative (hot-key) key sequence, which will invoke it where appropriate. In drop down list boxes, ensure that the names are not abbreviations / cut short In drop down list boxes, assure that the list and each entry in the list can be accessed via appropriate key / hot key combinations. Ensure that duplicate hot keys do not exist on each screen Ensure the proper usage of the escape key (which is to undo any changes that have been made) and generates a caution message "Changes will be lost - Continue yes/no" Assure that the cancel button functions the same as the escape key.
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Handout – Software Testing
Assure that the Cancel button operates, as a Close button when changes have been made that cannot be undone. Assure that only command buttons, which are used by a particular window, or in a particular dialog box, are present. – (i.e) make sure they don't work on the screen behind the current screen. When a command button is used sometimes and not at other times, assures that it is grayed out when it should not be used. Assure that OK and Cancel buttons are grouped separately from other command buttons. Assure that command button names are not abbreviations. Assure that all field labels/names are not technical labels, but rather are names meaningful to system users. Assure that command buttons are all of similar size and shape, and same font & font size. Assure that each command button can be accessed via a hot key combination. Assure that command buttons in the same window/dialog box do not have duplicate hot keys. Assure that each window/dialog box has a clearly marked default value (command button, or other object) which is invoked when the Enter key is pressed - and NOT the Cancel or Close button Assure that focus is set to an object/button, which makes sense according to the function of the window/dialog box. Assure that all option buttons (and radio buttons) names are not abbreviations. Assure that option button names are not technical labels, but rather are names meaningful to system users. If hot keys are used to access option buttons, assure that duplicate hot keys do not exist in the same window/dialog box. Assure that option box names are not abbreviations. Assure that option boxes, option buttons, and command buttons are logically grouped together in clearly demarcated areas "Group Box" Assure that the Tab key sequence, which traverses the screens, does so in a logical way. Assure consistency of mouse actions across windows. Assure that the color red is not used to highlight active objects (many individuals are redgreen color blind). Assure that the user will have control of the desktop with respect to general color and highlighting (the application should not dictate the desktop background characteristics). Assure that the screen/window does not have a cluttered appearance Ctrl + F6 opens next tab within tabbed window Shift + Ctrl + F6 opens previous tab within tabbed window Tabbing will open next tab within tabbed window if on last field of current tab Tabbing will go onto the 'Continue' button if on last field of last tab within tabbed window Tabbing will go onto the next editable field in the window Banner style & size & display exact same as existing windows
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Assure that out of cycle dates are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. Assure that Feb. Assure that division by zero does not occur. Assure that numeric fields with a blank in position 1 are processed or reported as an error. Assure that fields with a blank in the last position are processed or reported as an error an error. Assure that both + and .values are correctly processed. highlighting the field with the error on it) Pressing continue while on the first tab of a tabbed window (assuming all fields filled correctly) will not open all the tabs. Microhelp text for every enabled field & button Ensure all fields are disabled in read-only mode Progress messages on load of tabbed screens Return operates continue If retrieve on load of tabbed window fails window should not open Specific Field Tests Date Field Checks Assure that leap years are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. generating "changes will be lost" message if necessary. display all options on open of list box . (i. Numeric Fields Assure that lowest and highest values are handled correctly. Assure that 00 and 13 are reported as errors. Page 27 ©Copyright 2007. Assure that day values 00 and 32 are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations.Handout – Software Testing If 8 or less options in a list box. Assure that valid values are handles by the correct procedure. 28. Assure that century change is validated correctly & does not cause errors/miscalculations. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Assure that month code 00 and 13 are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. Assure that Feb. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . On open of tab focus will be on first editable field All fonts to be the same Alt+F4 will close the tabbed window and return you to main screen or previous screen (as appropriate). 29. 30 are validated correctly & do not cause errors/ miscalculations.e the tab is opened. 30 is reported as an error.should be no need to scroll Errors on continue will cause user to be returned to the tab and the focus should be on the field causing the error. Assure that invalid values are logged and reported.

Include data items with first position blank.e. Alpha Field Checks Use blank and non-blank data. Validation Testing . Include out of range values above the maximum and below the minimum.Standard Actions Examples of Standard Actions . continue saving changes or additions) Add View Change Delete Cancel . Assure that upper and lower values in ranges are handled correctly. abandon changes or additions) Fill each field . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Valid data Fill each field .(i. Include valid characters. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Include at least one in-range value.Handout – Software Testing Include value zero in all calculations.e. Include invalid characters & symbols. Include maximum and minimum range values.(i. Include lowest and highest values. Include data items with last position blank.Invalid data Different Check Box / Radio Box combinations Scroll Lists / Drop Down List Boxes Help Fill Lists and Scroll Tab Tab Sequence Shift Tab Page 28 ©Copyright 2007.Substitute your specific commands Add View Change Delete Continue .

Handout – Software Testing Shortcut keys / Hot Keys Note: The following keys are used in some windows applications. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 29 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and are included as a guide.

Page 30 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . in the context for which they make sense. Applications may use other modifiers for these operations.Handout – Software Testing * These shortcuts are suggested for text formatting applications.

Test department coders develop code test scenarios and exercises that will test new units of code after they have been written. you will want to execute the relevant parts of your test plan in order to locate defects and assess quality. Example: You can create another set of tests for a particular module in your application. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Also referred to as verification testing Regression testing is initiated after a programmer has attempted to fix a recognized problem or has added source code to a program that may have inadvertently introduced errors. The selective retesting of a software system that has been modified to ensure that any bugs have been fixed and that no other previously working functions have failed as a result of the reparations and that newly added features have not created problems with previous versions of the software. The reason they might not work because changing or adding new code to a program can easily introduce errors into code that is not intended to be changed. Each time your application changes. Test Execution Test Execution is the heart of the testing process. and can include both manual and automated tests Example: You can create a cycle containing basic tests that run on each build of the application throughout development.Handout – Software Testing Regression Testing What is Regression Testing? Regression testing is the process of testing changes to computer programs to make sure that the older programming still works with the new changes. It is a quality control measure to ensure that the newly modified code still complies with its specified requirements and that unmodified code has not been affected by the maintenance activity. Usually you do not run all the tests at once. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This test cycle includes tests that check that module in depth. Regression testing is a normal part of the program development process. At different stages of the quality assurance process. Page 31 ©Copyright 2007. Create Test Cycles During this stage you decide the subset of tests from your test database you want to execute. to determine the application's stability before beginning more rigorous testing. You can run the cycle each time a new build is ready. Before a new version of a software product is released. Also consider issues such as the current state of the application and whether new functions have been added or modified. To decide which test cycles to build. A related group of tests is called a test cycle. refer to the testing goals you defined at the beginning of the process. the old test cases are run against the new version to make sure that all the old capabilities still work. you need to execute different tests in order to address specific goals.

The goal of this type of cycle is to verify that a change to one part of the software did not break the rest of the application. and also test advanced options in the application (depth). This cycle can be run when more time is available for testing. Type of Change Request Bug the application works incorrectly or provides incorrect information. Normal cycle tests the system a little more in depth than the sanity cycle. as well as in-depth tests for the specific area of the application that was modified. For each test step you assign either pass or fail status. Advanced cycle tests both breadth and depth. you begin executing the tests in the cycle. A test cycle is complete only when all tests-automatic and manual-have been run. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. sorting the files alphabetically by the second field rather than numerically by the first field makes them easier to find) Enhancement Page 32 ©Copyright 2007. Any major or minor request is considered a problem with an application and will be entered as a change request.Handout – Software Testing Following are examples of some general categories of test cycles to consider: Sanity cycle checks the entire system at a basic level (breadth. You perform manual tests using the test steps. With Manual Test Execution you follow the instructions in the test steps of each test. Testing Tools executes automated tests for you. This cycle should include basic-level tests containing mostly positive checks. compare the application output with the expected output. containing both positive and negative checks. rather than depth) to see that it is functional and stable. Testing Tools runs the tests one at a time. or if the expected result needs to be updated. Analyze Test Results After every test run one analyze and validate the test results. (for example. It then imports results. During Automated Test Execution you create a batch of tests and launch the entire batch at once. notices a problem with an application. or wants to recommend an enhancement. a letter is allowed to be entered in a number field) Change a modification of the existing application. This cycle can group medium-level tests. You use the application. providing outcome summaries for each test. Change Request Initiating a Change Request A user or developer wants to suggest a modification that would improve an existing application. enter input. The tests in the cycle cover the entire application (breadth). (for example. Regression cycle tests maintenance builds. A regression cycle includes sanity-level tests for testing the entire software. Run Test Cycles (Automated & Manual Tests) Once you have created cycles that cover your testing objectives. and log the results. And have to identify all the failed steps in the tests and to determine whether a bug has been detected.

Bugs can be detected and reported by engineers. Traceability Matrix A traceability matrix is created by associating requirements with the products that satisfy them. testers.Handout – Software Testing new functionality or item added to the application. it is Closed. you report the bugs (or defects) that you detected. all members of the development and quality assurance team must be well informed in order to insure that bugs information is up to date and that the most important problems are addressed. The number of open or fixed bugs is a good indicator of the quality status of your application. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Below is a simple traceability matrix structure. You can use data analysis tools such as re-ports and graphs in interpret bug data. Bug Tracking Locating and repairing software bugs is an essential part of software development. a new field. verified.Tests are associated with the requirements on which they are based and the product tested tomeet the requirement. and follow up the bug. These bugs are given the status Open and are assigned to a member of the development team. If a bug does not reoccur. Bug Tracking involves two main stages: reporting and tracking. Communication is an essential part of bug tracking. (for example. and closed. you record all the information necessary to reproduce and fix it. and end-users in all phases of the testing process. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and provide all necessary information to reproduce. When you report a bug. Track and Analyze Bugs The lifecycle of a bug begins when it is reported and ends when it is fixed. but this is necessary to perform a job. First you report New bugs to the database. job functions are impaired and there is no work around. Critical the application does not work. Information about bugs must be detailed and organized in order to schedule bug fixes and determine software release dates. High the application works. The Quality Assurance manager or Project manager periodically reviews all New bugs and decides which should be fixed. This also applies to any Section 508 infraction. it is reopened. QA personnel test a new build of the application. Software developers fix the Open bugs and assign them the status Fixed. a new report. fix. You also make sure that the QA and development personnel involved in fixing the bug are notified. Report Bugs Once you execute the manual and automated tests in a cycle. The bugs are stored in a database so that you can manage them and analyze the status of your application. If a bug is detected again. There can be more things Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. or a new button) Priority for the request Low the application works but this would make the function easier or more user friendly.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Traceability requires unique identifiers for each requirement and product. Numbers for products are established in a configuration management (CM) plan. Page 34 ©Copyright 2007. Traceability is also used in managing change and provides the basis for test planning. and that all higher level requirements are allocated to lower level requirements. The examples below show traceability between user and system requirements. User requirement identifiers begin with "U" and system requirements with "S. or the traceability corrected. that all lower level requirements derive from higher level requirements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ." Tracing S12 to its source makes it clear this requirement is erroneous: it must be eliminated. rewritten. Traceability ensures completeness. SAMPLE TRACEABILITY MATRIX A traceability matrix is a report from the requirements database or repository.Handout – Software Testing included in a traceability matrix than shown below.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Acceptance Testing.Handout – Software Testing In addition to traceability matrices. Goal is to evaluate the system as a whole. Techniques can be used in any stage that tests the system as a whole (System testing. other reports are necessary to manage requirements.) Types and Phases of Testing Page 35 ©Copyright 2007. Unit testing. etc. Installation. Determine their information needs and document the information that will be associated with the requirements when you set up your requirements database or repository. not its parts Techniques can be structural or functional. What goes into each report depends on the information needs of those receiving the report(s). The integration of this code with the internal code is the important objective. Phases of Testing The primary objective of testing effort is to determine the conformance to requirements specified in the contracted documents.

Handout – Software Testing Page 36 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Page 37 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Handout – Software Testing Integration Testing One of the most significant aspects of a software development project is the integration strategy. bottom-up. However. To be most effective. testing at each phase helps detect errors early and keep the system under control. Large systems may require many integration phases. critical piece first. the larger the project. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The key is to Page 38 ©Copyright 2007. First. the more important the integration strategy. most integration testing has been traditionally limited to ``black box'' techniques. the system would fail in so many places at once that the debugging and retesting effort would be impractical. because of the vast amount of detail separating the input data from the individual code modules. or by first integrating functional subsystems and then integrating the subsystems in separate phases using any of the basic strategies. satisfying any white box testing criterion would be very difficult. top-down. Performing only cursory testing at early integration phases and then applying a more rigorous criterion for the final stage is really just a variant of the high-risk "big bang" approach. then assembling subsystems into larger subsystems. performing rigorous testing of the entire software involved in each integration phase involves a lot of wasteful duplication of effort across phases. In fact. beginning with assembling modules into lowlevel subsystems. In general. and finally assembling the highest level subsystems into the complete system. Integration may be performed all at once. Cognizant Technology Solutions. an integration testing technique should fit well with the overall integration strategy. Very small systems are often assembled and tested in one phase. Second. For most real systems. this is impractical for two major reasons. In a multi-phase integration.

As discussed in the previous subsection. this trivial kind of generalization does not take advantage of the differences between module and integration testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Many projects compromise. the most obvious generalization is to satisfy the module testing criterion in an integration context. combining module testing with the lowest level of subsystem integration testing. modules are rigorously tested in isolation using stubs and drivers before any integration is attempted. At the other extreme.Handout – Software Testing leverage the overall integration structure to allow rigorous testing at each phase while minimizing duplication of effort. It is important to understand the relationship between module testing and integration testing. module and integration testing can be combined. assuming that the details within each module are accurate. in effect using the entire program as a test driver environment for each module. Generalization of module testing criteria Module testing criteria can often be generalized in several possible ways to support integration testing. Applying it to each phase of a multiphase integration strategy. verifying the details of each module's implementation in an integration context. However. and then performing pure integration testing at higher levels. Each of these views of integration testing may be appropriate for any given project. leads to an excessive amount of redundant testing. In one view. Page 39 ©Copyright 2007. Then. integration testing concentrates entirely on module interactions. so an integration testing method should be flexible enough to accommodate them all. for example. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . remove all control structures that are not involved with module calls. Although not strictly a reduction rule. Although the specifics of the generalization of structured testing are more detailed. conditional. in which each statement is required to be exercised during module testing. The remaining rules work together to eliminate the parts of the flow graph that are not involved with module calls. structured testing at the integration level focuses on the decision outcomes that are involved with module calls.Handout – Software Testing More useful generalizations adapt the module testing criterion to focus on interactions between modules rather than attempting to test all of the details of each module's implementation in an integration context.'' For the rule to apply. Page 40 ©Copyright 2007. By this process. The statement coverage module testing criterion. Since structured testing at the module level requires that all the decision logic in a module's control flow graph be tested independently. since for poorlystructured code it may be hard to distinguish the ``top'' of the loop from the ``bottom. can be generalized to require each module call statement to be exercised during integration testing. The conditional rule eliminates conditional statements that do not contain calls in their bodies. The sequential rule eliminates sequences of non-call ("white dot") nodes. the appropriate generalization to the integration level requires that just the decision logic involved with calls to other modules be tested independently. the call rule states that function call ("black dot") nodes cannot be reduced. Rules 1 through 4 are intended to be applied iteratively until none of them can be applied. However. Cognizant Technology Solutions. even very complex logic can be eliminated as long as it does not involve any module calls. Module design complexity Rather than testing all decision outcomes within a module independently. and then use the resultant "reduced" flow graph to drive integration testing. It is important to preserve the module's connectivity when using the looping rule. they each reduce cyclomatic complexity by one. Since the repetitive. The idea behind design reduction is to start with a module control flow graph. The repetitive rule eliminates top-test loops that are not involved with module calls. there must be a path from the module entry to the top of the loop and a path from the bottom of the loop to the module exit. at which point the design reduction is complete. The design reduction technique helps identify those decision outcomes. it does simplify the graph so that the other rules can be applied. and looping rules each remove one edge from the flow graph. so that it is possible to exercise them independently during integration testing. it leaves the cyclomatic complexity unchanged. Figure below shows a systematic set of rules for performing design reduction. The looping rule eliminates bottom-test loops that are not involved with module calls. the approach is the same. Since application of this rule removes one node and one edge from the flow graph.

To extend statement coverage to support incremental integration. Cognizant Technology Solutions. including support for hierarchical design. The key principle is to test just the interaction among components at each integration stage. which simplifies the derivation of data sets that test interactions among components. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and it is important to limit the corresponding stages of testing as well. avoiding redundant testing of previously integrated sub-components.Handout – Software Testing Incremental integration Hierarchical system design limits each stage of development to a manageable effort. The remainder of this section extends the integration testing techniques of structured testing to handle the general case of incremental integration. Hierarchical design is most effective when the coupling among sibling components decreases as the component size increases. To form a completely flexible "statement testing" criterion. it is required that all module call statements from one component into a different component be exercised at each integration stage. it is required that each statement be executed during the first phase (which may be anything from single modules to the entire Page 41 ©Copyright 2007.

this limits the testing effort to a small fraction of the effort to cover each statement of the system at each integration phase. Page 42 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing program). and that at each integration phase all call statements that cross the boundaries of previously integrated components are tested. Given hierarchical integration stages with good cohesive partitioning properties. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

and the component module design complexity of module C is 2. Acceptance Testing In software engineering. To be of real use. As in any system though. The key is to perform design reduction at each integration phase using just the module call nodes that cross component boundaries. It is similar to systems testing in that the whole system is checked but the important difference is the change in focus: Systems Testing checks that the system that was specified has been delivered. the component module design complexity of module A is 1. an Acceptance Test Plan should be developed in order to plan precisely. the testing should be planned in order to provide a realistic and adequate exposure of the system to all reasonably expected events. the means by which 'Acceptance' will be achieved. The customer knows what is required from the system to achieve value in the business and is the only person qualified to make that judgment. The test procedures that lead to formal 'acceptance' of new or changed systems. The main types of software testing are: Component. yielding component-reduced graphs. Release. and in detail. in general. The testing can be based upon the User Requirements Specification to which the system should conform. The customer. Modules A and C have been previously integrated. Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. Modules B and D are removed from consideration because they do not contain cross-component calls. System. User Acceptance Testing is a critical phase of any 'systems' project and requires significant participation by the 'End Users'. The final part of the UAT can also include a parallel run to prove the system against the current system.Handout – Software Testing Structured testing can be extended to cover the fully general case of incremental integration in a similar manner. The forms of the tests may follow those in system testing. Factors influencing Acceptance Testing The User Acceptance Test Plan will vary from system to system but. as have modules B and D. acceptance testing is formal testing conducted to determine whether a system satisfies its acceptance criteria and thus whether the customer should accept the system. Acceptance Testing checks that the system delivers what was requested. Acceptance Testing checks the system against the "Requirements". Figure 7-7 illustrates the structured testing approach to incremental integration. but at all times they are informed by the business needs. It would take three tests to integrate this system in a single phase. including Users. and exclude from consideration all modules that do not contain any cross-component calls. problems will arise and it is important to have determined what will be the expected and required responses from the various parties concerned. and not the developer should always do acceptance testing. However. Interface. Acceptance. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . since the design predicates decision to call module D from module B has been tested in a previous phase. Cognizant Technology Solutions. only two additional tests are required to complete the integration testing.

Finally. where appropriate Regression Testing. in terms of business / commercial impact. perhaps unintentionally. In order to agree what such responses should be. pitch size However. Minor Problem . Caution. N. In some cases. you may demand that any problems in severity level 1. '1' is the most severe. colours. Here is an example which has been used successfully. of a problem with the system.B. users may agree to accept ('sign off') the system subject to a range of conditions. To avoid the risk of lengthy and protracted exchanges over the categorization of problems. testing can continue but live this feature will cause severe disruption to business processes in live operation. testing can continue and the system is likely to go live with only minimal departure from agreed business processes. fonts. The users of the system.g. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Again. it is crucial to agree the Criteria for Acceptance. it is impossible to continue with the testing because of the severity of this error / bug. These levels will range from (say) 1 to 6 and will represent the relative severity. in consultation with the executive sponsor of the project. the maximum number of acceptable 'outstanding' in any particular category. Cognizant Technology Solutions. In any event. we strongly advised that a range of examples are agreed in advance to ensure that there are no fundamental areas of disagreement. found during testing. but little or no changes to business processes are envisaged. Critical Problem. Major Problem. must be subjected to rigorous System Testing and.e. 'Cosmetic' Problem e. both testing and live operations may progress. or if there are. For example. and '6' has the least impact: 'Show Stopper' i. testing can continue but we cannot go into production (live) with this problem. must then agree upon the responsibilities and required actions for each category of problem. if such features are key to the business requirements they will warrant a higher severity level. seek additional functionality which could be classified as scope creep. these will be known in advance and your organization is forewarned. These conditions need to be analyzed as they may. This problem should be corrected. any and all fixes from the software developers. Page 44 ©Copyright 2007. Even where the severity levels and the responses to each have been agreed by all parties. prior consideration of this is advisable. it must be agreed between End User and vendor. Vendors and possibly Consultants / Contractors. or.Handout – Software Testing Project Team. Because no system is entirely fault free. Medium Problem. the End Users and the Project Team need to develop and agree a range of 'Severity Levels'. the allocation of a problem into its appropriate severity level can be subjective and open to question. receive priority response and that all testing will cease until such level 1 problems are resolved.

to determine if it fulfills its configurability requirements). The relevant system components have passed system integration testing. configuration testing can begin prior to the distribution of the software components onto the hardware components. time zones. multiple languages. Internationalization (e. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007. Objectives The typical objectives of configuration testing are to: Partially validate the application (i. etc. The test environment is ready.. Preconditions Configuration testing can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The configurability requirements to be tested have been specified. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Software integration testing has started. taxes and tariffs. Personalization Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. The independent test team is adequately staffed and trained in configuration testing. Cause failures concerning the configurability requirements that help identify defects that are not efficiently found during unit and integration testing: o o o Functional Variants. Support personalization. Support internationalization.Handout – Software Testing Configuration Testing & Installation Testing Configuration testing: Testing to determine whether the program operates properly when the software or hardware is configured in a required manner. The typical goals of configuration testing are to cause the application to fail to meet its configurability requirements so that the underlying defects can be identified.g. Cognizant Technology Solutions.e. The relevant software components have passed unit testing.. fixed. Examples Typical examples include configuration testing of an application that must: Have multiple functional variants. analyzed. Determine the effect of adding or modifying hardware resources such as: o o o o Memory Disk and tape resources Processors Load balancers Determine an optimal system configuration.). and prevented in the future. currencies. However. Multiple variants of the application exist.

Tasks Configurability testing typically involves the independent test team performing the following testing tasks: Test Planning Test Reuse Test Design Test Implementation Test Execution Test Reporting Environments Configuration testing is performed on the following environments using the following techniques: Test Environment: Test Harness Work Products Configuration testing typically results in the production of all or part of the following work products from the test work product set: Documents: Project Test Plan Master Test List Test Procedures Test Report Test Summary Report Software and Data: Test Harness Test Scripts Test Suites Test Cases Test Data Phases Configuration testing typically consists of the following tasks being performed during the following phases: Page 46 ©Copyright 2007. The test suites for every scheduled configurability requirement execute successfully on the appropriate configuration.Handout – Software Testing Completion Criteria Configuration testing is typically complete when the following postconditions hold: At least one configuration test suite exists for each configurability requirement. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

in some areas. user acceptance test. Terminology in this testing area can be confusing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . site validation. Installation testing is any testing that takes place at a user's site with the actual hardware and software that will be part of the installed system configuration. Configuration testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur. However. Likewise.Handout – Software Testing Guidelines The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that configuration testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. Page 47 ©Copyright 2007. and automated systems be validated for their intended use. installation testing is defined as any testing that takes place outside of the developer's controlled environment. Terms such as beta test. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and for the purposes of this document. To the extent practical. To avoid confusion. The testing is accomplished through either actual or simulated use of the software being tested within the environment in which it is intended to function. Quality System Regulations require installation and inspection procedures (including testing where appropriate) and documentation of inspection and testing to demonstrate proper installation. manufacturing equipment must meet specified requirements. Installation testing: Testing to identify the ways in which the installation procedures lead to incorrect results. Test planners should check with Soft Solutions International to determine whether there are any additional regulatory requirements for installation testing. Guidance contained here is general in nature and is applicable to any installation testing. reuse functional test cases as configuration test cases. and installation verification have all been used to describe installation testing. there are specific site validation requirements that need to be considered in the planning of installation testing.

etc. Some of the evaluations that have been performed earlier by the software developer at the developer's site should be repeated at the site of actual use. test input data and test results. detection. Help determine the extent to which the application is ready for: o o o Beta testing. security. which are encountered. which are not apparent during more normal activities. and the recording of all test outputs. If the developers are involved. Acceptance testing. The revision of the system to compensate for faults detected during this installation testing should follow the same procedures and controls as any other software change. implementation of safety requirements. Operators should be able to perform the intended operations and respond in an appropriate and timely manner to all alarms. and serviceability. Objectives The typical objectives of alpha testing are to: Cause failures that only tend to occur in the production environment. and recovery). Cognizant Technology Solutions. heavy loads or stresses. there should be an evaluation of the ability of the users of the system to understand and correctly interface with it. Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. it is all the more important that the user have persons knowledgeable in software engineering who understand the importance of such matters as careful test planning. The testing instructions should encourage use through the full range of operating conditions and should continue for a sufficient time to allow the system to encounter a wide spectrum of conditions and events in an effort to detect any latent faults. errors. Page 48 ©Copyright 2007. There should be evidence that hardware and software are installed and configured as specified. In addition to an evaluation of the system's ability to properly perform its intended functions. fault testing (avoidance. tolerance. they may seamlessly carry over to the user's site the last portions of design-level systems testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . These may include tests for a high volume of data. The developers of the software may or may not be involved in the installation testing. Launch. If the developers are not involved. the definition of expected test results. The developer may be able to furnish the user with some of the test data sets to be used for this purpose. There should be retention of documented evidence of all testing procedures.Handout – Software Testing Installation testing should follow a pre-defined plan with a formal summary of testing and a record of formal acceptance. Records should be maintained during installation testing of both the system's capability to properly perform and the system's failures. Alpha testing and Beta testing Alpha testing is the launch testing consisting of the development organization’s initial internal dry runs of the application’s acceptance tests in the production environment. Measures should ensure that all system components are exercised during the testing and that the versions of these components are those specified. warnings. error messages. if any.

Test Implementation: Fix any defects in the test suites found during evaluation. The application has been ported to the production environment. Acceptance testing does not discover any: o o Severity one defects. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Environments Alpha testing is typically performed on the following environments with the following tools: o Production Environments None o o o o Page 49 ©Copyright 2007. Update the alpha testing subsection of Project Test Plan (PTP) Test Design: Select an adequate subset of the system test suites of test cases (both functional and quality) to be repeated on the production environment during alpha testing. Tasks Typically involves the following teams performing the following testing tasks: Independent Test Team: o Test Planning: Determine alpha testing completion criteria. The production environment is ready. Preconditions Execution of alpha tests can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The application has passed all system tests. The customer representative has approved these acceptance test suites. Test Execution: Execute the alpha test suites on the production environment. Severity two defects that do not have adequate work arounds. The delivery phase has begun. The independent test team is adequately staffed. Completion Criteria Alpha testing is typically complete when the following post conditions hold: An initial version of the acceptance test suites exists. The acceptance tests execute on the production environment.Handout – Software Testing Provide input to the defect trend analysis effort. Test Reporting: Report failures that occurred during testing to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed.

Launch. Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed.Handout – Software Testing Phases Alpha testing typically involves the following tasks being performed during the following phases: Guidelines To the extent practical. Objectives The typical objectives of beta testing are to: Cause failures that only tend to occur during actual usage by the user community rather than during formal testing. Definition Beta testing is the launch testing of the application in the production environment by a few select users prior to acceptance testing and the release of the application to its entire user community. Page 50 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . reuse the tests from system testing when performing alpha testing rather than producing new tests. The application has passed alpha testing. Obtain additional user community feedback beyond that received during usability testing. Preconditions Beta test execution can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The application has passed all system tests. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Help determine the extent to which the system is ready for: o o Acceptance testing. Provide input to the defect trend analysis effort. The delivery phase has begun. The production environment is ready.

Select beta test user group.Report failures to customer organization. Test Reporting . Completion Criteria Beta testing is typically complete when: The time period scheduled for beta testing ends. Test Execution . Test Reporting . Cognizant Technology Solutions. User Organizations: Page 51 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing The application has been ported to the production environment.Use application under normal conditions of operation. The selected group of users is ready. Tasks Beta testing typically involves the following producers performing the following testing tasks: Independent Test Team: o Test Planning .Update beta testing subsection of Project Test Plan (PTP). These failures have been passed on to the development teams. The users have reported any failures observed to the development organization. Customer Organization: o o o o Environments Beta testing is typically performed on the following environments (limited to a select group of users) using the following tools: Production Environments: Client Environment Contact Center Environment Content Management Environment Data Center Environment Tools: Defect reporting tool.Pass on reported failures to developer organization. Test Implementation . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

The testing that ensures that no unwanted changes were introduced is a) Unit Testing b) System Testing c) Acceptance Testing d) Regression Testing Answers: 1) a 2) d Page 52 ©Copyright 2007. Beta testing often uses actual live data rather than data created for testing purposes. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Test your Understanding 1.Handout – Software Testing Phases Beta testing typically involves the following tasks being performed during the following phases: Guidelines Limit the user test group to users who are willing to use a lower quality version of the application in exchange for obtaining it early and having input into its iteration. Alpha testing is differentiated from beta testing by a) the location where the tests are conducted b) the types of tests conducted c) the people doing the testing d) the degree to which white-box techniques are used 2. Beta testing is critical if formal usability testing was not performed during system testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

The developer should know when this is the case. The danger of not implementing a unit test on every method is that the coverage may be incomplete. can it be tested by inspection? If the code is simple enough that the developer can just look at it and verify its correctness then it is simple enough to not require a unit test. but there will be no design of their interactions.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 4: Levels of Testing Learning Objective After completing this chapter. Likewise. along with the expected results and pass/fail date. The unit test will motivate the code that you write. Just because we don't test every method explicitly doesn't mean that methods can get away with not being tested. Generally. which is not an effective test strategy. because it may break at some time. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. so the art is to define the unit test on the methods that cannot be checked by inspection. and then the unit test will be there to help you fix it. The programmer is then reduced to testing-by-poking-around. in the language of object oriented programming. In a sense. If error handling is performed in a method. then the tests will be trivial and the objects might pass the tests. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the scope is too narrow. "What will this bit of code do?" Or. then there is a high chance that not every component of the new code will get tested. "What will these clusters of objects do?" The crucial issue in constructing a unit test is scope. Certainly. Unit tests will most likely be defined at the method level. it is a little design document that says. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It's important. Need for Unit Test How do you know that a method doesn't need a unit test? First. but not relevant in most programming projects. because they test for failures. then that method can break. interactions of objects are the crux of any object oriented design. and they also identify those segments of code that are related. or which objects form a cluster. People who revisit the code will use the unit tests to discover which objects are related. you will be able to: List different levels of testing Unit Testing Unit testing: Isn't that some annoying requirement that we're going to ignore? Many developers get very nervous when you mention unit tests. Usually this is a vision of a grand table with every single method listed. The careful programmer will know that their unit testing is complete when they have verified that their unit tests cover every cluster of objects that form their application. The programmer should know that their unit testing is complete when the unit tests cover at the very least the functional requirements of all the code. Unit tests that isolate clusters of objects for testing are doubly useful. Hence: Unit tests isolate clusters of objects for future developers. Another good litmus test is to look at the code and see if it throws an error or catches an error. any method that can break is a good candidate for having a unit test. if the scope is too broad. Usually this is the case when the method involves a cluster of objects.

As it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code...Handout – Software Testing Life Cycle Approach to Testing Testing will occur throughout the project lifecycle i. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. from Requirements till User Acceptance Testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . To test particular functions or code modules. To uncover an as-yet undiscovered error . Types of Errors detected The following are the Types of errors that may be caught Error in Data Structures Performance Errors Logic Errors Validity of alternate and exception flows Identified at analysis/design stages Page 54 ©Copyright 2007. and Prepare a test case with a high probability of finding an as-yet undiscovered error. The main Objective to Unit Testing are as follows : To execute a program with the intent of finding an error. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Levels of Unit Testing UNIT 100% code coverage INTEGRATION SYSTEM ACCEPTANCE MAINTENANCE AND REGRESSION Concepts in Unit Testing: The most 'micro' scale of testing.e.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 55 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Unit Testing – Black Box Approach Field Level Check Field Level Validation User Interface Check Functional Level Check Unit Testing – White Box Approach STATEMENT COVERAGE DECISION COVERAGE CONDITION COVERAGE MULTIPLE CONDITION COVERAGE (nested conditions) CONDITION/DECISION COVERAGE PATH COVERAGE Unit Testing – Field Level Checks Null / Not Null Checks Uniqueness Checks Length Checks Date Field Checks Numeric Checks Negative Checks Unit Testing – Field Level Validations Test all Validations for an Input field Date Range Checks (From Date/To Date’s) Date Check Validation with System date Unit Testing – User Interface Checks Readability of the Controls Tool Tips Validation Ease of Use of Interface Across Tab related Checks User Interface Dialog GUI compliance checks Unit Testing .Functionality Checks Screen Functionalities Field Dependencies Auto Generation Algorithms and Computations Normal and Abnormal terminations Specific Business Rules if any.

Also known as: line coverage. Page 56 ©Copyright 2007. This measure reports whether each executable statement is encountered. Select the unique set of test cases. Basic block coverage is the same as statement coverage except the unit of code measured is each sequence of non-branching statements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Other Measures Function coverage Loop coverage Race coverage Execution of Unit Tests Design a test case for every statement to be executed.Handout – Software Testing Unit Testing . Cognizant Technology Solutions. segment coverage and basic block coverage.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Page 57 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Handout – Software Testing Unit Testing Flow : Advantage of Unit Testing Can be applied directly to object code and does not require processing source code. Performance profilers commonly implement this measure. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Disadvantage of Unit Testing Insensitive to some control structures (number of iterations) Does not report whether loops reach their termination condition Statement coverage is completely insensitive to the logical operators (|| and &&). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Method for Statement Coverage Design a test-case for the pass/failure of every decision point Select unique set of test cases Page 58 ©Copyright 2007.

decisionpath testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Predicate coverage views paths as possible combinations of logical conditions Path coverage has the advantage of requiring very thorough testing Page 59 ©Copyright 2007. especially for very complex Boolean expressions Number of test cases required could vary substantially among conditions that have similar complexity Condition/Decision Coverage is a hybrid measure composed by the union of condition coverage and decision coverage. and interrupt handlers. Condition coverage measures the sub-expressions independently of each other. Advantage: Simplicity without the problems of statement coverage Disadvantage This measure ignores branches within boolean expressions which occur due to shortcircuit operators. when present. Additionally. Also known as: branch coverage. As with condition coverage. all-edges coverage. Reports whether every possible combination of boolean sub-expressions occurs. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It has the advantage of simplicity but without the shortcomings of its component measures This measure reports whether each of the possible paths in each function have been followed. Reports the true or false outcome of each Boolean sub-expression. separated by logical-and and logical-or if they occur. exception handlers. Method for Condition Coverage: Test if every condition (sub-expression) in decision for true/false Select unique set of test cases. Also known as predicate coverage. A path is a unique sequence of branches from the function entry to the exit. the sub-expressions are separated by logical-and and logical-or. this measure includes coverage of switch-statement cases. The test cases required for full multiple condition coverage of a condition are given by the logical operator truth table for the condition. Disadvantage: Tedious to determine the minimum set of test cases required. The entire Boolean expression is considered one true-or-false predicate regardless of whether it contains logical-and or logical-or operators. basis path coverage.Handout – Software Testing This measure reports whether Boolean expressions tested in control structures (such as the if-statement and while-statement) evaluated to both true and false. "Basis path" testing selects paths that achieve decision coverage.

Loop Coverage This measure reports whether you executed each loop body zero times. if they contain any interface defects).e. and more than once.. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Specifically. Kinds of Integration Testing Integration testing includes the following kinds of testing: Commercial Component Integration Commercial component integration testing is the integration testing of multiple commercialoff. System Integration System integration testing is the integration testing of two or more system components. client. Useful for testing multi-threaded programs such as in an operating system. Integration Testing Integration testing is the testing of a partially integrated application to identify defects involving the interaction of collaborating components.. For do-while loops. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Broad. and database Page 60 ©Copyright 2007.theshelf (COTS) software components to determine if they are not interoperable (i. web server. information not reported by others measure. system integration testing is the testing of software components that have been distributed across multiple platforms (e. It is useful during preliminary testing to assure at least some coverage in all areas of the software. Helps detect failure to synchronize access to resources. Software Integration Software integration testing is the incremental integration testing of two or more integrated software components on a single platform to produce failures caused by interface defects. Objectives The typical objectives of integration testing are to: Determine if components will work properly together.Handout – Software Testing Function Coverage: This measure reports whether you invoked each function or procedure. loop coverage reports whether you executed the body exactly once. Race Coverage This measure reports whether multiple threads execute the same code at the same time. application server. twice and more than twice (consecutively). Identify defects that are not easily identified during unit testing. exactly once.g. shallow testing finds gross deficiencies in a test suite quickly. The valuable aspect of this measure is determining whether while-loops and for-loops execute more than once.

We will test that the functionality of your systems meets with your specifications. A number of time-domain software reliability models attempt to predict the growth of a system's reliability during the system test phase of the development life cycle. Making this function more effective can deliver a range of benefits including reductions in risk. are good examples. Even security guide lines have to be included.Handout – Software Testing server) to produce failures caused by system integration defects (i. Therefore the program has to be given completely. The difference between function testing and system testing is that now the focus is on the whole application and its environment . ecommerce.. the validation process is close to other activities such as conformance. Guidelines The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that integration testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner.e. whether testing a financial system. and aeronautical and space. This does not mean that now single functions of the whole program are tested. In other words. integrating with which-ever type of development methodology you are applying. Moreover. These techniques can be applied flexibly. development costs and improved 'time to market' for new systems. ``Did we build the right product?'' and not just. and nevertheless. This means that those tests should be done in the environment for which the program was designed. railway. System Testing For most organizations. this again includes the question. In this paper we examine the results of applying several types of Poisson-process models to the development of a large system for which system test was performed in two parallel tracks. We test for errors that users are likely to make as they interact with the application as well as your application’s ability to trap errors gracefully. while this is one of the most incomplete test methods. the validation process does not often receive the required attention. it is one of the most important. Integration testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur. Systems with software components and software-intensive systems are more and more complex everyday. Industry sectors such as telecom. an online casino or games testing. it is beyond doubt that this test cannot be done completely. automotive. Page 61 ©Copyright 2007. software and system testing represents a significant element of a project's cost in terms of money and management time. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . However. It is often agreed that testing is essential to manufacture reliable products. it also contains some aspects that are orientated on the word ``system'' . because this would be too redundant. acceptance and qualification testing. Once again. using different strategies for test data selection. The main goal is rather to demonstrate the discrepancies of the product from its requirements and its documentation. system testing does not only deal with this more economical problem. defects involving distribution and back-office integration). Cognizant Technology Solutions. like a mulituser network or whetever. ``Did we build the product right?'' However.

when appropriate. Your test strategy must take into consideration the risks to your organisation. increased independence naturally increases objectivity. such as: Security Load/stress Performance Browser compatibility Localisation Need for System Testing Effective software testing. etc.test performance in terms of speed. data. speed. Recovery testing . etc.test how the system fits in with existing operations and procedures in the user organization Compliance testing . System Testing Techniques Goal is to evaluate the system as a whole. how it handles corrupted data. as a part of software engineering. Operations testing . also encompass many other types of testing. users. for example. You will have a personal interest in its success in which case it is only human for your objectivity to be compromised.test adherence to standards Page 62 ©Copyright 2007. not its parts Techniques can be structural or functional Techniques can be used in any stage that tests the system as a whole (acceptance. Execution testing. however. etc. precision. installation.test larger-than-normal capacity in terms of transactions.Handout – Software Testing System Testing is more than just functional testing. and can. has been proven over the last 3decades to deliver real business benefits including: These benefits are achieved as a result of some fundamental principles of testing. etc. commercial and technical.) Techniques not mutually exclusive Structural techniques Stress testing . Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .test how the system recovers from a disaster.

choose test cases with input values at the boundary (both inside and outside) of the allowable range Syntax checking .every path is exercised (impossible in practice) Error-based techniques Page 63 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . low. Cognizant Technology Solutions.makes sure the system does what it’s required to do Regression testing .pick test cases that will produce output at the extremes of the output domain Structural techniques Statement testing .includes user documentation Intersystem handling testing .) in isolation Techniques can be structural or functional In practice.test required control mechanisms Parallel testing . component. then pick a test case from each partition Boundary value .test that the system is compatible with other systems in the environment Control testing .design test cases that use input values that represent special situations Output domain testing .test security requirements Functional techniques Requirements testing .ensure the set of test cases exercises every statement at least once Branch testing . module. program. it’s usually ad-hoc and looks a lot like debugging More structured approaches exist Functional techniques Input domain testing . including high.each truth statement is exercised both true and false Expression testing .Handout – Software Testing Security testing .every part of every expression is exercised Path testing . etc.each branch of an if/then statement is exercised Conditional testing .choose test cases that violate the format rules for input Special values . and average values Equivalence partitioning .pick test cases representative of the range of allowable input.test required error-handling functions (usually user error) Manual-support testing .feed same input into two versions of the system to make sure they Produce the same output Unit Testing Goal is to evaluate some piece (file.partition the range of allowable input so that the program is expected to behave similarly for all inputs in a given partition.fundamental form of testing .test that the system can be used properly .make sure unchanged functionality remains unchanged errorhandling testing .

then tests a new product until the number of defects found approaches the expected number SUMMARY Testing irrespective of the phases of testing should encompass the following: Cost of Failure associated with defective products getting shipped and used by customer is enormous To find out whether the integrated product work as per the customer requirements To evaluate the product with an independent perspective To identify as many defects as possible before the customer finds To reduce the risk of releasing the product Hence the system Test phase should begin once modules are integrated enough to perform tests in a whole system environment. especially with the top-down method. The customer Answers: 1) a 2) b Page 64 ©Copyright 2007. you can estimate whether or not you’ve found all of them or not Fault seeding . System testing can occur in parallel with integration test. In general.an organization keeps records of the average numbers of defects in the products it produces. the software engineer c. Unit testing is predominantly a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . unit testing is performed by: a. SQA d. black-box oriented c. white-box oriented b. Cognizant Technology Solutions.create mutants of the program by making single changes.Handout – Software Testing Basic idea is that if you know something about the nature of the defects in the code.put a certain number of known faults into the code. then run test cases until all mutants have been killed Historical test data . none of the above 2). then test until they are all found Mutation testing . Test your Understanding 1). both black-and-white-box oriented d. an independent test group b.

and you can wait to decide what to write until you have seen the running objects. JUnit tests do not require human judgment to interpret. It is an instance of the xUnit architecture for unit testing frameworks. they don't compose nicely. Money m14CHF= new Money(14. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Both styles of tests are limited because they require human judgment to analyze their results. here is what you do: Create an instance of Test Case: Create a constructor which accepts a String as a parameter and passes it to the superclass. You can also write test expressions as statements which print to the standard output stream. JUNIT Testing . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 65 ©Copyright 2007. call assertTrue() and pass a boolean that is true if the test succeeds For example. JUnit features include: Assertions for testing expected results Test fixtures for sharing common test data Test suites for easily organizing and running tests Graphical and textual test runners JUnit was originally written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck Simple Test Case How do you write testing code? The simplest way is as an expression in a debugger. Also. you will be able to: Write a Junit Testing. to test that the sum of two Moneys with the same currency contains a value which is the sum of the values of the two Moneys. Override the method runTest() When you want to check a value. You can change debug expressions without recompiling.Introduction JUnit is a simple framework to write repeatable tests. "CHF").you can only execute one debug expression at a time and a program with too many print statements causes the dreaded "Scroll Blindness". "CHF").Handout – Software Testing Chapter 5: JUnit Testing Learning Objective After completing this chapter. write: public void testSimpleAdd() { Money m12CHF= new Money(12. and it is easy to run many of them at the same time. When you need to test something.

you can make writing the fixture code easier by paying careful attention to the constructors you write. This set of objects is called a test fixture.Handout – Software Testing Money expected= new Money(26. write a Fixture instead. Often. "CHF"). Page 66 ©Copyright 2007. } } Once you have the Fixture in place. Each case will send slightly different messages or parameters to the fixture and will check for different results. you will be able to use the same fixture for several different tests. 14 Swiss Francs. } If you want to write a test similar to one you have already written. f14CHF= new Money(14. you can write as many Test Cases as you'd like.equals(result)).add(m14CHF). When you have a common fixture. Money result= m12CHF. private Money f28USD. protected void setUp() { f12CHF= new Money(12. "CHF"). here is what you do: Create a subclass of TestCase Create a constructor which accepts a String as a parameter and passes it to the superclass. create a Suite. However. to write several test cases that want to work with different combinations of 12 Swiss Francs. When you want to run more than one test. private Money f14CHF. To some extent. assertTrue(expected. "CHF"). Cognizant Technology Solutions. and 28 US Dollars. first create a fixture: public class MoneyTest extends TestCase { private Money f12CHF. Fixture What if you have two or more tests that operate on the same or similar sets of objects? Tests need to run against the background of a known set of objects. a much bigger savings comes from sharing fixture code. When you are writing tests you will often find that you spend more time writing the code to set up the fixture than you do in actually testing values. "USD"). Add an instance variable for each part of the fixture Override setUp() to initialize the variables Override tearDown() to release any permanent resources you allocated in setUp For example. f28USD= new Money(28. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

write: public void testMoneyMoneyBag() { // [12 CHF] + [14 CHF] + [28 USD] == {[26 CHF][28 USD]} Money bag[]= { f26CHF. Cognizant Technology Solutions. suite.Handout – Software Testing Test Case How do you write and invoke an individual test case when you have a Fixture? Writing a test case without a fixture is simple. Page 67 ©Copyright 2007.run().add(f28USD. For example. Be sure to make it public. or it can't be invoked through reflection. However. MoneyBag expected= new MoneyBag(bag). Instead.override runTest in an anonymous subclass of TestCase. after a few such tests you would notice that a large percentage of your lines of code are sacrificed to syntax. JUnit provides an object. You could run the tests one at a time yourself. you'll want to run them together. organize them into a Suite.Create an instance of the TestCase class and pass the name of the test case method to the constructor. To do so you pass the class of your Test Case to the TestSuite constructor. To create a suite of two test cases and run them together. execute: TestSuite suite= new TestSuite(). by making a subclass of TestCase for your set up code and then making anonymous subclasses for the individual test cases. you execute: TestResult result= (new MoneyTest("testMoneyMoneyBag")). } Create an instance of of MoneyTest that will run this test case like this: new MoneyTest("testMoneyMoneyBag") When the test is run. f12CHF. Here is what you do: Write the test case method in the fixture class.addTest(new MoneyTest("testSimpleAdd")).run(). assertEquals(expected. f28USD }. You write test cases for a Fixture the same way. to test the addition of a Money and a MoneyBag. Suite How do you run several tests at once? As soon as you have two tests. TestResult result= suite. TestSuite which runs any number of test cases together. the name of the test is used to look up the method to run. JUnit provides a more concise way to write a test against a Fixture. to run a single test case. For example. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . suite.addTest(new MoneyTest("testMoneyEquals")). Once you have several tests. Another way is to let JUnit extract a suite from a TestCase.add(f14CHF))). but you would quickly grow tired of that.

awtui. you'll want to run it.TestRunner or junit. to make a MoneyTest suite available to a TestRunner.addTest(Erich. TestRunner How do you run your tests and collect their results? Once you have a test suite. suite. A list of failed tests. return suite. } If a TestCase class doesn't define a suite method a TestRunner will extract a suite and fill it with all the methods starting with "test". In the case of an unsuccessful test JUnit reports the failed tests in a list at the bottom. and we can run them together by creating a TestSuite that contains both: TestSuite suite= new TestSuite().TestRunner. Otherwise the automatic suite extraction is the preferred way. It avoids you having to update the suite creation code when you add a new test case. you can create a TestSuite in your code and I can create one in mine. You make your suite accessible to a TestRunner tool with a static method suite that returns a test suite For example.suite()). Use the manual way when you want a suite to only contain a subset of the test cases.Start it by typing java junit.run(). Errors are unanticipated problems like an Page 68 ©Copyright 2007. A run button to start the test.swingui.Handout – Software Testing TestSuite suite= new TestSuite(MoneyTest.addTest(new MoneyTest("testMoneyEquals")). add the following code to MoneyTest: public static Test suite() { TestSuite suite= new TestSuite(). suite. TestResult result= suite. A progress indicator that turns from red to green in the case of a failed test.addTest(new MoneyTest("testSimpleAdd")). JUnit distinguishes between failures and errors.run(). JUnit provides tools to define the suite to be run and to display its results. TestSuites don't only have to contain TestCases. A failure is anticipated and checked for with assertions. Cognizant Technology Solutions.suite()).class). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The graphical user interface presents a window with: A field to type in the name of a class with a suite method. TestResult result= suite. suite. suite. JUnit provides both a graphical and a textual version of a TestRunner tool. For example. They contain any object that implements the Test interface.addTest(Kent.

In a dynamic programming environment like VisualAge for Java which supports hot code update you can leave the JUnit window up all the time.TestRunner followed by the name of the class with a suite method at an operating system prompt.textui. Cognizant Technology Solutions. For example.LoadingTestCollector . } With this definition of main you can run your tests by simply typing java MoneyTest at an operating system prompt. To use it typejava junit. also.This feature can be disabled by unchecking the 'Reload classes every run' checkbox.jar file is on your CLASSPATH. to start the batch TestRunner for MoneyTest. An alternative way to invoke the batch interface is to define a main method in your TestCase class. The following figure shows an example of a failed test. Page 69 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . write: public static void main(String args[]) { junit. As an alternative JUnit's AWT and Swing UIs use junit. For using either the graphical or the textual version make sure that the junit.Handout – Software Testing ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException.textui. The batch interface shows the result as text output. This LoadingTestCollector reloads all your classes for each test run. In other environments you have to restart the graphical version for each run.run(suite()). This is tedious and time consuming. There is a batch interface to JUnit.TestRunner.runner.

Test monitoring and assessment – ongoing monitoring and assessment of the integrity of the development and construction. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is the role of test management to ensure that new or modified service products meet the business requirements for which they have been developed or enhanced. Test organization also involves the determination of configuration standards and the definition of the test environment. Test planning – the requirements definition and design specifications facilitate in the identification of major test items and these may necessitate the test strategy to be updated. The project framework under which the testing activities will be carried out is reviewed. The status of the configuration items should be reviewed against the phase plans and test progress reports prepared providing some assurance of the verification and validation activities. high level test phase plans prepared and resource schedules considered. The required outcome of each test must be known before the test is attempted. Page 70 ©Copyright 2007. you will be able to: Create a test plans and test cases Test Strategy and Test Plan Introduction This Document entails you towards the better insight of the Test Strategy and its methodology. Unit. Any test support tools introduced should be aligned with. Test Approach/Test Architecture are the acronyms for Test Strategy. the test strategy. Test specifications – required for all levels of testing and covering all categories of test. integration and system testing – configuration items are verified against the appropriate specifications and in accordance with the test plan. and in support of. The testing strategy also forms the basis for the creation of a standardized documentation set. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Key elements of Test Management: Test organization –the set-up and management of a suitable test organizational structure and explicit role definition. The test environment should also be under configuration control and test data and results stored for future evaluation.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 6: Testing Artifacts Learning Objective After completing this chapter. Test management is also concerned with both test resource and test environment management. A detailed test plan and schedule is prepared with key test responsibilities being indicated. and facilitates communication of the test process and its implications outside of the test discipline. The Testing strategy should define the objectives of all test stages and the techniques that apply.

The testing to be performed.g. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . identifying: The items to be tested. e. Testing and commissioning is often considered by teams as a secondary activity and given a lower priority particularly as pressure builds on the program towards completion.Handout – Software Testing Product assurance – the decision to negotiate the acceptance testing program and the release and commissioning of the service product is subject to the ‘product assurance’ role being satisfied with the outcome of the verification activities. Evaluation criteria. stress and security etc? Does the test plan prescribe the approach to be taken for intended test activities. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Resource and facility requirements. e-commerce testing may involve new user interfaces and a business focus on usability may mean that the organization must review its testing strategies. The time necessary for testing and commissioning will vary from project to project depending upon the complexity of the systems and services that have been installed. Product assurance may oversee some of the test activity and may participate in process reviews. Risks requiring contingency measures? Are test processes and practices reviewed regularly to assure that the testing processes continue to meet specific business needs? For example. Page 71 ©Copyright 2007. Traditionally the responsibility for testing and commissioning is buried deep within the supply chain as a sub-contract of a subcontract. Test schedules. Reporting requirements. non-functional testing and the associated techniques such as performance. A common criticism of construction programmers is that insufficient time is frequently allocated to the testing and commissioning of the building systems together with the involvement and subsequent training of the Facilities Management team. Fitness for purpose checklist: Is there a documented testing strategy that defines the objectives of all test stages and the techniques that may apply. Sufficient time must be dedicated to testing and commissioning as ensuring the systems function correctly is fairly fundamental to the project’s success or failure. It is possible to gain greater control of this process and the associated risk through the use of specialists such as Systems Integration who can be appointed as part of the professional team. The Project Sponsor should ensure that the professional team and the contractor consider realistically how much time is needed.

Generate large number of decision scenarios. Scenarios may be corrupted. Unable to handle Complex Decisions. Understand the underlying Algorithm. Capability test each major function. Review Documentation and Help. Test Strategy – Selection Selection of the Test Strategy is based on the following factors Product o Test Strategy based on the Application to help people and teams of people in making decisions. Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected Based on the Key Potential Risks o o o o o o o o o o o o Determination of Actual Risk. . Simulate the Algorithm in parallel. People will use the Product Incorrectly Incorrect comparison of scenarios. Create complex scenarios and compare them.Handout – Software Testing Test Strategy Flow: Test Cases and Test Procedures should manifest Test Strategy. Suggestion of Wrong Ideas. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Test for sensitivity to user Error.

Handout – Software Testing Test Strategy Execution: Understand the decision Algorithm and generate the parallel decision analyzer using the Perl or Excel that will function as a reference for high volume testing of the app. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This will be done using the GUI test Automation system or through the direct generation of Decide Right scenario files that would be loaded into the product during test. The system concerns on risks then establish the objectives for the test process. Test the product for the risk of silent failures or corruptions in decision analysis. Issues in Execution of the Test Strategy The difficulty of understanding and simulating the decision algorithm The risk of coincidal failure of both the simulation and the product. and the design of the user interface and functionality for its sensitivity to user error. General Testing Strategies Top-down Bottom-up Thread testing Stress testing Back-to-back testing Need for Test Strategy The objective of testing is to reduce the risks inherent in computer systems. The two components of the testing strategy are the Test Factors and the Test Phase. Page 73 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The strategy must address the risks and present a process that can reduce those risks. Review the Documentation. Test with decision scenarios that are near the limit of complexity allowed by the product Compare complex scenarios. Create a means to generate and apply large numbers of decision scenarios to the product. The difficulty of automating decision tests.

Not all the test factors will be applicable to all software systems. Developing a Test Strategy The test Strategy will need to be customized for any specific software system. Select and rank Test Factors Identify the System Developmental Phases Identify the Business risks associated with the System under Development. For example the test phases in as traditional waterfall life cycle methodology will be much different from the phases in a Rapid Application Development methodology. Test Phase – The Phase of the systems development life cycle in which testing will occur. The strategy will select those factors that need to be addressed in the testing of a specific application system. The test phase will vary based on the testing methodology used. The applicable test factors would be listed as the phases in which the testing must occur. The development team will need to select and rank the test factors for the specific software systems being developed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Four test steps must be followed to develop a customized test strategy.Handout – Software Testing Test Factor – The risk or issue that needs to be addressed as part of the test strategy. Place risks in the Matrix Page 74 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Purpose of preparing a Test Plan A Test Plan is a useful way to think through the efforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software product. deadlines and deliverables for the project. Test Plan A Test Plan can be defined as a document that describes the scope. responsibilities. The main purpose of preparing a Test Plan is that everyone concerned with the project are in sync with regards to the scope. It is in this respect that reviews and a sign-off are very important since it means that everyone is in agreement of the contents of the test plan and this also helps in case of any dispute during the course of the project (especially between the developers and the testers). Thus the Test team needs to acquire and study the test strategy that should question the following: What is the relationship of importance among the test factors? Which of the high level risks are the most significant? What damage can be done to the business if the software fails to perform correctly? What damage can be done to the business if the business if the software is not completed on time? Who are the individuals most knowledgeable in understanding the impact of the identified business risks? Hence the Test Strategy must address the risks and present a process that can reduce those risks. The completed document will help people outside the test group understand the 'why' and 'how' of product validation. It identifies test items.Handout – Software Testing Conclusion: Test Strategy should be developed in accordance with the business risks associated with the software when the test team develop the test tactics. the features to be tested. The system accordingly focuses on risks thereby establishes the objectives for the test process. and any risks requiring contingency planning. approach. who will do each task. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It should be thorough enough to be useful but not so thorough that no one outside the test group will read it. the testing tasks. resources and schedule of intended test activities. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Contents of a Test Plan Purpose Scope Test Approach Entry Criteria Resources Tasks / Responsibilities Exit Criteria Schedules / Milestones Page 75 ©Copyright 2007.

Resources This section should list out the people who would be involved in the project and their designation etc. Exit criteria Contains tasks like bringing down the system / server.) prerequisites. restoring system to pre-test environment.Handout – Software Testing Hardware / Software Requirements Risks & Mitigation Plans Tools to be used Deliverables References Procedures Templates Standards/Guidelines Annexure Sign-Off Contents (in detail) Purpose This section should contain the purpose of preparing the test plan Scope This section should talk about the areas of the application which are to be tested by the QA team and specify those areas which are definitely out of scope (screens. Tasks / Responsibilities This section talks about the tasks to be performed and the responsibilities assigned to the various members in the project. database refresh etc. mainframe processes etc). Page 76 ©Copyright 2007.e. Schedules / Milestones This sections deals with the final delivery date and the various milestone dates to be met in the course of the project. For example: Timely environment set up. Test Approach This would contain details on how the testing is to be performed and whether any specific strategy is to be followed (including configuration management). Entry Criteria This section explains the various steps to be performed before the start of a test (i. database. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. successful implementation of the latest build etc. starting the web server / app server.

Templates for all these could also be attached. and good data can help improve functional testing. Preparation of the data can help to focus the business where requirements are vague.) QView Project related documents (RSD. It is recommended that a full test environment be set up for use in the applicable circumstances.) WinRunner. start of the project. Status Reports. Deliverables This section contains the various deliverables that are due to the client at various points of time (i. Risks & Mitigation Plans This section should list out all the possible risks that can arise during the testing and the mitigation plans that the QA team plans to implement incase the risk actually turns into a reality. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Tools to be used This would list out the testing tools or utilities (if any) that are to be used in the project (e. Each separate test should be given a unique reference number which will identify the Business Process being recorded. WinSQL. Good test data can be structured to improve understanding and testability. The first stage of any recogniser development project is data preparation. PCOM. the simulated conditions used. the persons involved in the testing Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. Actual customer names or contact details should also not be used for such tests.g. connectivity related issues etc. specific software that needs to be installed on the systems to get the application running or to connect to the database. Test Procedure. References Procedures Templates (Client Specific or otherwise) Standards / Guidelines (e. FSD etc) Annexure This could contain embedded documents or links to documents which have been / will be used in the course of testing (e. Test Matrices.) templates used for reports. end of the project etc. Test Data Preparation . Functional testing can suffer if data is poor.Introduction A System is programmed by its data.g. ADD. Referenced documents can also be attached here. Test Scripts etc. be prepared which is representative of normal business transactions.g. can reduce maintenance effort and allow flexibility.) daily.Handout – Software Testing Hardware / Software Requirements This section would contain the details of PC’s / servers required (with the configuration) to install the application or perform the testing. weekly.e. test cases etc. Test Director. Its contents. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Test data should however. These could include Test Plans. correctly chosen. Sign-Off This should contain the mutual agreement between the client and the QA team with both leads / managers signing off their agreement on the Test Plan.

you have to decide such things as what exactly you are testing and testing for. you must know how it's supposed to work. The paper will focus on input data. Configuration data can dictate control flow. Data is a crucial part of most functional testing. etc. You must have a consistent schedule for testing. In other words. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . data manipulation. rather than output data or the transitional states the data passes through during processing. Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. you should design test cases. etc. the paper will concentrate most on data-heavy applications. and will show that testing can be improved by a careful choice of input data. Effective quality control testing requires some basic goals and understanding: You must understand what you are testing. as input data has the greatest influence on functional testing and is the simplest to manipulate. You must understand the limits inherent in the tests themselves. Roles of Data in Functional Testing Testing consumes and produces large amounts of data. the more formal a plan the better. how the protocols behave. presentation and user interface.Handout – Software Testing process and the date the test was carried out. forms the input. implementing and evaluating tests. if you're testing a specific functionality. performing a specific set of tests at appropriate points in the process is more important than running the tests at a specific time. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Tests must be planned and thought out a head of time. Testing is the process of creating. is close enough good enough? You should have a good idea of a methodology for the test. This paper sets out to illustrate some of the ways that data can influence the test process. A System Is Programmed By Its Data Many modern systems allow tremendous flexibility in the way their basic functionality can be used. which finally spews forth yet more data to be checked against expectations. what steps are required. A system can be configured to fit several business models. extrapolated. In doing this. an individual may look for a personalized experience from commonly-available software. the way the test is going to be run and applied. work (almost) seamlessly with a variety of cooperative systems and provide tailored experiences to a host of different users. You should have a definition of what success and failure are. such as operational profiles. Data describes the initial conditions for a test. A business may look to an application's configurability to allow them to keep up with the market without being slowed by the development process. This will enable the monitoring and testing reports to be co-coordinated with any feedback received. massive datasets and environmental tuning. Data is manipulated. is the medium through which the tester influences the software. those which use databases or are heavily influenced by the data they hold. The paper will not consider areas where data is important to non-functional testing. summarized and referenced by the functionality under test.

for example: Project and quality assumptions Project background information Resources Schedule & timeline Entry and exit criteria Test milestones Tests to be performed Use cases and/or test cases Criteria for Test Data Collection This section of the Document specifies the description of the test data needed to test recovery of each business process. whether they are good or bad. Each business process should be thoroughly tested and the coordinator should ensure that each business unit observes the necessary rules associated with ensuring that the testing process is carried out within a realistic environment. the tests should be independently monitored. Identify Who is to Conduct the Tests In order to ensure consistency of the testing process throughout the organization. Good Data Can Help Testing Stay On Schedule An easily comprehensible and well-understood dataset is a tool to help communication. It should also list the duties of the appointed co-ordinators. a nominated testing and across the organization. while an elegantly-chosen dataset can often allow new tests without the overhead of new data. it is hard to communicate problems to coders. Good data can greatly assist in speedy diagnosis and rapid re-testing. This task would normally be carried out by a nominated member of the Business Recovery Team or a member of the Business Continuity Planning Team. A formal test plan is a document that provides and records important information about a test project. This section of the BCP should contain the names of the BCP Team members nominated to coordinate the testing process. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Good Data Is Vital To Reliable Test Results An important goal of functional testing is to allow the test to be repeated with the same result. Page 79 ©Copyright 2007. Good data allows diagnosis.Handout – Software Testing Functional Testing Suffers If Data Is Poor Tests with poor data may not describe the business model effectively. and varied to allow diagnosis. Without this. they may be hard to maintain. Regression testing and automated test maintenance can be made speedier and easier by using good data. one or more members of the Business Continuity Planning (BCP) Team should be nominated to co-ordinate the testing process within each business unit. effective reporting. They may obscure problems or avoid them altogether. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Poor data tends to result in poor tests. Identify Who is to Control and Monitor the Tests In order to ensure consistency when measuring the results. and it can become difficult to have confidence in the QA team's results. that take longer to execute. or require lengthy and difficult setup. and allows tests to be repeated with confidence.

This feedback will hopefully enable weaknesses within the Business Recovery Process to be identified and eliminated. Prepare Budget for Testing Phase Each phase of the BCP process which incurs a cost requires that a budget be prepared and approved. it is necessary for the core testing team to be trained in the emergency procedures. It is important that clear instructions are given to the Core Testing Team regarding the simulated conditions which have to be observed. Critical parts of the business process such as the IT systems. This section of the BCP will contain a list of the testing phase activities and a cost for each. This section of the BCP should contain a template for a Feedback Questionnaire. It should be mandatory for the management of a business unit to be present when that unit is involved with conducting the tests. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It should be noted whenever part of the costs is already incorporated with the organization’s overall budgeting process. Completion of feedback forms should be mandatory for all persons participating in the testing process.Handout – Software Testing This section of the BCP will contain the names of the persons nominated to monitor the testing process throughout the organization. may require particularly expensive back up strategies to be implemented. It is important that all persons who are likely to be involved with recovering a particular business process in the event of an emergency should participate in the testing process. Conducting the Tests The tests must be carried out under authentic conditions and all participants must take the process seriously. Training Core Testing Team for each Business Unit In order for the testing process to proceed smoothly. This is probably best handled in a workshop environment and should be presented by the persons responsible for developing the emergency procedures. The 'Preparing for a Possible Emergency' Phase of the BCP process will involve the identification and implementation of strategies for back up and recovery of data files or a part of a business process. It will also contain a list of the duties to be undertaken by the monitoring staff. Prepare Feedback Questionnaires It is vital to receive feedback from the persons managing and participating in each of the tests. The forms should be completed either during the tests (to record a specific issue) or as soon after finishing as practical. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This will enable observations and comments to be recorded whilst the event is still fresh in the persons mind. Where the costs are significant they should be approved separately with a specific detailed budget for the establishment costs and the ongoing maintenance costs. Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. It is inevitable that these back up and recovery processes will involve additional costs. This section of the BCP should contain a list of the core testing team for each of the business units who will be responsible for coordinating and undertaking the Business Recovery Testing process.

Training Staff in the Business Recovery Process All staff should be trained in the business recovery process. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The training should be carefully planned and delivered on a structured basis. in the event of an emergency occurring outside of normal business hours. in a realistic manner. provide further comment Was test data representative . a hierarchical process could be used whereby one person contacts five others. provides further comment Were simulated conditions reasonably "authentic" . Test Accuracy of Employee and Vendor Emergency Contact Numbers During the testing process the accuracy of employee and vendor emergency contact information is to be re-confirmed. The testing co-ordination and monitoring will endeavor to ensure that the simulated environments are maintained throughout the testing process. provide further comment Did the tests proceed without any problems . Assess Test Results Prepare a full assessment of the test results for each business process. All contact numbers are to be validated for all involved employees. This section of the BCP is to contain a list of each business process with a test schedule and information on the simulated conditions being used.if not. Page 81 ©Copyright 2007. This is particularly important for management and key employees who are critical to the success of the recovery process. a large numberof persons are to be contacted.if not. This will enable alternative contact routes to be used. each critical part of the business recovery process should be fully tested. Cognizant Technology Solutions. provide further comment What were the main comments received in the feedback questionnaires Each test should be assessed as fully satisfactory. This process must have safety features incorporated to ensure that if one person is not contactable for any reason then this is notified to a nominated controller. Training may be delivered either using in-house resources or external resources depending upon available skills and related costs. This is particularly important when the procedures are significantly different from those pertaining to normal operations. adequate or requiring further testing. Where. This activity will usually be handled by the HRM Department or Division. The training should be assessed to verify that it has achieved its objectives and is relevant for the procedures involved. The following questions may be appropriate: Were objectives of the Business Recovery Process and the testing process met .if not. This training may be integrated with the training phase or handled separately.if not.Handout – Software Testing Test each part of the Business Recovery Process In so far as it is practical. Every part of the procedures included as part of the recovery process is to be tested to ensure validity and relevance.

Prepare Training Schedule Once it has been agreed who requires training and the training materials have been prepared a detailed training schedule should be drawn up. For example it may be necessary to carry out some process manually if the IT system is down for any length of time. These manual procedures must be fully understood by the persons who are required to carry them out. It will be necessary to identify the objective and scope for the training.Handout – Software Testing Managing the Training Process For the BCP training phase to be successful it has to be both well managed and structured. Develop Objectives and Scope of Training The objectives and scope of the BCP training activities are to be clearly stated within the plan. It is necessary for all new or revised processes to be explained carefully to the staff. what specific training is required. as appropriate. however. The BCP should contain a description of the objectives and scope of the training phase. Consideration should also be given to the development of a comprehensive corporate awareness program for communicating the procedures for the business recovery process. Page 82 ©Copyright 2007. The objectives for the training could be as follows : "To train all staff in the particular procedures to be followed during the business recovery process". and the training fine tuned. The training will cover all aspects of the Business Recovery activities section of the BCP including IT systems recovery". The scope of the training could be along the following lines: o "The training is to be carried out in a comprehensive and exhaustive manner so that staff become familiar with all aspects of the recovery process. This section of the BCP contains information on each of the training programmes with details of the training materials to be developed. This section of the BCP will identify for each business process what type of training is required and which persons or group of persons need to be trained. Training Needs Assessment The plan must specify which person or group of persons requires which type of training. For larger organizations it may be practical to carry out the training in a classroom environment. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This can be a time consuming task and unless priorities are given to critical training programmes. an estimate of resources and an estimate of the completion date. who needs it and a budget prepared for the additional costs associated with this phase. it could delay the organization in reaching an adequate level of preparedness. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . for smaller organizations the training may be better handled in a workshop style. Training Materials Development Schedule Once the training needs have been identified it is necessary to specify and develop suitable training materials. This will enable the training to be consistent and organized in a manner where the results can be measured.

Assess Feedback The completed questionnaires from the trainees plus the feedback from the trainers should be assessed. Communication to Staff Once the training is arranged to be delivered to the employees. or the training. The key issues raised by the trainees should be noted and consideration given to whether the findings are critical to the process or not. This feedback will enable weaknesses within the Business Recovery Process. Identified weaknesses should be notified to the BCP Team Leader and the process strengthened accordingly. Prepare Budget for Training Phase Each phase of the BCP process which incurs a cost requires that a budget be prepared and approved. it has to be recognized that. or the process. However. The forms should be completed either during the training (to record a specific issue) or as soon after finishing as practical. Completion of feedback forms should be mandatory for all persons participating in the training process. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This will enable observations and comments to be recorded whilst the event is still fresh in the persons mind. This information will be gathered from the trainers and also the trainees through the completion of feedback questionnaires.Handout – Software Testing This section of the BCP contains the overview of the training schedule and the groups of persons receiving the training. This section of the BCP should contain a template for a Feedback Questionnaire for the training phase. have been improved. Assessing the Training The individual BCP training programmes and the overall BCP training process should be assessed to ensure its effectiveness and applicability. training incurs additional costs and these should be approved by the appropriate authority within the organization. This section of the BCP will contain a list of the training phase activities and a cost for each. If there are a significant number of negative issues raised then consideration should be given to possible retraining once the training materials. A separate communication should be sent to the managers of the business units advising them of the proposed training schedule to be attended by their staff. Feedback Questionnaires Assess Feedback Feedback Questionnaires It is vital to receive feedback from the persons managing and participating in each of the training programmes. It should be noted whenever part of the costs is already incorporated with the organization’s overall budgeting process. it is necessary to advise them about the training programmes they are scheduled to attend. This section of the BCP contains a draft communication to be sent to each member of staff to advise them about their training schedule. Depending upon the cross charging system employed by the organization. the training costs will vary greatly. Each member of staff will be given information on their role and responsibilities applicable in the event of an emergency. The communication should provide for feedback from the staff member where the training dates given are inconvenient. Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. This section of the BCP will contain a format for assessing the training feedback. however well justified. to be identified and eliminated.

Whenever changes are made to the BCP they are to be fully tested and appropriate amendments should be made to the training materials. The BCP Team Leader will remain in overall control of the BCP but business unit heads will need to keep their own sections of the BCP up to date at all times. It is necessary for the BCP to keep pace with these changes in order for it to be of use in the event of a disruptive emergency. Whenever changes are made or proposed to the BCP. have significantly increased the level of dependency upon the availability of systems and information for the business to function effectively. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Products and services change and also their method of delivery. Page 84 ©Copyright 2007. An assessment should be made on whether the change necessitates any re-training activities. Similarly. This is necessary due to the level of complexity contained within the BCP. Responsibilities for Maintenance of Each Part of the Plan Each part of the plan will be allocated to a member of the BCP Team or a Senior Manager with the organization who will be charged with responsibility for updating and maintaining the plan. The BCP Team Leader will notify the BCP Training Co-ordinator of all approved changes to the BCP in order that the training materials can be updated. The BCP Testing Co-ordinator will then be responsible for notifying all affected units and for arranging for any further testing activities. This section of the BCP will contain a Change Request Form / Change Order to be used for all such changes to the BCP. Maintaining the BCP It is necessary for the BCP updating process to be properly structured and controlled. These changes are likely to continue and probably the only certainty is that the pace of change will continue to increase. This section of the BCP contains a draft communication from the BCP Co-ordinator to affected business units and contains information about the changes which require testing or re-testing. A Change request Form / Change Order form is to be prepared and approved in respect of each proposed change to the BCP. Change Controls for Updating the Plan It is recommended that formal change controls are implemented to cover any changes required to the BCP. Test All Changes to Plan The BCP Team will nominate one or more persons who will be responsible for co-ordinating all the testing processes and for ensuring that all changes to the plan are properly tested. and particularly within the last five. the BCP Testing Co-ordinator will be notified. This will involve the use of formalized change control procedures under the control of the BCP Team Leader. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . HRM Department will be responsible to ensure that all emergency contact numbers for staff are kept up to date. The increase in technological based processes over the past ten years. Advise Person Responsible for BCP Training A member of the BCP Team will be given responsibility for co-ordinating all training activities (BCP Training Co-ordinator).Handout – Software Testing Keeping the Plan Up-to-date Changes to most organizations occur all the time. It is important that the relevant BCP coordinator and the Business Recovery Team are kept fully informed regarding any approved changes to the plan. This chapter deals with updating the plan and the managed process which should be applied to this updating activity.

Unreliable test results Running the same test twice produces inconsistent results. or indeed of missing the failure entirely. not to be faults at all. testers and business. after further analysis. Reduced flexibility in test execution If datasets are large or hard to set up. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Each of these groups has different data requirements. Obscure results and bug reports without clearly comprehensible data. it may not be time-effective to construct further data to support investigator tests. or of a failure to recognize all the data that is influential on the system. Poor data will cause more of these problems.recognizing them early can allow their effects to be mitigated. Most projects experience these problems at some stage . Confusion between developers.Handout – Software Testing Advise Person Responsible for BCP Training A member of the BCP Team will be given responsibility for co-ordinating all training activities (BCP Training Co-ordinator). A failure to understand each others data can lead to ongoing confusion. Poor data can make these reports hard to understand. Everybody makes mistakes. the cost increases further. Confusing or over-large datasets can make data selection mistakes more common. the less time spent testing. This can be a symptom of an uncontrolled environment. If the datasets are poorly constructed. Data can play a significant role in these failures. Larger proportion of problems can be traced to poor data. Requirements problems can be hidden in inadequate data. A proportion of all failures logged will be found. Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. Simpler to make test mistakes. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The BCP Team Leader will notify the BCP Training Co-ordinator of all approved changes to the BCP in order that the training materials can be updated. as the data is restored. Restoring the data to a clean set gets rid of the symptom. the cost of test maintenance is correspondingly increased. Inadequate data can lead to ambiguous or incomplete requirements. but the original fault is undiagnosed and can carry on into live operation and perhaps future releases. If not spotted at the time of generation. It is important to consider inputs and outputs of a process for requirements modeling. unrecognized database corruption. some tests may be excluded from a test run. they can cause hard-to-diagnose failures that may be apparently unrelated to the original fault. An assessment should be made on whether the change necessitates any re-training activities. Increased test maintenance cost If each test has its own data. Problems which can be caused by Poor Test Data Most testers are familiar with the problems that can be caused by poor data. Most reports make reference to the input data and the actual and expected results. If that data is itself hard to understand or manipulate. testers stand a greater chance of missing important diagnostic features of a failure. Less time spent hunting bugs the more time spent doing unproductive testing or ineffective test maintenance. evidence of the fault is lost. The following list details the most common problems familiar to the author. Furthermore. Degradation of test data over time Program faults can introduce inconsistency or corruption into a database.

It includes communications addresses.Handout – Software Testing Unwieldy volumes of data. actions. Typically. Page 86 ©Copyright 2007. and may lend themselves to automated testing / sanity checks. it is useful to split the categorization once more. or methods of debt collection from different kinds of customers. This can not only cause false results. With an effective approach to setup data. setup data causes different functionality to apply to otherwise similar data. often don't reflect the way the system will be used in practice. directory trees and paths and environmental variables. Poor database/environment integrity. documents can all be input data. products. The following broad categories allow data to be handled and discussed more easily. For the purposes of testing. Inability to spot data corruption caused by bugs. Test requirements. This can make portions of the application untestable for many testers simultaneously. business can offer new intangible products without developing new functionality . Environmental data Environmental data tells the system about its technical environment. The current date and time can be seen as environmental data. they can influence and corrupt each others results as they change the data in the system.as can be seen in the mobile phone industry. a complex dataset will positively hinder diagnosis. share the same dataset. Input data Input data is the information input by day-to-day system functions. and can be seen as part of the test conditions. Fixed Input Data Fixed input data is available before the start of the test. A readily understandable dataset can allow straightforward diagnosis. but can lead to database integrity problems and data corruption. It might include a cross reference between country and delivery cost or method. Setup data Setup data tells the system about the business rules. Business data not representatively tested. or tests. orders. Classification of Test Data Types In the process of testing a system. it can be hard for the business or the end users to feel confidence in the test effort if they feel distanced from it. it is useful to be able to classify the data according to the way it is used. many references are made to "The Data" or "Data Problems". particularly in configuration data. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Accounts. where new billing products are supported and indeed created by additions to the setup data. While this may arguably lead to broad testing for a variety of purposes. A few datasets are easier to manage than many datasets. If a large number of testers. Small datasets can be manipulated more easily than large datasets. A few well-known datasets can be more easily be checked than a large number of complex datasets. Although it is perhaps simpler to discuss data in these terms.

This small. Fortunately. these criteria apply to many traditional database-based systems: Fixed input data consists of many rows Fields are independent You want to do many tests without loading / you do not load fixed input data for each test. Permutations Most testers are familiar with the concept of permutation. or combinatorial testing addresses this problem by generating a set of tests that allow all possible pairs of combinations to be tested. reports and database updates. influenced by the uses that are planned for it. the way it is chosen and described. Typically held in internal system variables. but its state can be inferred from actions that the system has taken. test handles and instrumentation make it output data). Typically. It is most effective when the following conditions are satisfied. Finally. To sum up. As such.Handout – Software Testing Consumable Input Data Consumable input data forms the test input It can also be helpful to qualify data after the system has started to use it. and includes not only files. Achieves good test coverage without having to construct massive datasets Page 87 ©Copyright 2007. The same techniques can be applied to test data. rather than hinders it. Database changes will affect it. Organizing the data A key part of any approach to data is the way the data is organized. A good approach increases data reliability. this method of working with fixed input data can help greatly in testing the setup data. this produces a far smaller set of tests than the brute-force approach for all permutations. and so is comprehensive enough to allow a great many new. A subset of the output data is generally compared with the expected results at the end of test execution. for non-trivial sets. transmissions. This method is most appropriate when used. and easy to manipulate dataset is capable of supporting many tests. as above. Good data assists testing. easy to handle dataset . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Pair wise. Jackson's Structured Programming methodology). during processing of input data. It generally has a correspondence with the input data (cf. permutation helps because: Permutation is familiar from test planning. it does not directly influence the quality of the tests. Output Data Output data is all the data that a system outputs as a result of processing input data and events. on fixed input data. generating tests so that all possible permutations of inputs are tested.which also allows a wide range of tests. or diagnostic tests. the test data can contain all possible pairs of permutations in a far smaller set than that which contains all possible permutations. reduces data maintenance time and can help improve the test process. adhoc. It allows complete pairwise coverage. Most are also familiar with the ways in which this generally vast set can be cut down. Transitional data is not seen outside the system (arguably. Transitional data Transitional data is data that exists only within the program. This allows a small. but the data maintenance required will be greatly lessened by the small size of the dataset and the amount of reuse it allows. it is temporary and is lost at the end of processing. but can also include test measurements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Handout – Software Testing
Can perform investigative testing without having to set up more data Reduces the impact of functional/database changes Can be used to test other data - particularly setup data Partitioning Partitions allow data access to be controlled, reducing uncontrolled changes in the data. Partitions can be used independently; data use in one area will have no effect on the results of tests in another. Data can be safely and effectively partitioned by machine / database / application instance, although this partitioning can introduce configuration management problems in software version, machine setup, environmental data and data load/reload. A useful and basic way to start with partitions is to set up, not a single environment for each test or tester, but to set up three shared by many users, so allowing different kinds of data use. These three have the following characteristics: Safe area o Used for enquiry tests, usability tests etc. o No test changes the data, so the area can be trusted. o Many testers can use simultaneously Change Area o o o Used for tests which update/change data. Data must be reset or reloaded after testing. Used by one test/tester at a time.

Scratch area o Used for investigative update tests and those which have unusual requirements. o Existing data cannot be trusted. o Used at tester's own risk! o Testing rarely has the luxury of completely separate environments for each test and each tester. Controlling data, and the access to data, in a system can be fraught. Many different stakeholders have different requirements of the data, but a common requirement is that of exclusive use. While the impact of this requirement should not be underestimated, a number of stakeholders may be able to work with the same environmental data, and to a lesser extent, setup data – and their work may not need to change the environmental or setup data. The test strategy can take advantage of this by disciplined use of text / value fields, allowing the use of 'soft' partitions. 'Soft' partitions allow the data to be split up conceptually, rather than physically. Although testers are able to interfere with each others tests, the team can be educated to avoid each others work. If, for instance, tester 1's tests may only use customers with Russian nationality and tester 2's tests only with French, the two sets of work can operate independently in the same dataset. A safe area could consist of London addresses, the change area Manchester addresses, and the scratch area Bristol addresses. Typically, values in free-text fields are used for soft partitioning.

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Handout – Software Testing
Data partitions help because: Allow controlled and reliable data, reducing data corruption / change problems Can reduce the need for exclusive access to environments/machines Clarity Permutation techniques may make data easier to grasp by making the datasets small and commonly used, but we can make our data clearer still by describing each row in its own free text fields, allowing testers to make a simple comparison between the free text (which is generally displayed on output), and actions based on fields which tend not to be directly displayed. Use of free text fields with some correspondence to the internals of the record allows output to be checked more easily. Testers often talk about items of data, referring to them by anthropomorphic personification – that is to say, they give them names. This allows shorthand, but also acts as jargon, excluding those who are not in the know. Setting this data, early on in testing, to have some meaningful value can be very useful, allowing testers to sense check input and output data, and choose appropriate input data for investigative tests. Reports, data extracts and sanity checks can also make use of these; sorting or selecting on a free text field that should have some correspondence with a functional field can help spot problems or eliminate unaffected data. Data is often used to communicate and illustrate problems to coders and to the business. However, there is generally no mandate for outside groups to understand the format or requirements of test data. Giving some meaning to the data that can be referred to directly can help with improving mutual understanding. Clarity helps because: Improves communication within and outside the team Reduces test errors caused by using the wrong data Allows another method way of doing sanity checks for corrupted or inconsistent data Helps when checking data after input Helps in selecting data for investigative tests Data Load and Data Maintenance An important consideration in preparing data for functional testing is the ways in which the data can be loaded into the system, and the possibility and ease of maintenance. Loading the data Data can be loaded into a test system in three general ways. Using the system you're trying to test o The data can be manually entered, or data entry can be automated by using a capture/replay tool.

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Handout – Software Testing
o This method can be very slow for large datasets. It uses the system's own validation and insertion methods, and can both be hampered by faults in the system, and help pinpoint them. If the system is working well, data integrity can be ensured by using this method, and internally assigned keys are likely to be effective and consistent. Data can be well-described in test scripts, or constructed and held in flat files. It may, however, be input in an ad-hoc way, which is unlikely to gain the advantages of good data listed above. Data load tools directly manipulate the system's underlying data structures. As they do not use the system's own validation, they can be the only way to get broken data into the system in a consistent fashion. As they do not use the system to load the data, they can provide a convenient workaround to known faults in the system's data load routines. However, they may come up against problems when generating internal keys, and can have problems with data integrity and parent/child relationships. Data loaded can have a range of origins. In some cases, all new data is created for testing. This data may be complete and well specified, but can be hard to generate. A common compromise is to use old data from an existing system, selected for testing, filtered for relevance and duplicates and migrated to the target data format. In some cases, particularly for minor system upgrades, the complete set of live data is loaded into the system, but stripped of personal details for privacy reasons. While this last method may seem complete, it has disadvantages in that the data may not fully support testing, and that the large volume of data may make test results hard to interpret.

o

Using a data load tool o

o

Not loaded at all o Some tests simply take whatever is in the system and try to test with it. This can be appropriate where a dataset is known and consistent, or has been set up by a prior round of testing. It can also be appropriate in environments where data cannot be reloaded, such as the live system. However, it can be symptomatic of an uncontrolled approach to data, and is not often desirable. o Environmental data tends to be manually loaded, either at installation or by manipulating environmental or configuration scripts. Large volumes of setup data can often be generated from existing datasets and loaded using a data load tool, while small volumes of setup data often have an associated system maintenance function and can be input using the system.Fixed input data may be generated or migrated and is loaded using any and all of themethods above, while consumable input data is typically listed in test scripts or generated as an input to automation tools. When data is loaded, it can append itself to existing data, overwrite existing data, or delete existing data first. Each is appropriate in different circumstances, and due consideration should be given to the consequences. Testing the Data A theme bought out at the start of this paper was 'A System is Programmed by its Data'. In order to test the system, one must also test the data it is configured with; the environmental and setup data. Environmental data is necessarily different between the test and live environment. Although testing can verify that the environmental variables are being read and used correctly, there is little point in testing their values on a system other than the target system. Environmental data is often checked
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Effective testing of setup data is a necessary part of system testing. throughout testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and make its structure and content transparent Use the data to improve understanding throughout testing and the business Test setup data as you would test functionality Page 91 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing manually on the live system during implementation and rollout. and the wide variety of possible methods will not be discussed further here. Well-planned data can allow flexibility and help reduce the cost of test maintenance. This allows the effects of changes made to the setup data to be assessed repeat ably and allows results to be compared. and good data can be used as a tool to enable and improve communication throughout the project. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The advantages of testing the setup data include: Overall testing will be improved if the quality of the setup data improves Problems due to faults in the live setup data will be reduced The business can re-configure the software for new business needs with increased confidence Data-related failures in the live system can be assessed in the light of good data testing Conclusion Data can be influential on the quality of testing. Does the planned/current setup data induce the functionality that the business requires? Will changes made to the setup data have the desired effect? Testing for these two questions only becomes possible when that data is controlled. it is important to have a well-known set of fixed input data and consumable input data. The following points summarize the actions that can influence the quality of the data and the effectiveness of its usage: Plan the data for maintenance and flexibility Know your data. as the business environment changes – particularly if there is a long period between requirements gathering and live rollout. The setup data should be organized to allow a good variety of scenarios to be considered The setup data needs to be able to be loaded and maintained easily and repeatable The business needs to become involved in the data so that their setup for live can be properly tested When testing the setup data. Testing done on the setup data needs to cover two questions. Setup data can change often. Aspects of all the elements above come into play. Common data problems can be avoided or reduced with preparation and automation.

The following four attributes should be developed for all the test problems: Statement of condition –Tells what it is. making up the statement of condition. no finding exists. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 92 ©Copyright 2007. questions almost arise. When a deviation is identified between what is found to actually exist and what the user thinks is correct or proper .Handout – Software Testing Test Logs .Essentially the user compares” what is” with “what should be”. If a comparison between the two gives little or no practical consequence. attributes of a problem statement. The documenting of the deviation is describing the conditions. the first essential step toward development of a problem statement has occurred. What is a fact? The statement of condition will of course depend on the nature and extent of the evidence or support that is examined and noted. The statement of condition is uncovering and documenting the facts. Effect: Tells why the difference between what is and what should be is significant Cause: Tells the reasons for the deviation. A well developed problem statement will include each of these attributes. as they exist. The statement of condition should document as many of the following attributes as appropriate of the problem. the I/S professional will need to ensure that the information is accurate. These two attributes are the basis for a finding. The ‘What is”: can be called the statement of condition. When one or more these attributes is missing. Carefully and completely documenting a test problem is the first step in correcting the problem. well supported. as they currently exist. The actual deviation will be the difference or gap between “what –is” and “ what is desired”. which represents what the user desires.Introduction Test Problem is a condition that exists within the software system that needs to be addressed. These concepts are the first two and the most basic . and the criteria. It is difficult to visualize any type of problem that is not in some way characterized by this deviation. For those facts. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Criteria – Tells what should be. Identification of the cause is the necessary as a basis for corrective action. The “What should be” shall be called the “Criteria”. such as Criteria: Why is the current state inadequate? Effect: How significant is it? Cause: What could have cause of the problem? Factors defining the Test Log Generation Document Deviation: Problem statements begin to emerge by process of comparision. and worded as clearly and precisely as possible.

Handout – Software Testing Activities Involved:. it could indicate the need to reduce the complaints or delays as well as desired processing turn around time.events. Outputs /Deliverables – The products that are produced from the activity. For example the following Work paper provides the information for Test Log Documentation: Page 93 ©Copyright 2007.or documents that cause this activity to be executed. and document the statement of condition and the statement of criteria.The specific business or administered activities that are being performed during Test Log generation are as follows: Procedures used to perform work. Users/Customers served –The organization . For example . It can be stated in the either negative or positive terms.individuvals. – The specific step-by –step activities that are utilized in producing the output from the identical activities. Deficiencies noted – The status of the results of executing this activity and any appropriate interpretation of those facts. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Work Paper to describe the problem.or class users/customers serviced by this activity.The triggers. The Criterion is the user’s statement of what is desired. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Inputs .

Interface Objectives . Units. Test Transactions. the validation of which becomes the Test Objective. Inspections – A verification of process deliverables against deliverable specifications. Reviews: Verification that the process deliverables / phases are meeting the user’s true needs. and Test Events These are the test products produced by the test team to perform testing.The hardware and Software environment in which the software system will operate.Identifiable Software components normally associated with the requirements of the software. These are explained in the following paragraphs. Test Results Data This data will include.Handout – Software Testing Collecting Status Data Four categories of data will be collected during testing. Test transactions/events: The type of tests that will be conducted during the execution of tests. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Validation that data/Objects can be correctly passed among Software components.The smallest identifiable software components Platform. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Functions/Sub functions . This description includes but not limited to : Data the defect uncovered Name of the Defect Location of the Defect Page 94 ©Copyright 2007. Defect This category includes a Description of the individual defects uncovered during the testing process. which will be based on software requirements. Test factors -The factors incorporated in the plan. Business Objective –The validation that specific business objectives have been met. Test Suites.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Storing Data Collected during Testing It is recommended that a database be established in which to store the results collected during testing. when it was corrected. and the software development team. the test that will be performed to determine the status of that component. Many organizations use spreadsheet package to maintain test results.Handout – Software Testing Severity of the Defect Type of Defect How the defect was uncovered (Test Data/Test Script) The Test Logs should add to this information in the form of where the defect originated . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Use of Function/Test matrix: This shows which tests must be performed in order to validate the functions and also used to determine the status of testing. The frequency of the test reports should be based on the discretion of the team and extensiveness of the test process. test managers. and the results of testing at any point of time. but not performed 2=Test currently being performed 3=Minor defect noted 4=Major defect noted 5=Test complete and function is defect free for the criteria included in this test Page 95 ©Copyright 2007. which indicates the project component for which the status is requested. The intersection can be coded with a number or symbol to indicate the following: 1=Test is needed. It is also suggested that the database be put in online through client/server systems so that with a vested interest in the status of the project can be readily accessed for the status update. and when it was entered for retest. Developing Test Status Reports Report Software Status Establish a Measurement Team Inventory Existing Project Measures Develop a Consistent Set of Project metrics Define Process Requirements Develop and Implement the Process Monitor the Process The Test process should produce a continuous series of reports that describe the status of testing. As described the most common test Report is a simple Spread sheet . The test reports are for use of testers.

or comma-separated text files. text. organizing. PostScript. A one-page summary report may be printed with either the Report Manager program or from the individual keyboard or keypad software at any time. composing and revising text. Cognos is looking into what interest people have in the product to assess what their strategy should be with respect to the Linux ``market. Individual Reports include all of the following information. Word –Processing: One way of increasing the utility of computers and word processors for the teaching of writing may be to use software that will guide the processes of generating. HTML or any other kind of ASCII based output format can be produced just as easily. email editors. database. and data base management products. order entry systems. Some query tools available for Linux based databases include: MySQL dbMetrix PgAccess Cognos Powerhouse This is not yet available for Linux. From the Report Manager. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Reports can be viewed and printed from the application or output as HTML. This allows each person to use the normal functions of the computer keyboard that are common to all word processors. you can quickly scan through any number of these reports and see how each person's history compares. but plain ASCII text. delimited ASCII text file or a SQL query to a RDBMS and produces a report listing. DocBook.'' GRG .GNU Report Generator The GRG program reads record and field information from a dBase3+ file. HTML.Use of word processing. The program was loosely designed to produce TeX/LaTeX formatted output. however. XML. defect tracking. and graphic tools to prepare test reports. Cognizant Technology Solutions. PostScript. From the LaTeX2e and DocBook output files you can in turn produce PDF. troff. and more. Some Database test tools like Data Vision is a database reporting tool similar to Crystal Reports. Status Report Word Processing Tests or Keypad Tests Basic Skills Tests or Data Entry Tests Progress Graph Game Scores Test Report for each test Page 96 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Methods of Test Reporting Reporting Tools . LaTeX2e. or tab.

Testing Data used for metrics Testers are typically responsible for reporting their test status at regular intervals.Handout – Software Testing Test Director: Facilitates consistent and repetitive testing process Central repository for all testing assets facilitates the adoption of a more consistent testing process. developers. test execution progress. o Average CPU utilization o Average memory Utilization o Measured I/O transaction rate Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. which can be repeated throughout the application life cycle Provides Analysis and Decision Support Graphs and reports help analyze application readiness at any point in the testing process Requirements coverage.Defining the components that should be included in a test report. o Average duration between defect detection and defect correction o Average effort to correct a defect o Total number of defects remaining at delivery o Software performance data us usually generated during system testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Anywhere access to Test Assets Using Test Director’s web interface. Cognizant Technology Solutions. run schedules.Ability to draw statistically valid conclusions from quantitative test results. defect statistics can be used for production planning Provides Anytime. once the software has been integrated and functional testing is complete. tester. business analysts and Client can participate and contribute to the testing process Traceability throughout the testing process Test Cases can be mapped to requirements providing adequate visibility over the test coverage of requirements Test Director links requirements to test cases and test cases to defects Manages Both Manual and Automated Testing Test Director can manage both manual and automated tests (Win Runner) Scheduling of automated tests can be effectively done using Test Director Test Report Standards . The following measurements generated during testing are applicable: o Total number of tests o Number of Tests executed to date o Number of tests executed successfully to date o Data concerning software defects include o Total number of defects corrected in each activity o Total number of defects entered in each activity. Statistical Analysis .

Handout – Software Testing Test Reporting A final test report should be prepared at the conclusion of each test activity. A good test plan will identify the interfaces and institute test conditions that will validate interfaces.9 .when different testers should test individual projects. there is no reason to print that. The test report can be a combination of electronic data and hard copy. The Third long term purpose is to show what was accomplished in case of an Y2K lawsuit. These defect prone components identify tasks/steps that if improved. Individual Project Test Report These reports focus on the Individual projects(software system). Knowing which functions have been correctly tested and which ones still contain defects can assist in taking corrective actions. to assess the potential consequences and initiate appropriate actions to minimize those consequences. This includes the following Individual Project Test Report Integration Test Report System Test Report Acceptance test Report These test reports are designed to document the results of testing as defined in the testplan. Integration Test Report Integration testing tests the interfaces between individual projects. The immediate purpose is to provide information to customers of the software system so that they can determine whether the system is ready for production . Given is the Individual Project test report except that conditions tested are interfaces. if the function matrix is maintained electronically. they should prepare a report on their results. could eliminate or minimize the occurrence of high frequency defects. and if so. The first of the three long term uses is for the project to trace problems in the event the application malfunctions in production. The second long term purpose is to use the data to analyze the rework process for making changes to prevent the defects from occurring in the future. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Purpose of a Test Report: The test report has one immediate and three long term purposes. Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. as paper report will summarize the data. Cognizant Technology Solutions. For example. draws appropriate conclusions and present recommendations.

Conclusion The Test Logs obtained from the execution of the test results and finally the test reports should be designed to accomplish the following objectives: Provide Information to the customer whether the system should be placed into production. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 99 ©Copyright 2007. One Long term objective is for the Project and the other is for the information technology function. time pressures. if so the potential consequences and appropriate actions to minimize these consequences. The data can also be used to analyze the developmental process to make changes to prevent defects from occurring in the future. not included in the report. changing business conditions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Acceptance Test Report There are two primary objectives of Acceptance testing Report: The first is to ensure that the system as implemented meets the real operating needs of the user/customer. The project can use the test report to trace problems in the event the application malfunction in production. These defect prone components identify tasks/steps that if improved. If the defined requirements are those true needs. then it need only be referenced . how was it to be tested. The system test Report should present the results of executing the test plan. Knowing which functions have been correctly tested and which ones still contain defects can assist in taking corrective actions. which includes people skills and attitudes.Handout – Software Testing System Test Reports A System Test plan standard that identified the objective of testing . what was to be tested. If these details are maintained Electronically . testing should have accomplished this objective. The second objective is to ensure that software system can operate in the real world user environment. The Acceptance Test Report should encompass these criteria’s for the User acceptance respectively. and so forth. and when tests should occur. could eliminate or minimize the occurrence of high frequency defects in future.

Document the producer of the test case. Help improve the quality of the item under test.. Cognizant Technology Solutions. use case path and class responsibilities) of the item under test..g. Objectives To support these goals. Help developers improve the quality of the specifications (e. the type of failures to be elicited). Cause failures that uncover underlying defects so that they can be identified and removed. Contents of a Test Report The contents of a test report are as follows: Executive Summary Overview Application Overview Testing Scope Test Details Test Approach Types of testing conducted Test Environment Tools Used Metrics Test Results Test Deliverables Recommendations Test Case A test case is a testing work product that automatically performs a single test on an executable work product. the part of the item under test being tested. the objectives of a single test case include: Document the purpose of the test case (i.g. Goals The goals of a test case is to automate or document the following: Perform a single test (e. a single test of a use case path or class method).Handout – Software Testing Test Report A Test Report is a document that is prepared once the testing of a software product is complete and the delivery is to be made to the customer. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. This document would contain a summary of the entire project and would have to be presented in a way that any person who has not worked on the project would also get a good overview of the testing effort..e. Help developers understand the behavior of the item under test.

place the item under test. Contents Test case objectives Test preparation (e. The Architecture Team for architecture model test cases. the test stimuli. oracle. The Independent Test Team for system test cases.g. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007.e.. exceptions raised.. Report the results of the associated test.g. to send test messages or raise test exceptions) Expected behavior (i.g. o The Architecture Team for architecture model test cases. values returned. Evaluator: Test Inspection Team Approvers: None. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ...e. Stimulate the item (e. thereby supporting regression testing. Documents test results Failure to produce test cases increases the probability that the item under test will contain defects that will make the application fail to meet its requirements. etc. Benefits A test case provides the following benefits: Automates a single test.e.. test oracle) Test reporting script Test finalization script Stakeholders Producers: o o o o o The Requirements Team for requirements model test cases.. send it test messages. postconditions) to the expected responses to identify failures that imply the existence of defects in the item under test. The Integration Team for integration test cases. Observe how the item responds (e. Cognizant Technology Solutions. raise test exceptions). to place objects under test into the appropriate pre-test states) Test stimuli (e. Failure to automate test cases makes regression testing more expensive and less likely to occur. Compare the actual responses (i. o The Software Development Team for design model and unit test cases.Handout – Software Testing Prepare the item under test for testing (i. changes in state and messages sent) to the test stimuli. and provide the necessary test data). Documents a single test in terms of objective. The SoftwareDevelopment Team for design model and unit test cases..g. and the collaborators of the item under test into their correct pretest states. Maintainers: o The Requirements Team for requirements model test cases.

g. Unit testing of the software components 3). o o Phases Initiation: Completed Construction: Completed Delivery: Completed Usage: Maintained Retirement: Archived Preconditions A test case typically can be started if the following preconditions hold: The relevant sections of the Project Test Plan are completed. The Integration Team for integration test cases. The Test Team for performing system testing. Model testing of the software design 2). 4). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . or design are completed. method signatures. The relevant item under test is started. assertions. Domain object model The Architecture Team for: 1).Handout – Software Testing o o Users: o Tumultuous 1). Use case model 2). Model testing of the software architecture 2). branching and looping logic) Stakeholders: None Page 102 ©Copyright 2007. The Integration Team for performing integration testing. Inputs Work products: Project Test Plan System Requirements Specification System Architecture Document Software Architecture Document Javadoc including responsibilities Software components (e. Unit testing of the software architecture prototype The SoftwareDevelopment Team for 1). The relevant test suite is started. The relevant requirements. The relevant team is staffed. architecture. The Independent Test Team for system test cases. Cognizant Technology Solutions..

Test Deliverables.) Features to test with priority/criticality. integration testing. Guidelines A test case is constrained by the following conventions: Content and Format Standard Inspection Checklist SUMMARY A test plan contains description of testing objectives and Goals.g.. execution conditions and expected results. Test Specification b. Test Strategy/Approach based on customer priorities. and the test case developer can make mistakes. When performed manually. test cases will be automated whenever practical. model testing. Test Case b. Test harness 2). The oracle can be incorrect. Communication etc. unit testing. Thus. Test cases need not document how to perform the test unless they are automated. Test Environment (Hardware. A test reflects what tests need to be performed. Test Result c.Handout – Software Testing Guidelines Test cases will be used at all levels of testing (e. To support regression testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Test cases do not document the results of the tests. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The document that describes the expected output as well as inputs is a. Test Case d. this information is documented in the associated test procedure. A test case has set of test inputs. which are documented in the associated test report. then it will be difficult to know if the defect causing the failure is in the item under test or in the test case. Network. and system testing). test cases need to be evaluated for defects. Test Script Answers: 1) c 2) c Page 103 ©Copyright 2007. Software. Test Plan c. Test Log d. Test your Understanding 1). A series of test data that is logically tested together is a. If the quality of the test cases is not at least as good as the quality of the item under test.

The actual data about defect rates are then fit to the model. Symptoms (flaws) of faults contained in software that is sufficiently mature for production will be considered as defects. Quality is the indication of how well the system meets the requirements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Such an evaluation estimates the current system reliability and predicts how the reliability will grow if testing and defect removal continue. Defect Classification The severity of bugs will be classified as follows: Page 104 ©Copyright 2007. A Defect is a product anomaly or flaw. you will be able to: Describe defect lifecycle. Defect evaluation is based on methods that range from simple number count to rigorous statistical modeling.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 7: Defect Management Learning Objective After completing this chapter. This evaluation is described as system reliability growth modelling. Rigorous evaluation uses assumptions about the arrival or discovery rates of defects during the testing process. tracking. So in this context defects are identified as any failure to meet the system requirements. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Defects include such things as omissions and imperfections found during testing phases. A software error is present when the program does not do what its end user expects it to do. A deviation from expectation that is to be tracked and resolved is also termed a defect. and reporting What is a Defect? A mismatch in the application and its specification is a defect. An evaluation of defects discovered during testing provides the best indication of software quality.

Page 105 ©Copyright 2007. but the more complex the problem– the more information the developer is going to need. how to get it and what needs to be changed. For example: cosmetic errors may only require a brief description of the screen.Handout – Software Testing Defect Lifecycle Defect Reporting and Tracking The key to making a good report is providing the development staff with as much information as necessary to reproduce the bug. Supply a copy of all relevant reports and data including copies of the expected results. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Summarize what you think the problem is. When you are reporting a defect the more information you supply. This can be broken down into 5 points: Give a brief description of the problem List the steps that are needed to reproduce the bug or problem Supply all relevant information such as version. Simple problems can have a simple report. project and data used. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the easier it will be for the developers to determine the problem and fix it.

(Perceived results) An explanation of how the results differed.Handout – Software Testing However. Go through the process again and see if there are any steps that can be removed. Anatomy of a bug report Bug reports need to do more than just describe the bug. they need to know which version to use when testing out the bug. In most cases the more information/ correct information given the better. if available. you should include two versions of the dataset. don’t abbreviate and don’t assume anything. an error in processing will require a more detailed description. Steps: List the steps taken to recreate the bug. The basic items in a report are as follows: Version: This is very important. The level of the processing. As a rule the detail of your report will increase based on The severity of the bug. developers can trace what is happening. If there are parameters. The report should explain exactly how to reproduce the problem and an explanation of exactly what the problem is. follow them . a copy of the data both before and after the process should be included. Identify the individual items that are wrong. If you’re reporting a processing error. Product: If you are developing more than one product– Identify the product in question. supply the exact data entered. In either case. Copies of any output should be included. developers will be forced to try and find the bug based on forensic evidence. The complexity of reproducing the bug. This includes spread sheets. such as a cosmetic error on a screen. With the data.make sure you’ve included everything you type and do to get to the problem. an earlier version of the software and any formulas used) Documentation on what actually happened. Data: Unless you are reporting something very simple. (Expected results) The source of the expected results. If the dataset from before the process is not included. Include all proper menu names. If you have to enter any data. Cognizant Technology Solutions. After you’ve finished writing down the steps. In most cases the product is not static. developers will have been working on it and if they’ve found a bug– it may already have been reported or even fixed. such as: The name of the process and how to get to it. you should include a dataset that exhibits the error. Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. list them. one before the process and one after. They have to give developers something to work with so that they can successfully reproduce the problem. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If specific data is involved. Documentation on what was expected. When you report the steps they should be the clearest steps to recreating the bug.

what data was used. which will follow the same cycle as an open defect. identify it and fix it. The developers need it to reproduce the bug. Remember report one problem at a time. it is set to Closed. The Project Lead of the development team will review the defect and set it to one of the following statuses: o o o o o o Open – Accepts the bug and assigns it to a developer. After the development team has fixed the defect. Document – Once it is set to any of the above statuses apart from Open. Supporting documentation: If available. the status is set to FIXED. don’t combine bugs in one report. Once the development team has started working on the defect the status is set to WIP ((Work in Progress) or if the development team is waiting for a go ahead or some technical feedback. Include a list of what was expected. the status is set to REOPENED. SUMMARY A bug report is a case against a product.Handout – Software Testing Description: Explain what is wrong . so that someone who has never seen the system can follow the steps and reproduce the problem. In order to work it must supply all necessary information to not only identify the problem but what is needed to fix it as well. The Initial State of a defect will be ‘New’. supply documentation. If you have a report to compare against. which means the defect is ready to re-test. and the testing team does not agree with the development team it is set to document status. The report should be written in clear concise steps. and the defect still exists. it must be reported to development so that it can be fixed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . On re-testing the defect. Include what you expected. Defect Tracking After a defect has been found. include the version number and the dataset used) This information should be stored in a centralized location so that Developers and Testers have access to the information. The report must also say what the system should be doing. It should include information about the product. but detail what is wrong. Page 107 ©Copyright 2007. Testers will need this information for later regression testing and verification. Duplicate – The bug has already been reported. including the version number. Cognizant Technology Solutions. include it and its source information (if it’s a printout from a previous version. If the fixed defect satisfies the requirements/passes the test case. If the process is a report. Invalid Bug – The reported bug is not valid one as per the requirements/design As Designed – This is an intended functionality as per the requirements/design Deferred –This will be an enhancement. they will set to Dev Waiting.Try to weed out any extraneous information. include a copy of the report with the problem areas highlighted. It is not enough to say that something is wrong.

Unexpected error/event that needs investigation c. Finding the person who introduced the defect d. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Preventing defects Answers: 1) a&b 2) c Page 108 ©Copyright 2007. Tracking a defect to closure c. Logging a defect b. All the above 2). Software problem that requires corrective action b. The following is NOT a defect management activity a. Temporary problem that is not related to the software d.Handout – Software Testing Test your Understanding 1). Defect is defined as a. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

such as load/stress testing. Every organization has unique reasons for automating software quality activities. The reason is that computers can execute instructions many times faster. As more organizations develop mission-critical systems to support their business activities. manual testing is no longer a viable option for most testing situations. rigorous application testing is a critical part of virtually all software development projects. they remain repetitious throughout the development lifecycle. Using Testing Effectively By definition. some types of testing. This required a large staff of test personnel to perform expensive. but several reasons are common across industries. and time-consuming manual test procedures. Automation Benefits Today. An automated test executes the next operation in the test hierarchy at machine speed. Automation of testing processes allows machines to complete the tedious. testing is a repetitive activity. Imagine performing a load test on a typical distributed client/server application on which 50 concurrent users were planned. The very nature of application software development dictates that no matter which methods are employed to carry out testing (manual or automated). Many automated testing tools can replicate the activity of a large number of users (and their associated transactions) using a single computer. the need is greatly increased for testing methods that support business objectives. most software tests were performed using manual methods. Owing to the size and complexity of today’s advanced software applications. Automation allows the tester to reduce or eliminate the required “think time” or “read time” necessary for the manual interpretation of when or where to click the mouse or press the enter key. are virtually impossible to perform manually. and have the ability to support business processes. you will be able to: Explain automated testing What is Automation? Automated testing is automating the manual testing process currently in use.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 8: Automation Learning Objective After completing this chapter. built according to specification. and with fewer errors than individuals. allowing tests to be completed many times faster than the fastest individual. It is necessary to ensure that these systems are reliable. Furthermore. Cognizant Technology Solutions. load/stress testing using automated methods require only a fraction of the computer hardware that would be necessary to complete a manual test. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. Reducing Testing Costs The cost of performing manual testing is prohibitive when compared to automated methods. In the past. repetitive work while human personnel perform other tasks. Therefore. Many internal and external factors are forcing organizations to ensure a high level of software quality and reliability.

Using automated tests enforces consistent procedures that allow developers to evaluate the effect of various application modifications as well as the effect of various user actions. Most importantly. at night or on weekends without having to assemble an army of end users. As another example. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is easy to see why manual methods for load/stress testing is an expensive and logistical nightmare. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007. Greater Application Coverage The productivity gains delivered by automated testing allow and encourage organizations to test more often and more completely. automated tests can be built that extract variable data from external files or applications and then run a test using the data as an input value. For example. and how the tests will be executed. 50 application users employing 50 PCs with associated software. When applications need to be deployed across different hardware or software platforms. organizations are required to comply with strict quality regulations as well as being required to document their quality assurance efforts for all parts of their systems. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Greater application test coverage also reduces the risk of exposing users to malfunctioning or non-compliant software. the entire test operation could be created on a single machine having the ability to run and rerun the test as necessary. standard or benchmark tests can be created and repeated on target platforms to ensure that new platforms operate consistently. the tester has a very high degree of control over which types of tests are being performed. imagine the same application used by hundreds or thousands of users. an available network. With an automated scenario. In some industries such as healthcare and pharmaceuticals.Handout – Software Testing To do the testing manually. Repeatability and Control By using automated techniques. and a cadre of coordinators to relay instructions to the users would be required. Replicating Testing Across Different Platforms Automation allows the testing organization to perform consistent and repeatable tests. automated tests can be executed as many times as necessary without requiring a user to recreate a test script each time the test is run.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Examples include: creating customer records. If the application fails. High Path Frequency .If a testing procedure can be reused many times. and tests that require constant human intervention are usually not worth the investment to automate.Most. Mission-critical processes are prime candidates for automated testing. it is also a prime candidate for automation. close a testing session and apply testing values. but not all. invoicing and other high volume activities where software failures would occur frequently. Certain types of tests like user comprehension tests. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007. These automated modules can be used again and again without having to rebuild the test scripts. Repetitive Testing . types of tests can be automated. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Automation Life Cycle Identifying Tests Requiring Automation . Examples include: financial month-end closings. The following are examples of criteria that can be used to identify tests that are prime candidates for automation. Any application with a high-degree of risk associated with a failure is a good candidate for test automation. production planning. For example.Automated testing can be used to verify the performance of application paths that are used with a high degree of frequency when the software is running in full production. common outline files can be created to establish a testing session. tests that run only once. sales order entry and other core activities. the company can face extreme disruptions in critical operations.In many situations. Critical Business Processes . software applications can literally define or control the core of a company’s business. This modular approach saves time and money when compared to creating a new end-to-end script for each and every test.

Handout – Software Testing Applications with a Long Life Span . an automated test should be able to link business requirements to test results. Even if programmers are responsible for testing. With much of the testing responsibility shifting from the development staff to the departmental level. easy-to-modify tests. Load and Performance Testing The selected testing solution should allow users to perform meaningful load and performance tests to accurately measure system performance. and one which often poses enterprise-wide implications. Here are several key issues. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It should also allow users to include non-automated testing procedures within automated test plans and test results. the testing tool itself should have a short learning curve. Test Planning and Management A robust testing tool should have the capability to manage the testing process. Testing Product Integration Testing tools should provide tightly integrated modules that support test component reusability. What to Look For in a Testing Tool Choosing an automated software testing tool is an important step. allowing users to evaluate application readiness based upon the application's ability to support the business requirements. Test component reusability should be a cornerstone of the product architecture. easy-to-understand language. a testing tool that requires programming skills is unusable by most organizations. the greater the benefits are from automation.If an application is planned to be in production for a long period of time. It should also provide test results in an easy-tounderstand reporting format. Also. A robust tool will allow users to integrate existing test results into an automated test plan. GUI and Client/Server Testing A robust testing tool should support testing with a variety of user interfaces and create simple-to manage. and should automatically adjust for different load times and performance levels. Finally. Page 112 ©Copyright 2007. The tests created for testing Internet or intranet-based applications should be portable across browsers. Test components built for performing functional tests should also support other types of testing including regression and load/stress testing. and create meaningful end-user and management reports. the architecture of the testing tool environment should be open to support interaction with other technologies such as defect or bug tracking packages. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Internet/Intranet Testing A good tool will have the ability to support testing within the scope of a web browser. User training and experience gained in performing one testing task should be transferable to other testing tasks. Ease of Use Testing tools should be engineered to be usable by non-programmers and application endusers. provide organization for testing components. which should be addressed when selecting an application testing solution. All products within the testing product environment should be based upon a common.

the test environment can be prepared.Outline the procedures necessary to install the application software to be tested. Installation Procedures . These business requirements should be defined in such a way as to make it abundantly clear that the software system correctly (or incorrectly) performs the necessary business functions. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Restoration Procedures . a business requirement for a payroll application might be to calculate a salary. Make sure that other groups that might share these resources are informed of this schedule. The definition of these tasks. those evaluating test automation should consider these fundamental planning steps. This plan is very much a “living document” that should evolve as the application functions become more clearly defined. Test Schedule . all user groups and the Page 113 ©Copyright 2007. defines the high-level. The test environment includes initial set up and description of the environment. Operational Support .Handout – Software Testing Test Environment Setup Once the test cases have been created. This enables the testing team to define the tests.Identify any support needed from other parts of your organization. Evaluating Business Requirements Begin the automated testing process by defining exactly what tasks your application software should accomplish in terms of the actual business activities of the end-user. locate and configure test-related hardware and software products and coordinate the human resources required to complete all testing.Document the technical environment needed to execute the tests. outline those procedures needed to restore the test environment to its original state. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the software development team. A good testing plan should be reviewed and approved by the test team. The test environment is defined as the complete set of steps necessary to execute the test as described in the test plan. For example.Finally. you are ready to re-execute tests or prepare for a different set of tests. a testing plan should be created at the same time the software application requirements are defined. and the procedures needed for installation and restoration of the environment.Identify the times during which your testing facilities will be used for a given test. or to print a salary check. Description . By doing this. Inputs to the Test Environment Preparation Process Technical Environment Descriptions Approved Test Plan Test Execution Schedules Resource Allocation Schedule Application Software to be installed Test Planning Careful planning is the key to any successful process. Creating a Test Plan For the greatest return on automated testing. functional requirements of the software system in question. or business requirements. The time invested in detailed planning significantly improves the benefits resulting from test automation. To guarantee the best possible result from an automated testing program.

run orders and dependencies that might exist between test cases. the action to be completed.Specify any relationships. Inputs to the Test Planning Process Application Requirements . Test Procedures – Identify the application steps necessary to complete the test case. Input Values . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A test case identifies the specific input values that will be sent to the application. The type and number of test cases needed will be dictated by the testing plan.Take note of the sources for extracting test data if it is not included in the test case.What is the application intended to do? These should be stated in the terms of the business requirements of the end users.What critical actions must the application accomplish before it can be deployed? This information forms the basis for making informed decisions on whether or not the application is ready to deploy. and therefore the ultimate success of the test.Handout – Software Testing organization’s management. Test Case Prerequisites .When is the scheduled release? When are updates or enhancements planned? Are there any specific events or actions that are dependent upon the application? Acceptance Criteria for implementation .Document all screen identifier(s) and expected value(s) that must be verified as part of the test. Expected Results . Page 114 ©Copyright 2007. A proper test case will include the following key components: Test Case Name(s) .Each test case must have a unique name. the standardized test cases can be created that will be used to test the application. The following items detail the input and output components of the test planning process. if necessary. and the expected application values for the procedure being tested. These expected results will be used to measure the acceptance criteria. Test Design and Development After the test components have been defined. Application Implementation Schedules . Cognizant Technology Solutions. so that the results of these test elements can be traced and analyzed. the procedures for applying those inputs. Test Data Sources .This section of the test case identifies the values to be supplied to the application as input including. Test Case Execution Order .Identify set up or testing criteria that must be established before a test can be successfully executed.

test execution environment Standardized Test Logging Procedures Outputs from the Test Execution Process Test Execution Log(s) Restored test environment Page 115 ©Copyright 2007. and validates those results against expected performance. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Activities within the test execution are logged and analyzed as follows: Actual Results achieved during test execution are compared to expected application behavior from the test cases Test Case completion status (Pass/Fail) Actual results of the behavior of the technical test environment Deviations taken from the test plan or test process Inputs to the Test Execution Process Approved Test Plan Documented Test Cases Stabilized. repeatable. Specific performance measurements of the test execution phase include: Application of Test Cases – The test cases previously created are applied to the target software application as described in the testing environment Documentation . documents the results. This step applies the test cases identified by the test plan.Handout – Software Testing Inputs to the Test Design and Construction Process Test Case Documentation Standards Test Case Naming Standards Approved Test Plan Business Process Documentation Business Process Flow Test Data sources Outputs from the Test Design and Construction Process Revised Test Plan Test Procedures for each Test Case Test Case(s) for each application function described in the test plan Procedures for test set up. Cognizant Technology Solutions. test execution and restoration Executing the Test The test is now ready to be run.

needs more testing. This step of the process can range from very chaotic to very simple and schedule driven. Phase II: Tool Implementation Preparation Execution Page 116 ©Copyright 2007.This final and very important report identifies potential defects in the software. Test Execution Statistics . failed or were not executed. noting those that passed. For example. for example: ready for release. etc. A complete and thorough test plan will identify this need and many of the test cases can be used for both test cycles. and a separate test execution cycle may be required for the stress/volume testing of the same application.The Log Review compiles a listing of the activities of all test cases.Handout – Software Testing The test execution phase of your software test process will control how the test gets applied to the application. a test execution may be required for the functional testing of an application. Determine Application Status .This step identifies the overall status of the application after testing. and the completion status. provide an objective selection of the best tool(s). the type of test. you may inadvertently cause problems for subsequent testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Application Defects . including application processes that need to be analyzed further. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Without an adequate test plan in place to control your entire test process. and install and configure the tool(s) for your application and environment. The first and most important step in the process is acquiring a tool that is suitable for your application. test automation can offer a dramatic increase in productivity. operating environment. Other Phases in Automation Phase I: Tool Acquisition Assessment Evaluation/Selection Installation With the right tool. and test team. The problems experienced in test execution are usually attributed to not properly performing steps from earlier in the process. Measuring the Results This step evaluates the results of the test as compared to the acceptance criteria set down in the test plan.This summary identifies the total number of tests that were executed. The secret to a controlled test execution is comprehensive planning. An automation assessment allows us to evaluate your tool needs. Additionally. Specific elements to be measured and analyzed include: Test Execution Log Review . there may be several test execution cycles necessary to complete all the necessary types of testing required for your application.

The short-comings of Capture/Playback are that in many cases. develop the automated scripts. Steps to be followed before execution of scripts: Test tool to be installed in the machine. Analysis the results via Test manager or in the logs. Testing can be done with both positive and negative approach simultaneously. Although test automation tools can save time through unattended execution. the capture/playback session will need to be completely re-run to capture the new sequence of user interactions. design. Test Script execution: In this phase we execute the scripts that are already created. Scripts need to be reviewed and validated for results and accepted as functioning as expected before they are used live. Page 117 ©Copyright 2007. it is how you use it that counts. and automate tests. This sometimes reduces the effort over the completely manual approach. reusable automated test environment.Handout – Software Testing Selecting the right test tool is only the beginning of a successful test automation effort. Prerequisite for running the scripts such as tool settings. it takes time to define. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . During the implementation phase. Tools like Winrunner provide a scripting language. playback options. This is applicable when large volume and different sets of data need to be fed to the application and tested for correctness. and execute the tests. necessary data table or data pool updation needs to be taken care. however overall savings is usually minimal. design the test cases. The benefit of this approach is that the time consumed is less and accurate than manually testing it. The benefit of this approach is that the captured session can be re-run at some later point in time to ensure that the system performs the required behavior. and it is possible for engineers to edit and maintain such scripts. Select the script that needs to be executed and run it… Wait until execution is done. if the system functionality changes. Data Driven Approach Data driven approach is a test that plays back the same user actions but with varying input values. As with any tool. we will prepare the test environment. This process will result in a robust. Automation Methods Capture/Playback Approach The Capture/Playback tools capture the sequence of manual operations in a test script that are entered by the test engineer. Test environment /application to be tested to be installed in the machine. These sequences are played back during the test execution. This allows one script to test multiple sets of positive data.

performance testing and analysis. Rational. 4 = This is only supported by use of an API call or third party add-in but not included in the general test tool/below average. The following tool vendors evaluated are Compuware. test execution capability.Handout – Software Testing Test script execution process: Automation tool comparison Anyone who has contemplated the implementation of an automated test tool has quickly realized the wide variety of options on the market in terms of both the kinds of test tools being offered and the number of vendors. tool integration capability. which in turn will dictate how automation will be invoked to support the process. 2 = Good support but lacking or another tool provides more effective support. 3 = Basic/ support only. Mercury. 5 = No support. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In general a set of criteria can be built up by using this matrix and an indicative score obtained to help in the evaluation process. Each category in the matrix is given a rating of 1 – 5. The best tool for any particular situation depends on the system engineering environment that applies and the testing methodology that will be used. This appendix evaluates major tool vendors on their test tool characteristics. and vendor qualification. Usually the lower the score the better but this is subjective and is based on the experience of the author and the test professionals opinions used to create this document. test reporting capability. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and Segue. 1 = Excellent support for this functionality. Functional Test Tool Matrix The Tool Matrix is provided for quick and easy reference to the capabilities of the test tools. Empirix/RSW. Page 118 ©Copyright 2007.

Here are a few examples Are there functions to tell me when the page has finished loading? Can I tell the test tool to wait until an image appears? Can I test whether links are valid or not? Can I test web based objects functions like is it enabled. In judging the rating for this category I looked at the tools native support for HTML tables. Informix. etc all of them support a universal query language known as SQL and a protocol for communicating with these databases called ODBC (JDBC can be used on java environments). a variable. Oracle. This is very similar to recording a macro in say Microsoft Access. Cognizant Technology Solutions. I have looked at all the tools support for SQL. this is the first thing that most test professionals will do. DB2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing A detailed description is given below of each of the categories used in the matrix. databases. Web testing can be riddled with problems if various considerations are not taken into account. does it contain data.g. When automating. the title? A hidden form element? With Client server testing the target customer is usually well defined you know what network operating system you will be using. various platforms for browsers. SQLServer. and the screen resolution on their computer will be different.g. the applications and so on but on the web it is far different. Linux or Windows. checking what is in the backend database usually verifies the proper validation of tests carried out on the front end of an application. As such the test tool should provide good web based test functionality in addition to its client/server functions. Web Testing Web based functionality on most applications is now a part of everyday life. they may be disabled. DOM. etc. they may use various browsers. As such. etc. ODBC and how they hold returned data e. exact screen location)? Is there object recognition when recording and playing back or does it appear to record ok but then on playback (without environment change or unique id’s. Because of the many databases available e. Database Tests Most applications will provide the facility to preserve data outside of itself. Web site maps and links. will have fast connections and slow connections. A person may be connecting from the USA or Africa. etc. However this should be done as a minimum in the evaluation process because if the tool of choice cannot recognize the applications objects then the automation process will be a very tedious experience. They will speak different languages. How does the tool manipulate this returned data? Can it call stored procedures and supply required input variables? What is the range of functions supplied for this testing? Page 119 ©Copyright 2007. Eventually record and playback becomes less and less part of the automation process as it is usually more robust to use the built-in functions to directly test objects. etc. Ingres. Record and Playback This category details how easy it is to record & playback a test. connect using MAC. Sybase. a cursor. They will record a simple script. So the cost to set up a test environment is usually greater than for a client server test where the environment is fairly well defined. frames. look at the code and then playback. etc changes) fail? How easy is it to read the recorded script. This is usually achieved by holding the data in a Database. Does the tool support low-level recording (mouse drags.g. is this in an array. Are there facilities that will allow me to programmatically look for objects of a certain type on a web page or locate a specific object? Can I extract data from the web page itself? E. etc.

The added benefit (as I have found) is this functionality can be used for a production reason e. So to test this. skilled resources and money to facilitate the first two.Handout – Software Testing Data Functions As mentioned above applications usually provide a facility for storing data off line. However to do this requires a lot of time. etc to create. try to get the development/design team to use standard and not custom objects. databases etc and expose functions. to datadriven to framework testing. classes. etc. These functions are also very important as you move from the record/playback phase. Does the tool allow you to specify the type of data you want? Can you automatically generate data? Can you interface with files. Object Mapping If you are in a role that can help influence the design of a product. for the aforementioned bulk data input sometimes carried out in data migration or application upgrades. However you may find that most (hopefully) of the application has been implemented using standard objects supported by your test tool vendor but there may be a few objects that are custom ones. A test framework has parallels to Software frameworks where you develop an encapsulation layer of software (framework) around the applications. However applications (except for manual input) do not usually provide facilities for bulk data input.g. we will need to create data to input into the application. numbers. Pushbuttons Checkboxes Radio buttons List views Edit boxes Combo boxes If you have a custom object that behaves like one of these are you able to map (tell the test tool that the custom control behaves like the standard) control? Does it support all the standard controls methods? Can you add the custom control to it’s own class of control? Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. address. Frameworks are usually the ultimate goal in deploying automation test tools. etc. databases. Then hopefully you will not need this functionality. spreadsheet or database. etc with variables supplied from an external source usually a CSV (Comma Separated variable) file. Data-driven tests are tests that replace hard coded names. return data. input data. Cognizant Technology Solutions. methods etc that is used to call the underlying applications. Frameworks provide an interface to all the applications under test by exposing a suitable list of functions. I have looked at all the tools facilities for creating and manipulating data. This allows an inexperienced tester/user to run tests by just running/providing the test framework with know commands/variables. extract data? Can you randomise the access to that data? Is the data access truly random? This functionality is normally more important than database tests as the databases will usually have their own interface for running queries. spreadsheets. Most custom objects will behave like a similar standard control here are a few standard objects that are seen in everyday applications. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

At least one of the tools allows you to map painted controls to standard controls but to do this you have to rely on the screen co-ordinates of the image. I have looked at these facilities in the base tool set. A sort of spy that looks at the internals of the object givi ng you details like the object ame. can be programmed to reference windows and object names in one place (say via a variable) and that variable can be used throughout the script (where that object appears). object ID. index. name. etc. Suppose the application crashes while I am testing what can I do? If a function does not receive the correct information how can I handle this? If I get an error message how do I deal with that? If I access a web site and get a warning what do I do? I cannot get a database connection how do I skip those tests? The test tool should provide facilities to handle the above questions. Does the Object Name Map allow you to alias the name or change the name given by the tool to some more meaningful name? Object Identity Tool Once you become more proficient with automation testing one of the primary means of identifying objects will be via an ID Tool. All tools provide a search and replace facility but the best implementations are those that provide a central repository to store these object identities. I looked at built in wizards of the test tools for standard test recovery (when you finish tests or when a script fails). Page 121 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Image Testing Lets hope this is not a major part of your testing effort but occasionally you may have to use this to test bit map and similar images. Object Name Map As you test your application using the test tool of your choice you will notice that it records actions against the objects that it interacts with. Test/Error recovery This can be one of the most difficult areas to automate but if it is automated. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Also when the application has painted controls like those in the calculator app found on a lot of windows applications you may need to use this. it provides the foundation to produce a truly robust test suite. Error recovery caused by the application and environment. The premise is it is better to change the reference in one place rather than having to go through each of the scripts to replace it there. Once you are well into automation and build up 10’s and 100’s of scripts that reference these objects you will want to have a mechanism that provides an easy update if the application being tested changes. ID and similar. Does the tool provide OCR (optical character recognition)? Can it compare one image against another? How fast does the compare take? If the compare fails how long does that take? Does the tool allow you to mask certain areas of the screen when comparing. etc. How easy is it to build this into your code? The rating given will depend on how much errors the tool can capture. The last and least desirable should be by coordinates on the screen. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . I found this to be true but not as big a point as some have stated because those tools that don’t support the central repository scheme. These objects are either identified through the coordinates on the screen or preferably via some unique object reference referred to as a tag. the types of errors. Firstly the tool should provide services to uniquely identify each object it interacts with and by various means. how it recovers from errors.

Handout – Software Testing
This will allow you to reference that object within a function call. The tool should give you details of some of the object’s properties, especially those associated with uniquely identifying the object or window. The tool will usually provide the tester with a point and ID service where you can use the mouse to point at the object and in some window you will see all of that objects ID’s and properties. A lot of the tools will allow you to search all the open applications in one swoop and show you the result in a tree that you can look at when required. Extensible Language Here is a question that you will here time and time again in automation forums. “How do I get {insert test tool name here} to do such and such”, there will be one of four answers. I don’t know It can’t do it It can do it using the function x, y or Z It can’t in the standard language but you can do it like this What we are concerned with in this section is the last answer e.g. if the standard test language does not support it can I create a DLL or extend the language in some way to do it? This is usually an advanced topic and is not encountered until the trained tester has been using the tool for at least 6 – 12 months. However when this is encountered the tool should support language extension. If via DLL’s then the tester must have knowledge of a traditional development language e.g. C, C++ or VB. For instance if I wanted to extend a tool that could use DLL’s created by VB I would need to have Visual Basic then open say an ActiveX dll project, create a class containing various methods (similar to functions) then I would make a dll file. Register it on the machine then reference that dll from the test tool calling the methods according to their specification. This will sound a lot clearer as you go on in the tools and this document will be updated to include advanced topics like this in extending the tools capabilities. Some tools provide extension by allowing you to create user defined functions, methods, classes, etc but these are normally a mixture of the already supported data types, functions, etc rather than extending the tool beyond it’s released functionality. Because this is an advanced topic I have not taken into account ease of use, as those people who have got to this level should have already exhausted the current capabilities of the tools. So want to use external functions like win32api functions and so on and should have a good grasp of programming. Environment Support How many environments does the tool support out the box? Does it support the latest Java release, what Oracle, Powerbuilder, WAP, etc. Most tools can interface to unsupported environments if the developers in that environment provide classes, dll’s etc that expose some of the applications details but whether a developer will or has time to do this is another question. Ultimately this is the most important part of automation. Environment support. If the tool does not support your environment/application then you are in trouble and in most cases you will need to revert to manually testing the application (more shelf ware).

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Handout – Software Testing
Integration How well does the tool integrate with other tools. This is becoming more and more important. Does the tool allow you to run it from various test management suites? Can you raise a bug directly from the tool and feed the information gathered from your test logs into it? Does it integrate with products like word, excel or requirements management tools? When managing large test projects with an automation team greater than five and testers totaling more than ten. The management aspect and the tools integration moves further up the importance ladder. An example could be a major Bank wants to redesign its workflow management system to allow faster processing of customer queries. The anticipated requirements for the new workflow software numbers in the thousands. To test these requirements 40,000 test cases have been identified 20,000 of these can be automated. How do I manage this? This is where a test management tool comes in real handy. Also how do I manage the bugs raised as a result of automation testing, etc? Integration becomes very important rather than having separate systems that don’t share data that may require duplication of information. The companies that will score larger on these are those that provide tools outside the testing arena as they can build in integration to their other products and so when it comes down to the wire on some projects, we have gone with the tool that integrated with the products we already had. Cost In my opinion cost is the least significant in this matrix, why? Because all the tools are similar in price except Visual Test that is at least 5 times cheaper than the rest but as you will see from the matrix there is a reason. Although very functional it does not provide the range of facilities that the other tools do. Price typically ranges from $2,900 - $5,000 (depending on quantity brought, packages, etc) in the US and around £2,900 - £5,000 in the UK for the base tools included in this document. So you know the tools will all cost a similar price it is usually a case of which one will do the job for me rather than which is the cheapest. Visual Test I believe will prove to be a bigger hit as it expands its functional range it was not that long ago where it did not support web based testing. The prices are kept this high because they can. All the tools are roughly the same price and the volumes of sales is low relative to say a fully blown programming language IDE like JBuilder or Visual C++ which are a lot more function rich and flexible than any of the test tools. On top of the above prices you usually pay an additional maintenance fee of between 10 and 20%. There are not many applications I know that cost this much per license not even some very advanced operating systems. However it is all a matter of supply. The bigger the supply the less the price as you can spread the development costs more. However I do not anticipate a move on the prices upwards as this seems to be the price the market will tolerate. Visual Test also provides a free runtime license.

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Handout – Software Testing
Ease Of Use This section is very subjective but I have used testers (my guinea pigs) of various levels and got them from scratch to use each of the tools. In more cases than not they have agreed on which was the easiest to use (initially). Obviously this can change as the tester becomes more experienced and the issues of say extensibility, script maintenance, integration, data-driven tests, etc are required. However this score is based on the productivity that can be gained in say the first three months when those issues are not such a big concern. Ease of use includes out the box functions, debugging facilities, layout on screen, help files and user manuals. Support In the UK this can be a problem as most of the test tool vendors are based in the USA with satellite branches in the UK. Just from my own experience and the testers I know in the UK. We have found Mercury to be the best for support, then Compuware, Rational and last Segue. However having said that you can find a lot of resources for Segue on the Internet including a forum at www.betasoft.com that can provide most of the answers rather than ringing the support line. On their website Segue and Mercury provide many useful user and vendor contributed material. I have also included various other criteria like the availability of skilled resources, online resources, validity of responses from the helpdesk, speed of responses and similar Object Tests Now presuming the tool of choice does work with the application you wish to test what services does it provide for testing object properties? Can it validate several properties at once? Can it validate several objects at once? Can you set object properties to capture the application state? This should form the bulk of your verification as far as the automation process is concerned so I have looked at the tools facilities on client/server as well as web based applications. Matrix What will follow after the matrix is a tool-by-tool comparison under the appropriate heading (as listed above) so that the user can get a feel for the tools functionality side by side. Each category in the matrix is given a rating of 1 – 5. 1 = Excellent support for this functionality, 2 = Good support but lacking or another tool provides more effective support, 3 = Basic/ support only. 4 = This is only supported by use of an API call or third party add-in but not included in the general test tool/below average, 5 = No

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Page 125 ©Copyright 2007. manual testing is no longer a viable option for most testing situations.Handout – Software Testing Matrix score Win Runner = 24 QARun = 25 SilkTest = 24 Visual Test = 39 Robot = 24 SUMMARY Automated testing is automating the manual testing process currently in use. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Owing to the size and complexity of today’s advanced software applications. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

A baseline version of RequisitePro is included with Rational Test Manager. prioritize and eliminate performance bottlenecks within an application. Rational Clear Quest is a change-request management tool that tracks and manages defects and change requests throughout the development process. Rational Suite Performance Studio is a sophisticated tool for automating performance tests on client/server systems. Cognizant Technology Solutions. you can access it in Test Manager. Facilitates functional and performance testing by automating record and playback of test scripts. Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. Rational Suite of tools Rational RequisitePro is a requirements management tool that helps project teams control the development process. Rational Pure Coverage is a customizable code coverage analysis tool that provides detailed application analysis and ensures that all code has been exercised. RequisitePro organizes your requirements by linking Microsoft Word to a requirements repository and providing traceability and change management throughout the project lifecycle. and to capture and analyze the results. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . When you define a test requirement in RequisitePro. Their Unified Process is a very good development model that allows mapping of requirements to use cases. With Clear Quest. Rational Purify is a comprehensive C/C+ + run-time error checking tool that automatically pinpoints run-time errors and memory leaks in all components of an application. RequistePro. including thirdparty libraries. and documentation modifications. Some of their products are worldwide leaders e. ensuring that code is reliable Rational Quantify is an advanced performance profiler that provides application performance analysis. Allows you to write. you will be able to: Work with Rational Testing tool Sample Test Automation Tool Rational offers the most complete lifecycle toolset (including testing) of these vendors for the windows platform. Rational Rose. Use Load Test to schedule and play back the scripts. When it comes to Object Oriented development they are the acknowledged leaders with most of the leading OO experts working for them. and run tests.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 9: Sample Test Automation Tool Learning Objective After completing this chapter. Rational Robot. Performance Studio includes Rational Robot and Rational Load Test. test cases and a whole set of tools to support the process. including enhancement requests. and browsers accessing a Web server. preventing untested code from reaching the end-user. you can manage every type of change activity associated with software development. defect reports. organize. enabling developers to quickly find. Use Robot to record client/server conversations and store them in scripts. A client/server system includes client applications accessing a database or application server. Clear case. Rational Robot.g. etc.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . of users placing heavy loads and stress on your database and Web servers. The tools that are to discussed here are Rational Administrator Rational Robot Rational Test Manager Rational Administrator What is a Rational Project? A Rational project is a logical collection of databases and data stores that associates the data you use when working with Rational Suite. Rational administrator is used to create and manage rational repositories. Tests an entire application. and optionally places them under configuration management. Rational Load Test can emulate hundreds. Automates testing by combining automatic test generation with ourcecode coverage analysis. one RequisitePro database. During playback. and multiple Rose models and RequisitePro projects. Rational Test categorizes test information within a repository by project. A Rational project is associated with one Rational Test data store. users and groups and manage security privileges. including all GUI features and all lines of source code. You can use the Rational Administrator to create and manage projects. How to create a new project? Page 127 ©Copyright 2007. even thousands. Cognizant Technology Solutions. one Clear Quest databases.Handout – Software Testing Rational Test Factory.

Once the Create button in the Configure project window is chosen. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Open the Rational administrator and go to File->New Project. which is required to connect to. enter the Password if you want to protect the project with password. the below seen Create Test Data store window will be displayed. configure or delete the project. In the configure project window displayed click the Create button. In the corresponding window displayed. Click Finish. Cognizant Technology Solutions. To manage the requirements assets connect to Requisite Pro. Accept the default path and click OK button. Page 128 ©Copyright 2007. Click Next. to manage test assets create associated test data store and for defect management connect to Clear quest database. In the above window opened enter the details like Project name and location.

Handout – Software Testing Once the below window is displayed it is confirmed that the Test datastore is successfully created and click OK to close the window. Click OK in the configure project window and now your first Rational project is ready to play with…. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Rational Administrator will display your “TestProject” details as below: Page 129 ©Copyright 2007.

PowerBuilder. If objects change locations or their text changes. VB. not by screen coordinates. Record and play back scripts that navigate through your application and test the state of objects through verification points. and VU scripting environments. Robot can be used to: Perform full functional testing. Page 130 ©Copyright 2007. Oracle Forms. Perform full performance testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Rational Robot Rational Robot to develop three kinds of scripts: GUI scripts for functional testing and VU and VB scripts for performance testing. Robot still finds them on playback. Test applications developed with IDEs such as Visual Basic. You can play back scripts under a diagnostic tool and see the results in the log. Robot uses Object-Oriented Recording to identify objects by their internal object names. Create and edit scripts using the SQABasic. Use Robot and TestManager together to record and play back scripts that help you determine whether a multi-client system is performing within user-defined standards under varying loads. HTML. and PureCoverage. The Robot editor provides color-coded commands with keyword Help for powerful integrated programming during script development. Test objects even if they are not visible in the application's interface. Quantify. Robot is integrated with Rational Purify. Collect diagnostic information about an application during script playback. and Java. The Object-Oriented Recording technology in Robot lets you generate scripts quickly by simply running and using the application-under-test.

Page 131 ©Copyright 2007. whether they are visible in the interface or hidden. including the object's properties and data. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Go to File-> New->Script In the above screen displayed enter the name of the script say “First Script” by which the script is referred to from now on and any description (Not mandatory). Cognizant Technology Solutions. You can test standard Windows objects and IDEspecific objects.Handout – Software Testing The Object Testing technology in Robot lets you test any object in the application-under-test.The type of the script is GUI for functional testing and VU for performance testing. Once logged you will see the robot window.

Line numbers are enclosed in parentheses to indicate lines in the script with warnings and errors. How to record a play back script? To record a script just go to Record->Insert at cursor Then perform the navigation in the application to be tested and once recording is done stop the recording. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . To display the Output window: Click View ® Output. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing The GUI Script top pane) window displays GUI scripts that you are currently recording. Record-> Stop Page 132 ©Copyright 2007. Also displays certain system messages from Robot. The Output window bottom pane) has two tabs: Build – Displays compilation results for all scripts compiled in the last operation. It has two panes: Asset pane (left) – Lists the names of all verification points and low-level scripts for this script. Script pane (right) – Displays the script. or debugging. editing. Console – Displays messages that you send with the SQAConsoleWrite command.

Handout – Software Testing

In this window we can set general options like identification of lists, menus, recording think time in General tab: Web browser tab: Mention the browser type IE or Netscape… Robot Window: During recording how the robot should be displayed and hotkeys details… Object Recognition Order: the order in which the recording is to happen. For ex: Select a preference in the Object order preference list. If you will be testing C++ applications, change the object order preference to C++ Recognition Order.

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Handout – Software Testing

Go to Tools-> Playback options to set the options needed while running the script. This will help you to handle unexpected window during playback, error recovery, mention the time out period, to manage log and log data. Verification points A verification point is a point in a script that you create to confirm the state of an object across builds of the application-under-test. During recording, the verification point captures object information (based on the type of verification point) and stores it in a baseline data file. The information in this file becomes the baseline of the expected state of the object during subsequent builds When you play back the script against a new build, Robot retrieves the information in the baseline file for each verification point and compares it to the state of the object in the new build. If the captured object does not match the baseline, Robot creates an actual data file. The information in this file shows the actual state of the object in the build. After playback, the results of each verification point appear in the log in Test Manager. If a verification point fails (the baseline and actual data do not match), you can select the verification point in the log and click View ® Verification Point to open the appropriate Comparator. The Comparator displays the baseline and actual files so that you can compare them. Verification point
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Handout – Software Testing
is stored in the project and is always associated with a script. When you create a verification point, its name appears in the Asset (left) pane of the Script window. The verification point script command, which always begins with Result =, appears in the Script (right) pane. Because verification points are assets of a script, if you delete a script, Robot also deletes all of its associated verification points. You can easily copy verification points to other scripts if you want to reuse them. List of Verification Points The following table summarizes each Robot verification point.

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All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Page 136 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Comments are helpful for documenting and editing scripts. Adding Declarations to the Global Header File For your convenience. it will look in the SQABas32 directory. Inserting a Comment into a GUI Script: During recording or editing. If editing. To insert a comment into a script during recording or editing.sbh is a project-wide header file stored in SQABas32 in the project. Global. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . unless you specify another location. You can add declarations to this global header file and/or create your own. SQABasic header files have the extension .sbh. position the pointer in the script and click the Display GUI Insert Toolbar button on the Standard toolbar. Click the Comment button on the GUI Insert toolbar.Handout – Software Testing About SQABasic Header Files SQABasic header files let you declare custom procedures.sbh). and variables that you want to use with multiple scripts or SQABasic library source files. It supplies data values to the variables in a script during script playback. Robot ignores comments at compile time.sbh: Click File ® Open ® SQABasic File. You can use Robot to create and edit SQABasic header files. Datapools let you automatically pump test data to virtual testers under high-volume conditions that potentially involve hundreds of virtual testers performing thousands of transactions. Robot will check this location first. Type the comment (60 characters maximum). Click the Preferences tab. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Robot inserts the comment into the script (in green by default) preceded by a single quotation mark. Page 137 ©Copyright 2007. They can be accessed by all modules within the project. constants. Select global. For example: This is a comment in the script To change lines of text into comments or to uncomment text: Highlight the text. If the file is not there.sbh. click the Display GUI Insert Toolbar button on the GUI Record toolbar. you can insert lines of comment text into a GUI script. To open Global. Robot provides a blank header file called Global. and then click Open. use the Browse button to find the location. You can specify another location by clicking Tools ® General Options. Set the file type to Header Files (*. If recording.sbh. Click Edit ® Comment Line or Edit ® Uncomment Line. About Data pools A datapool is a test dataset. Click OK to continue recording or editing.SQABasic files are stored in the SQABas32 folder of the project. Under SQABasic path.

The SQADatapoolOpen command defines the access method to use for the datapool. Although there are differences in setting up datapool access in GUI scripts and sessions. There are differences in the way GUI scripts and sessions are set up for datapool access: You must add datapool commands to GUI scripts manually while editing the script in Robot. For example. you use a datapool so that: Each virtual tester that runs the script can send realistic data (which can include unique data) to the server. Using Datapools with GUI Scripts If you are providing one or more values to the client application during GUI recording. Also. Debug menu The Debug menu has the following commands: Go Go Until Cursor Animate Pause Stop Set or Clear Breakpoints Clear All Breakpoints Step Over Step Into Step Out Note: The Debug menu commands are for use with GUI scripts only. If you plan to repeat the transaction multiple times during playback. You can also compile scripts and SQABasic library source files manually. Page 138 ©Copyright 2007. the GUI script can access the same datapool as other scripts. you might want to provide a different set of values each time. A single virtual tester that performs the same transaction multiple times can send realistic data to the server in each transaction. A GUI script can access a datapool when it is played back in Robot. Robot adds datapool commands to VU scripts automatically. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Compiling the script When you play back a GUI script or VU script. Robot compiles the script if it has been modified since it last ran. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and so forth. you might want a datapool to supply those values during playback. There is no DATAPOOL_CONFIG statement in a GUI script. you might be filling out a data entry form and providing values such as order number. part name.Handout – Software Testing Typically. or when you debug a GUI script. you define a datapool for either type of script using TestManager in exactly the same way. when a GUI script is played back in a TestManager suite.

the Build tab in the Output window displays compilation results and error messages with line numbers for all compiled scripts and library source files. The compilation results can be viewed in the Build tab of the Output window. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing During compilation. Page 139 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

most importantly. and data both related to and produced by the testing effort. Under this single framework. With Test manager we can: Create. In Test Manager you can plan.Handout – Software Testing Compilation errors After the script is created and compiled and errors fixed it can be executed. The results need to be analyzed in the Test Manager. and track test coverage and progress. implement. manage. and logs. Cognizant Technology Solutions. assets. it provides the entire team with one place to go to determine the state of the system at any time. It is where the team defines the plan it will implement to meet those goals. execute tests and evaluate results. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . builds. log folders. Create and manage data pools and data types Page 140 ©Copyright 2007. Rational Test Manager Test Manager is the open and extensible framework that unites all of the tools. The reporting tools help you track assets such as scripts. Create and manage builds. and run reports. And. and test documents. all participants in the testing effort can define and refine the quality goals they are working toward. design.

In the Results tab of the Test Manager.Handout – Software Testing When the script execution is started the following window will be displayed. The folder in which the log is to stored and the log name needs to be given in this window. you could see the results stored. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . From Test Manager you can know start time of the script and Page 141 ©Copyright 2007.

Handout – Software Testing Supported environments Operating system WinNT4.0 or later Netscape navigator (limited support) Page 142 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .0 with service pack 5 Win2000 WinXP(Rational 2002) Win98 Win95 with service pack1 Protocols Oracle SQL server HTTP Sybase Tuxedo SAP People soft Web browsers IE4. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

When it comes to Object Oriented development they are the acknowledged leaders with most of the leading OO experts working for them. Development environments Visual basic 4. Clear case.5 Delphi Power builder 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .g. Some of their products are worldwide leaders e. VC++ and basic web pages. To test these types of application. Page 143 ©Copyright 2007.0 and above The basic product supports Visual basic.Handout – Software Testing Markup languages HTML and DHTML pages on IE4. For more details visit www. you have to download and run a free enabler program from Rational’s website. Cognizant Technology Solutions. RequistePro. etc.0 or later. Rational Robot.0 or above Visual C++ Java Oracle forms 4. Rational Rose.rational.com SUMMARY Rational offers the most complete lifecycle toolset (including testing) of these vendors for the windows platform.

the system is unable to scale to higher levels of performance.e. the evaluation of a design alternative is the prime mover for an analysis. we want to measure the latency.. Why Performance testing? Performance problems are usually the result of contention for. completely exercise the application) in an attempt to find errors. In such cases. The main objective of a performance testing is to demonstrate that the system functions to specification with acceptable response times while processing the required transaction volumes in real-time production database. performance is a secondary issue to features. As the user base grows. In general. throughput. Performance analysis is also carried for various purposes such as: During a design or redesign of a module or a part of the system. This helps to replace and focus efforts at improving overall system response. and utilization of the web site while simulating attempts by virtual users to simultaneously access the site. When a system resource is exhausted.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 10: Performance Testing Learning Objective After completing this chapter. A systematic approach like performance analysis is essential to extract maximum benefit from an existing system. prior to execution. it is still an issue. Typically to debug applications. Cognizant Technology Solutions. you will be able to: Test performance of a software What is Performance testing? The performance testing is a measure of the performance characteristics of an application. are automated test scripts and an infrastructure to be used to execute automated tests for extended periods. more than one alternative presents itself. Identification of bottlenecks in a system is more of an effort at troubleshooting. Page 144 ©Copyright 2007. analysis must be done to forecast performance under load. The main deliverables from such a test. high throughput. The objective of a performance test is to demonstrate that the system meets requirements for transaction throughput and response times simultaneously. and low utilization. developers would execute their applications using different execution streams (i. When looking for errors in the application. Maintaining optimum Web application performance is a top priority for application developers and administrators. however. To increase confidence and to provide an advance warning of potential problems in case of load conditions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . One of the main objectives of performance testing is to maintain a web site with low latency. Performance testing of an application is basically the process of understanding how the web application and its operating environment respond at various user load levels. Post-deployment realities create a need for the tuning the existing system. or exhaustion of. some system resource. the cost of failure becomes increasingly unbearable.

expressed in quantifiable terms such that when response times are measured.a response time must be relevant to a business process. Measure the network delay between the server and clients Pre-requisites for Performance Testing We can identify five pre-requisites for a performance test. this infrastructure is a test bed. relevant. Realistic .response time requirements should be justifiable when compared with the durations of the activities within the business process the system supports. Measure Application Server components performance under various loads. Relevant . This infrastructure is an asset and an expensive one too. Fortunately. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . realistic. A comprehensive test strategy would define a test infrastructure to enable all these objectives be met. Page 145 ©Copyright 2007. The following attributes will help to have a meaningful performance comparison. the list defines what is required before a test can be executed. This helps in determining whether or not the system meets the stated requirements.response times should take some account of the cost of achieving them. First and foremost thing is. but rather. performance requirements should be agreed prior to the test.Handout – Software Testing Performance Testing Objectives The objective of a performance test is to demonstrate that the system meets requirements for transaction throughput and response times simultaneously. measurable. Monitor system resources under various loads. Measurable . Defines specific customer scenarios. achievable requirements As a foundation to all tests. Achievable . Bases performance goals on customer requirements. Quantitative. a sensible comparison can be derived. the design specification or a separate performance requirements document should: Defines specific performance goals for each feature that is instrumented. Not all of these need be in place prior to planning or preparing the test (although this might be helpful). Measure database components performance under various loads. Quantitative . which can be re-used for other tests with broader objectives. The performance testing goals are: End-to-end transaction response time measurements.a response time should be defined such that it can be measured using a tool or stopwatch and at reasonable cost. Cognizant Technology Solutions. so it pays to make as much use of this infrastructure as possible.

but is. defining the numbers of table rows which should be present in the database after a specified period of live running complete the load profile. A single response time requirement for all transactions might be simple to define from the user’s point of view. Cognizant Technology Solutions. it will probably not withstand the relatively minor stress of repeated use. Often this is not possible. However. middleware or operating systems crash. Load profiles The second component of performance requirements is a schedule of load profiles. Even with an environment which is somewhat different from the production environment. Realistic test environment The test environment should ideally be the production environment or a close simulation and be dedicated to the performance test team for the duration of the test.Handout – Software Testing Stable system A test team attempting to construct a performance test of a system whose software is of poor quality is unlikely to be successful. but is unreasonable. Testers will not be able to record scripts in the first instance. Typically. A load profile is the level of system loading expected to occur during a specific business scenario. the behavior of the target environment. useless for a performance test. but two year volumes or greater might be used in some circumstances. Business scenarios might cover different situations when the users’ organization has different levels of activity or involve a varying mix of activities. A test environment which bears no similarity to the actual production environment may be useful for finding obscure errors in the code. If the software crashes regularly. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . for the results of the test to be realistic. or may not be able to execute a test for a reasonable length of time before the software. users normally focus attention on response times. it should still be possible to interpret the results obtained using a model of the system to predict. the test environment should be comparable to the actual production environment. however. Some functions are critical and require short response times. Performance Testing Requirements Performance requirements normally comprise three components: Response time requirements Transaction volumes detailed in ‘Load Profiles’ Database volumes Response time requirements When asked to specify performance requirements. depending on the business application. but others are less critical and response time requirements can be less stringent. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. data volumes estimated to exist after one year’s use of the systems are used. and often wishes to define requirements in terms of generic response times. with some confidence. Database volumes Data volumes. which must be supported by the system.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Performance Testing Process Page 147 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Following are the important performance test requirement that needs to be captured during this phase. Hardware & Software components and Usage Model. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Hardware Platform Server Machines Processors Memory Disk Storage Load Machines configuration Network configuration Page 148 ©Copyright 2007. The objective is to understand the performance test requirements. Response Time Transactions Per Second Hits Per Second Workload No of con current users Volume of data Data growth rate Resource usage Hardware and Software configurations Phase 2 – Test Plan The following configuration information will be identified as part of performance testing environment requirement identification.Handout – Software Testing Phase 1 – Requirements Study This activity is carried out during the business and technical requirements identification phase. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is important to understand as accurately and as objectively as possible the nature of load that must be generated.

Handout – Software Testing Software Configuration Operating System Server Software Client Machine Software Applications Phase 3 – Test Design Based on the test strategy detailed test scenarios would be prepared. During the test design period the following activities will be carried out: Scenario design Detailed test execution plan Dedicated test environment setup Script Recording/ Programming Script Customization (Delay. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Checkpoints. Synchronizations points) Data Generation Parameterization/ Data pooling Page 149 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

All the scenarios identified will be executed. The following artifacts will be produced during test execution period: Test logs Test Result Page 150 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Virtual user loads are simulated based on the usage pattern and load levels applied as stated in the performance test strategy. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Phase 4 –Scripting Phase 5 – Test Execution The test execution will follow the various types of test as identified in the test plan.

Manual and automated results analysis methods can be used for performance results analysis. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . database throughput.Handout – Software Testing Phase 6 – Test Analysis Phase 7 – Preparation of Reports The test logs and results generated are analyzed based on Performance under various load. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Network throughput. Think time. Resource usage. Transaction/second. The following performance test reports/ graphs can be generated as part of performance testing:Transaction Response time Transactions per Second Transaction Summary graph Transaction performance Summary graph Transaction Response graph – Under load graph Virtual user Summary graph Page 151 ©Copyright 2007. Network delay. Transaction Distribution and Data handling.

suggestions on improvement or tuning will be provided to the design team: Performance improvements to application software. Changes to server system parameters. Metrics. Upgrades to client or server hardware. network capacity or routing. Common Mistakes in Performance Testing No Goals No general purpose model Goals =>Techniques. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Error Statistics graph Hits per second graph Throughput graph Down load per second graph Based on the Performance report analysis. middleware. Workload Not trivial Biased Goals ‘To show that OUR system is better than THEIRS” Analysts = Jury Unsystematic Approach Analysis without Understanding the Problem Incorrect Performance Metrics Unrepresentative Workload Wrong Evaluation Technique Overlook Important Parameters Ignore Significant Factors Inappropriate Experimental Design Inappropriate Level of Detail No Analysis Erroneous Analysis Page 152 ©Copyright 2007. database organization.

testers must guess. All the members in the team should agree that a performance issue is not just a bug.Handout – Software Testing No Sensitivity Analysis Ignoring Errors in Input Improper Treatment of Outliers Assuming No Change in the Future Ignoring Variability Too Complex Analysis Improper Presentation of Results Ignoring Social Aspects Omitting Assumptions and Limitations Benchmarking Lessons Ever build needs to be measured. If we decide to make performance a goal and a measure of the quality criteria for release. it is important to define concrete performance goals. without a clear purpose. the tool can also assess Internet Server Application Programming Interface and application server provider (ISAPI/ASP) applications. we should run the performance test suite under controlled conditions from build to build. Design the performance test suite to measure response times and not to identify bugs in the product. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 153 ©Copyright 2007. The Web Capacity Analysis (WebCAT) tool provides Web server performance analysis. Performance testing of Web services and applications is paramount to ensuring an excellent customer experience on the Internet. Design the build verification test (BVT) suite to ensure that no new bugs are injected into the build that would prevent the performance test suite from successfully completing. at how to instrument tests to best measure various response times. keep the performance test suite fairly static throughout the product development cycle. Performance goals need to be ensured. The performance tests should be modified consistently. Therefore. Cognizant Technology Solutions. We should run the automated performance test suite against every build and compare the results against previous results. the management team must decide to enforce the goals. If the design or requirements change and you must modify a test. Significant changes to the performance test suite skew or make obsolete all previous data. Performance issues must be identified as soon as possible to prevent further degradation. This typically means measuring performance on "clean" test environments. Creating an automated test suite to measure performance is time-consuming and labor-intensive. The performance tests should not be used to find functionality-type bugs. perturb only one variable at a time for each build. it is a software architectural problem. Without defined performance goals or requirements. Therefore. Also. Establish incremental performance goals throughout the product development cycle.

WebLoad 4. Using a minimum of hardware resources. Cognizant Technology Solutions. functionality and performance of Web-based applications – both Internet and Intranet. You can watch the results as they occur.Handout – Software Testing Strive to achieve the majority of the performance goals early in the product development cycle because: Most performance issues require architectural change. LoadRunner enables you to test your system under controlled and peak load conditions. Load Runner’s in depth reports and graphs provide the information that you need to evaluate the performance of your client/server system. if the data is not going to be used in a meaningful way to make improvements in the engineering cycle. load and functional tests or by running them individually. It can measure the performance of your application under any load conditions. Tests are capturing secondary metrics when the instrumented tests have nothing to do with measuring clear and established performance goals. persistent connections and chunked transfer coding.5 Webload is a testing tool for testing the scalability. per-transaction and per-instance level from the computers that are generating the load. Repeatable and measurable load to execute your client/server system just as real users would. Performance is known to degrade slightly during the stabilization phase of the development cycle. Tools used for testing would be the tool pecified in the requirement specification. SSL. TSL. Webload can also gather information server’s performance monitor. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . including cookies. Page 154 ©Copyright 2007. these Virtual users provide consistent. For example. Although secondary metrics look good on wall charts and in reports. it is probably wasted data.Webload displays them in graphs and tables in real-time and you can save and export the results when the test is finished. incorporate the performance test suite into the stress test suite to validate stress scenarios and to identify potential performance issues under different stress conditions.5 and Webload 4. Webload generates load by creating virtual clients that emulate network traffic. client certificates. When Webload runs the test. it gathers results at a per-client.5x.1. You create test scripts (called agendas) using Java Scripts that instruct those virtual clients about what to do. LoadRunner 6.0 and 1. Ensure that you know what you are measuring and why. authentifications. proxies. Achieving performance goals early also helps to ensure that the ship date is met because a product rarely ships if it does not meet performance goals.5 LoadRunner is Mercury Interactive’s tool for testing the performance of client/server systems. Webload supports HTTP1. The tools used for performance testing are Loadrunner 6. Use WebLoad to test how well your web site will perform under realworld conditions by combining performance. Performance Testing Tools Testing for most applications will be automated. LoadRunner runs thousands of Virtual Users that are distributed over a network. You should reuse automated performance tests Automated performance tests can often be reused in many other automated test suites. To generate load.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.summary and comparison Page 155 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Performance Testing Tools .

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Handout – Software Testing Page 157 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Page 158 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Handout – Software Testing Architecture Benchmarking Hardware Benchmarking . This is achieved through software benchmark test. It is significantly different from capacity planning exercise in that it is done after development and before deployment Software Benchmarking . Page 159 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Defining the right placement and composition of software instances can help in vertical scalability of the system without addition of hardware resources.Hardware benchmarking is performed to size the application with the planned Hardware platform. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Performance Metrics The Common Metrics selected /used during the performance testing is as below Response time Turnaround time = the time between the submission of a batch job and the completion of its output. the ratio of the performance of an nprocessor system to that of a one-processor system is its efficiency. Cognizant Technology Solutions. issues and errors to pay attention to during and after the test.. allowing one to use a wide range of tools to conduct the assessments. bandwidth in bits per second.Handout – Software Testing General Tests What follows is a list of tests adaptable to assess the performance of most systems. What to look for: contains information on behaviors. The response time at maximum throughput is too high. Purpose: explains the value and focus of the test. Methodology Definitions Result: provide information about what the test will accomplish. Methodology: a list of suggested steps to take in order to assess the system under test. E. Constraints: details any constraints and values that should not be exceeded during testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This methodology specification provides information on the appropriate script of pages or transactions for the user. along with some simple background information that might be helpful during testing. Page 160 ©Copyright 2007. The methodologies below are generic.g. Or. Stretch Factor: The ratio of the response time with single user to that of concurrent users. each test requires a certain type of workload. Throughput: Rate (requests per unit of time) Examples: Jobs per second Requests per second Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS) Millions of Floating Point Operations Per Second (MFLOPS) Packets Per Second (PPS) Bits per second (bps) Transactions Per Second (TPS) Capacity: Nominal Capacity: Maximum achievable throughput under ideal workload conditions. Time estimate: a rough estimate of the amount of time that the test may take to complete. Type of workload: in order to properly achieve the goals of the test. Usable capacity: Maximum throughput achievable without exceeding a pre-specified response-time limit Efficiency: Ratio usable capacity to nominal capacity. Utilization: The fraction of time the resource is busy servicing requests.

throughput etc. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . As tests are executed. plan. SQL Queries Transaction Profiling Code Block Analysis Network Statistics Bandwidth Utilization Network delay time Network Segment delay time Conclusion Performance testing is an independent discipline and involves all the phases as the mainstream testing lifecycle i. Cache Hit Ratio Application Server Resources–Heap size. analysis and reporting. However. if executed systematically with appropriate planning. should be collected.Handout – Software Testing Average Fraction used for memory. Cognizant has built custom monitoring tools to collect the statistics. application and database servers and make sure those numbers recede as load decreases. metrics such as response times for transactions. Third party monitoring tools are also used based on the requirement. It is also important to monitor and collect the statistics such as CPU utilization. design. Client Side Statistics Running Vusers Hits per Second Throughput HTTP Status Code HTTP responses per Second Pages downloaded per Second Transaction response time Page Component breakdown time Page Download time Component size Analysis Error Statistics Errors per Second Total Successful/Failed Transactions Server Side Statistics System Resources . execution. It is very typical of the project manager to be overtaken by time and resource pressures Page 161 ©Copyright 2007. executing performance testing does not yield anything more than finding more defects in the system.e strategy.Processor Utilization. Memory and Disk Space Web Server Resources–Threads. HTTP requests per second. Without the rigor described in this paper. disk space and network usage on individual web. performance testing can unearth issues that otherwise cannot be done through mainstream testing.. memory. JDBC Connection Pool Database Server Resources–Wait Events. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

If not. However there is an important point to be noted here. business can confidently and proactively execute strategic corporate initiatives for the benefit of shareholders and customers alike. Load testing gives the greatest line of defense against poor performance and accommodates complementary strategies for performance management and monitoring of a production environment. leveraging an ongoing. robust and viable solutions exist to help fend off disasters that result from poor performance. Testing of critical web applications during its development and before its deployment should include functional testing to confirm to the specifications. the system should have been architect and designed for meeting the required performance goals. Automated load testing tools and services are available to meet the critical need of measuring and optimizing complex and dynamic application and infrastructure performance. Page 162 ©Copyright 2007. Once these solutions are properly adopted and utilized. Fortunately. By continuously testing and monitoring the performance of critical software applications. The discipline helps businesses succeed in leveraging Web technologies to their best advantage. it may be too late in the software development cycle to correct serious performance issues. enabling new business opportunity lowering transaction costs and strengthening profitability. the consequences of which could be disastrous to the final system. When should load testing be done? Load testing should be done when the probable cost of the load test is likely less than the cost of a failed application deployment. performance testing to check if it offers an acceptable response time and load testing to see what hardware or software configuration will be required to provide acceptable response time and handle the load that will created by the real users of the system Why is load testing important? Load Testing increases the uptime for critical web applications by helping you spot the bottlenecks in the system under large user stress scenarios before they happen in a production environment. There is another flip side of the coin. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Thus a load testing is accomplished by stressing the real application under simulated load provided by virtual users. lifecycle-focused approach. businesses can begin to take charge and leverage information technology assets to their competitive advantage. Web-enabled applications and infrastructures must be able to execute evolving business processes with speed and precision while sustaining high volumes of changing and unpredictable user audiences. Before testing the system for performance requirements.Handout – Software Testing leading not enough budget being allocated for performance testing. Load Testing Load Testing is creation of a simulated load on a real computer system by using virtual users who submit work as real users would do at real client workstations and thus testing the systems ability to support such workload.

queries that return the entire contents of a database. or an entry at the maximum amount of data in a field. hardware. number of users. Examples Typical examples include stress testing of an application that is: Software only. Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. Provide input to the defect trend analysis effort. Configuration and/or Stress Testing. blackbox application that attempts to cause failures involving how its performance varies under extreme but valid conditions (e. Help determine the extent to which the application is ready for launch. Volume testing will seek to verify the physical and logical limits to a system's capacity and ascertain whether such limits are acceptable to meet the projected capacity of the organization's business processing. is testing that purposely subjects a system (both hardware and software) to a series of tests where the volume of data being processed is the subject of the test. and dependency on over-utilized shared resources). Provide data that will assist systems engineers in making intelligent decisions regarding future scaling needs. Determine if the application will support "worst case" production load conditions. queries with an extreme number of restrictions. extreme utilization. Determine how an application degrades and eventually fails. Page 163 ©Copyright 2007. to determine if it fulfills its scalability requirements). insufficient memory inadequate hardware.. as its name implies. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. fixed. amount of data).e. and data components. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Volume and Stress Testing Volume testing: Volume Testing. A system including software. Objectives The typical objectives of stress testing are to: Partially validate the application (i. stress testing could involve an extreme number of simultaneous users. Goals The typical goals of stress testing are to: Cause the application to fail to scale gracefully under extreme conditions so that the underlying defects can be identified. Stress testing is the system testing of an integrated.g. Such systems can be transactions processing systems capturing real time sales or could be database updates and or data retrieval. Volume Testing is conducted in conjunction with Component. analyzed. For example.. Huge (e. as conditions become extreme.g. Batch with no realtime requirements. extreme numbers of transactions. number of transactions. and prevented in the future.

Preconditions Stress test execution can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The scalability requirements to be tested have been specified. radar. avionics. Hard realtime (e. The independent test team is adequately staffed and trained in stress testing. Embeded within another system (e. Completion Criteria Stress testing is typically complete when the following postconditions hold: At least one stress test suite exists for each scalability requirement. The test environment is ready. The test suites for every scheduled scalability requirement execute successfully.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A research prototype that will not be placed into service. Test Execution: o o Regression Testing Profiling Test Reporting Environments Load testing is typically performed on the following environments using the following tools: Test Environment: o Test Harness o Use case modeling tool o Performance analyzer o Profiler Page 164 ©Copyright 2007. The relevant system components have passed system integration testing.e. flight-control software. cruise-control software).g. Software integration has occurred (i.Handout – Software Testing Soft realtime (i. human reaction times)... Business-critical or safety-critical. automotive engine control).. Test Implementation: o Develop test scripts o Simulating extreme workloads.g.e. Client/server or n-tier distributed. load testing can begin prior to the distribution of the software components onto the hardware components). The relevant software components have passed unit testing. Tasks Stress testing typically involves the independent test team performing the following testing tasks using the following techniques: Test Planning Test Reuse Test Design: o o Use Case Based Testing Workload analysis to determine the maximum production workloads. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Handout – Software Testing Work Products Stress testing typically results in the production of all or part of the following work products from the test work product set: Documents: o Project Test Plan o Master Test List o Test Procedures o Test Report o Test Summary Report Software and Data: o o o o o Phases Test Harness Test Scripts Test Suites Test Cases Test Data (*) Optional stress testing of COTS software components during the technology analysis and technology vendor selection tasks. Page 165 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. (**) Optional stress testing of the executable architecture as well as the COTS components during the vendor and tool evaluation and vendor and tool selection tasks.

To the extent practical. are automated test scripts and an infrastructure to be used to execute automated tests for extended periods. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The main objective of a performance testing is to demonstrate that the system functions to specification with acceptable response times while processing the required transaction volumes in real-time production database. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Stress testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur. The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that stress testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. Perform stress testing for several minutes to several hours.Handout – Software Testing Guidelines A system can fulfilits operational requirements and still be a failure if it does not scale. reuse functional test cases as stress test cases. The objective of a performance test is to demonstrate that the system meets requirements for transaction throughput and response times simultaneously. Page 166 ©Copyright 2007. Develop test scripts simulating exceptional workloads. Stress testing can elicit failures prior to launch. SUMMARY The performance testing is a measure of the performance characteristics of an application. prior to execution. The main deliverables from such a test.

The test cases for a particular requirement are classified into Simple. Average and Complex based on the following four factors.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 11: Test Case Point Learning Objective After completing this chapter. The TCP counts are nothing but ranking the requirements and the test cases that are to be written for those requirements into simple. Test Case Point Analysis Calculating the Test Case Points Based on the Functional Requirement Document (FRD). we can have ‘Login and Authentication’ as a module and rank that particular module as Simple. of verification points OR Baseline Test data Refer the test case classification table given below Page 167 ©Copyright 2007. the application is classified into various modules like say for a web application. you will be able to: Describe TCP and TCP Analysis What is a Test Case Point (TCP)? TCP is a measure of estimating the complexity of an application. average and complex and quantifying the same into a measure of complexity. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A Simple requirement is one. An Average requirement is ranked between 4 and 7. This is also used as an estimation technique to calculate the size and effort of a testing project. Test case complexity for that requirement OR Interface with other Test cases OR No. A Complex requirement is ranked between 8 and 10. Average and Complex based on the number and complexity of the requirements for that module. which can be given a value in the scale of 1 to3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. In this courseware we shall give an overview about Test Case Points and not elaborate on using TCP as an estimation technique.

average and complex test case points. Page 168 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. average and complex test cases. This adjustment factor has been calculated after a thorough study and analysis done on many testing projects. we get the simple. The Adjustment Factor in the table mentioned below is pre-determined and must not be changed for every project. By multiplying the number of requirements with it s corresponding adjustment factor. the complexity needs to be identified in a similar manner. Based on the test case type an adjustment factor is assigned for simple. Any verification point containing a calculation is considered 'Complex' Any verification point. which interfaces with or interacts with another application is classified as 'Complex' Any verification point consisting of report verification is considered as 'Complex' A verification point comprising Search functionality may be classified as 'Complex' or 'Average' depending on the complexity Depending on the respective project. Summing up the three results. we can get the number of simple. we arrive at the count of Total Test Case Points. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . average and complex test case types.Handout – Software Testing A sample guideline for classification of test cases is given below. From the break up of Complexity of Requirements done in the first step.

This contrasts with functional testing (black-box testing). Functional testing examines what the program accomplishes. whose job is really to measure performance bottlenecks. Structural testing compares test program behavior against the apparent intention of the source code. taking into account possible pitfalls in the structure and logic. Structural testing examines how the program works. which is an indirect measure of quality. Page 169 ©Copyright 2007. Creating additional test cases to increase coverage. Test coverage analysis is sometimes called code coverage analysis. Code coverage analysis is a structural testing technique (white box testing). and not the quality of the actual product. Test Coverage analysis is the process of: Finding areas of a program not exercised by a set of test cases. The academic world more often uses the term "test coverage" while practitioners more often use "code coverage". Test coverage analysis can be used to assure quality of the set of tests. Also an optional aspect of test coverage analysis is: Identifying redundant test cases that do not increase coverage. without regard to how it works internally. If the execution time in some procedures is zero. A test coverage analyzer automates this process. Coverage analysis requires access to test program source code and often requires recompiling it with a special command. This simple statistic is typically available from execution profiling tools. you need to write new tests that hit those procedures. and Determining a quantitative measure of code coverage. But this measure of test coverage is so coarse-grained it's not very practical. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which compares test program behavior against a requirements specification. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Here is a description of some fundamental measures and their strengths and weaknesses Procedure-Level Test Coverage Probably the most basic form of test coverage is to measure what procedures were and were not executed during the test suite. Test coverage measures A large variety of coverage measures exist.Handout – Software Testing Test Coverage Test Coverage is an important measure of quality for software systems. The two terms are synonymous.

the performance factor may be significant. it is dependent on operating environment -. it is an enviable commitment to quality! How Test Coverage Tools Work To monitor execution. you should have more. The same executable file used for product release testing should be used for code coverage. code coverage version in addition to other versions. However. Some products. Proponents claim this technique can provide higher levels of code coverage measurement (condition coverage. is often the key to writing more tests that will increase coverage: By studying the unexecuted code. There are many other test coverage measures. just executing it will not automatically start code coverage (as it would with the other methods of Page 170 ©Copyright 2007. and add additional code (such as calls to a code coverage runtime) that will record where the program reached. Adding probes to the program will make it bigger and slower. For example. instrumented one. or virtual machine). most available code coverage tools do not provide much beyond basic line coverage. The tool will analyze the existing executable. But it can be somewhat independent of operating environment (processor. such as debug (un optimized) and release (optimized) needs to be maintained. Such a tool may not actually generate new source files with the additional code.the provider of the tool must explicitly choose which processors or virtual machines to support. One drawback of this technique is the need to modify the build process. This result is often presented in a summary at the procedure. A large project that achieved 90% code coverage might be considered a well-tested product. if you achieve 95+% line coverage and still have time and budget to commit to further testing improvements. In theory. This type of instrumentation is dependent on programming language -. a statement in an if clause). A separate version namely. This. Because the file is not modified in any way. consider a block of code that is skipped under certain conditions (e. for example. allowing you to see exactly which lines of code were executed and which were not. You need condition coverage to know. However. of course. How and when this instrumentation phase happens can vary greatly between different products. Executable Instrumentation Probes can also be added to a completed executable file. the file itself is not modified. and then create a new.Handout – Software Testing Line-Level Test Coverage The basic measure of a dedicated test coverage tool is tracking which lines of code are executed.the provider of the tool must explicitly choose which languages to support. If that code is shown as executed. and which are not. or project level giving a percentage of the code that was executed. Typically the line coverage information is also presented at the source code level. They analyze the source code as written. But in practice.) than other forms of instrumentation. intercept the compiler after parsing but before code generation to insert the changes they need. test coverage tools generally "instrument" the program by inserting "probes". If the test suite is large and timeconsuming.. you can see exactly what functionality has not been tested. The probes exist only in the inmemory copy of the executable file. file.g. you don't know whether you have tested the case when it is skipped. etc. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Condition Coverage and Other Measures It's easy to find cases where line coverage doesn't really tell the whole story. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . OS. Runtime Instrumentation Probes need not be added until the program is actually run. Source-Level Instrumentation Some products add probes at the source level. This type of instrumentation is independent of programming language.

Alternatively. Instead. It helps most in the absence of a detailed. and does nothing if the coverage tool is not waiting. This new code will wake up and connect to a waiting coverage tool whenever the program executes. Clearly. the code coverage tool must start program execution directly or indirectly. We must set a higher coverage goal for unit testing than for system testing since a failure in lower-level code may affect multiple high-level callers. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 171 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing instrumentation). Test Coverage Tools at a Glance Coverage analysis is a structural testing technique that helps eliminate gaps in a test suite. up-to-date requirements specification. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Like Executable Instrumentation. This added code does not affect the size or performance of the executable. Each project must choose a minimum percent coverage for release criteria based on available testing resources and the importance of preventing post-release failures. the code coverage tool will add a tiny bit of instrumentation to the executable. safety-critical software should have a high goal. Runtime Instrumentation is independent of programming language but dependent on operating environment.

However only the name and phone numbers are mandatory fields.value=="") Page 172 ©Copyright 2007.phone. Phone no.name1. Address1..frm. document. The phone number and credit card number are numeric and email address is also verified for a character '@'. along with email is displayed. Address2. c) Also develop other test cases for complete testing. Validation code at client side function save() { var flag. The view only pages are reached through the results page on clicking the hyperlinks. Cognizant Technology Solutions. State.frm. City. if (document. The search page provides with facility to search by name or place and the results are displayed in a tabular form where the essential fields name and phone no. flag=0.frm. The entries can be seen in a tabular form also by choosing the search by list option. Case Study: Application Personal Address book. It uses ASP in the server side and java script in the client side. In the personal information page.name1.0 and above. The details that can be stored are Name. The database is Microsoft Access. Test your Understanding Assignment 1 There is an application on personal address book. The Personal Address book is designed for people to access their contacts online from a central database on the server. } if (document. you need to submit the following artifacts: a) Draw the flow chart.Handout – Software Testing SUMMARY TCP is a measure of estimating the complexity of an application.focus(). Note that the pages are not submitted to the server for this action. This is also used as an estimation technique to calculate the size and effort of a testing project. These entries can be modified directly from here by clicking the edit button. Email address. find the independent paths b) Develop Test cases based on that. Country. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . return false. However the system is not compatible with Netscape browser and is designed specifically for the IE 5. so that effectively reduces the network traffic. an additional field for credit card number is provided.value=="") { alert ("Please Fill in the name"). As a whole it is designed for personal use and security was not a concern while designing it.

return true.phone.select(). document.focus().i++) { if (document.select(). document. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } if (document. document. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .value.frm.phone.length.frm.frm.i<document. document.frm.Handout – Software Testing { alert ("Please Fill in the Phone number").frm.value.frm.email. } Page 173 ©Copyright 2007.submit().frm. return false. } if (isNaN(document.email. return false.focus(). break.frm. } } if (flag!=1) { alert ("Please Fill email in correct format").email.phone.charAt(i)=="@") { flag=1.email. } } document.phone.value!="") { for (i=0. return false. document.frm.value)==true) { alert ("Phone number should be numeric").frm.focus().email.

com/ Cognizant eResources: http://elibrary/ \\ctsintcosaca\library BOOKS The Art of Software Testing. IEEE Black Box Testing. by. by. Boris Beizer Client Server Software Testing on the Desktop and the Web. and Performance. Mark Fewster & Dorothy Graham The craft of software testing.edu/~storm/ http://www. Nguyen Software Test Automation. Mosley Fundamental Concepts for the Software Quality Engineer.com/ http://www. Daniel J. by. Rex Black 50 Ways to improve your testing. Brian Marick Software test automation. Robert M. Jorgensen. Poston. by. Boris Beizer Testing Applications on the Web: Test Planning for Mobile and Internet-Based Systems.softwaretesting. by. by. Linda G. by. Management. by. Elfriede Dustin.softwareqatest. Nguyen.tripod. Jeff Rashka.com/~bazman/ http://www. Mark Fewster & Dorothy Graham Black-Box Testing .Bob Johnson . by. Paul Jorgensen Automated Software Testing: Introduction. Elfriede Dustin Effective use of Test automation tools. Boris Beizer Automated Testing Handbook. by. Myers The Complete Guide to Software Testing. Paulc. by.testing.aptest.sqatester. by.Michael Hacke & Robert Johnson Software Testing: A Craftsman's Approach. Cognizant Technology Solutions.com/ http://www. by. by.nildram. John Paul & Paperback Practical Tools and Techniques for Managing Hardware and Software Testing.softwaretestinginstitute.com/ http://www. by.Handout – Software Testing REFERENCES WEBSITES http://members. Glenford J. Hung Q. by. by. Bret Pettichord Page 174 ©Copyright 2007. Hung Q.mtsu.co.html http://www. Bill Hetzel Software Testing Techniques. by. by. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Hayes Automating Specification-Based Software Testing. Taz Daughtrey Testing Applications on the Web.uk/ http://www.com/resources.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing STUDENT NOTES: Page 175 ©Copyright 2007.

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