Handout: Software Testing

Version: ST/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

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Handout – Software Testing

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................5 About this Module .........................................................................................................................5 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................5 Module Objectives ........................................................................................................................5 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................5 Chapter 1: Introduction to Testing ...............................................................................................6 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................6 What is Software Testing..............................................................................................................6 Testing Life Cycle .........................................................................................................................6 Broad Categories of Testing .........................................................................................................7 The Testing Techniques ...............................................................................................................7 Types of Testing ...........................................................................................................................8 SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................................8 Test your Understanding ..............................................................................................................9 Chapter 2: Black Box Vs. White Box Testing ............................................................................10 Learning Objective:.....................................................................................................................10 Introduction to Black Box and White Box testing........................................................................10 Black box testing ........................................................................................................................10 Black box testing - without user involvement .............................................................................11 Black box testing - with user involvement ..................................................................................11 White Box Testing ......................................................................................................................14 Black Box (Vs) White Box...........................................................................................................18 SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................20 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................20 Chapter 3: Other Testing Types ..................................................................................................21 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................21 What is GUI Testing? .................................................................................................................21 Regression Testing.....................................................................................................................31 Integration Testing ......................................................................................................................38 Acceptance Testing ....................................................................................................................43 Configuration Testing & Installation Testing ...............................................................................45 Alpha testing and Beta testing ....................................................................................................48 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................52
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Handout – Software Testing
Chapter 4: Levels of Testing .......................................................................................................53 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................53 Unit Testing.................................................................................................................................53 Integration Testing ......................................................................................................................60 System Testing ...........................................................................................................................61 SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................64 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................64 Chapter 5: JUnit Testing ..............................................................................................................65 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................65 JUNIT Testing - Introduction.......................................................................................................65 Simple Test Case .......................................................................................................................65 Fixture .........................................................................................................................................66 Test Case ...................................................................................................................................67 Suite............................................................................................................................................67 TestRunner .................................................................................................................................68 Chapter 6: Testing Artifacts ........................................................................................................70 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................70 Test Strategy and Test Plan .......................................................................................................70 Test Plan.....................................................................................................................................75 Test Case .................................................................................................................................100 SUMMARY ...............................................................................................................................103 Test your Understanding ..........................................................................................................103 Chapter 7: Defect Management .................................................................................................104 Learning Objective ....................................................................................................................104 What is a Defect? .....................................................................................................................104 Defect Lifecycle ........................................................................................................................105 Defect Reporting and Tracking .................................................................................................105 SUMMARY ...............................................................................................................................107 Test your Understanding ..........................................................................................................108 Chapter 8: Automation ...............................................................................................................109 Learning Objective ....................................................................................................................109 What is Automation? ................................................................................................................109 Automation Benefits .................................................................................................................109 Automation Life Cycle...............................................................................................................111 Test Environment Setup ...........................................................................................................113 Other Phases in Automation.....................................................................................................116
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........................................................................................................................................................................................................................130 Rational Test Manager ..........................................................................................................................166 Chapter 11: Test Case Point .. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .....126 Sample Test Automation Tool .174 WEBSITES ............................................................................................144 Performance Testing Requirements .............................................167 Test Case Point Analysis.......................163 SUMMARY ...........................172 Test your Understanding ..........................................................................................................................................................146 Performance Testing Process ..................................................................................................................................................140 Supported environments ........................................................................................................................................167 SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................................................................174 BOOKS .........144 What is Performance testing? ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................172 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................................................................................126 Learning Objective .................................144 Learning Objective .........................................................175 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007.........................................................................................................................................................................127 Rational Robot .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................143 Chapter 10: Performance Testing ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................142 SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................167 Learning Objective ...............................126 Rational Administrator ..............................................................118 SUMMARY .........................................................154 Volume and Stress Testing .....................................................................147 Performance Testing Tools ........................................................117 Automation tool comparison ..............................................................................Handout – Software Testing Automation Methods......................................................................................125 Chapter 9: Sample Test Automation Tool .....................167 What is a Test Case Point (TCP)? .174 STUDENT NOTES: ..................................................126 Rational Suite of tools..........................................................................................................................................

Target Audience Entry Level Trainees Module Objectives After completing this module. audience. suggested prerequisites and module objectives.Handout – Software Testing Introduction About this Module This module provides you with a brief description of the module. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the student will be able to: Explain Software Testing List the types of testing Explain Test Strategy Describe Test Plan Describe Test Design Describe Test Cases Describe Test Data Explain Test Execution Perform Defect reporting and analyzing the defects List Test Automation advantages and disadvantages Work with Winrunner Describe Performance Testing Work with Loadrunner Too Work with Test Director Pre-requisite This module does not require any prerequisite Page 5 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

but the process mentioned above is common to any testing activity. It can only find defects. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. maintainability and usability. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. completeness and quality of developed computer software. Software Testing has been accepted as a separate discipline to the extent that there is a separate life cycle for the testing activity. Testing Life Cycle Every testing project has to follow the waterfall model of the testing process. According to the respective projects. stability. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. Involving software testing in all phases of the software Page 6 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 1: Introduction to Testing Learning Objectives After completing this topic you will be able to: Explain the need for Software testing What is Software Testing Software testing is a process used to identify the correctness. as this can only be done by formal verification (and only when there is no mistake in the formal verification process). testing can never establish the correctness of computer software.putting the product through its paces." where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Actually. portability. There are many approaches to software testing. not prove that there are none. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product-. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. the scope of testing can be tailored.

Right from the Requirements study till the implementation. This type of testing is called Static Testing. code review. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Also known as Structural testing.Handout – Software Testing development life cycle has become a necessity as part of the software quality assurance process. walkthrough and audits. The Testing Techniques To perform these types of testing. design review. These topics will be elaborated in the coming chapters Page 7 ©Copyright 2007. user documentation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Broad Categories of Testing Based on the V-Model mentioned above. The above said testing types are performed based on the following testing techniques. Black-Box testing technique: This technique is used for testing based solely on analysis of requirements (specification. namely. The V-Model of the Software Testing Life Cycle along with the Software Development Life cycle given below indicates the various phases or levels of testing. code. etc. there are two widely used testing techniques. we see that there are two categories of testing activities that can be done on software. there needs to be testing done on Software Testing every phase. When we test the software by executing and comparing the actual & expected results. Static Testing Dynamic Testing The kind of verification we do on the software work products before the process of compilation and creation of an executable is more of Requirement review. it is called Dynamic Testing.). Also known as functional testing.) (But expected results still come requirements). White-Box testing technique: This technique us used for testing based on analysis of internal logic (design.

SUMMARY “Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors” Evolution of Software Testing The Testing process and lifecycle Broad categories of testing Widely employed Types of Testing The Testing Techniques Page 8 ©Copyright 2007. Done to verify if it satisfies its functional specification or its intended design structure. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Unit testing. a subset of stress testing.e. verifies that a web site can handle a particular number of concurrent users while maintaining acceptable response times Alpha Testing: Testing of a software product or system conducted at the developer’s site by the Customer Beta Testing: Testing conducted at one or more customer sites by the end user of a delivered software product system. System Testing: Testing the software for the required specifications on the intended hardware Acceptance Testing: Formal testing conducted to determine whether or not a system satisfies its acceptance criteria. Unit Testing: The testing done to a unit or to a smallest piece of software. namely.Handout – Software Testing Types of Testing From the V-model. User Acceptance testing etc. System testing. Integration Testing: Testing which takes place as sub elements are combined (i. which enables a customer to determine whether to accept the system or not.. integrated) to form higher-level elements Regression Testing: Selective re-testing of a system to verify the modification (bug fixes) have not caused unintended effects and that system still complies with its specified requirements. we see that are various levels or phases of testing. Integration testing. Performance Testing: To evaluate the time taken or response time of the system to perform it’s required functions in comparison Stress Testing: To evaluate a system beyond the limits of the specified requirements or system resources (such as disk space. memory. processor utilization) to ensure the system do not break unexpectedly Load Testing: Load Testing. Let us see a brief definition on the widely employed types of testing.

The primary objective of testing is a) To show that the program works b) To provide a detailed indication of quality c) To find errors d) To protect the end –user Answers: 1) c Page 9 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Test your Understanding 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

but not how the program actually arrives at those outputs. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". no other knowledge of the program is necessary. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. For this reason. White Box Testing Learning Objective: After completing this chapter. test coverage. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. It is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. test groups are often used. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether!!! Black box testing Black Box Testing is testing without knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested. Though centered around the knowledge of user requirements. and closedbox. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. Some call this "graybox" or "translucent-box" test design. and how to build and maintain test data. glass-box and clear-box. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 2: Black Box Vs. Among the most important black box tests that do not involve users are functionality testing. and benchmarks. recovery testing. when black box testing is applied to software engineering. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In practice. It is because of this that black box testing can be considered testing with respect to the specifications. While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. Page 10 ©Copyright 2007.e. For example. you will be able to: Explain the methods of testing Introduction to Black Box and White Box testing Test Design refers to understanding the sources of test cases. the tester and the programmer can be independent of one another. functional. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. There are 2 primary methods by which tests can be designed and they are: Black box White box Black-box test design treats the system as a literal "black-box". Synonyms for white-box include: structural. Additionally. In the following the most important aspects of these black box tests will be described briefly. black box tests do not necessarily involve the participation of users. opaque-box. there are two types of black box test that involve users. It is used to detect errors by means of execution-oriented test cases. For this testing. avoiding programmer bias toward his own work. field and laboratory tests. stress tests. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". how to develop and document test cases. but it's still discouraged. volume tests. Cognizant Technology Solutions. i. the tester would only know the "legal" inputs and what the expected outputs should be.

During a stress test. or. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. In the context of this document. field tests are particularly useful for assessing the interoperability of the software system.Handout – Software Testing Black box testing . The term ``scenario'' has entered software evaluation in the early 1990s .e. In field tests users are observed while using the software system at their normal working place. a consumption of too much memory space.g.with user involvement For tests involving users. In the following only a rough description of field and laboratory tests will be given. Moreover. Its primary objective is to assess whether the program does what it is supposed to do. Whereas for most software engineers benchmark tests are concerned with the quantitative measurement of specific operations. the system has to process a huge amount of data or perform many function calls within a short period of time. The other is to test module by module. Scenario Tests.e. The notion of benchmark tests involves the testing of program efficiency. One is the testing of each program feature or function in sequence. e. each function where it is called first. Does the system provide possibilities to recover all of the data or part of it? How much can be recovered and how? Is the recovered data still correct and consistent? Particularly for software that needs high reliability standards. A volume test can uncover problems that are related to the efficiency of a system. There are different approaches to functionality testing. benchmark tests only denote operations that are independent of personal variables. recovery testing is very important. incorrect buffer sizes. Rather. i.without user involvement The so-called ``functionality testing'' is central to most testing exercises.g. some also consider user tests that compare the efficiency of different software systems as benchmark tests. field tests are the only real means to elucidate problems of the organizational integration of the software system into existing procedures. however. Apart from general usability-related aspects.e. Particularly in the NLP environment Page 11 ©Copyright 2007. Black box testing . i. A typical example could be to perform the same function from all workstations connected in a LAN within a short period of time (e. The aim of recovery testing is to make sure to which extent data can be recovered after a system breakdown. what is specified in the requirements. to modify a term bank via different terminals simultaneously). or only show that an error message would be needed telling the user that the system cannot process the given amount of data. In short it involves putting the system into its intended use by its envisaged type of user. in the NLP area. how the technical integration of the system works. A scenario test is a test case which aims at a realistic user background for the evaluation of software as it was defined and performed It is an instance of black box testing where the major objective is to assess the suitability of a software product for every-day routines. The efficiency of a piece of software strongly depends on the hardware environment and therefore benchmark tests always consider the soft/hardware combination. E. methodological considerations are rare in SE literature. i.g. The objective of volume tests is to find the limitations of the software by processing a huge amount of data. sending e-mails. performing a standardised task. one may find practical test reports that distinguish roughly between field and laboratory tests.

last but not least. Any dirty tests not covered by the above. Domain tests not covered by the above. as needed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . to eliminate any guess work by the tester as to the methods of the function Data outside of the specified input range should be tested to check the robustness of the program Boundary cases should be tested (top and bottom of specified range) to make sure the highest and lowest allowable inputs produce proper output The number zero should be tested when numerical data is to be input Stress testing should be performed (try to overload the program with inputs to see where it reaches its maximum capacity). data collection and analysis are easier than for field tests. where the major implementation problem is not the technical environment. etc. Laboratory tests are mostly performed to assess the general usability of the system. Black box testing Methods Graph-based Testing Methods Black-box methods based on the nature of the relationships (links) among the program objects (nodes). test cases are designed to traverse the entire graph Transaction flow testing (nodes represent steps in some transaction and links represent logical connections between steps that need to be validated) Page 12 ©Copyright 2007. Additional tests for data-flow coverage as needed. logic testing. Special techniques as appropriate--syntax. A typical example of the organizational problem of implementing a translation memory is the language service of a big automobile manufacturer. and state testing. Finite state machine models can be used as a guide to design functional tests According to Beizer the following is a general order by which tests should be designed: o o o o o o Clean tests against requirements. state. Since laboratory tests provide testers with many technical possibilities. domain testing. syntax testing. individual translators are not too motivated to change their working habits. loop. Additional structural tests for branch coverage. Due to the high laboratory equipment costs laboratory tests are mostly only performed at big software houses such as IBM or Microsoft.Handout – Software Testing this problem has frequently been underestimated. but the fact that many clients still submit their orders as print-out. especially with real time systems Crash testing should be performed to see what it takes to bring the system down Test monitoring tools should be used whenever possible to track which tests have already been performed and the outputs of these tests to avoid repetition and to aid in the software maintenance Other functional testing techniques include: transaction testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Testing Strategies/Techniques Black box testing should make use of randomly generated inputs (only a test range should be specified by the tester). that neither source texts nor target texts are properly organised and stored and.

one valid and two invalid equivalence classes are defined If an input condition requires a specific value. link weights are required execution times) Equivalence Partitioning Black-box technique that divides the input domain into classes of data from which test cases can be derived An ideal test case uncovers a class of errors that might require many arbitrary test cases to be executed before a general error is observed Equivalence class guidelines: o o o o o If input condition specifies a range. test cases should include a and b.g.Handout – Software Testing Finite state modeling (nodes represent user observable states of the software and links represent transitions between states) Data flow modeling (nodes are data objects and links are transformations from one data object to another) Timing modeling (nodes are program objects and links are sequential connections between these objects. Cognizant Technology Solutions. as well as values just above and just below the minimum and maximum values Apply guidelines 1 and 2 to output conditions. one valid and two invalid equivalence classes are defined If an input condition specifies a member of a set. size limitations). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . be certain to test the boundaries Comparison Testing Black-box testing for safety critical systems in which independently developed implementations of redundant systems are tested for conformance to specifications Often equivalence class partitioning is used to develop a common set of test cases for each implementation Orthogonal Array Testing Black-box technique that enables the design of a reasonably small set of test cases that provide maximum test coverage Focus is on categories of faulty logic likely to be present in the software component (without examining the code) Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. values just above and just below a and b If an input condition specifies and number of values. test cases should exercise the minimum and maximum numbers. one valid and one invalid equivalence class is defined Boundary Value Analysis Black-box technique that focuses on the boundaries of the input domain rather than its center BVA guidelines: If input condition specifies a range bounded by values a and b. one valid and one invalid equivalence class is defined If an input condition is Boolean. test cases should be designed to produce the minimum and maxim output reports If internal program data structures have boundaries (e.

Synonyms for white box testing Glass Box testing Structural testing Clear Box testing Page 14 ©Copyright 2007. to test every possible input stream would take nearly forever Without clear and concise specifications. test cases are hard to design There may be unnecessary repetition of test inputs if the tester is not informed of test cases the programmer has already tried May leave many program paths untested Cannot be directed toward specific segments of code which may be very complex (and therefore more error prone) Most testing related research has been directed toward glass box testing White Box Testing Software testing approaches that examine the program structure and derive test data from the program logic. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Priorities for assessing tests using an orthogonal array Detect and isolate all single mode faults Detect all double mode faults Multimode faults Specialized Testing Graphical user interfaces Client/server architectures Documentation and help facilities Real-time systems o o o o Task testing (test each time dependent task independently) Behavioral testing (simulate system response to external events) Inter task testing (check communications errors among tasks) System testing (check interaction of integrated system software and hardware) Advantages of Black Box Testing More effective on larger units of code than glass box testing Tester needs no knowledge of implementation. Structural testing is sometimes referred to as clear-box testing since white boxes are considered opaque and do not really permit visibility into the code. including specific programming languages Tester and programmer are independent of each other Tests are done from a user's point of view Will help to expose any ambiguities or inconsistencies in the specifications Test cases can be designed as soon as the specifications are complete Disadvantages of Black Box Testing Only a small number of possible inputs can actually be tested.

Page 15 ©Copyright 2007. test suite execution. These are test cases that exercise basic set will execute every statement at least once.1 Basis Path Testing A testing mechanism proposed by McCabe whose aim is to derive a logical complexity measure of a procedural design and use this as a guide for defining a basic set of execution paths. Improve quality by optimizing performance. In general.Handout – Software Testing Open Box Testing Types of White Box testing A typical rollout of a product is shown in figure 1 below.1 Flow Graph Notation A notation for representing control flow similar to flow charts and UML activity diagrams. 1. Provide a complementary function to black box testing. Allocation of resources to design. The purpose of white box testing Initiate a strategic initiative to build quality throughout the life cycle of a software product or service. Establishment and maintenance of regression test suites and procedures.1. document and manage a test history library. Development and use of standard procedures. Perform complete coverage at the component level. Developing a test harness made up of stubs. 1 Code Coverage Analysis 1. white-box testing practices have the following considerations: The allocation of resources to perform class and method analysis and to document and review the same. drivers and test object libraries. Practices: This section outlines some of the general practices comprising white-box testing process. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The means to develop or acquire tool support for automation of capture/replay/compare. naming conventions and libraries. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . results verification and documentation capabilities.

Compound condition: composed of two or more simple conditions. where E1 and E2 are arithmetic expressions.3 Loop Testing Loops fundamental to many algorithms.1 Conditions Testing Condition testing aims to exercise all logical conditions in a program module.2. possibly proceeded by a NOT operator. 2). 1. 1. 1. Relational expression: (E1 op E2). Simple condition: Boolean variable or relational expression.2. and an upper bound for the number of tests to ensure that each statement is executed at least once.2 Control Structure testing 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 16 ©Copyright 2007.2 Data Flow Testing Selects test paths according to the location of definitions and use of variables. 3). They may define: 1). Cyclomatic complexity provides upper bound for number of tests required to guarantee coverage of all program statements.2 Cyclomatic Complexity The cyclomatic complexity gives a quantitative measure of 4the logical complexity. and unstructured. concatenated.. Boolean operators and parentheses. This value gives the number of independent paths in the basis set.Handout – Software Testing 1.1. Can define loops as simple. nested. Cognizant Technology Solutions.e.2. An independent path is any path through a program that introduces at least one new set of processing statements or a new condition (i. Boolean expression: Condition without Relational expressions. they are redesigned. a new edge). Examples: Note that unstructured loops are not to be tested rather. 4).

may be validated to ensure that ACID (Atomicity. local or distributed. 3 Profiling Profiling provides a framework for analyzing Java code performance for speed and heap memory use.htm] are used to perform this function. 5 Transactions Systems that employ transaction. 4 Error Handling Exception and error handling is checked thoroughly are simulating partial and complete fail-over by operating on error causing test vectors.Handout – Software Testing 2 Design by Contract (DbC) DbC is a formal way of using comments to incorporate specification information into the code itself. Conditions that a method must meet after it executes. Isolation. Cognizant Technology Solutions.com/products/jtract/index. Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. Transactions are checked thoroughly for partial/complete commits and rollbacks encompassing databases and other XA compliant transaction processors.parasoft. Consistency. the code specification is expressed unambiguously using a formal language that describes the code's implicit contracts.research. Durability). It identifies routines that are consuming the majority of the CPU time so that problems may be tracked down to improve performance.html] may also be used to perform this function. Proper error recovery. These contracts specify such requirements as: Conditions that the client must meet before a method is invoked. Basically. These include the use of Microsoft Java Profiler API and Sun’s profiling tools that are bundled with the JDK. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .com/journal/sj/391/kazi. Third party tools such as JaViz [http://www. Each of the individual parameters is tested individually against a reference data set. notification and logging are checked against references to validate program design. Advantages of White Box Testing Forces test developer to reason carefully about implementation Approximate the partitioning done by execution equivalence Reveals errors in "hidden" code Beneficent side-effects Disadvantages of White Box Testing Expensive Cases omitted in the code could be missed out.ibm. Assertions that a method must satisfy at specific points of its execution Tools that check DbC contracts at runtime such as Jcontract [http://www.

and you can’t see beyond its surface. and dials on the outside. Boundary testing and other attack-based techniques are targeted at common coding errors. And testing the units inside the box becomes white box testing. These terms are commonly used. Developer testing is called “white box” testing. any testing by users or other non-developers is sometimes called “black box” testing. You have to see if it works just by flipping switches (inputs) and seeing what happens to the lights and dials (outputs). this is called white box testing. To help understand the different ways that software testing can be divided between black box and white box techniques. depends on how you define the boundary of the box and what kind of access the “blackness” is blocking. By analogy. Requirements-based testing could be called “black box” because it makes sure that all the customer requirements have been verified. This is one way to think about coverage. Thus. “black box” testing becomes another name for system testing. Black box testing begins with a metaphor. Cognizant Technology Solutions. apply probes internally and maybe even disassemble parts of it. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . An opposite test approach would be to open up the electronics system. or decisions) is exercised. Accordingly. Both are supported by extensive literature and commercial tools. switches.Handout – Software Testing Black Box (Vs) White Box An easy way to start up a debate in a software testing forum is to ask the difference between black box and white box testing. These are the two most commonly used coverage criteria. Risks: Why are you testing? Sometimes testing is targeted at particular risks. Code-based testing is often called “white box” because it makes sure that all the code (the statements. People: Who do the testing? Some people know how software works (developers) and others just use it (users). Imagine you’re testing an electronics system. however. these techniques might be Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. Coverage: What is tested? If we draw the box around the system as a whole. Another is to contrast testing that aims to cover all the requirements with testing that aims to cover all the code. This is black box testing. see how the circuits are wired. Effective security testing also requires a detailed understanding of the code and the system architecture. The distinction here is based on what the person knows or can understand. but with software. It lays out five dimensions that can be used for examining testing: People (who do the testing) Coverage (what gets tested) Risks (why you are testing) Activities (how you are testing) Evaluation (how you know you’ve found a bug) Let’s use this system to understand and clarify the characteristics of black box and white box testing. paths. consider the Five-Fold Testing System. yet everyone seems to have a different idea of what they mean. The actual meaning of the metaphor. It’s housed in a black box with lights. You must test it without opening it up. Black box software testing is doing the same thing.

In order to fully test a software product both black and white box testing are required. White box testing is testing against the implementation and will discover faults of commission. this is probably the most commonly cited definition for black box and white box testing. indicating that part of the implementation is faulty. Memory leaks and wild pointers are examples. and maps code inspection (static testing) with white box testing. To conclude. indicating that part of the specification has not been fulfilled. We could also focus on the tools used. These contrast with black box techniques that simply look at the official outputs of a program. Evaluation: How do you know if you’ve found a bug? There are certain kinds of software faults that don’t always lead to obvious failures. Some tool vendors refer to code-coverage tools as white box tools. The paths should then be checked against the black box test plan and any additional required test runs determined and applied. White box testing is concerned only with testing the software product.Handout – Software Testing classified as “white box”. and could be termed “black box. A failure of a white box test may result in a change which requires all black box testing to be repeated and the redetermination of the white box paths. and tools that facilitate applying inputs and capturing inputs—most notably GUI capture replay tools—as black box tools. Thus black box testing is testing against the specification and will discover faults of omission. and structural test design. Certain test techniques seek to make these kinds of problems more visible. In this case. All of these techniques could be considered white box test techniques. These are two design approaches. Another set of risks concerns whether the software will actually provide value to users. it cannot guarantee that all parts of the implementation have been tested. White box planning should commence as soon as all black box tests have been successfully passed. there are further constructive means to guarantee high quality software end products. The advice given is to start test planning with a black box test approach as soon as the specification is available. Cognizant Technology Solutions. apart from the above described analytical methods of both glass and black box testing. Black box testing is concerned only with testing the specification. Testing is then categorized based on the types of tools used. since they use code instrumentation to make the internal workings of the software more visible.” Activities: How do you test? A common distinction is made between behavioral test design.” Indeed. It requires the source code to be produced before the tests can be planned and is much more laborious in the determination of suitable input data and the determination if the software is or is not correct.” while structural testing—based on the code internals—is called “white box. They may be masked by fault tolerance or simply luck. which defines tests based on functional requirements. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007. Assertions are another technique for helping to make problems more visible. helping with diagnosis. Usability testing focuses on this risk. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Since behavioral testing is based on external functional definition. the metaphor maps test execution (dynamic testing) with black box testing. with the production of flowgraphs and determination of paths. White box testing is much more expensive than black box testing. it cannot guarantee that the complete specification has been implemented. Related techniques capture code history and stack information when faults occur. which defines tests based on the code itself. it is often called “black box. The consequences of test failure at this stage may be very expensive. Another activity-based distinction contrasts dynamic test execution with formal code inspection.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . white-box test case design requires that you have a) Source code b) An operational program c) A detailed procedural design d) The program architecture Answers: 1). and closed-box White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". White box testing. Equivalence partitioning is a black-box testing method that a) Looks for equivalent data values in the program b) Looks for classes of output c) Focuses on output errors d) Defines classes of input 2. Test your Understanding 1. assertions. and last but not least the involvement of users in both software development and testing procedures SUMMARY Black box testing can sometimes describe user-based testing (people). Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. and logs (evaluation). Synonyms for white-box include: structural. opaque-box. It is used to detect errors by means of execution-oriented test cases. system or requirements-based testing (coverage). It is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. At a minimum. boundary or security testing (risks). on the other hand. inspection or code-coverage automation (activities). structural testing. glass-box and clear-box. functional. Cognizant Technology Solutions. d 2). so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. the integration of CASE tools. Black-box test design treats the system as a literal "black-box". or testing based on probes. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data.Handout – Software Testing Among the most important constructive means are the usage of object-oriented programming tools. usability testing (risk). c Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. unit or code-coverage testing (coverage). rapid prototyping. or behavioral testing or capture replay automation (activities). can sometimes describe developer-based testing (people).

Check all text on window for Spelling/Tense and Grammar. The text in the Micro Help line should change . GUI Testing can refer to just ensuring that the look-and-feel of the application is acceptable to the user. click it. English and clarity.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 3: Other Testing Types Learning Objective After completing this chapter. and Up to Down within a group box on the screen. These should be checked for spelling. It should not be possible to select them with either the mouse or by using TAB. All screens should have a Help button (i.you should be returned to main window. If the screen has a Control menu. Use SHIFT+TAB to move focus backwards. No Login is necessary. version number. Closing the application should result in an "Are you Sure" message box Attempt to start application twice. On each window. The following is a set of guidelines to ensure effective GUI Testing and can be used even as a checklist while testing a product / application.e. then use all ungrayed options. Section 1 . This icon should correspond to the Original Icon under Program Manager. especially on the top of the screen. Hence it becomes very essential to test the GUI components of any application.indicated by dotted box.Windows Compliance Testing Application Start Application by Double Clicking on its ICON. if the application is busy. If there is no hour glass. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . All controls should get focus . then the hour glass should be displayed. Double Click the Icon to return the Window to its original size.) F1 key should work the same. Window should return to an icon on the bottom of the screen. The window caption for every application should have the name of the application and the window name . It is absolutely essential that any application has to be user-friendly. The main window of the application should have the same caption as the caption of the icon in Program Manager. Try this for every grayed control. you will be able to Explain the methods of testing What is GUI Testing? GUI is the abbreviation for Graphic User Interface. This should not be allowed . If a field is disabled (grayed) then it should not get focus. clarity and non-updateable etc. The end user should be comfortable while using all the components on screen and the components should also perform their functionality with utmost clarity. then some enquiry in progress message should be displayed.Check for spelling. Tabbing to an entry field with text in it should highlight the entire text in the field. or it can refer to testing the functionality of each and every component involved. The Loading message should show the application name. Check if the title of the window make sense. Use TAB to move focus around the Window. Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Tab order should be left to right. and a bigger pictorial representation of the icon.especially the error messages. or cursor. If Window has a Minimize Button. Try to start the application twice as it is loading.

.g. in All fields. If there is a Cancel Button on the screen. Drop down with the item selected should be display the list with the selected item on the top. This is indicated by a letter underlined in the button text. followed by a colon tight to it. shouldn't have a blank line at the bottom. Cursor should change from arrow to Insert Bar. Selection should also be possible with mouse.Press SPACE This should activate Tab to each button . Cognizant Technology Solutions. double-clicking is not essential. or on the text should SET/UNSET the box. Text Boxes Move the Mouse Cursor over all Enterable Text Boxes. Make sure only one space appears. Spacing should be compatible with the existing windows spacing (word etc.Letters in amount fields. Refer to previous page. try strange characters like + . Pressing ‘Ctrl . If it doesn't then the text in the box should be gray or non-updateable. Double Click should select all text in box. Command Buttons If Command Button leads to another Screen. In a field that may or may not be updateable. Pressing Return in ANY no command button control should activate it. SPACE should do the same. there should be a message phrased positively with Yes/No answers where Yes results in the completion of the action.Press RETURN . So should Up and Down. then pressing <Esc> should activate it. Select with mouse by clicking.F4’ should open/drop down the list box.Handout – Software Testing Never updateable fields should be displayed with black text on a gray background with a black label.This should activate The above are VERY IMPORTANT. Enter text into Box Try to overflow the text by typing to many characters – should be stopped Check the field width with capitals W. This List may be scrollable. Check Boxes Clicking with the mouse on the box. List boxes are always white background with black text whether they are disabled or not. Enter invalid characters . and should be done for EVERY command Button. which is at the top or the bottom of the list box. All Buttons except for OK and Cancel should have a letter Access to them. In general. All tab buttons should have a distinct letter. Tab to another type of control (not a command button). All text should be left justified. Pressing a letter should bring you to the first item in the list with that start with that letter. the label text and contents changes from black to gray depending on the current status. Items should be in alphabetical order with the exception of blank/none.This should activate Tab to each button . Click each button once with the mouse . In general. Pressing ALT+Letter should activate the button. Make sure there is no duplication. Page 22 ©Copyright 2007. SHIFT and Arrow should Select Characters. One button on the screen should be default (indicated by a thick black border). If pressing the Command button results in uncorrectable data e. Option (Radio Buttons) Left and Right arrows should move 'ON' Selection.).* etc. Drop Down List Boxes Pressing the Arrow should give list of options. All others are gray. You should not be able to type text in the box. and if the user can enter or change details on the other screen then the Text on the button should be followed by three dots. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . closing an action step. everything can be done using both the mouse and the keyboard.

Clicking Arrow should allow user to choose from list List Boxes Should allow a single selection to be chosen.Screen Validation Checklist Aesthetic Conditions: Is the general screen background of the correct color? Are the field prompts of the correct color? Are the field backgrounds of the correct color? In read-only mode. Assure that all windows have a consistent look and feel. then clicking the command button. Assure that all dialog boxes have a consistent look and feel. Are all numeric fields right justified? This is the default unless otherwise specified. Validation Conditions: Does a failure of validation on every field cause a sensible user error message? Is the user required to fix entries.e. should act in the same way as selecting and item in the list box. by clicking with the mouse. does not TAB off the field) is the invalid entry identified and highlighted correctly with an error message? Page 23 ©Copyright 2007. or using the Up and Down Arrow keys. Section 2 . Is all the micro-help text spelt correctly on this screen? Is all the error message text spelt correctly on this screen? Is all user input captured in UPPER case or lowercase consistently? Where the database requires a value (other than null) then this should be defaulted into fields. are the field backgrounds of the correct color? Are all the screen prompts specified in the correct screen font? Is the text in all fields specified in the correct screen font? Are all the field prompts aligned perfectly on the screen? Are all the field edit boxes aligned perfectly on the screen? Are all group boxes aligned correctly on the screen? Should the screen be resizable? Should the screen be allowed to minimize? Are all the field prompts spelt correctly? Are all character or alphanumeric fields left justified? This is the default unless otherwise specified. The user must either enter an alternative valid value or leave the default value intact. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . are the field prompts of the correct color? In read-only mode. Force the scroll bar to appear. Pressing a letter should take you to the first item in the list starting with that letter. make sure all the data can be seen in the box. If there is a 'View' or 'Open' button besides the list box then double clicking on a line in the List Box. which have failed validation tests? Have any fields got multiple validation rules and if so are all rules being applied? If the user enters an invalid value and clicks on the OK button (i.Handout – Software Testing Combo Boxes Should allow text to be entered. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Handout – Software Testing
Is validation consistently applied at screen level unless specifically required at field level? For all numeric fields check whether negative numbers can and should be able to be entered. For all numeric fields check the minimum and maximum values and also some midrange values allowable? For all character/alphanumeric fields check the field to ensure that there is a character limit specified and that this limit is exactly correct for the specified database size? Do all mandatory fields require user input? If any of the database columns don't allow null values then the corresponding screen fields must be mandatory. (If any field, which initially was mandatory, has become optional then check whether null values are allowed in this field.) Navigation Conditions: Can the screen be accessed correctly from the menu? Can the screen be accessed correctly from the toolbar? Can the screen be accessed correctly by double clicking on a list control on the previous creen? Can all screens accessible via buttons on this screen be accessed correctly? Can all screens accessible by double clicking on a list control be accessed correctly? Is the screen modal? (i.e.) Is the user prevented from accessing other functions when this screen is active and is this correct? Can a number of instances of this screen be opened at the same time and is this correct? Usability Conditions: Are all the dropdowns on this screen sorted correctly? Alphabetic sorting is the default unless otherwise specified. Is all date entry required in the correct format? Have all pushbuttons on the screen been given appropriate Shortcut keys? Do the Shortcut keys work correctly? Have the menu options that apply to your screen got fast keys associated and should they have? Does the Tab Order specified on the screen go in sequence from Top Left to bottom right? This is the default unless otherwise specified. Are all read-only fields avoided in the TAB sequence? Are all disabled fields avoided in the TAB sequence? Can the cursor be placed in the microhelp text box by clicking on the text box with the mouse? Can the cursor be placed in read-only fields by clicking in the field with the mouse? Is the cursor positioned in the first input field or control when the screen is opened? Is there a default button specified on the screen? Does the default button work correctly? When an error message occurs does the focus return to the field in error when the user cancels it?
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Handout – Software Testing
When the user Alt+Tab's to another application does this have any impact on the screen upon return to the application? Do all the fields edit boxes indicate the number of characters they will hold by there length? e.g. a 30 character field should be a lot longer Data Integrity Conditions: Is the data saved when the window is closed by double clicking on the close box? Check the maximum field lengths to ensure that there are no truncated characters? Where the database requires a value (other than null) then this should be defaulted into fields. The user must either enter an alternative valid value or leave the default value intact. Check maximum and minimum field values for numeric fields? If numeric fields accept negative values can these be stored correctly on the database and does it make sense for the field to accept negative numbers? If a set of radio buttons represents a fixed set of values such as A, B and C then what happens if a blank value is retrieved from the database? (In some situations rows can be created on the database by other functions, which are not screen based, and thus the required initial values can be incorrect.) If a particular set of data is saved to the database check that each value gets saved fully to the database. (i.e.) Beware of truncation (of strings) and rounding of numeric values. Modes (Editable Read-only) Conditions: Are the screen and field colors adjusted correctly for read-only mode? Should a read-only mode be provided for this screen? Are all fields and controls disabled in read-only mode? Can the screen be accessed from the previous screen/menu/toolbar in read-only mode? Can all screens available from this screen be accessed in read-only mode? Check that no validation is performed in read-only mode. General Conditions: Assure the existence of the "Help" menu. Assure that the proper commands and options are in each menu. Assure that all buttons on all tool bars have a corresponding key commands. Assure that each menu command has an alternative (hot-key) key sequence, which will invoke it where appropriate. In drop down list boxes, ensure that the names are not abbreviations / cut short In drop down list boxes, assure that the list and each entry in the list can be accessed via appropriate key / hot key combinations. Ensure that duplicate hot keys do not exist on each screen Ensure the proper usage of the escape key (which is to undo any changes that have been made) and generates a caution message "Changes will be lost - Continue yes/no" Assure that the cancel button functions the same as the escape key.
Page 25 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Handout – Software Testing
Assure that the Cancel button operates, as a Close button when changes have been made that cannot be undone. Assure that only command buttons, which are used by a particular window, or in a particular dialog box, are present. – (i.e) make sure they don't work on the screen behind the current screen. When a command button is used sometimes and not at other times, assures that it is grayed out when it should not be used. Assure that OK and Cancel buttons are grouped separately from other command buttons. Assure that command button names are not abbreviations. Assure that all field labels/names are not technical labels, but rather are names meaningful to system users. Assure that command buttons are all of similar size and shape, and same font & font size. Assure that each command button can be accessed via a hot key combination. Assure that command buttons in the same window/dialog box do not have duplicate hot keys. Assure that each window/dialog box has a clearly marked default value (command button, or other object) which is invoked when the Enter key is pressed - and NOT the Cancel or Close button Assure that focus is set to an object/button, which makes sense according to the function of the window/dialog box. Assure that all option buttons (and radio buttons) names are not abbreviations. Assure that option button names are not technical labels, but rather are names meaningful to system users. If hot keys are used to access option buttons, assure that duplicate hot keys do not exist in the same window/dialog box. Assure that option box names are not abbreviations. Assure that option boxes, option buttons, and command buttons are logically grouped together in clearly demarcated areas "Group Box" Assure that the Tab key sequence, which traverses the screens, does so in a logical way. Assure consistency of mouse actions across windows. Assure that the color red is not used to highlight active objects (many individuals are redgreen color blind). Assure that the user will have control of the desktop with respect to general color and highlighting (the application should not dictate the desktop background characteristics). Assure that the screen/window does not have a cluttered appearance Ctrl + F6 opens next tab within tabbed window Shift + Ctrl + F6 opens previous tab within tabbed window Tabbing will open next tab within tabbed window if on last field of current tab Tabbing will go onto the 'Continue' button if on last field of last tab within tabbed window Tabbing will go onto the next editable field in the window Banner style & size & display exact same as existing windows
Page 26 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

display all options on open of list box . Assure that day values 00 and 32 are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. 30 is reported as an error. Assure that Feb.Handout – Software Testing If 8 or less options in a list box. generating "changes will be lost" message if necessary. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Assure that 00 and 13 are reported as errors. 28. Microhelp text for every enabled field & button Ensure all fields are disabled in read-only mode Progress messages on load of tabbed screens Return operates continue If retrieve on load of tabbed window fails window should not open Specific Field Tests Date Field Checks Assure that leap years are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. On open of tab focus will be on first editable field All fonts to be the same Alt+F4 will close the tabbed window and return you to main screen or previous screen (as appropriate). Assure that numeric fields with a blank in position 1 are processed or reported as an error. Assure that fields with a blank in the last position are processed or reported as an error an error. Assure that both + and . Assure that valid values are handles by the correct procedure. Assure that month code 00 and 13 are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. 30 are validated correctly & do not cause errors/ miscalculations. 29. Assure that century change is validated correctly & does not cause errors/miscalculations.should be no need to scroll Errors on continue will cause user to be returned to the tab and the focus should be on the field causing the error. Assure that Feb. Numeric Fields Assure that lowest and highest values are handled correctly.values are correctly processed.e the tab is opened. highlighting the field with the error on it) Pressing continue while on the first tab of a tabbed window (assuming all fields filled correctly) will not open all the tabs. Assure that out of cycle dates are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. Assure that division by zero does not occur. Assure that invalid values are logged and reported. (i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 27 ©Copyright 2007.

Include data items with first position blank.Handout – Software Testing Include value zero in all calculations. abandon changes or additions) Fill each field . Include lowest and highest values.e.e. Validation Testing .Substitute your specific commands Add View Change Delete Continue . Include maximum and minimum range values. Include data items with last position blank. Include valid characters. Alpha Field Checks Use blank and non-blank data. continue saving changes or additions) Add View Change Delete Cancel . Assure that upper and lower values in ranges are handled correctly.(i. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Valid data Fill each field . Include invalid characters & symbols.Standard Actions Examples of Standard Actions .(i. Include out of range values above the maximum and below the minimum.Invalid data Different Check Box / Radio Box combinations Scroll Lists / Drop Down List Boxes Help Fill Lists and Scroll Tab Tab Sequence Shift Tab Page 28 ©Copyright 2007. Include at least one in-range value. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. and are included as a guide. Page 29 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Shortcut keys / Hot Keys Note: The following keys are used in some windows applications.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing * These shortcuts are suggested for text formatting applications. Page 30 ©Copyright 2007. Applications may use other modifiers for these operations. Cognizant Technology Solutions. in the context for which they make sense.

Also consider issues such as the current state of the application and whether new functions have been added or modified. and can include both manual and automated tests Example: You can create a cycle containing basic tests that run on each build of the application throughout development. Page 31 ©Copyright 2007. Also referred to as verification testing Regression testing is initiated after a programmer has attempted to fix a recognized problem or has added source code to a program that may have inadvertently introduced errors. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The reason they might not work because changing or adding new code to a program can easily introduce errors into code that is not intended to be changed. Usually you do not run all the tests at once. To decide which test cycles to build. refer to the testing goals you defined at the beginning of the process. You can run the cycle each time a new build is ready. the old test cases are run against the new version to make sure that all the old capabilities still work. Test department coders develop code test scenarios and exercises that will test new units of code after they have been written. Before a new version of a software product is released. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is a quality control measure to ensure that the newly modified code still complies with its specified requirements and that unmodified code has not been affected by the maintenance activity. Regression testing is a normal part of the program development process. Create Test Cycles During this stage you decide the subset of tests from your test database you want to execute.Handout – Software Testing Regression Testing What is Regression Testing? Regression testing is the process of testing changes to computer programs to make sure that the older programming still works with the new changes. This test cycle includes tests that check that module in depth. At different stages of the quality assurance process. you will want to execute the relevant parts of your test plan in order to locate defects and assess quality. Test Execution Test Execution is the heart of the testing process. Each time your application changes. Example: You can create another set of tests for a particular module in your application. A related group of tests is called a test cycle. The selective retesting of a software system that has been modified to ensure that any bugs have been fixed and that no other previously working functions have failed as a result of the reparations and that newly added features have not created problems with previous versions of the software. to determine the application's stability before beginning more rigorous testing. you need to execute different tests in order to address specific goals.

Regression cycle tests maintenance builds. For each test step you assign either pass or fail status. Testing Tools executes automated tests for you. sorting the files alphabetically by the second field rather than numerically by the first field makes them easier to find) Enhancement Page 32 ©Copyright 2007. During Automated Test Execution you create a batch of tests and launch the entire batch at once. providing outcome summaries for each test. as well as in-depth tests for the specific area of the application that was modified. This cycle can group medium-level tests. notices a problem with an application. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A test cycle is complete only when all tests-automatic and manual-have been run.Handout – Software Testing Following are examples of some general categories of test cycles to consider: Sanity cycle checks the entire system at a basic level (breadth. You perform manual tests using the test steps. Change Request Initiating a Change Request A user or developer wants to suggest a modification that would improve an existing application. Type of Change Request Bug the application works incorrectly or provides incorrect information. Run Test Cycles (Automated & Manual Tests) Once you have created cycles that cover your testing objectives. A regression cycle includes sanity-level tests for testing the entire software. a letter is allowed to be entered in a number field) Change a modification of the existing application. rather than depth) to see that it is functional and stable. The tests in the cycle cover the entire application (breadth). (for example. Any major or minor request is considered a problem with an application and will be entered as a change request. The goal of this type of cycle is to verify that a change to one part of the software did not break the rest of the application. compare the application output with the expected output. You use the application. enter input. and log the results. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Normal cycle tests the system a little more in depth than the sanity cycle. And have to identify all the failed steps in the tests and to determine whether a bug has been detected. Advanced cycle tests both breadth and depth. Analyze Test Results After every test run one analyze and validate the test results. With Manual Test Execution you follow the instructions in the test steps of each test. This cycle can be run when more time is available for testing. Testing Tools runs the tests one at a time. containing both positive and negative checks. (for example. It then imports results. and also test advanced options in the application (depth). or if the expected result needs to be updated. you begin executing the tests in the cycle. or wants to recommend an enhancement. This cycle should include basic-level tests containing mostly positive checks.

You also make sure that the QA and development personnel involved in fixing the bug are notified. but this is necessary to perform a job. Below is a simple traceability matrix structure. verified.Handout – Software Testing new functionality or item added to the application. and follow up the bug. a new field. Report Bugs Once you execute the manual and automated tests in a cycle. fix. and closed. (for example. These bugs are given the status Open and are assigned to a member of the development team. This also applies to any Section 508 infraction. If a bug does not reoccur. you record all the information necessary to reproduce and fix it. The bugs are stored in a database so that you can manage them and analyze the status of your application. a new report. First you report New bugs to the database. Communication is an essential part of bug tracking. or a new button) Priority for the request Low the application works but this would make the function easier or more user friendly. High the application works. The number of open or fixed bugs is a good indicator of the quality status of your application. Bug Tracking Locating and repairing software bugs is an essential part of software development. it is Closed. all members of the development and quality assurance team must be well informed in order to insure that bugs information is up to date and that the most important problems are addressed. Information about bugs must be detailed and organized in order to schedule bug fixes and determine software release dates. You can use data analysis tools such as re-ports and graphs in interpret bug data. QA personnel test a new build of the application. job functions are impaired and there is no work around. Track and Analyze Bugs The lifecycle of a bug begins when it is reported and ends when it is fixed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The Quality Assurance manager or Project manager periodically reviews all New bugs and decides which should be fixed. When you report a bug. and provide all necessary information to reproduce. Critical the application does not work. Bug Tracking involves two main stages: reporting and tracking. and end-users in all phases of the testing process.Tests are associated with the requirements on which they are based and the product tested tomeet the requirement. testers. you report the bugs (or defects) that you detected. If a bug is detected again. Traceability Matrix A traceability matrix is created by associating requirements with the products that satisfy them. Bugs can be detected and reported by engineers. it is reopened. There can be more things Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Software developers fix the Open bugs and assign them the status Fixed.

rewritten. The examples below show traceability between user and system requirements. Page 34 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and that all higher level requirements are allocated to lower level requirements. Traceability ensures completeness.Handout – Software Testing included in a traceability matrix than shown below. Numbers for products are established in a configuration management (CM) plan. User requirement identifiers begin with "U" and system requirements with "S. that all lower level requirements derive from higher level requirements. or the traceability corrected. Traceability requires unique identifiers for each requirement and product." Tracing S12 to its source makes it clear this requirement is erroneous: it must be eliminated. SAMPLE TRACEABILITY MATRIX A traceability matrix is a report from the requirements database or repository. Traceability is also used in managing change and provides the basis for test planning. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Handout – Software Testing In addition to traceability matrices. other reports are necessary to manage requirements. Goal is to evaluate the system as a whole. not its parts Techniques can be structural or functional. Installation. Acceptance Testing. Unit testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. etc. Phases of Testing The primary objective of testing effort is to determine the conformance to requirements specified in the contracted documents. Determine their information needs and document the information that will be associated with the requirements when you set up your requirements database or repository.) Types and Phases of Testing Page 35 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The integration of this code with the internal code is the important objective. What goes into each report depends on the information needs of those receiving the report(s). Techniques can be used in any stage that tests the system as a whole (System testing.

Handout – Software Testing Page 36 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Handout – Software Testing Page 37 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

In fact. However. an integration testing technique should fit well with the overall integration strategy. most integration testing has been traditionally limited to ``black box'' techniques. First. To be most effective. testing at each phase helps detect errors early and keep the system under control. then assembling subsystems into larger subsystems. or by first integrating functional subsystems and then integrating the subsystems in separate phases using any of the basic strategies. Second. because of the vast amount of detail separating the input data from the individual code modules. top-down. the more important the integration strategy. and finally assembling the highest level subsystems into the complete system. The key is to Page 38 ©Copyright 2007. For most real systems. beginning with assembling modules into lowlevel subsystems. bottom-up. critical piece first.Handout – Software Testing Integration Testing One of the most significant aspects of a software development project is the integration strategy. Large systems may require many integration phases. performing rigorous testing of the entire software involved in each integration phase involves a lot of wasteful duplication of effort across phases. Very small systems are often assembled and tested in one phase. Integration may be performed all at once. In a multi-phase integration. Performing only cursory testing at early integration phases and then applying a more rigorous criterion for the final stage is really just a variant of the high-risk "big bang" approach. this is impractical for two major reasons. the larger the project. the system would fail in so many places at once that the debugging and retesting effort would be impractical. In general. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . satisfying any white box testing criterion would be very difficult. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

It is important to understand the relationship between module testing and integration testing. At the other extreme. and then performing pure integration testing at higher levels. assuming that the details within each module are accurate. Then. integration testing concentrates entirely on module interactions. verifying the details of each module's implementation in an integration context. Many projects compromise. Generalization of module testing criteria Module testing criteria can often be generalized in several possible ways to support integration testing. In one view. As discussed in the previous subsection. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . However. for example. module and integration testing can be combined.Handout – Software Testing leverage the overall integration structure to allow rigorous testing at each phase while minimizing duplication of effort. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Each of these views of integration testing may be appropriate for any given project. in effect using the entire program as a test driver environment for each module. Page 39 ©Copyright 2007. leads to an excessive amount of redundant testing. combining module testing with the lowest level of subsystem integration testing. the most obvious generalization is to satisfy the module testing criterion in an integration context. modules are rigorously tested in isolation using stubs and drivers before any integration is attempted. Applying it to each phase of a multiphase integration strategy. so an integration testing method should be flexible enough to accommodate them all. this trivial kind of generalization does not take advantage of the differences between module and integration testing.

the approach is the same. there must be a path from the module entry to the top of the loop and a path from the bottom of the loop to the module exit. However. The idea behind design reduction is to start with a module control flow graph. structured testing at the integration level focuses on the decision outcomes that are involved with module calls. The remaining rules work together to eliminate the parts of the flow graph that are not involved with module calls. The conditional rule eliminates conditional statements that do not contain calls in their bodies. in which each statement is required to be exercised during module testing. even very complex logic can be eliminated as long as it does not involve any module calls. so that it is possible to exercise them independently during integration testing. they each reduce cyclomatic complexity by one. It is important to preserve the module's connectivity when using the looping rule. the appropriate generalization to the integration level requires that just the decision logic involved with calls to other modules be tested independently. Cognizant Technology Solutions. remove all control structures that are not involved with module calls.'' For the rule to apply. Although not strictly a reduction rule. at which point the design reduction is complete. Figure below shows a systematic set of rules for performing design reduction. The repetitive rule eliminates top-test loops that are not involved with module calls.Handout – Software Testing More useful generalizations adapt the module testing criterion to focus on interactions between modules rather than attempting to test all of the details of each module's implementation in an integration context. Although the specifics of the generalization of structured testing are more detailed. it leaves the cyclomatic complexity unchanged. By this process. Since the repetitive. The design reduction technique helps identify those decision outcomes. Page 40 ©Copyright 2007. Rules 1 through 4 are intended to be applied iteratively until none of them can be applied. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the call rule states that function call ("black dot") nodes cannot be reduced. can be generalized to require each module call statement to be exercised during integration testing. Since application of this rule removes one node and one edge from the flow graph. and then use the resultant "reduced" flow graph to drive integration testing. Since structured testing at the module level requires that all the decision logic in a module's control flow graph be tested independently. it does simplify the graph so that the other rules can be applied. conditional. The sequential rule eliminates sequences of non-call ("white dot") nodes. Module design complexity Rather than testing all decision outcomes within a module independently. and looping rules each remove one edge from the flow graph. since for poorlystructured code it may be hard to distinguish the ``top'' of the loop from the ``bottom. The statement coverage module testing criterion. The looping rule eliminates bottom-test loops that are not involved with module calls.

it is required that all module call statements from one component into a different component be exercised at each integration stage. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . avoiding redundant testing of previously integrated sub-components.Handout – Software Testing Incremental integration Hierarchical system design limits each stage of development to a manageable effort. which simplifies the derivation of data sets that test interactions among components. Cognizant Technology Solutions. To form a completely flexible "statement testing" criterion. Hierarchical design is most effective when the coupling among sibling components decreases as the component size increases. and it is important to limit the corresponding stages of testing as well. To extend statement coverage to support incremental integration. it is required that each statement be executed during the first phase (which may be anything from single modules to the entire Page 41 ©Copyright 2007. including support for hierarchical design. The remainder of this section extends the integration testing techniques of structured testing to handle the general case of incremental integration. The key principle is to test just the interaction among components at each integration stage.

and that at each integration phase all call statements that cross the boundaries of previously integrated components are tested. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing program). Page 42 ©Copyright 2007. this limits the testing effort to a small fraction of the effort to cover each statement of the system at each integration phase. Given hierarchical integration stages with good cohesive partitioning properties. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

in general. Cognizant Technology Solutions. only two additional tests are required to complete the integration testing. As in any system though. The final part of the UAT can also include a parallel run to prove the system against the current system. To be of real use. the means by which 'Acceptance' will be achieved. The test procedures that lead to formal 'acceptance' of new or changed systems. since the design predicates decision to call module D from module B has been tested in a previous phase. as have modules B and D. Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. Acceptance Testing checks the system against the "Requirements". System. an Acceptance Test Plan should be developed in order to plan precisely. and the component module design complexity of module C is 2. and in detail. the component module design complexity of module A is 1. It would take three tests to integrate this system in a single phase. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the testing should be planned in order to provide a realistic and adequate exposure of the system to all reasonably expected events. User Acceptance Testing is a critical phase of any 'systems' project and requires significant participation by the 'End Users'. The customer knows what is required from the system to achieve value in the business and is the only person qualified to make that judgment. The forms of the tests may follow those in system testing. Modules A and C have been previously integrated. The main types of software testing are: Component. Acceptance.Handout – Software Testing Structured testing can be extended to cover the fully general case of incremental integration in a similar manner. yielding component-reduced graphs. Acceptance Testing checks that the system delivers what was requested. It is similar to systems testing in that the whole system is checked but the important difference is the change in focus: Systems Testing checks that the system that was specified has been delivered. The testing can be based upon the User Requirements Specification to which the system should conform. The customer. and exclude from consideration all modules that do not contain any cross-component calls. but at all times they are informed by the business needs. and not the developer should always do acceptance testing. Modules B and D are removed from consideration because they do not contain cross-component calls. including Users. problems will arise and it is important to have determined what will be the expected and required responses from the various parties concerned. The key is to perform design reduction at each integration phase using just the module call nodes that cross component boundaries. Factors influencing Acceptance Testing The User Acceptance Test Plan will vary from system to system but. Release. acceptance testing is formal testing conducted to determine whether a system satisfies its acceptance criteria and thus whether the customer should accept the system. Acceptance Testing In software engineering. Interface. Figure 7-7 illustrates the structured testing approach to incremental integration. However.

To avoid the risk of lengthy and protracted exchanges over the categorization of problems.e. pitch size However.g. N. Major Problem. testing can continue and the system is likely to go live with only minimal departure from agreed business processes. if such features are key to the business requirements they will warrant a higher severity level. in consultation with the executive sponsor of the project. Cognizant Technology Solutions. perhaps unintentionally. it is crucial to agree the Criteria for Acceptance. and '6' has the least impact: 'Show Stopper' i. but little or no changes to business processes are envisaged. Here is an example which has been used successfully. receive priority response and that all testing will cease until such level 1 problems are resolved. The users of the system. it is impossible to continue with the testing because of the severity of this error / bug. Even where the severity levels and the responses to each have been agreed by all parties. Page 44 ©Copyright 2007. These levels will range from (say) 1 to 6 and will represent the relative severity. In order to agree what such responses should be. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . users may agree to accept ('sign off') the system subject to a range of conditions. Medium Problem. Vendors and possibly Consultants / Contractors.B. Again. This problem should be corrected. fonts. Critical Problem. we strongly advised that a range of examples are agreed in advance to ensure that there are no fundamental areas of disagreement. 'Cosmetic' Problem e. These conditions need to be analyzed as they may. In some cases. Caution. the maximum number of acceptable 'outstanding' in any particular category. you may demand that any problems in severity level 1. colours. Because no system is entirely fault free. the End Users and the Project Team need to develop and agree a range of 'Severity Levels'. the allocation of a problem into its appropriate severity level can be subjective and open to question. found during testing. testing can continue but live this feature will cause severe disruption to business processes in live operation. '1' is the most severe. in terms of business / commercial impact. any and all fixes from the software developers. seek additional functionality which could be classified as scope creep. must be subjected to rigorous System Testing and. or if there are. Finally. these will be known in advance and your organization is forewarned. For example. it must be agreed between End User and vendor.Handout – Software Testing Project Team. Minor Problem . where appropriate Regression Testing. prior consideration of this is advisable. testing can continue but we cannot go into production (live) with this problem. In any event. of a problem with the system. or. must then agree upon the responsibilities and required actions for each category of problem. both testing and live operations may progress.

g. Determine the effect of adding or modifying hardware resources such as: o o o o Memory Disk and tape resources Processors Load balancers Determine an optimal system configuration. Objectives The typical objectives of configuration testing are to: Partially validate the application (i. analyzed. Personalization Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed.. The relevant software components have passed unit testing. Software integration testing has started. Multiple variants of the application exist. The test environment is ready.). Support personalization. Internationalization (e. Support internationalization. currencies. configuration testing can begin prior to the distribution of the software components onto the hardware components. However. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007. to determine if it fulfills its configurability requirements). and prevented in the future. The typical goals of configuration testing are to cause the application to fail to meet its configurability requirements so that the underlying defects can be identified. The independent test team is adequately staffed and trained in configuration testing. fixed. etc. multiple languages. taxes and tariffs.Handout – Software Testing Configuration Testing & Installation Testing Configuration testing: Testing to determine whether the program operates properly when the software or hardware is configured in a required manner. time zones. Examples Typical examples include configuration testing of an application that must: Have multiple functional variants. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The relevant system components have passed system integration testing. Cause failures concerning the configurability requirements that help identify defects that are not efficiently found during unit and integration testing: o o o Functional Variants. Cognizant Technology Solutions.e. Preconditions Configuration testing can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The configurability requirements to be tested have been specified..

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Tasks Configurability testing typically involves the independent test team performing the following testing tasks: Test Planning Test Reuse Test Design Test Implementation Test Execution Test Reporting Environments Configuration testing is performed on the following environments using the following techniques: Test Environment: Test Harness Work Products Configuration testing typically results in the production of all or part of the following work products from the test work product set: Documents: Project Test Plan Master Test List Test Procedures Test Report Test Summary Report Software and Data: Test Harness Test Scripts Test Suites Test Cases Test Data Phases Configuration testing typically consists of the following tasks being performed during the following phases: Page 46 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Completion Criteria Configuration testing is typically complete when the following postconditions hold: At least one configuration test suite exists for each configurability requirement. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The test suites for every scheduled configurability requirement execute successfully on the appropriate configuration.

site validation. Installation testing: Testing to identify the ways in which the installation procedures lead to incorrect results. Terms such as beta test. Guidance contained here is general in nature and is applicable to any installation testing. in some areas. there are specific site validation requirements that need to be considered in the planning of installation testing. Terminology in this testing area can be confusing. Page 47 ©Copyright 2007. Configuration testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur. However. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and installation verification have all been used to describe installation testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . To avoid confusion. reuse functional test cases as configuration test cases. manufacturing equipment must meet specified requirements. Likewise. installation testing is defined as any testing that takes place outside of the developer's controlled environment. The testing is accomplished through either actual or simulated use of the software being tested within the environment in which it is intended to function. and for the purposes of this document. Installation testing is any testing that takes place at a user's site with the actual hardware and software that will be part of the installed system configuration. user acceptance test. Quality System Regulations require installation and inspection procedures (including testing where appropriate) and documentation of inspection and testing to demonstrate proper installation. Test planners should check with Soft Solutions International to determine whether there are any additional regulatory requirements for installation testing.Handout – Software Testing Guidelines The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that configuration testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. To the extent practical. and automated systems be validated for their intended use.

fault testing (avoidance. Operators should be able to perform the intended operations and respond in an appropriate and timely manner to all alarms. There should be evidence that hardware and software are installed and configured as specified. There should be retention of documented evidence of all testing procedures. which are encountered. which are not apparent during more normal activities. tolerance. the definition of expected test results. warnings. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If the developers are involved. Some of the evaluations that have been performed earlier by the software developer at the developer's site should be repeated at the site of actual use. implementation of safety requirements. The developers of the software may or may not be involved in the installation testing. security. Measures should ensure that all system components are exercised during the testing and that the versions of these components are those specified. if any. The revision of the system to compensate for faults detected during this installation testing should follow the same procedures and controls as any other software change. In addition to an evaluation of the system's ability to properly perform its intended functions. test input data and test results. it is all the more important that the user have persons knowledgeable in software engineering who understand the importance of such matters as careful test planning. Page 48 ©Copyright 2007. they may seamlessly carry over to the user's site the last portions of design-level systems testing. Records should be maintained during installation testing of both the system's capability to properly perform and the system's failures. and recovery). Acceptance testing. detection. errors. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and the recording of all test outputs. If the developers are not involved. there should be an evaluation of the ability of the users of the system to understand and correctly interface with it. Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. Alpha testing and Beta testing Alpha testing is the launch testing consisting of the development organization’s initial internal dry runs of the application’s acceptance tests in the production environment. These may include tests for a high volume of data. Help determine the extent to which the application is ready for: o o o Beta testing. The testing instructions should encourage use through the full range of operating conditions and should continue for a sufficient time to allow the system to encounter a wide spectrum of conditions and events in an effort to detect any latent faults. heavy loads or stresses. Launch. error messages. etc. and serviceability. Objectives The typical objectives of alpha testing are to: Cause failures that only tend to occur in the production environment. The developer may be able to furnish the user with some of the test data sets to be used for this purpose.Handout – Software Testing Installation testing should follow a pre-defined plan with a formal summary of testing and a record of formal acceptance.

Test Reporting: Report failures that occurred during testing to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Update the alpha testing subsection of Project Test Plan (PTP) Test Design: Select an adequate subset of the system test suites of test cases (both functional and quality) to be repeated on the production environment during alpha testing. Severity two defects that do not have adequate work arounds. The independent test team is adequately staffed. Test Execution: Execute the alpha test suites on the production environment. The application has been ported to the production environment. Tasks Typically involves the following teams performing the following testing tasks: Independent Test Team: o Test Planning: Determine alpha testing completion criteria. The customer representative has approved these acceptance test suites. Completion Criteria Alpha testing is typically complete when the following post conditions hold: An initial version of the acceptance test suites exists. Test Implementation: Fix any defects in the test suites found during evaluation. The production environment is ready.Handout – Software Testing Provide input to the defect trend analysis effort. Environments Alpha testing is typically performed on the following environments with the following tools: o Production Environments None o o o o Page 49 ©Copyright 2007. The delivery phase has begun. The acceptance tests execute on the production environment. Acceptance testing does not discover any: o o Severity one defects. Preconditions Execution of alpha tests can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The application has passed all system tests.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Help determine the extent to which the system is ready for: o o Acceptance testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Launch. Preconditions Beta test execution can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The application has passed all system tests. The application has passed alpha testing. Obtain additional user community feedback beyond that received during usability testing.Handout – Software Testing Phases Alpha testing typically involves the following tasks being performed during the following phases: Guidelines To the extent practical. The production environment is ready. reuse the tests from system testing when performing alpha testing rather than producing new tests. Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. The delivery phase has begun. Provide input to the defect trend analysis effort. Definition Beta testing is the launch testing of the application in the production environment by a few select users prior to acceptance testing and the release of the application to its entire user community. Objectives The typical objectives of beta testing are to: Cause failures that only tend to occur during actual usage by the user community rather than during formal testing. Page 50 ©Copyright 2007.

The users have reported any failures observed to the development organization.Handout – Software Testing The application has been ported to the production environment. Tasks Beta testing typically involves the following producers performing the following testing tasks: Independent Test Team: o Test Planning . User Organizations: Page 51 ©Copyright 2007.Report failures to customer organization. These failures have been passed on to the development teams.Pass on reported failures to developer organization. Completion Criteria Beta testing is typically complete when: The time period scheduled for beta testing ends. Test Implementation .Update beta testing subsection of Project Test Plan (PTP). Cognizant Technology Solutions.Select beta test user group. Test Execution . Customer Organization: o o o o Environments Beta testing is typically performed on the following environments (limited to a select group of users) using the following tools: Production Environments: Client Environment Contact Center Environment Content Management Environment Data Center Environment Tools: Defect reporting tool. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Use application under normal conditions of operation. Test Reporting . Test Reporting . The selected group of users is ready.

The testing that ensures that no unwanted changes were introduced is a) Unit Testing b) System Testing c) Acceptance Testing d) Regression Testing Answers: 1) a 2) d Page 52 ©Copyright 2007. Test your Understanding 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Beta testing is critical if formal usability testing was not performed during system testing.Handout – Software Testing Phases Beta testing typically involves the following tasks being performed during the following phases: Guidelines Limit the user test group to users who are willing to use a lower quality version of the application in exchange for obtaining it early and having input into its iteration. Alpha testing is differentiated from beta testing by a) the location where the tests are conducted b) the types of tests conducted c) the people doing the testing d) the degree to which white-box techniques are used 2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Beta testing often uses actual live data rather than data created for testing purposes.

Unit tests that isolate clusters of objects for testing are doubly useful. any method that can break is a good candidate for having a unit test. If error handling is performed in a method. but there will be no design of their interactions. In a sense. because it may break at some time. then the tests will be trivial and the objects might pass the tests. If the scope is too narrow. and they also identify those segments of code that are related. because they test for failures. interactions of objects are the crux of any object oriented design. The danger of not implementing a unit test on every method is that the coverage may be incomplete.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 4: Levels of Testing Learning Objective After completing this chapter. Usually this is a vision of a grand table with every single method listed. then there is a high chance that not every component of the new code will get tested. you will be able to: List different levels of testing Unit Testing Unit testing: Isn't that some annoying requirement that we're going to ignore? Many developers get very nervous when you mention unit tests. Generally. Just because we don't test every method explicitly doesn't mean that methods can get away with not being tested. Certainly. Need for Unit Test How do you know that a method doesn't need a unit test? First. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. The programmer should know that their unit testing is complete when the unit tests cover at the very least the functional requirements of all the code. The unit test will motivate the code that you write. "What will this bit of code do?" Or. Usually this is the case when the method involves a cluster of objects. or which objects form a cluster. and then the unit test will be there to help you fix it. The programmer is then reduced to testing-by-poking-around. Another good litmus test is to look at the code and see if it throws an error or catches an error. "What will these clusters of objects do?" The crucial issue in constructing a unit test is scope. but not relevant in most programming projects. Unit tests will most likely be defined at the method level. Hence: Unit tests isolate clusters of objects for future developers. which is not an effective test strategy. it is a little design document that says. so the art is to define the unit test on the methods that cannot be checked by inspection. The careful programmer will know that their unit testing is complete when they have verified that their unit tests cover every cluster of objects that form their application. in the language of object oriented programming. along with the expected results and pass/fail date. Likewise. if the scope is too broad. Cognizant Technology Solutions. can it be tested by inspection? If the code is simple enough that the developer can just look at it and verify its correctness then it is simple enough to not require a unit test. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It's important. People who revisit the code will use the unit tests to discover which objects are related. The developer should know when this is the case. then that method can break.

Types of Errors detected The following are the Types of errors that may be caught Error in Data Structures Performance Errors Logic Errors Validity of alternate and exception flows Identified at analysis/design stages Page 54 ©Copyright 2007. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers... As it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. and Prepare a test case with a high probability of finding an as-yet undiscovered error. To uncover an as-yet undiscovered error . from Requirements till User Acceptance Testing.Handout – Software Testing Life Cycle Approach to Testing Testing will occur throughout the project lifecycle i. Levels of Unit Testing UNIT 100% code coverage INTEGRATION SYSTEM ACCEPTANCE MAINTENANCE AND REGRESSION Concepts in Unit Testing: The most 'micro' scale of testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. To test particular functions or code modules.e. The main Objective to Unit Testing are as follows : To execute a program with the intent of finding an error.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ..Functionality Checks Screen Functionalities Field Dependencies Auto Generation Algorithms and Computations Normal and Abnormal terminations Specific Business Rules if any. Page 55 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Unit Testing – Black Box Approach Field Level Check Field Level Validation User Interface Check Functional Level Check Unit Testing – White Box Approach STATEMENT COVERAGE DECISION COVERAGE CONDITION COVERAGE MULTIPLE CONDITION COVERAGE (nested conditions) CONDITION/DECISION COVERAGE PATH COVERAGE Unit Testing – Field Level Checks Null / Not Null Checks Uniqueness Checks Length Checks Date Field Checks Numeric Checks Negative Checks Unit Testing – Field Level Validations Test all Validations for an Input field Date Range Checks (From Date/To Date’s) Date Check Validation with System date Unit Testing – User Interface Checks Readability of the Controls Tool Tips Validation Ease of Use of Interface Across Tab related Checks User Interface Dialog GUI compliance checks Unit Testing .

Also known as: line coverage.Other Measures Function coverage Loop coverage Race coverage Execution of Unit Tests Design a test case for every statement to be executed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Unit Testing . Basic block coverage is the same as statement coverage except the unit of code measured is each sequence of non-branching statements. Select the unique set of test cases. This measure reports whether each executable statement is encountered. Page 56 ©Copyright 2007. segment coverage and basic block coverage. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Page 57 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Disadvantage of Unit Testing Insensitive to some control structures (number of iterations) Does not report whether loops reach their termination condition Statement coverage is completely insensitive to the logical operators (|| and &&). Performance profilers commonly implement this measure.Handout – Software Testing Unit Testing Flow : Advantage of Unit Testing Can be applied directly to object code and does not require processing source code. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Method for Statement Coverage Design a test-case for the pass/failure of every decision point Select unique set of test cases Page 58 ©Copyright 2007.

and interrupt handlers. Method for Condition Coverage: Test if every condition (sub-expression) in decision for true/false Select unique set of test cases. Predicate coverage views paths as possible combinations of logical conditions Path coverage has the advantage of requiring very thorough testing Page 59 ©Copyright 2007. when present. Condition coverage measures the sub-expressions independently of each other. Also known as: branch coverage. The test cases required for full multiple condition coverage of a condition are given by the logical operator truth table for the condition. Cognizant Technology Solutions. this measure includes coverage of switch-statement cases. especially for very complex Boolean expressions Number of test cases required could vary substantially among conditions that have similar complexity Condition/Decision Coverage is a hybrid measure composed by the union of condition coverage and decision coverage. all-edges coverage. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . basis path coverage. As with condition coverage. Disadvantage: Tedious to determine the minimum set of test cases required.Handout – Software Testing This measure reports whether Boolean expressions tested in control structures (such as the if-statement and while-statement) evaluated to both true and false. Reports the true or false outcome of each Boolean sub-expression. A path is a unique sequence of branches from the function entry to the exit. It has the advantage of simplicity but without the shortcomings of its component measures This measure reports whether each of the possible paths in each function have been followed. Also known as predicate coverage. exception handlers. Reports whether every possible combination of boolean sub-expressions occurs. Additionally. decisionpath testing. "Basis path" testing selects paths that achieve decision coverage. Advantage: Simplicity without the problems of statement coverage Disadvantage This measure ignores branches within boolean expressions which occur due to shortcircuit operators. separated by logical-and and logical-or if they occur. The entire Boolean expression is considered one true-or-false predicate regardless of whether it contains logical-and or logical-or operators. the sub-expressions are separated by logical-and and logical-or.

The valuable aspect of this measure is determining whether while-loops and for-loops execute more than once. Race Coverage This measure reports whether multiple threads execute the same code at the same time. and database Page 60 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . client.e. Identify defects that are not easily identified during unit testing. Integration Testing Integration testing is the testing of a partially integrated application to identify defects involving the interaction of collaborating components. system integration testing is the testing of software components that have been distributed across multiple platforms (e. Software Integration Software integration testing is the incremental integration testing of two or more integrated software components on a single platform to produce failures caused by interface defects.. application server. Broad. exactly once.g.. Useful for testing multi-threaded programs such as in an operating system. if they contain any interface defects). Specifically. web server.Handout – Software Testing Function Coverage: This measure reports whether you invoked each function or procedure. shallow testing finds gross deficiencies in a test suite quickly. information not reported by others measure. System Integration System integration testing is the integration testing of two or more system components. loop coverage reports whether you executed the body exactly once. Objectives The typical objectives of integration testing are to: Determine if components will work properly together. It is useful during preliminary testing to assure at least some coverage in all areas of the software.theshelf (COTS) software components to determine if they are not interoperable (i. For do-while loops. and more than once. Helps detect failure to synchronize access to resources. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Loop Coverage This measure reports whether you executed each loop body zero times. Kinds of Integration Testing Integration testing includes the following kinds of testing: Commercial Component Integration Commercial component integration testing is the integration testing of multiple commercialoff. twice and more than twice (consecutively).

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing server) to produce failures caused by system integration defects (i. the validation process is close to other activities such as conformance.e. Making this function more effective can deliver a range of benefits including reductions in risk. like a mulituser network or whetever. Even security guide lines have to be included. The main goal is rather to demonstrate the discrepancies of the product from its requirements and its documentation. Moreover. it is beyond doubt that this test cannot be done completely. because this would be too redundant. development costs and improved 'time to market' for new systems. railway. the validation process does not often receive the required attention. However. These techniques can be applied flexibly. We test for errors that users are likely to make as they interact with the application as well as your application’s ability to trap errors gracefully. whether testing a financial system. Systems with software components and software-intensive systems are more and more complex everyday. Industry sectors such as telecom. The difference between function testing and system testing is that now the focus is on the whole application and its environment . integrating with which-ever type of development methodology you are applying. In this paper we examine the results of applying several types of Poisson-process models to the development of a large system for which system test was performed in two parallel tracks. This means that those tests should be done in the environment for which the program was designed. and nevertheless. system testing does not only deal with this more economical problem. Integration testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur. This does not mean that now single functions of the whole program are tested. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . System Testing For most organizations. Guidelines The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that integration testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. defects involving distribution and back-office integration). acceptance and qualification testing. ecommerce. A number of time-domain software reliability models attempt to predict the growth of a system's reliability during the system test phase of the development life cycle. while this is one of the most incomplete test methods. Therefore the program has to be given completely. an online casino or games testing. ``Did we build the product right?'' However. It is often agreed that testing is essential to manufacture reliable products. and aeronautical and space. automotive. are good examples. Page 61 ©Copyright 2007. ``Did we build the right product?'' and not just.. it also contains some aspects that are orientated on the word ``system'' . it is one of the most important. Once again. software and system testing represents a significant element of a project's cost in terms of money and management time. this again includes the question. We will test that the functionality of your systems meets with your specifications. In other words. using different strategies for test data selection.

as a part of software engineering. users. also encompass many other types of testing. for example. etc. Execution testing. precision.test how the system recovers from a disaster. such as: Security Load/stress Performance Browser compatibility Localisation Need for System Testing Effective software testing. commercial and technical. increased independence naturally increases objectivity. etc. when appropriate. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .test larger-than-normal capacity in terms of transactions. You will have a personal interest in its success in which case it is only human for your objectivity to be compromised. has been proven over the last 3decades to deliver real business benefits including: These benefits are achieved as a result of some fundamental principles of testing.Handout – Software Testing System Testing is more than just functional testing. System Testing Techniques Goal is to evaluate the system as a whole. Recovery testing .test adherence to standards Page 62 ©Copyright 2007. installation. data. speed. etc.test how the system fits in with existing operations and procedures in the user organization Compliance testing . however.) Techniques not mutually exclusive Structural techniques Stress testing . and can. Your test strategy must take into consideration the risks to your organisation.test performance in terms of speed. how it handles corrupted data. etc. Operations testing . Cognizant Technology Solutions. not its parts Techniques can be structural or functional Techniques can be used in any stage that tests the system as a whole (acceptance.

ensure the set of test cases exercises every statement at least once Branch testing .partition the range of allowable input so that the program is expected to behave similarly for all inputs in a given partition.Handout – Software Testing Security testing .test required error-handling functions (usually user error) Manual-support testing .pick test cases that will produce output at the extremes of the output domain Structural techniques Statement testing .design test cases that use input values that represent special situations Output domain testing . low. Cognizant Technology Solutions. program.choose test cases with input values at the boundary (both inside and outside) of the allowable range Syntax checking .make sure unchanged functionality remains unchanged errorhandling testing . component. then pick a test case from each partition Boundary value . etc.choose test cases that violate the format rules for input Special values .includes user documentation Intersystem handling testing .fundamental form of testing .test that the system can be used properly .each truth statement is exercised both true and false Expression testing .feed same input into two versions of the system to make sure they Produce the same output Unit Testing Goal is to evaluate some piece (file.makes sure the system does what it’s required to do Regression testing .every part of every expression is exercised Path testing . including high.) in isolation Techniques can be structural or functional In practice. module.test security requirements Functional techniques Requirements testing .test that the system is compatible with other systems in the environment Control testing .each branch of an if/then statement is exercised Conditional testing .every path is exercised (impossible in practice) Error-based techniques Page 63 ©Copyright 2007. it’s usually ad-hoc and looks a lot like debugging More structured approaches exist Functional techniques Input domain testing . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .pick test cases representative of the range of allowable input. and average values Equivalence partitioning .test required control mechanisms Parallel testing .

both black-and-white-box oriented d. System testing can occur in parallel with integration test. Unit testing is predominantly a. an independent test group b.an organization keeps records of the average numbers of defects in the products it produces. you can estimate whether or not you’ve found all of them or not Fault seeding . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . then run test cases until all mutants have been killed Historical test data . Cognizant Technology Solutions. none of the above 2). then test until they are all found Mutation testing . In general. white-box oriented b. SQA d. The customer Answers: 1) a 2) b Page 64 ©Copyright 2007. unit testing is performed by: a. black-box oriented c.put a certain number of known faults into the code. especially with the top-down method.create mutants of the program by making single changes. Test your Understanding 1). then tests a new product until the number of defects found approaches the expected number SUMMARY Testing irrespective of the phases of testing should encompass the following: Cost of Failure associated with defective products getting shipped and used by customer is enormous To find out whether the integrated product work as per the customer requirements To evaluate the product with an independent perspective To identify as many defects as possible before the customer finds To reduce the risk of releasing the product Hence the system Test phase should begin once modules are integrated enough to perform tests in a whole system environment.Handout – Software Testing Basic idea is that if you know something about the nature of the defects in the code. the software engineer c.

JUnit tests do not require human judgment to interpret.you can only execute one debug expression at a time and a program with too many print statements causes the dreaded "Scroll Blindness". Both styles of tests are limited because they require human judgment to analyze their results. to test that the sum of two Moneys with the same currency contains a value which is the sum of the values of the two Moneys. call assertTrue() and pass a boolean that is true if the test succeeds For example.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 5: JUnit Testing Learning Objective After completing this chapter. Page 65 ©Copyright 2007. JUnit features include: Assertions for testing expected results Test fixtures for sharing common test data Test suites for easily organizing and running tests Graphical and textual test runners JUnit was originally written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck Simple Test Case How do you write testing code? The simplest way is as an expression in a debugger. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Override the method runTest() When you want to check a value. JUNIT Testing .Introduction JUnit is a simple framework to write repeatable tests. "CHF"). You can also write test expressions as statements which print to the standard output stream. "CHF"). you will be able to: Write a Junit Testing. write: public void testSimpleAdd() { Money m12CHF= new Money(12. It is an instance of the xUnit architecture for unit testing frameworks. they don't compose nicely. When you need to test something. and it is easy to run many of them at the same time. Also. and you can wait to decide what to write until you have seen the running objects. You can change debug expressions without recompiling. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Money m14CHF= new Money(14. here is what you do: Create an instance of Test Case: Create a constructor which accepts a String as a parameter and passes it to the superclass.

When you have a common fixture. Add an instance variable for each part of the fixture Override setUp() to initialize the variables Override tearDown() to release any permanent resources you allocated in setUp For example. } } Once you have the Fixture in place. here is what you do: Create a subclass of TestCase Create a constructor which accepts a String as a parameter and passes it to the superclass. However. to write several test cases that want to work with different combinations of 12 Swiss Francs. Often. "CHF"). Each case will send slightly different messages or parameters to the fixture and will check for different results. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . private Money f14CHF.add(m14CHF). "CHF"). Money result= m12CHF. first create a fixture: public class MoneyTest extends TestCase { private Money f12CHF. } If you want to write a test similar to one you have already written. When you are writing tests you will often find that you spend more time writing the code to set up the fixture than you do in actually testing values. protected void setUp() { f12CHF= new Money(12. you can make writing the fixture code easier by paying careful attention to the constructors you write. Page 66 ©Copyright 2007. write a Fixture instead. you can write as many Test Cases as you'd like. a much bigger savings comes from sharing fixture code. and 28 US Dollars. "CHF"). Fixture What if you have two or more tests that operate on the same or similar sets of objects? Tests need to run against the background of a known set of objects. f28USD= new Money(28. 14 Swiss Francs.equals(result)). When you want to run more than one test.Handout – Software Testing Money expected= new Money(26. Cognizant Technology Solutions. you will be able to use the same fixture for several different tests. This set of objects is called a test fixture. "USD"). assertTrue(expected. private Money f28USD. create a Suite. f14CHF= new Money(14. To some extent.

add(f14CHF))). you'll want to run them together. JUnit provides a more concise way to write a test against a Fixture.Create an instance of the TestCase class and pass the name of the test case method to the constructor. TestSuite which runs any number of test cases together. Be sure to make it public. assertEquals(expected. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the name of the test is used to look up the method to run. write: public void testMoneyMoneyBag() { // [12 CHF] + [14 CHF] + [28 USD] == {[26 CHF][28 USD]} Money bag[]= { f26CHF.override runTest in an anonymous subclass of TestCase. MoneyBag expected= new MoneyBag(bag). To create a suite of two test cases and run them together.run().addTest(new MoneyTest("testSimpleAdd")). suite. after a few such tests you would notice that a large percentage of your lines of code are sacrificed to syntax. suite. To do so you pass the class of your Test Case to the TestSuite constructor. Suite How do you run several tests at once? As soon as you have two tests. Here is what you do: Write the test case method in the fixture class. organize them into a Suite.addTest(new MoneyTest("testMoneyEquals")). You write test cases for a Fixture the same way. f28USD }.run(). Instead. execute: TestSuite suite= new TestSuite().Handout – Software Testing Test Case How do you write and invoke an individual test case when you have a Fixture? Writing a test case without a fixture is simple. For example. TestResult result= suite. } Create an instance of of MoneyTest that will run this test case like this: new MoneyTest("testMoneyMoneyBag") When the test is run. f12CHF. Once you have several tests.add(f28USD. by making a subclass of TestCase for your set up code and then making anonymous subclasses for the individual test cases. Page 67 ©Copyright 2007. or it can't be invoked through reflection. For example. Another way is to let JUnit extract a suite from a TestCase. However. but you would quickly grow tired of that. to run a single test case. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . you execute: TestResult result= (new MoneyTest("testMoneyMoneyBag")). JUnit provides an object. to test the addition of a Money and a MoneyBag. You could run the tests one at a time yourself.

class).suite()). For example. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .run().awtui. and we can run them together by creating a TestSuite that contains both: TestSuite suite= new TestSuite(). The graphical user interface presents a window with: A field to type in the name of a class with a suite method.addTest(new MoneyTest("testSimpleAdd")). In the case of an unsuccessful test JUnit reports the failed tests in a list at the bottom.TestRunner. Errors are unanticipated problems like an Page 68 ©Copyright 2007. They contain any object that implements the Test interface.TestRunner or junit. JUnit provides both a graphical and a textual version of a TestRunner tool. A run button to start the test.Start it by typing java junit. TestRunner How do you run your tests and collect their results? Once you have a test suite. JUnit provides tools to define the suite to be run and to display its results.addTest(Erich. A progress indicator that turns from red to green in the case of a failed test. suite. Otherwise the automatic suite extraction is the preferred way.suite()). to make a MoneyTest suite available to a TestRunner. suite. Cognizant Technology Solutions.run(). It avoids you having to update the suite creation code when you add a new test case. A failure is anticipated and checked for with assertions. A list of failed tests. suite. JUnit distinguishes between failures and errors. you can create a TestSuite in your code and I can create one in mine. TestSuites don't only have to contain TestCases. You make your suite accessible to a TestRunner tool with a static method suite that returns a test suite For example.addTest(new MoneyTest("testMoneyEquals")).Handout – Software Testing TestSuite suite= new TestSuite(MoneyTest.swingui. Use the manual way when you want a suite to only contain a subset of the test cases. suite. add the following code to MoneyTest: public static Test suite() { TestSuite suite= new TestSuite().addTest(Kent. you'll want to run it. TestResult result= suite. return suite. TestResult result= suite. } If a TestCase class doesn't define a suite method a TestRunner will extract a suite and fill it with all the methods starting with "test".

run(suite()). In other environments you have to restart the graphical version for each run. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . There is a batch interface to JUnit.TestRunner followed by the name of the class with a suite method at an operating system prompt. also.textui. For using either the graphical or the textual version make sure that the junit.This feature can be disabled by unchecking the 'Reload classes every run' checkbox.jar file is on your CLASSPATH. In a dynamic programming environment like VisualAge for Java which supports hot code update you can leave the JUnit window up all the time. Page 69 ©Copyright 2007. } With this definition of main you can run your tests by simply typing java MoneyTest at an operating system prompt. This is tedious and time consuming.textui. to start the batch TestRunner for MoneyTest.LoadingTestCollector . Cognizant Technology Solutions. write: public static void main(String args[]) { junit. The batch interface shows the result as text output. To use it typejava junit.TestRunner. An alternative way to invoke the batch interface is to define a main method in your TestCase class. For example. The following figure shows an example of a failed test. As an alternative JUnit's AWT and Swing UIs use junit.runner. This LoadingTestCollector reloads all your classes for each test run.Handout – Software Testing ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException.

and facilitates communication of the test process and its implications outside of the test discipline. integration and system testing – configuration items are verified against the appropriate specifications and in accordance with the test plan. Key elements of Test Management: Test organization –the set-up and management of a suitable test organizational structure and explicit role definition. The Testing strategy should define the objectives of all test stages and the techniques that apply. The project framework under which the testing activities will be carried out is reviewed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The status of the configuration items should be reviewed against the phase plans and test progress reports prepared providing some assurance of the verification and validation activities. The testing strategy also forms the basis for the creation of a standardized documentation set. Page 70 ©Copyright 2007. Any test support tools introduced should be aligned with.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 6: Testing Artifacts Learning Objective After completing this chapter. the test strategy. high level test phase plans prepared and resource schedules considered. It is the role of test management to ensure that new or modified service products meet the business requirements for which they have been developed or enhanced. A detailed test plan and schedule is prepared with key test responsibilities being indicated. Test Approach/Test Architecture are the acronyms for Test Strategy. and in support of. Test planning – the requirements definition and design specifications facilitate in the identification of major test items and these may necessitate the test strategy to be updated. The test environment should also be under configuration control and test data and results stored for future evaluation. Test management is also concerned with both test resource and test environment management. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Test organization also involves the determination of configuration standards and the definition of the test environment. The required outcome of each test must be known before the test is attempted. Test specifications – required for all levels of testing and covering all categories of test. Test monitoring and assessment – ongoing monitoring and assessment of the integrity of the development and construction. you will be able to: Create a test plans and test cases Test Strategy and Test Plan Introduction This Document entails you towards the better insight of the Test Strategy and its methodology. Unit.

e. Sufficient time must be dedicated to testing and commissioning as ensuring the systems function correctly is fairly fundamental to the project’s success or failure. The testing to be performed. e-commerce testing may involve new user interfaces and a business focus on usability may mean that the organization must review its testing strategies. A common criticism of construction programmers is that insufficient time is frequently allocated to the testing and commissioning of the building systems together with the involvement and subsequent training of the Facilities Management team. The time necessary for testing and commissioning will vary from project to project depending upon the complexity of the systems and services that have been installed. stress and security etc? Does the test plan prescribe the approach to be taken for intended test activities. non-functional testing and the associated techniques such as performance.Handout – Software Testing Product assurance – the decision to negotiate the acceptance testing program and the release and commissioning of the service product is subject to the ‘product assurance’ role being satisfied with the outcome of the verification activities.g. Fitness for purpose checklist: Is there a documented testing strategy that defines the objectives of all test stages and the techniques that may apply. Product assurance may oversee some of the test activity and may participate in process reviews. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. identifying: The items to be tested. It is possible to gain greater control of this process and the associated risk through the use of specialists such as Systems Integration who can be appointed as part of the professional team. Reporting requirements. Page 71 ©Copyright 2007. Resource and facility requirements. Evaluation criteria. Risks requiring contingency measures? Are test processes and practices reviewed regularly to assure that the testing processes continue to meet specific business needs? For example. The Project Sponsor should ensure that the professional team and the contractor consider realistically how much time is needed. Test schedules. Traditionally the responsibility for testing and commissioning is buried deep within the supply chain as a sub-contract of a subcontract. Testing and commissioning is often considered by teams as a secondary activity and given a lower priority particularly as pressure builds on the program towards completion.

Create complex scenarios and compare them. Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. Simulate the Algorithm in parallel. Capability test each major function. Generate large number of decision scenarios. Test Strategy – Selection Selection of the Test Strategy is based on the following factors Product o Test Strategy based on the Application to help people and teams of people in making decisions. Unable to handle Complex Decisions. Scenarios may be corrupted.Handout – Software Testing Test Strategy Flow: Test Cases and Test Procedures should manifest Test Strategy. Suggestion of Wrong Ideas. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected Based on the Key Potential Risks o o o o o o o o o o o o Determination of Actual Risk. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Test for sensitivity to user Error. Review Documentation and Help. Understand the underlying Algorithm. . People will use the Product Incorrectly Incorrect comparison of scenarios.

Review the Documentation. The two components of the testing strategy are the Test Factors and the Test Phase. and the design of the user interface and functionality for its sensitivity to user error. Test with decision scenarios that are near the limit of complexity allowed by the product Compare complex scenarios. The strategy must address the risks and present a process that can reduce those risks. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Create a means to generate and apply large numbers of decision scenarios to the product. The difficulty of automating decision tests. Issues in Execution of the Test Strategy The difficulty of understanding and simulating the decision algorithm The risk of coincidal failure of both the simulation and the product. General Testing Strategies Top-down Bottom-up Thread testing Stress testing Back-to-back testing Need for Test Strategy The objective of testing is to reduce the risks inherent in computer systems. This will be done using the GUI test Automation system or through the direct generation of Decide Right scenario files that would be loaded into the product during test. The system concerns on risks then establish the objectives for the test process. Page 73 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Test Strategy Execution: Understand the decision Algorithm and generate the parallel decision analyzer using the Perl or Excel that will function as a reference for high volume testing of the app. Test the product for the risk of silent failures or corruptions in decision analysis. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Four test steps must be followed to develop a customized test strategy. The test phase will vary based on the testing methodology used. The development team will need to select and rank the test factors for the specific software systems being developed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The strategy will select those factors that need to be addressed in the testing of a specific application system.Handout – Software Testing Test Factor – The risk or issue that needs to be addressed as part of the test strategy. Developing a Test Strategy The test Strategy will need to be customized for any specific software system. Place risks in the Matrix Page 74 ©Copyright 2007. Not all the test factors will be applicable to all software systems. Select and rank Test Factors Identify the System Developmental Phases Identify the Business risks associated with the System under Development. Test Phase – The Phase of the systems development life cycle in which testing will occur. The applicable test factors would be listed as the phases in which the testing must occur. For example the test phases in as traditional waterfall life cycle methodology will be much different from the phases in a Rapid Application Development methodology. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

the testing tasks. It is in this respect that reviews and a sign-off are very important since it means that everyone is in agreement of the contents of the test plan and this also helps in case of any dispute during the course of the project (especially between the developers and the testers). the features to be tested. Purpose of preparing a Test Plan A Test Plan is a useful way to think through the efforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software product. It should be thorough enough to be useful but not so thorough that no one outside the test group will read it. Test Plan A Test Plan can be defined as a document that describes the scope. It identifies test items. resources and schedule of intended test activities. The system accordingly focuses on risks thereby establishes the objectives for the test process. The main purpose of preparing a Test Plan is that everyone concerned with the project are in sync with regards to the scope. deadlines and deliverables for the project. The completed document will help people outside the test group understand the 'why' and 'how' of product validation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Conclusion: Test Strategy should be developed in accordance with the business risks associated with the software when the test team develop the test tactics. Thus the Test team needs to acquire and study the test strategy that should question the following: What is the relationship of importance among the test factors? Which of the high level risks are the most significant? What damage can be done to the business if the software fails to perform correctly? What damage can be done to the business if the business if the software is not completed on time? Who are the individuals most knowledgeable in understanding the impact of the identified business risks? Hence the Test Strategy must address the risks and present a process that can reduce those risks. responsibilities. approach. Cognizant Technology Solutions. who will do each task. and any risks requiring contingency planning. Contents of a Test Plan Purpose Scope Test Approach Entry Criteria Resources Tasks / Responsibilities Exit Criteria Schedules / Milestones Page 75 ©Copyright 2007.

Schedules / Milestones This sections deals with the final delivery date and the various milestone dates to be met in the course of the project. successful implementation of the latest build etc. For example: Timely environment set up. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Exit criteria Contains tasks like bringing down the system / server. database refresh etc. starting the web server / app server. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Entry Criteria This section explains the various steps to be performed before the start of a test (i. database.) prerequisites. restoring system to pre-test environment.e. Test Approach This would contain details on how the testing is to be performed and whether any specific strategy is to be followed (including configuration management).Handout – Software Testing Hardware / Software Requirements Risks & Mitigation Plans Tools to be used Deliverables References Procedures Templates Standards/Guidelines Annexure Sign-Off Contents (in detail) Purpose This section should contain the purpose of preparing the test plan Scope This section should talk about the areas of the application which are to be tested by the QA team and specify those areas which are definitely out of scope (screens. Tasks / Responsibilities This section talks about the tasks to be performed and the responsibilities assigned to the various members in the project. Resources This section should list out the people who would be involved in the project and their designation etc. mainframe processes etc). Page 76 ©Copyright 2007.

References Procedures Templates (Client Specific or otherwise) Standards / Guidelines (e. Status Reports. be prepared which is representative of normal business transactions. Actual customer names or contact details should also not be used for such tests. Test Procedure. It is recommended that a full test environment be set up for use in the applicable circumstances. and good data can help improve functional testing.g. Risks & Mitigation Plans This section should list out all the possible risks that can arise during the testing and the mitigation plans that the QA team plans to implement incase the risk actually turns into a reality.Introduction A System is programmed by its data. Test Matrices. start of the project. Cognizant Technology Solutions.g. Test Data Preparation . weekly. PCOM.g. Test Director.) daily. Each separate test should be given a unique reference number which will identify the Business Process being recorded.) templates used for reports.Handout – Software Testing Hardware / Software Requirements This section would contain the details of PC’s / servers required (with the configuration) to install the application or perform the testing. Functional testing can suffer if data is poor. connectivity related issues etc. correctly chosen. the persons involved in the testing Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. WinSQL. Tools to be used This would list out the testing tools or utilities (if any) that are to be used in the project (e.e.) QView Project related documents (RSD. Good test data can be structured to improve understanding and testability. Sign-Off This should contain the mutual agreement between the client and the QA team with both leads / managers signing off their agreement on the Test Plan. Templates for all these could also be attached. Referenced documents can also be attached here. Test data should however. The first stage of any recogniser development project is data preparation. Preparation of the data can help to focus the business where requirements are vague. Test Scripts etc. end of the project etc.) WinRunner. specific software that needs to be installed on the systems to get the application running or to connect to the database. ADD. These could include Test Plans. Its contents. the simulated conditions used. FSD etc) Annexure This could contain embedded documents or links to documents which have been / will be used in the course of testing (e. can reduce maintenance effort and allow flexibility. test cases etc. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Deliverables This section contains the various deliverables that are due to the client at various points of time (i.

an individual may look for a personalized experience from commonly-available software. In doing this. This will enable the monitoring and testing reports to be co-coordinated with any feedback received. A system can be configured to fit several business models. massive datasets and environmental tuning. The paper will not consider areas where data is important to non-functional testing. etc. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . You must understand the limits inherent in the tests themselves. Cognizant Technology Solutions. you should design test cases. is close enough good enough? You should have a good idea of a methodology for the test. the paper will concentrate most on data-heavy applications. presentation and user interface. You should have a definition of what success and failure are. summarized and referenced by the functionality under test. work (almost) seamlessly with a variety of cooperative systems and provide tailored experiences to a host of different users. performing a specific set of tests at appropriate points in the process is more important than running the tests at a specific time. forms the input. the more formal a plan the better. Configuration data can dictate control flow. This paper sets out to illustrate some of the ways that data can influence the test process. what steps are required. data manipulation. You must have a consistent schedule for testing. and will show that testing can be improved by a careful choice of input data. Data is a crucial part of most functional testing. etc.Handout – Software Testing process and the date the test was carried out. which finally spews forth yet more data to be checked against expectations. if you're testing a specific functionality. how the protocols behave. Effective quality control testing requires some basic goals and understanding: You must understand what you are testing. those which use databases or are heavily influenced by the data they hold. A business may look to an application's configurability to allow them to keep up with the market without being slowed by the development process. Data is manipulated. rather than output data or the transitional states the data passes through during processing. Tests must be planned and thought out a head of time. Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. as input data has the greatest influence on functional testing and is the simplest to manipulate. the way the test is going to be run and applied. In other words. Roles of Data in Functional Testing Testing consumes and produces large amounts of data. you must know how it's supposed to work. extrapolated. A System Is Programmed By Its Data Many modern systems allow tremendous flexibility in the way their basic functionality can be used. is the medium through which the tester influences the software. The paper will focus on input data. implementing and evaluating tests. you have to decide such things as what exactly you are testing and testing for. such as operational profiles. Testing is the process of creating. Data describes the initial conditions for a test.

they may be hard to maintain. This task would normally be carried out by a nominated member of the Business Recovery Team or a member of the Business Continuity Planning Team. This section of the BCP should contain the names of the BCP Team members nominated to coordinate the testing process. They may obscure problems or avoid them altogether. Poor data tends to result in poor tests. and it can become difficult to have confidence in the QA team's results. It should also list the duties of the appointed co-ordinators. Identify Who is to Control and Monitor the Tests In order to ensure consistency when measuring the results. and varied to allow diagnosis. for example: Project and quality assumptions Project background information Resources Schedule & timeline Entry and exit criteria Test milestones Tests to be performed Use cases and/or test cases Criteria for Test Data Collection This section of the Document specifies the description of the test data needed to test recovery of each business process. Good Data Is Vital To Reliable Test Results An important goal of functional testing is to allow the test to be repeated with the same result. it is hard to communicate problems to coders. Good data can greatly assist in speedy diagnosis and rapid re-testing. Good Data Can Help Testing Stay On Schedule An easily comprehensible and well-understood dataset is a tool to help communication. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . effective reporting. while an elegantly-chosen dataset can often allow new tests without the overhead of new data. and allows tests to be repeated with confidence. the tests should be independently monitored. or require lengthy and difficult setup. whether they are good or bad. Page 79 ©Copyright 2007. A formal test plan is a document that provides and records important information about a test project. Good data allows diagnosis. Each business process should be thoroughly tested and the coordinator should ensure that each business unit observes the necessary rules associated with ensuring that the testing process is carried out within a realistic environment. Cognizant Technology Solutions. one or more members of the Business Continuity Planning (BCP) Team should be nominated to co-ordinate the testing process within each business unit. a nominated testing and across the organization. Regression testing and automated test maintenance can be made speedier and easier by using good data.Handout – Software Testing Functional Testing Suffers If Data Is Poor Tests with poor data may not describe the business model effectively. Without this. Identify Who is to Conduct the Tests In order to ensure consistency of the testing process throughout the organization. that take longer to execute.

It is important that all persons who are likely to be involved with recovering a particular business process in the event of an emergency should participate in the testing process. it is necessary for the core testing team to be trained in the emergency procedures. The forms should be completed either during the tests (to record a specific issue) or as soon after finishing as practical. This section of the BCP will contain a list of the testing phase activities and a cost for each. This section of the BCP should contain a template for a Feedback Questionnaire. Where the costs are significant they should be approved separately with a specific detailed budget for the establishment costs and the ongoing maintenance costs. It is inevitable that these back up and recovery processes will involve additional costs. Training Core Testing Team for each Business Unit In order for the testing process to proceed smoothly. Prepare Budget for Testing Phase Each phase of the BCP process which incurs a cost requires that a budget be prepared and approved. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It should be mandatory for the management of a business unit to be present when that unit is involved with conducting the tests. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . may require particularly expensive back up strategies to be implemented. The 'Preparing for a Possible Emergency' Phase of the BCP process will involve the identification and implementation of strategies for back up and recovery of data files or a part of a business process. This section of the BCP should contain a list of the core testing team for each of the business units who will be responsible for coordinating and undertaking the Business Recovery Testing process. Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. This feedback will hopefully enable weaknesses within the Business Recovery Process to be identified and eliminated. Completion of feedback forms should be mandatory for all persons participating in the testing process.Handout – Software Testing This section of the BCP will contain the names of the persons nominated to monitor the testing process throughout the organization. It is important that clear instructions are given to the Core Testing Team regarding the simulated conditions which have to be observed. It should be noted whenever part of the costs is already incorporated with the organization’s overall budgeting process. Conducting the Tests The tests must be carried out under authentic conditions and all participants must take the process seriously. This will enable observations and comments to be recorded whilst the event is still fresh in the persons mind. Critical parts of the business process such as the IT systems. It will also contain a list of the duties to be undertaken by the monitoring staff. Prepare Feedback Questionnaires It is vital to receive feedback from the persons managing and participating in each of the tests. This is probably best handled in a workshop environment and should be presented by the persons responsible for developing the emergency procedures.

in a realistic manner. Every part of the procedures included as part of the recovery process is to be tested to ensure validity and relevance. Test Accuracy of Employee and Vendor Emergency Contact Numbers During the testing process the accuracy of employee and vendor emergency contact information is to be re-confirmed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . in the event of an emergency occurring outside of normal business hours. All contact numbers are to be validated for all involved employees. Where. a hierarchical process could be used whereby one person contacts five others. This will enable alternative contact routes to be used. provide further comment Was test data representative . This is particularly important for management and key employees who are critical to the success of the recovery process. The training should be carefully planned and delivered on a structured basis. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This activity will usually be handled by the HRM Department or Division. provide further comment What were the main comments received in the feedback questionnaires Each test should be assessed as fully satisfactory. provides further comment Were simulated conditions reasonably "authentic" .if not.if not. Assess Test Results Prepare a full assessment of the test results for each business process. This process must have safety features incorporated to ensure that if one person is not contactable for any reason then this is notified to a nominated controller. provide further comment Did the tests proceed without any problems . The testing co-ordination and monitoring will endeavor to ensure that the simulated environments are maintained throughout the testing process.Handout – Software Testing Test each part of the Business Recovery Process In so far as it is practical. each critical part of the business recovery process should be fully tested. This training may be integrated with the training phase or handled separately. The training should be assessed to verify that it has achieved its objectives and is relevant for the procedures involved. This is particularly important when the procedures are significantly different from those pertaining to normal operations. adequate or requiring further testing. Page 81 ©Copyright 2007.if not.if not. Training may be delivered either using in-house resources or external resources depending upon available skills and related costs. The following questions may be appropriate: Were objectives of the Business Recovery Process and the testing process met . This section of the BCP is to contain a list of each business process with a test schedule and information on the simulated conditions being used. a large numberof persons are to be contacted. Training Staff in the Business Recovery Process All staff should be trained in the business recovery process.

Page 82 ©Copyright 2007. Prepare Training Schedule Once it has been agreed who requires training and the training materials have been prepared a detailed training schedule should be drawn up. For larger organizations it may be practical to carry out the training in a classroom environment. however. The objectives for the training could be as follows : "To train all staff in the particular procedures to be followed during the business recovery process".Handout – Software Testing Managing the Training Process For the BCP training phase to be successful it has to be both well managed and structured. These manual procedures must be fully understood by the persons who are required to carry them out. This will enable the training to be consistent and organized in a manner where the results can be measured. The training will cover all aspects of the Business Recovery activities section of the BCP including IT systems recovery". for smaller organizations the training may be better handled in a workshop style. This section of the BCP contains information on each of the training programmes with details of the training materials to be developed. an estimate of resources and an estimate of the completion date. who needs it and a budget prepared for the additional costs associated with this phase. Cognizant Technology Solutions. For example it may be necessary to carry out some process manually if the IT system is down for any length of time. The scope of the training could be along the following lines: o "The training is to be carried out in a comprehensive and exhaustive manner so that staff become familiar with all aspects of the recovery process. Training Materials Development Schedule Once the training needs have been identified it is necessary to specify and develop suitable training materials. It will be necessary to identify the objective and scope for the training. Consideration should also be given to the development of a comprehensive corporate awareness program for communicating the procedures for the business recovery process. Develop Objectives and Scope of Training The objectives and scope of the BCP training activities are to be clearly stated within the plan. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The BCP should contain a description of the objectives and scope of the training phase. This section of the BCP will identify for each business process what type of training is required and which persons or group of persons need to be trained. as appropriate. Training Needs Assessment The plan must specify which person or group of persons requires which type of training. and the training fine tuned. This can be a time consuming task and unless priorities are given to critical training programmes. It is necessary for all new or revised processes to be explained carefully to the staff. it could delay the organization in reaching an adequate level of preparedness. what specific training is required.

This feedback will enable weaknesses within the Business Recovery Process. it has to be recognized that. Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. it is necessary to advise them about the training programmes they are scheduled to attend. A separate communication should be sent to the managers of the business units advising them of the proposed training schedule to be attended by their staff. to be identified and eliminated. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This section of the BCP will contain a format for assessing the training feedback. This section of the BCP contains a draft communication to be sent to each member of staff to advise them about their training schedule. have been improved. Communication to Staff Once the training is arranged to be delivered to the employees. Prepare Budget for Training Phase Each phase of the BCP process which incurs a cost requires that a budget be prepared and approved. Each member of staff will be given information on their role and responsibilities applicable in the event of an emergency. This section of the BCP should contain a template for a Feedback Questionnaire for the training phase. the training costs will vary greatly. The communication should provide for feedback from the staff member where the training dates given are inconvenient. Assess Feedback The completed questionnaires from the trainees plus the feedback from the trainers should be assessed. or the training. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This section of the BCP will contain a list of the training phase activities and a cost for each. training incurs additional costs and these should be approved by the appropriate authority within the organization. Identified weaknesses should be notified to the BCP Team Leader and the process strengthened accordingly. Completion of feedback forms should be mandatory for all persons participating in the training process.Handout – Software Testing This section of the BCP contains the overview of the training schedule and the groups of persons receiving the training. or the process. It should be noted whenever part of the costs is already incorporated with the organization’s overall budgeting process. however well justified. If there are a significant number of negative issues raised then consideration should be given to possible retraining once the training materials. This information will be gathered from the trainers and also the trainees through the completion of feedback questionnaires. Feedback Questionnaires Assess Feedback Feedback Questionnaires It is vital to receive feedback from the persons managing and participating in each of the training programmes. This will enable observations and comments to be recorded whilst the event is still fresh in the persons mind. Assessing the Training The individual BCP training programmes and the overall BCP training process should be assessed to ensure its effectiveness and applicability. The forms should be completed either during the training (to record a specific issue) or as soon after finishing as practical. However. The key issues raised by the trainees should be noted and consideration given to whether the findings are critical to the process or not. Depending upon the cross charging system employed by the organization.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Similarly. Products and services change and also their method of delivery. These changes are likely to continue and probably the only certainty is that the pace of change will continue to increase. This section of the BCP contains a draft communication from the BCP Co-ordinator to affected business units and contains information about the changes which require testing or re-testing. This is necessary due to the level of complexity contained within the BCP. Change Controls for Updating the Plan It is recommended that formal change controls are implemented to cover any changes required to the BCP. Responsibilities for Maintenance of Each Part of the Plan Each part of the plan will be allocated to a member of the BCP Team or a Senior Manager with the organization who will be charged with responsibility for updating and maintaining the plan. A Change request Form / Change Order form is to be prepared and approved in respect of each proposed change to the BCP. This section of the BCP will contain a Change Request Form / Change Order to be used for all such changes to the BCP. It is important that the relevant BCP coordinator and the Business Recovery Team are kept fully informed regarding any approved changes to the plan.Handout – Software Testing Keeping the Plan Up-to-date Changes to most organizations occur all the time. the BCP Testing Co-ordinator will be notified. The increase in technological based processes over the past ten years. Whenever changes are made to the BCP they are to be fully tested and appropriate amendments should be made to the training materials. The BCP Team Leader will remain in overall control of the BCP but business unit heads will need to keep their own sections of the BCP up to date at all times. Maintaining the BCP It is necessary for the BCP updating process to be properly structured and controlled. This chapter deals with updating the plan and the managed process which should be applied to this updating activity. Advise Person Responsible for BCP Training A member of the BCP Team will be given responsibility for co-ordinating all training activities (BCP Training Co-ordinator). have significantly increased the level of dependency upon the availability of systems and information for the business to function effectively. The BCP Testing Co-ordinator will then be responsible for notifying all affected units and for arranging for any further testing activities. The BCP Team Leader will notify the BCP Training Co-ordinator of all approved changes to the BCP in order that the training materials can be updated. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This will involve the use of formalized change control procedures under the control of the BCP Team Leader. An assessment should be made on whether the change necessitates any re-training activities. Page 84 ©Copyright 2007. and particularly within the last five. It is necessary for the BCP to keep pace with these changes in order for it to be of use in the event of a disruptive emergency. HRM Department will be responsible to ensure that all emergency contact numbers for staff are kept up to date. Test All Changes to Plan The BCP Team will nominate one or more persons who will be responsible for co-ordinating all the testing processes and for ensuring that all changes to the plan are properly tested. Whenever changes are made or proposed to the BCP.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Requirements problems can be hidden in inadequate data. Everybody makes mistakes. Less time spent hunting bugs the more time spent doing unproductive testing or ineffective test maintenance. This can be a symptom of an uncontrolled environment.recognizing them early can allow their effects to be mitigated. Each of these groups has different data requirements. Reduced flexibility in test execution If datasets are large or hard to set up. If that data is itself hard to understand or manipulate. after further analysis. If the datasets are poorly constructed. Simpler to make test mistakes. A failure to understand each others data can lead to ongoing confusion. Furthermore. but the original fault is undiagnosed and can carry on into live operation and perhaps future releases. the cost increases further. Poor data can make these reports hard to understand. the cost of test maintenance is correspondingly increased. Poor data will cause more of these problems. Problems which can be caused by Poor Test Data Most testers are familiar with the problems that can be caused by poor data. Confusion between developers. Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. Unreliable test results Running the same test twice produces inconsistent results. Most projects experience these problems at some stage . The BCP Team Leader will notify the BCP Training Co-ordinator of all approved changes to the BCP in order that the training materials can be updated. it may not be time-effective to construct further data to support investigator tests. It is important to consider inputs and outputs of a process for requirements modeling. they can cause hard-to-diagnose failures that may be apparently unrelated to the original fault. Increased test maintenance cost If each test has its own data. the less time spent testing.Handout – Software Testing Advise Person Responsible for BCP Training A member of the BCP Team will be given responsibility for co-ordinating all training activities (BCP Training Co-ordinator). Data can play a significant role in these failures. evidence of the fault is lost. Restoring the data to a clean set gets rid of the symptom. as the data is restored. Most reports make reference to the input data and the actual and expected results. unrecognized database corruption. or of a failure to recognize all the data that is influential on the system. An assessment should be made on whether the change necessitates any re-training activities. The following list details the most common problems familiar to the author. Obscure results and bug reports without clearly comprehensible data. Inadequate data can lead to ambiguous or incomplete requirements. A proportion of all failures logged will be found. Confusing or over-large datasets can make data selection mistakes more common. testers and business. testers stand a greater chance of missing important diagnostic features of a failure. Larger proportion of problems can be traced to poor data. or indeed of missing the failure entirely. Cognizant Technology Solutions. some tests may be excluded from a test run. not to be faults at all. If not spotted at the time of generation. Degradation of test data over time Program faults can introduce inconsistency or corruption into a database.

Page 86 ©Copyright 2007. Typically. Accounts. where new billing products are supported and indeed created by additions to the setup data. The following broad categories allow data to be handled and discussed more easily.Handout – Software Testing Unwieldy volumes of data. or methods of debt collection from different kinds of customers. It might include a cross reference between country and delivery cost or method. often don't reflect the way the system will be used in practice. Environmental data Environmental data tells the system about its technical environment. many references are made to "The Data" or "Data Problems". Business data not representatively tested. Although it is perhaps simpler to discuss data in these terms. Test requirements. actions. Classification of Test Data Types In the process of testing a system. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it can be hard for the business or the end users to feel confidence in the test effort if they feel distanced from it. and may lend themselves to automated testing / sanity checks. they can influence and corrupt each others results as they change the data in the system. Setup data Setup data tells the system about the business rules. This can make portions of the application untestable for many testers simultaneously. share the same dataset. This can not only cause false results. It includes communications addresses. With an effective approach to setup data. Inability to spot data corruption caused by bugs. Small datasets can be manipulated more easily than large datasets. setup data causes different functionality to apply to otherwise similar data. While this may arguably lead to broad testing for a variety of purposes. A few datasets are easier to manage than many datasets. directory trees and paths and environmental variables. business can offer new intangible products without developing new functionality . it is useful to be able to classify the data according to the way it is used. products. orders. it is useful to split the categorization once more. Cognizant Technology Solutions. particularly in configuration data. For the purposes of testing. Input data Input data is the information input by day-to-day system functions. A readily understandable dataset can allow straightforward diagnosis.as can be seen in the mobile phone industry. documents can all be input data. Fixed Input Data Fixed input data is available before the start of the test. and can be seen as part of the test conditions. or tests. A few well-known datasets can be more easily be checked than a large number of complex datasets. but can lead to database integrity problems and data corruption. a complex dataset will positively hinder diagnosis. The current date and time can be seen as environmental data. Poor database/environment integrity. If a large number of testers.

Finally. The same techniques can be applied to test data. This small. Achieves good test coverage without having to construct massive datasets Page 87 ©Copyright 2007. easy to handle dataset .which also allows a wide range of tests. generating tests so that all possible permutations of inputs are tested. reduces data maintenance time and can help improve the test process. it is temporary and is lost at the end of processing. but its state can be inferred from actions that the system has taken. Organizing the data A key part of any approach to data is the way the data is organized. Transitional data Transitional data is data that exists only within the program. It generally has a correspondence with the input data (cf. Fortunately. As such. permutation helps because: Permutation is familiar from test planning. adhoc. the test data can contain all possible pairs of permutations in a far smaller set than that which contains all possible permutations. This method is most appropriate when used. It is most effective when the following conditions are satisfied. the way it is chosen and described. Jackson's Structured Programming methodology). Transitional data is not seen outside the system (arguably. test handles and instrumentation make it output data). it does not directly influence the quality of the tests. as above. Permutations Most testers are familiar with the concept of permutation. or combinatorial testing addresses this problem by generating a set of tests that allow all possible pairs of combinations to be tested. this method of working with fixed input data can help greatly in testing the setup data. influenced by the uses that are planned for it. Pair wise. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . To sum up. Good data assists testing.Handout – Software Testing Consumable Input Data Consumable input data forms the test input It can also be helpful to qualify data after the system has started to use it. these criteria apply to many traditional database-based systems: Fixed input data consists of many rows Fields are independent You want to do many tests without loading / you do not load fixed input data for each test. A good approach increases data reliability. transmissions. for non-trivial sets. Typically held in internal system variables. A subset of the output data is generally compared with the expected results at the end of test execution. but the data maintenance required will be greatly lessened by the small size of the dataset and the amount of reuse it allows. on fixed input data. or diagnostic tests. Database changes will affect it. It allows complete pairwise coverage. and includes not only files. during processing of input data. Cognizant Technology Solutions. this produces a far smaller set of tests than the brute-force approach for all permutations. rather than hinders it. This allows a small. and so is comprehensive enough to allow a great many new. but can also include test measurements. and easy to manipulate dataset is capable of supporting many tests. Output Data Output data is all the data that a system outputs as a result of processing input data and events. Most are also familiar with the ways in which this generally vast set can be cut down. Typically. reports and database updates.

Handout – Software Testing
Can perform investigative testing without having to set up more data Reduces the impact of functional/database changes Can be used to test other data - particularly setup data Partitioning Partitions allow data access to be controlled, reducing uncontrolled changes in the data. Partitions can be used independently; data use in one area will have no effect on the results of tests in another. Data can be safely and effectively partitioned by machine / database / application instance, although this partitioning can introduce configuration management problems in software version, machine setup, environmental data and data load/reload. A useful and basic way to start with partitions is to set up, not a single environment for each test or tester, but to set up three shared by many users, so allowing different kinds of data use. These three have the following characteristics: Safe area o Used for enquiry tests, usability tests etc. o No test changes the data, so the area can be trusted. o Many testers can use simultaneously Change Area o o o Used for tests which update/change data. Data must be reset or reloaded after testing. Used by one test/tester at a time.

Scratch area o Used for investigative update tests and those which have unusual requirements. o Existing data cannot be trusted. o Used at tester's own risk! o Testing rarely has the luxury of completely separate environments for each test and each tester. Controlling data, and the access to data, in a system can be fraught. Many different stakeholders have different requirements of the data, but a common requirement is that of exclusive use. While the impact of this requirement should not be underestimated, a number of stakeholders may be able to work with the same environmental data, and to a lesser extent, setup data – and their work may not need to change the environmental or setup data. The test strategy can take advantage of this by disciplined use of text / value fields, allowing the use of 'soft' partitions. 'Soft' partitions allow the data to be split up conceptually, rather than physically. Although testers are able to interfere with each others tests, the team can be educated to avoid each others work. If, for instance, tester 1's tests may only use customers with Russian nationality and tester 2's tests only with French, the two sets of work can operate independently in the same dataset. A safe area could consist of London addresses, the change area Manchester addresses, and the scratch area Bristol addresses. Typically, values in free-text fields are used for soft partitioning.

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Handout – Software Testing
Data partitions help because: Allow controlled and reliable data, reducing data corruption / change problems Can reduce the need for exclusive access to environments/machines Clarity Permutation techniques may make data easier to grasp by making the datasets small and commonly used, but we can make our data clearer still by describing each row in its own free text fields, allowing testers to make a simple comparison between the free text (which is generally displayed on output), and actions based on fields which tend not to be directly displayed. Use of free text fields with some correspondence to the internals of the record allows output to be checked more easily. Testers often talk about items of data, referring to them by anthropomorphic personification – that is to say, they give them names. This allows shorthand, but also acts as jargon, excluding those who are not in the know. Setting this data, early on in testing, to have some meaningful value can be very useful, allowing testers to sense check input and output data, and choose appropriate input data for investigative tests. Reports, data extracts and sanity checks can also make use of these; sorting or selecting on a free text field that should have some correspondence with a functional field can help spot problems or eliminate unaffected data. Data is often used to communicate and illustrate problems to coders and to the business. However, there is generally no mandate for outside groups to understand the format or requirements of test data. Giving some meaning to the data that can be referred to directly can help with improving mutual understanding. Clarity helps because: Improves communication within and outside the team Reduces test errors caused by using the wrong data Allows another method way of doing sanity checks for corrupted or inconsistent data Helps when checking data after input Helps in selecting data for investigative tests Data Load and Data Maintenance An important consideration in preparing data for functional testing is the ways in which the data can be loaded into the system, and the possibility and ease of maintenance. Loading the data Data can be loaded into a test system in three general ways. Using the system you're trying to test o The data can be manually entered, or data entry can be automated by using a capture/replay tool.

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Handout – Software Testing
o This method can be very slow for large datasets. It uses the system's own validation and insertion methods, and can both be hampered by faults in the system, and help pinpoint them. If the system is working well, data integrity can be ensured by using this method, and internally assigned keys are likely to be effective and consistent. Data can be well-described in test scripts, or constructed and held in flat files. It may, however, be input in an ad-hoc way, which is unlikely to gain the advantages of good data listed above. Data load tools directly manipulate the system's underlying data structures. As they do not use the system's own validation, they can be the only way to get broken data into the system in a consistent fashion. As they do not use the system to load the data, they can provide a convenient workaround to known faults in the system's data load routines. However, they may come up against problems when generating internal keys, and can have problems with data integrity and parent/child relationships. Data loaded can have a range of origins. In some cases, all new data is created for testing. This data may be complete and well specified, but can be hard to generate. A common compromise is to use old data from an existing system, selected for testing, filtered for relevance and duplicates and migrated to the target data format. In some cases, particularly for minor system upgrades, the complete set of live data is loaded into the system, but stripped of personal details for privacy reasons. While this last method may seem complete, it has disadvantages in that the data may not fully support testing, and that the large volume of data may make test results hard to interpret.

o

Using a data load tool o

o

Not loaded at all o Some tests simply take whatever is in the system and try to test with it. This can be appropriate where a dataset is known and consistent, or has been set up by a prior round of testing. It can also be appropriate in environments where data cannot be reloaded, such as the live system. However, it can be symptomatic of an uncontrolled approach to data, and is not often desirable. o Environmental data tends to be manually loaded, either at installation or by manipulating environmental or configuration scripts. Large volumes of setup data can often be generated from existing datasets and loaded using a data load tool, while small volumes of setup data often have an associated system maintenance function and can be input using the system.Fixed input data may be generated or migrated and is loaded using any and all of themethods above, while consumable input data is typically listed in test scripts or generated as an input to automation tools. When data is loaded, it can append itself to existing data, overwrite existing data, or delete existing data first. Each is appropriate in different circumstances, and due consideration should be given to the consequences. Testing the Data A theme bought out at the start of this paper was 'A System is Programmed by its Data'. In order to test the system, one must also test the data it is configured with; the environmental and setup data. Environmental data is necessarily different between the test and live environment. Although testing can verify that the environmental variables are being read and used correctly, there is little point in testing their values on a system other than the target system. Environmental data is often checked
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throughout testing. and the wide variety of possible methods will not be discussed further here. and make its structure and content transparent Use the data to improve understanding throughout testing and the business Test setup data as you would test functionality Page 91 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing manually on the live system during implementation and rollout. The following points summarize the actions that can influence the quality of the data and the effectiveness of its usage: Plan the data for maintenance and flexibility Know your data. and good data can be used as a tool to enable and improve communication throughout the project. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Testing done on the setup data needs to cover two questions. The setup data should be organized to allow a good variety of scenarios to be considered The setup data needs to be able to be loaded and maintained easily and repeatable The business needs to become involved in the data so that their setup for live can be properly tested When testing the setup data. Well-planned data can allow flexibility and help reduce the cost of test maintenance. Does the planned/current setup data induce the functionality that the business requires? Will changes made to the setup data have the desired effect? Testing for these two questions only becomes possible when that data is controlled. The advantages of testing the setup data include: Overall testing will be improved if the quality of the setup data improves Problems due to faults in the live setup data will be reduced The business can re-configure the software for new business needs with increased confidence Data-related failures in the live system can be assessed in the light of good data testing Conclusion Data can be influential on the quality of testing. Effective testing of setup data is a necessary part of system testing. as the business environment changes – particularly if there is a long period between requirements gathering and live rollout. it is important to have a well-known set of fixed input data and consumable input data. This allows the effects of changes made to the setup data to be assessed repeat ably and allows results to be compared. Aspects of all the elements above come into play. Setup data can change often. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Common data problems can be avoided or reduced with preparation and automation.

When a deviation is identified between what is found to actually exist and what the user thinks is correct or proper . the I/S professional will need to ensure that the information is accurate. Effect: Tells why the difference between what is and what should be is significant Cause: Tells the reasons for the deviation. and worded as clearly and precisely as possible. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . well supported. The actual deviation will be the difference or gap between “what –is” and “ what is desired”.Handout – Software Testing Test Logs . as they exist. The documenting of the deviation is describing the conditions. Identification of the cause is the necessary as a basis for corrective action. The statement of condition should document as many of the following attributes as appropriate of the problem. The statement of condition is uncovering and documenting the facts. If a comparison between the two gives little or no practical consequence. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The “What should be” shall be called the “Criteria”. which represents what the user desires. The following four attributes should be developed for all the test problems: Statement of condition –Tells what it is. When one or more these attributes is missing.Essentially the user compares” what is” with “what should be”. the first essential step toward development of a problem statement has occurred. as they currently exist. and the criteria. A well developed problem statement will include each of these attributes. These concepts are the first two and the most basic . Carefully and completely documenting a test problem is the first step in correcting the problem. making up the statement of condition. questions almost arise. For those facts. Page 92 ©Copyright 2007. such as Criteria: Why is the current state inadequate? Effect: How significant is it? Cause: What could have cause of the problem? Factors defining the Test Log Generation Document Deviation: Problem statements begin to emerge by process of comparision.Introduction Test Problem is a condition that exists within the software system that needs to be addressed. Criteria – Tells what should be. What is a fact? The statement of condition will of course depend on the nature and extent of the evidence or support that is examined and noted. These two attributes are the basis for a finding. no finding exists. attributes of a problem statement. It is difficult to visualize any type of problem that is not in some way characterized by this deviation. The ‘What is”: can be called the statement of condition.

It can be stated in the either negative or positive terms. Inputs .events. Cognizant Technology Solutions. For example . Outputs /Deliverables – The products that are produced from the activity.or class users/customers serviced by this activity. Work Paper to describe the problem. For example the following Work paper provides the information for Test Log Documentation: Page 93 ©Copyright 2007. and document the statement of condition and the statement of criteria.The specific business or administered activities that are being performed during Test Log generation are as follows: Procedures used to perform work.Handout – Software Testing Activities Involved:.or documents that cause this activity to be executed. – The specific step-by –step activities that are utilized in producing the output from the identical activities.The triggers. Deficiencies noted – The status of the results of executing this activity and any appropriate interpretation of those facts. The Criterion is the user’s statement of what is desired. it could indicate the need to reduce the complaints or delays as well as desired processing turn around time. Users/Customers served –The organization . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .individuvals.

Reviews: Verification that the process deliverables / phases are meeting the user’s true needs. Inspections – A verification of process deliverables against deliverable specifications. which will be based on software requirements. Test factors -The factors incorporated in the plan.Identifiable Software components normally associated with the requirements of the software.The hardware and Software environment in which the software system will operate. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This description includes but not limited to : Data the defect uncovered Name of the Defect Location of the Defect Page 94 ©Copyright 2007. Test Results Data This data will include. Test Suites. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the validation of which becomes the Test Objective.The smallest identifiable software components Platform. Functions/Sub functions . Business Objective –The validation that specific business objectives have been met. These are explained in the following paragraphs. Units. Defect This category includes a Description of the individual defects uncovered during the testing process.Validation that data/Objects can be correctly passed among Software components.Handout – Software Testing Collecting Status Data Four categories of data will be collected during testing. and Test Events These are the test products produced by the test team to perform testing. Test Transactions. Test transactions/events: The type of tests that will be conducted during the execution of tests. Interface Objectives .

which indicates the project component for which the status is requested. Use of Function/Test matrix: This shows which tests must be performed in order to validate the functions and also used to determine the status of testing. As described the most common test Report is a simple Spread sheet . The frequency of the test reports should be based on the discretion of the team and extensiveness of the test process. the test that will be performed to determine the status of that component. test managers. when it was corrected. and when it was entered for retest. but not performed 2=Test currently being performed 3=Minor defect noted 4=Major defect noted 5=Test complete and function is defect free for the criteria included in this test Page 95 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and the software development team. It is also suggested that the database be put in online through client/server systems so that with a vested interest in the status of the project can be readily accessed for the status update. Storing Data Collected during Testing It is recommended that a database be established in which to store the results collected during testing. The test reports are for use of testers. Developing Test Status Reports Report Software Status Establish a Measurement Team Inventory Existing Project Measures Develop a Consistent Set of Project metrics Define Process Requirements Develop and Implement the Process Monitor the Process The Test process should produce a continuous series of reports that describe the status of testing. Many organizations use spreadsheet package to maintain test results.Handout – Software Testing Severity of the Defect Type of Defect How the defect was uncovered (Test Data/Test Script) The Test Logs should add to this information in the form of where the defect originated . Cognizant Technology Solutions. The intersection can be coded with a number or symbol to indicate the following: 1=Test is needed. and the results of testing at any point of time.

Cognos is looking into what interest people have in the product to assess what their strategy should be with respect to the Linux ``market. HTML or any other kind of ASCII based output format can be produced just as easily. Some query tools available for Linux based databases include: MySQL dbMetrix PgAccess Cognos Powerhouse This is not yet available for Linux.or comma-separated text files.Use of word processing. but plain ASCII text. DocBook. or tab. A one-page summary report may be printed with either the Report Manager program or from the individual keyboard or keypad software at any time. database. From the Report Manager. and graphic tools to prepare test reports. The program was loosely designed to produce TeX/LaTeX formatted output. and data base management products.'' GRG . organizing. email editors. HTML. delimited ASCII text file or a SQL query to a RDBMS and produces a report listing. Word –Processing: One way of increasing the utility of computers and word processors for the teaching of writing may be to use software that will guide the processes of generating. From the LaTeX2e and DocBook output files you can in turn produce PDF. This allows each person to use the normal functions of the computer keyboard that are common to all word processors. text. XML. PostScript. Individual Reports include all of the following information.Handout – Software Testing Methods of Test Reporting Reporting Tools . LaTeX2e. however. order entry systems. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . composing and revising text. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and more. PostScript. Reports can be viewed and printed from the application or output as HTML. Status Report Word Processing Tests or Keypad Tests Basic Skills Tests or Data Entry Tests Progress Graph Game Scores Test Report for each test Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. troff. Some Database test tools like Data Vision is a database reporting tool similar to Crystal Reports. defect tracking.GNU Report Generator The GRG program reads record and field information from a dBase3+ file. you can quickly scan through any number of these reports and see how each person's history compares.

Ability to draw statistically valid conclusions from quantitative test results. which can be repeated throughout the application life cycle Provides Analysis and Decision Support Graphs and reports help analyze application readiness at any point in the testing process Requirements coverage. Testing Data used for metrics Testers are typically responsible for reporting their test status at regular intervals. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . once the software has been integrated and functional testing is complete. Anywhere access to Test Assets Using Test Director’s web interface. run schedules.Handout – Software Testing Test Director: Facilitates consistent and repetitive testing process Central repository for all testing assets facilitates the adoption of a more consistent testing process. defect statistics can be used for production planning Provides Anytime. o Average CPU utilization o Average memory Utilization o Measured I/O transaction rate Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. o Average duration between defect detection and defect correction o Average effort to correct a defect o Total number of defects remaining at delivery o Software performance data us usually generated during system testing. Statistical Analysis . The following measurements generated during testing are applicable: o Total number of tests o Number of Tests executed to date o Number of tests executed successfully to date o Data concerning software defects include o Total number of defects corrected in each activity o Total number of defects entered in each activity. developers. business analysts and Client can participate and contribute to the testing process Traceability throughout the testing process Test Cases can be mapped to requirements providing adequate visibility over the test coverage of requirements Test Director links requirements to test cases and test cases to defects Manages Both Manual and Automated Testing Test Director can manage both manual and automated tests (Win Runner) Scheduling of automated tests can be effectively done using Test Director Test Report Standards . tester. test execution progress. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Defining the components that should be included in a test report.

The first of the three long term uses is for the project to trace problems in the event the application malfunctions in production. A good test plan will identify the interfaces and institute test conditions that will validate interfaces. For example.Purpose of a Test Report: The test report has one immediate and three long term purposes.when different testers should test individual projects. Given is the Individual Project test report except that conditions tested are interfaces. draws appropriate conclusions and present recommendations. could eliminate or minimize the occurrence of high frequency defects. as paper report will summarize the data. The Third long term purpose is to show what was accomplished in case of an Y2K lawsuit.Handout – Software Testing Test Reporting A final test report should be prepared at the conclusion of each test activity. to assess the potential consequences and initiate appropriate actions to minimize those consequences. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .9 . These defect prone components identify tasks/steps that if improved. The test report can be a combination of electronic data and hard copy. Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The immediate purpose is to provide information to customers of the software system so that they can determine whether the system is ready for production . This includes the following Individual Project Test Report Integration Test Report System Test Report Acceptance test Report These test reports are designed to document the results of testing as defined in the testplan. Individual Project Test Report These reports focus on the Individual projects(software system). Integration Test Report Integration testing tests the interfaces between individual projects. The second long term purpose is to use the data to analyze the rework process for making changes to prevent the defects from occurring in the future. if the function matrix is maintained electronically. they should prepare a report on their results. there is no reason to print that. Knowing which functions have been correctly tested and which ones still contain defects can assist in taking corrective actions. and if so.

Knowing which functions have been correctly tested and which ones still contain defects can assist in taking corrective actions. if so the potential consequences and appropriate actions to minimize these consequences. The data can also be used to analyze the developmental process to make changes to prevent defects from occurring in the future. and so forth. The system test Report should present the results of executing the test plan. Conclusion The Test Logs obtained from the execution of the test results and finally the test reports should be designed to accomplish the following objectives: Provide Information to the customer whether the system should be placed into production. time pressures. could eliminate or minimize the occurrence of high frequency defects in future. The second objective is to ensure that software system can operate in the real world user environment. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The project can use the test report to trace problems in the event the application malfunction in production. what was to be tested. These defect prone components identify tasks/steps that if improved. then it need only be referenced . which includes people skills and attitudes. Page 99 ©Copyright 2007. changing business conditions. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Acceptance Test Report There are two primary objectives of Acceptance testing Report: The first is to ensure that the system as implemented meets the real operating needs of the user/customer. not included in the report. testing should have accomplished this objective. The Acceptance Test Report should encompass these criteria’s for the User acceptance respectively.Handout – Software Testing System Test Reports A System Test plan standard that identified the objective of testing . and when tests should occur. One Long term objective is for the Project and the other is for the information technology function. how was it to be tested. If the defined requirements are those true needs. If these details are maintained Electronically .

the objectives of a single test case include: Document the purpose of the test case (i.Handout – Software Testing Test Report A Test Report is a document that is prepared once the testing of a software product is complete and the delivery is to be made to the customer.. Help developers improve the quality of the specifications (e. Page 100 ©Copyright 2007.. Document the producer of the test case. This document would contain a summary of the entire project and would have to be presented in a way that any person who has not worked on the project would also get a good overview of the testing effort. the type of failures to be elicited). Contents of a Test Report The contents of a test report are as follows: Executive Summary Overview Application Overview Testing Scope Test Details Test Approach Types of testing conducted Test Environment Tools Used Metrics Test Results Test Deliverables Recommendations Test Case A test case is a testing work product that automatically performs a single test on an executable work product. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Help developers understand the behavior of the item under test. Help improve the quality of the item under test. Goals The goals of a test case is to automate or document the following: Perform a single test (e.g.. use case path and class responsibilities) of the item under test. the part of the item under test being tested. Objectives To support these goals.g. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a single test of a use case path or class method). Cause failures that uncover underlying defects so that they can be identified and removed.e.

to place objects under test into the appropriate pre-test states) Test stimuli (e. the test stimuli. etc.g. thereby supporting regression testing. Compare the actual responses (i. Stimulate the item (e.g..g. Maintainers: o The Requirements Team for requirements model test cases.e. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007. changes in state and messages sent) to the test stimuli. values returned. Report the results of the associated test. The Integration Team for integration test cases. Benefits A test case provides the following benefits: Automates a single test. o The Software Development Team for design model and unit test cases. raise test exceptions). Contents Test case objectives Test preparation (e. to send test messages or raise test exceptions) Expected behavior (i. The SoftwareDevelopment Team for design model and unit test cases.e. test oracle) Test reporting script Test finalization script Stakeholders Producers: o o o o o The Requirements Team for requirements model test cases..Handout – Software Testing Prepare the item under test for testing (i.g. The Architecture Team for architecture model test cases. and provide the necessary test data). Observe how the item responds (e.. postconditions) to the expected responses to identify failures that imply the existence of defects in the item under test. The Independent Test Team for system test cases. Failure to automate test cases makes regression testing more expensive and less likely to occur. oracle. and the collaborators of the item under test into their correct pretest states. Cognizant Technology Solutions. exceptions raised... Documents a single test in terms of objective. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . place the item under test. Evaluator: Test Inspection Team Approvers: None.e. Documents test results Failure to produce test cases increases the probability that the item under test will contain defects that will make the application fail to meet its requirements. send it test messages.. o The Architecture Team for architecture model test cases..

The relevant requirements. assertions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . o o Phases Initiation: Completed Construction: Completed Delivery: Completed Usage: Maintained Retirement: Archived Preconditions A test case typically can be started if the following preconditions hold: The relevant sections of the Project Test Plan are completed. The Integration Team for performing integration testing. Unit testing of the software architecture prototype The SoftwareDevelopment Team for 1). Unit testing of the software components 3). The Test Team for performing system testing. or design are completed. method signatures. architecture. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Model testing of the software design 2). Use case model 2). The relevant team is staffed.. 4).Handout – Software Testing o o Users: o Tumultuous 1). The Independent Test Team for system test cases. Domain object model The Architecture Team for: 1). The relevant item under test is started.g. The relevant test suite is started. The Integration Team for integration test cases. Inputs Work products: Project Test Plan System Requirements Specification System Architecture Document Software Architecture Document Javadoc including responsibilities Software components (e. Model testing of the software architecture 2). branching and looping logic) Stakeholders: None Page 102 ©Copyright 2007.

Test Strategy/Approach based on customer priorities. Test Deliverables. Guidelines A test case is constrained by the following conventions: Content and Format Standard Inspection Checklist SUMMARY A test plan contains description of testing objectives and Goals. Network. test cases need to be evaluated for defects. Test Specification b. Thus. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. To support regression testing. Test Case d. Test harness 2). and the test case developer can make mistakes.Handout – Software Testing Guidelines Test cases will be used at all levels of testing (e.g. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The oracle can be incorrect. Test Environment (Hardware. and system testing). Test cases do not document the results of the tests. execution conditions and expected results. Test cases need not document how to perform the test unless they are automated. Test Plan c. Software. The document that describes the expected output as well as inputs is a. this information is documented in the associated test procedure. Test your Understanding 1). Test Case b. A test reflects what tests need to be performed. Communication etc. A series of test data that is logically tested together is a. Test Log d. model testing. integration testing. A test case has set of test inputs. test cases will be automated whenever practical. When performed manually. then it will be difficult to know if the defect causing the failure is in the item under test or in the test case. which are documented in the associated test report. Test Script Answers: 1) c 2) c Page 103 ©Copyright 2007. Test Result c.) Features to test with priority/criticality. unit testing. If the quality of the test cases is not at least as good as the quality of the item under test.

Symptoms (flaws) of faults contained in software that is sufficiently mature for production will be considered as defects. and reporting What is a Defect? A mismatch in the application and its specification is a defect. A Defect is a product anomaly or flaw. So in this context defects are identified as any failure to meet the system requirements. This evaluation is described as system reliability growth modelling. Such an evaluation estimates the current system reliability and predicts how the reliability will grow if testing and defect removal continue. Defects include such things as omissions and imperfections found during testing phases. Quality is the indication of how well the system meets the requirements. An evaluation of defects discovered during testing provides the best indication of software quality. A deviation from expectation that is to be tracked and resolved is also termed a defect. A software error is present when the program does not do what its end user expects it to do. Rigorous evaluation uses assumptions about the arrival or discovery rates of defects during the testing process. Defect evaluation is based on methods that range from simple number count to rigorous statistical modeling. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The actual data about defect rates are then fit to the model. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . you will be able to: Describe defect lifecycle. tracking. Defect Classification The severity of bugs will be classified as follows: Page 104 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 7: Defect Management Learning Objective After completing this chapter.

When you are reporting a defect the more information you supply. For example: cosmetic errors may only require a brief description of the screen. the easier it will be for the developers to determine the problem and fix it. This can be broken down into 5 points: Give a brief description of the problem List the steps that are needed to reproduce the bug or problem Supply all relevant information such as version. project and data used. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Defect Lifecycle Defect Reporting and Tracking The key to making a good report is providing the development staff with as much information as necessary to reproduce the bug. Simple problems can have a simple report. Page 105 ©Copyright 2007. but the more complex the problem– the more information the developer is going to need. Summarize what you think the problem is. Supply a copy of all relevant reports and data including copies of the expected results. Cognizant Technology Solutions. how to get it and what needs to be changed.

With the data. Documentation on what was expected. one before the process and one after. an earlier version of the software and any formulas used) Documentation on what actually happened. you should include two versions of the dataset. The level of the processing. If there are parameters. (Expected results) The source of the expected results. They have to give developers something to work with so that they can successfully reproduce the problem. If specific data is involved. If you have to enter any data.Handout – Software Testing However. Include all proper menu names. This includes spread sheets. Steps: List the steps taken to recreate the bug. The report should explain exactly how to reproduce the problem and an explanation of exactly what the problem is. The basic items in a report are as follows: Version: This is very important. In either case. they need to know which version to use when testing out the bug. If the dataset from before the process is not included. developers will be forced to try and find the bug based on forensic evidence. list them. developers can trace what is happening. When you report the steps they should be the clearest steps to recreating the bug. In most cases the more information/ correct information given the better. developers will have been working on it and if they’ve found a bug– it may already have been reported or even fixed. After you’ve finished writing down the steps. an error in processing will require a more detailed description. As a rule the detail of your report will increase based on The severity of the bug. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . such as a cosmetic error on a screen. if available. If you’re reporting a processing error. supply the exact data entered. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The complexity of reproducing the bug. such as: The name of the process and how to get to it. Product: If you are developing more than one product– Identify the product in question. Identify the individual items that are wrong. Copies of any output should be included. you should include a dataset that exhibits the error. follow them .make sure you’ve included everything you type and do to get to the problem. don’t abbreviate and don’t assume anything. Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. In most cases the product is not static. a copy of the data both before and after the process should be included. (Perceived results) An explanation of how the results differed. Go through the process again and see if there are any steps that can be removed. Anatomy of a bug report Bug reports need to do more than just describe the bug. Data: Unless you are reporting something very simple.

Defect Tracking After a defect has been found. include a copy of the report with the problem areas highlighted. The Initial State of a defect will be ‘New’.Handout – Software Testing Description: Explain what is wrong . Remember report one problem at a time. In order to work it must supply all necessary information to not only identify the problem but what is needed to fix it as well. supply documentation. include the version number and the dataset used) This information should be stored in a centralized location so that Developers and Testers have access to the information. and the testing team does not agree with the development team it is set to document status. so that someone who has never seen the system can follow the steps and reproduce the problem. including the version number. the status is set to FIXED. Invalid Bug – The reported bug is not valid one as per the requirements/design As Designed – This is an intended functionality as per the requirements/design Deferred –This will be an enhancement. Supporting documentation: If available. The Project Lead of the development team will review the defect and set it to one of the following statuses: o o o o o o Open – Accepts the bug and assigns it to a developer. If the process is a report. The report must also say what the system should be doing. The developers need it to reproduce the bug. they will set to Dev Waiting. Include a list of what was expected. After the development team has fixed the defect. Cognizant Technology Solutions. it is set to Closed. Once the development team has started working on the defect the status is set to WIP ((Work in Progress) or if the development team is waiting for a go ahead or some technical feedback. Duplicate – The bug has already been reported. which will follow the same cycle as an open defect. It is not enough to say that something is wrong. but detail what is wrong. and the defect still exists. If you have a report to compare against. Document – Once it is set to any of the above statuses apart from Open. Page 107 ©Copyright 2007. SUMMARY A bug report is a case against a product. what data was used. it must be reported to development so that it can be fixed. identify it and fix it. It should include information about the product. Include what you expected. don’t combine bugs in one report. If the fixed defect satisfies the requirements/passes the test case. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The report should be written in clear concise steps. On re-testing the defect.Try to weed out any extraneous information. the status is set to REOPENED. which means the defect is ready to re-test. Testers will need this information for later regression testing and verification. include it and its source information (if it’s a printout from a previous version.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Preventing defects Answers: 1) a&b 2) c Page 108 ©Copyright 2007. Finding the person who introduced the defect d. Defect is defined as a. Logging a defect b.Handout – Software Testing Test your Understanding 1). Unexpected error/event that needs investigation c. Software problem that requires corrective action b. Tracking a defect to closure c. All the above 2). The following is NOT a defect management activity a. Temporary problem that is not related to the software d.

repetitive work while human personnel perform other tasks. are virtually impossible to perform manually. most software tests were performed using manual methods. Furthermore. Automation allows the tester to reduce or eliminate the required “think time” or “read time” necessary for the manual interpretation of when or where to click the mouse or press the enter key. load/stress testing using automated methods require only a fraction of the computer hardware that would be necessary to complete a manual test. the need is greatly increased for testing methods that support business objectives. manual testing is no longer a viable option for most testing situations. Owing to the size and complexity of today’s advanced software applications. some types of testing. Many automated testing tools can replicate the activity of a large number of users (and their associated transactions) using a single computer. Automation Benefits Today. The reason is that computers can execute instructions many times faster. allowing tests to be completed many times faster than the fastest individual. It is necessary to ensure that these systems are reliable. Every organization has unique reasons for automating software quality activities. Imagine performing a load test on a typical distributed client/server application on which 50 concurrent users were planned. This required a large staff of test personnel to perform expensive. they remain repetitious throughout the development lifecycle. such as load/stress testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . testing is a repetitive activity. As more organizations develop mission-critical systems to support their business activities.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 8: Automation Learning Objective After completing this chapter. built according to specification. An automated test executes the next operation in the test hierarchy at machine speed. and time-consuming manual test procedures. you will be able to: Explain automated testing What is Automation? Automated testing is automating the manual testing process currently in use. and with fewer errors than individuals. Therefore. The very nature of application software development dictates that no matter which methods are employed to carry out testing (manual or automated). Automation of testing processes allows machines to complete the tedious. rigorous application testing is a critical part of virtually all software development projects. Many internal and external factors are forcing organizations to ensure a high level of software quality and reliability. Reducing Testing Costs The cost of performing manual testing is prohibitive when compared to automated methods. but several reasons are common across industries. and have the ability to support business processes. Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. In the past. Using Testing Effectively By definition.

and how the tests will be executed. automated tests can be built that extract variable data from external files or applications and then run a test using the data as an input value. imagine the same application used by hundreds or thousands of users. For example. standard or benchmark tests can be created and repeated on target platforms to ensure that new platforms operate consistently. Cognizant Technology Solutions. organizations are required to comply with strict quality regulations as well as being required to document their quality assurance efforts for all parts of their systems. When applications need to be deployed across different hardware or software platforms. the entire test operation could be created on a single machine having the ability to run and rerun the test as necessary. at night or on weekends without having to assemble an army of end users. and a cadre of coordinators to relay instructions to the users would be required. Greater application test coverage also reduces the risk of exposing users to malfunctioning or non-compliant software. With an automated scenario. Repeatability and Control By using automated techniques. As another example.Handout – Software Testing To do the testing manually. an available network. In some industries such as healthcare and pharmaceuticals. the tester has a very high degree of control over which types of tests are being performed. 50 application users employing 50 PCs with associated software. Most importantly. Replicating Testing Across Different Platforms Automation allows the testing organization to perform consistent and repeatable tests. Greater Application Coverage The productivity gains delivered by automated testing allow and encourage organizations to test more often and more completely. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . automated tests can be executed as many times as necessary without requiring a user to recreate a test script each time the test is run. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007. Using automated tests enforces consistent procedures that allow developers to evaluate the effect of various application modifications as well as the effect of various user actions. It is easy to see why manual methods for load/stress testing is an expensive and logistical nightmare.

Most.If a testing procedure can be reused many times. The following are examples of criteria that can be used to identify tests that are prime candidates for automation. Mission-critical processes are prime candidates for automated testing. This modular approach saves time and money when compared to creating a new end-to-end script for each and every test. common outline files can be created to establish a testing session. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . but not all. it is also a prime candidate for automation. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007. Examples include: creating customer records. and tests that require constant human intervention are usually not worth the investment to automate.Handout – Software Testing Automation Life Cycle Identifying Tests Requiring Automation . If the application fails. Any application with a high-degree of risk associated with a failure is a good candidate for test automation.In many situations. Cognizant Technology Solutions. production planning. close a testing session and apply testing values. invoicing and other high volume activities where software failures would occur frequently. sales order entry and other core activities. Repetitive Testing . types of tests can be automated. High Path Frequency . Examples include: financial month-end closings. tests that run only once. software applications can literally define or control the core of a company’s business. Critical Business Processes . For example. Certain types of tests like user comprehension tests.Automated testing can be used to verify the performance of application paths that are used with a high degree of frequency when the software is running in full production. These automated modules can be used again and again without having to rebuild the test scripts. the company can face extreme disruptions in critical operations.

Also. All products within the testing product environment should be based upon a common. the architecture of the testing tool environment should be open to support interaction with other technologies such as defect or bug tracking packages. What to Look For in a Testing Tool Choosing an automated software testing tool is an important step. A robust tool will allow users to integrate existing test results into an automated test plan. easy-to-understand language. and create meaningful end-user and management reports. an automated test should be able to link business requirements to test results. which should be addressed when selecting an application testing solution. Internet/Intranet Testing A good tool will have the ability to support testing within the scope of a web browser. Ease of Use Testing tools should be engineered to be usable by non-programmers and application endusers. Test Planning and Management A robust testing tool should have the capability to manage the testing process. Testing Product Integration Testing tools should provide tightly integrated modules that support test component reusability. easy-to-modify tests. Test component reusability should be a cornerstone of the product architecture. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It should also provide test results in an easy-tounderstand reporting format. The tests created for testing Internet or intranet-based applications should be portable across browsers. Finally. Test components built for performing functional tests should also support other types of testing including regression and load/stress testing. It should also allow users to include non-automated testing procedures within automated test plans and test results. Page 112 ©Copyright 2007. Load and Performance Testing The selected testing solution should allow users to perform meaningful load and performance tests to accurately measure system performance. the greater the benefits are from automation. With much of the testing responsibility shifting from the development staff to the departmental level. Even if programmers are responsible for testing. User training and experience gained in performing one testing task should be transferable to other testing tasks. the testing tool itself should have a short learning curve. Here are several key issues.If an application is planned to be in production for a long period of time. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and one which often poses enterprise-wide implications. and should automatically adjust for different load times and performance levels. a testing tool that requires programming skills is unusable by most organizations. GUI and Client/Server Testing A robust testing tool should support testing with a variety of user interfaces and create simple-to manage. allowing users to evaluate application readiness based upon the application's ability to support the business requirements. provide organization for testing components.Handout – Software Testing Applications with a Long Life Span .

This enables the testing team to define the tests. The definition of these tasks. The test environment is defined as the complete set of steps necessary to execute the test as described in the test plan. To guarantee the best possible result from an automated testing program. a testing plan should be created at the same time the software application requirements are defined. those evaluating test automation should consider these fundamental planning steps.Handout – Software Testing Test Environment Setup Once the test cases have been created. functional requirements of the software system in question. Inputs to the Test Environment Preparation Process Technical Environment Descriptions Approved Test Plan Test Execution Schedules Resource Allocation Schedule Application Software to be installed Test Planning Careful planning is the key to any successful process. or to print a salary check. Restoration Procedures . For example. Creating a Test Plan For the greatest return on automated testing. A good testing plan should be reviewed and approved by the test team.Document the technical environment needed to execute the tests. a business requirement for a payroll application might be to calculate a salary. or business requirements. outline those procedures needed to restore the test environment to its original state. locate and configure test-related hardware and software products and coordinate the human resources required to complete all testing.Outline the procedures necessary to install the application software to be tested. This plan is very much a “living document” that should evolve as the application functions become more clearly defined. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Identify any support needed from other parts of your organization. By doing this. defines the high-level. Cognizant Technology Solutions. These business requirements should be defined in such a way as to make it abundantly clear that the software system correctly (or incorrectly) performs the necessary business functions.Finally. the software development team. all user groups and the Page 113 ©Copyright 2007. The time invested in detailed planning significantly improves the benefits resulting from test automation. the test environment can be prepared. The test environment includes initial set up and description of the environment. Evaluating Business Requirements Begin the automated testing process by defining exactly what tasks your application software should accomplish in terms of the actual business activities of the end-user. Make sure that other groups that might share these resources are informed of this schedule. and the procedures needed for installation and restoration of the environment. Installation Procedures . Description . Operational Support . Test Schedule .Identify the times during which your testing facilities will be used for a given test. you are ready to re-execute tests or prepare for a different set of tests.

Test Case Prerequisites . Test Design and Development After the test components have been defined. run orders and dependencies that might exist between test cases. Input Values . and therefore the ultimate success of the test.Document all screen identifier(s) and expected value(s) that must be verified as part of the test. the procedures for applying those inputs. A test case identifies the specific input values that will be sent to the application.Identify set up or testing criteria that must be established before a test can be successfully executed. Cognizant Technology Solutions.What critical actions must the application accomplish before it can be deployed? This information forms the basis for making informed decisions on whether or not the application is ready to deploy.Take note of the sources for extracting test data if it is not included in the test case. Test Data Sources . Expected Results . A proper test case will include the following key components: Test Case Name(s) . so that the results of these test elements can be traced and analyzed. the standardized test cases can be created that will be used to test the application. Test Case Execution Order . Page 114 ©Copyright 2007. Application Implementation Schedules .This section of the test case identifies the values to be supplied to the application as input including. if necessary.Each test case must have a unique name. Test Procedures – Identify the application steps necessary to complete the test case.What is the application intended to do? These should be stated in the terms of the business requirements of the end users.Specify any relationships. The type and number of test cases needed will be dictated by the testing plan. the action to be completed.When is the scheduled release? When are updates or enhancements planned? Are there any specific events or actions that are dependent upon the application? Acceptance Criteria for implementation . These expected results will be used to measure the acceptance criteria. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing organization’s management. and the expected application values for the procedure being tested. The following items detail the input and output components of the test planning process. Inputs to the Test Planning Process Application Requirements .

test execution and restoration Executing the Test The test is now ready to be run. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and validates those results against expected performance. test execution environment Standardized Test Logging Procedures Outputs from the Test Execution Process Test Execution Log(s) Restored test environment Page 115 ©Copyright 2007. repeatable. documents the results. This step applies the test cases identified by the test plan. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Inputs to the Test Design and Construction Process Test Case Documentation Standards Test Case Naming Standards Approved Test Plan Business Process Documentation Business Process Flow Test Data sources Outputs from the Test Design and Construction Process Revised Test Plan Test Procedures for each Test Case Test Case(s) for each application function described in the test plan Procedures for test set up.Activities within the test execution are logged and analyzed as follows: Actual Results achieved during test execution are compared to expected application behavior from the test cases Test Case completion status (Pass/Fail) Actual results of the behavior of the technical test environment Deviations taken from the test plan or test process Inputs to the Test Execution Process Approved Test Plan Documented Test Cases Stabilized. Specific performance measurements of the test execution phase include: Application of Test Cases – The test cases previously created are applied to the target software application as described in the testing environment Documentation .

Application Defects . The first and most important step in the process is acquiring a tool that is suitable for your application. and a separate test execution cycle may be required for the stress/volume testing of the same application.Handout – Software Testing The test execution phase of your software test process will control how the test gets applied to the application. for example: ready for release. the type of test.This step identifies the overall status of the application after testing. Measuring the Results This step evaluates the results of the test as compared to the acceptance criteria set down in the test plan. test automation can offer a dramatic increase in productivity. For example. An automation assessment allows us to evaluate your tool needs. Specific elements to be measured and analyzed include: Test Execution Log Review . failed or were not executed. and the completion status. there may be several test execution cycles necessary to complete all the necessary types of testing required for your application. you may inadvertently cause problems for subsequent testing. and install and configure the tool(s) for your application and environment. etc.This final and very important report identifies potential defects in the software. Without an adequate test plan in place to control your entire test process.The Log Review compiles a listing of the activities of all test cases. noting those that passed. The problems experienced in test execution are usually attributed to not properly performing steps from earlier in the process. Test Execution Statistics . The secret to a controlled test execution is comprehensive planning. Determine Application Status . A complete and thorough test plan will identify this need and many of the test cases can be used for both test cycles. operating environment. including application processes that need to be analyzed further. Phase II: Tool Implementation Preparation Execution Page 116 ©Copyright 2007.This summary identifies the total number of tests that were executed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Other Phases in Automation Phase I: Tool Acquisition Assessment Evaluation/Selection Installation With the right tool. Additionally. a test execution may be required for the functional testing of an application. needs more testing. and test team. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . provide an objective selection of the best tool(s). This step of the process can range from very chaotic to very simple and schedule driven.

Prerequisite for running the scripts such as tool settings. design the test cases. Data Driven Approach Data driven approach is a test that plays back the same user actions but with varying input values. and automate tests. and execute the tests. if the system functionality changes. Test environment /application to be tested to be installed in the machine. These sequences are played back during the test execution. This is applicable when large volume and different sets of data need to be fed to the application and tested for correctness. reusable automated test environment.Handout – Software Testing Selecting the right test tool is only the beginning of a successful test automation effort. This process will result in a robust. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . playback options. develop the automated scripts. however overall savings is usually minimal. Automation Methods Capture/Playback Approach The Capture/Playback tools capture the sequence of manual operations in a test script that are entered by the test engineer. Testing can be done with both positive and negative approach simultaneously. it is how you use it that counts. Test Script execution: In this phase we execute the scripts that are already created. This allows one script to test multiple sets of positive data. Analysis the results via Test manager or in the logs. As with any tool. Steps to be followed before execution of scripts: Test tool to be installed in the machine. we will prepare the test environment. Tools like Winrunner provide a scripting language. This sometimes reduces the effort over the completely manual approach. Although test automation tools can save time through unattended execution. The benefit of this approach is that the time consumed is less and accurate than manually testing it. necessary data table or data pool updation needs to be taken care. Page 117 ©Copyright 2007. The benefit of this approach is that the captured session can be re-run at some later point in time to ensure that the system performs the required behavior. The short-comings of Capture/Playback are that in many cases. Scripts need to be reviewed and validated for results and accepted as functioning as expected before they are used live. and it is possible for engineers to edit and maintain such scripts. the capture/playback session will need to be completely re-run to capture the new sequence of user interactions. Cognizant Technology Solutions. it takes time to define. During the implementation phase. design. Select the script that needs to be executed and run it… Wait until execution is done.

test reporting capability. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 5 = No support. In general a set of criteria can be built up by using this matrix and an indicative score obtained to help in the evaluation process.Handout – Software Testing Test script execution process: Automation tool comparison Anyone who has contemplated the implementation of an automated test tool has quickly realized the wide variety of options on the market in terms of both the kinds of test tools being offered and the number of vendors. Each category in the matrix is given a rating of 1 – 5. tool integration capability. 2 = Good support but lacking or another tool provides more effective support. Page 118 ©Copyright 2007. Rational. Mercury. performance testing and analysis. and vendor qualification. This appendix evaluates major tool vendors on their test tool characteristics. 4 = This is only supported by use of an API call or third party add-in but not included in the general test tool/below average. Functional Test Tool Matrix The Tool Matrix is provided for quick and easy reference to the capabilities of the test tools. test execution capability. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Usually the lower the score the better but this is subjective and is based on the experience of the author and the test professionals opinions used to create this document. The best tool for any particular situation depends on the system engineering environment that applies and the testing methodology that will be used. and Segue. Empirix/RSW. 3 = Basic/ support only. which in turn will dictate how automation will be invoked to support the process. 1 = Excellent support for this functionality. The following tool vendors evaluated are Compuware.

they may be disabled. Are there facilities that will allow me to programmatically look for objects of a certain type on a web page or locate a specific object? Can I extract data from the web page itself? E. connect using MAC. Database Tests Most applications will provide the facility to preserve data outside of itself. As such. exact screen location)? Is there object recognition when recording and playing back or does it appear to record ok but then on playback (without environment change or unique id’s. How does the tool manipulate this returned data? Can it call stored procedures and supply required input variables? What is the range of functions supplied for this testing? Page 119 ©Copyright 2007. databases. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Ingres. Eventually record and playback becomes less and less part of the automation process as it is usually more robust to use the built-in functions to directly test objects. Web testing can be riddled with problems if various considerations are not taken into account. They will record a simple script. various platforms for browsers. look at the code and then playback. They will speak different languages. is this in an array. etc. Does the tool support low-level recording (mouse drags. Sybase.g. However this should be done as a minimum in the evaluation process because if the tool of choice cannot recognize the applications objects then the automation process will be a very tedious experience. etc. Here are a few examples Are there functions to tell me when the page has finished loading? Can I tell the test tool to wait until an image appears? Can I test whether links are valid or not? Can I test web based objects functions like is it enabled. A person may be connecting from the USA or Africa. This is usually achieved by holding the data in a Database. As such the test tool should provide good web based test functionality in addition to its client/server functions. This is very similar to recording a macro in say Microsoft Access. Because of the many databases available e. Web site maps and links. the title? A hidden form element? With Client server testing the target customer is usually well defined you know what network operating system you will be using. this is the first thing that most test professionals will do.g. ODBC and how they hold returned data e. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . etc. Linux or Windows. SQLServer. In judging the rating for this category I looked at the tools native support for HTML tables. frames. I have looked at all the tools support for SQL. a cursor. DB2. Record and Playback This category details how easy it is to record & playback a test. checking what is in the backend database usually verifies the proper validation of tests carried out on the front end of an application. So the cost to set up a test environment is usually greater than for a client server test where the environment is fairly well defined. etc. DOM. will have fast connections and slow connections. Oracle. and the screen resolution on their computer will be different. the applications and so on but on the web it is far different. they may use various browsers. etc changes) fail? How easy is it to read the recorded script. etc all of them support a universal query language known as SQL and a protocol for communicating with these databases called ODBC (JDBC can be used on java environments). Web Testing Web based functionality on most applications is now a part of everyday life.g. a variable. does it contain data. When automating.Handout – Software Testing A detailed description is given below of each of the categories used in the matrix. Informix. etc.

databases etc and expose functions. return data. input data. The added benefit (as I have found) is this functionality can be used for a production reason e. etc with variables supplied from an external source usually a CSV (Comma Separated variable) file. A test framework has parallels to Software frameworks where you develop an encapsulation layer of software (framework) around the applications. However you may find that most (hopefully) of the application has been implemented using standard objects supported by your test tool vendor but there may be a few objects that are custom ones. address. I have looked at all the tools facilities for creating and manipulating data. we will need to create data to input into the application. classes. This allows an inexperienced tester/user to run tests by just running/providing the test framework with know commands/variables. Frameworks are usually the ultimate goal in deploying automation test tools. etc.Handout – Software Testing Data Functions As mentioned above applications usually provide a facility for storing data off line. Data-driven tests are tests that replace hard coded names. Frameworks provide an interface to all the applications under test by exposing a suitable list of functions. Cognizant Technology Solutions.g. skilled resources and money to facilitate the first two. Pushbuttons Checkboxes Radio buttons List views Edit boxes Combo boxes If you have a custom object that behaves like one of these are you able to map (tell the test tool that the custom control behaves like the standard) control? Does it support all the standard controls methods? Can you add the custom control to it’s own class of control? Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. extract data? Can you randomise the access to that data? Is the data access truly random? This functionality is normally more important than database tests as the databases will usually have their own interface for running queries. databases. Does the tool allow you to specify the type of data you want? Can you automatically generate data? Can you interface with files. etc to create. to datadriven to framework testing. However to do this requires a lot of time. numbers. for the aforementioned bulk data input sometimes carried out in data migration or application upgrades. methods etc that is used to call the underlying applications. So to test this. etc. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . spreadsheets. try to get the development/design team to use standard and not custom objects. Object Mapping If you are in a role that can help influence the design of a product. Most custom objects will behave like a similar standard control here are a few standard objects that are seen in everyday applications. These functions are also very important as you move from the record/playback phase. However applications (except for manual input) do not usually provide facilities for bulk data input. spreadsheet or database. Then hopefully you will not need this functionality.

how it recovers from errors. Page 121 ©Copyright 2007. it provides the foundation to produce a truly robust test suite. A sort of spy that looks at the internals of the object givi ng you details like the object ame. name. Error recovery caused by the application and environment. Does the tool provide OCR (optical character recognition)? Can it compare one image against another? How fast does the compare take? If the compare fails how long does that take? Does the tool allow you to mask certain areas of the screen when comparing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Firstly the tool should provide services to uniquely identify each object it interacts with and by various means. I found this to be true but not as big a point as some have stated because those tools that don’t support the central repository scheme. Test/Error recovery This can be one of the most difficult areas to automate but if it is automated. I have looked at these facilities in the base tool set. Does the Object Name Map allow you to alias the name or change the name given by the tool to some more meaningful name? Object Identity Tool Once you become more proficient with automation testing one of the primary means of identifying objects will be via an ID Tool. object ID. The last and least desirable should be by coordinates on the screen. etc. These objects are either identified through the coordinates on the screen or preferably via some unique object reference referred to as a tag.Handout – Software Testing Image Testing Lets hope this is not a major part of your testing effort but occasionally you may have to use this to test bit map and similar images. ID and similar. Suppose the application crashes while I am testing what can I do? If a function does not receive the correct information how can I handle this? If I get an error message how do I deal with that? If I access a web site and get a warning what do I do? I cannot get a database connection how do I skip those tests? The test tool should provide facilities to handle the above questions. Object Name Map As you test your application using the test tool of your choice you will notice that it records actions against the objects that it interacts with. I looked at built in wizards of the test tools for standard test recovery (when you finish tests or when a script fails). The premise is it is better to change the reference in one place rather than having to go through each of the scripts to replace it there. Once you are well into automation and build up 10’s and 100’s of scripts that reference these objects you will want to have a mechanism that provides an easy update if the application being tested changes. index. can be programmed to reference windows and object names in one place (say via a variable) and that variable can be used throughout the script (where that object appears). Cognizant Technology Solutions. At least one of the tools allows you to map painted controls to standard controls but to do this you have to rely on the screen co-ordinates of the image. All tools provide a search and replace facility but the best implementations are those that provide a central repository to store these object identities. etc. the types of errors. Also when the application has painted controls like those in the calculator app found on a lot of windows applications you may need to use this. How easy is it to build this into your code? The rating given will depend on how much errors the tool can capture.

Handout – Software Testing
This will allow you to reference that object within a function call. The tool should give you details of some of the object’s properties, especially those associated with uniquely identifying the object or window. The tool will usually provide the tester with a point and ID service where you can use the mouse to point at the object and in some window you will see all of that objects ID’s and properties. A lot of the tools will allow you to search all the open applications in one swoop and show you the result in a tree that you can look at when required. Extensible Language Here is a question that you will here time and time again in automation forums. “How do I get {insert test tool name here} to do such and such”, there will be one of four answers. I don’t know It can’t do it It can do it using the function x, y or Z It can’t in the standard language but you can do it like this What we are concerned with in this section is the last answer e.g. if the standard test language does not support it can I create a DLL or extend the language in some way to do it? This is usually an advanced topic and is not encountered until the trained tester has been using the tool for at least 6 – 12 months. However when this is encountered the tool should support language extension. If via DLL’s then the tester must have knowledge of a traditional development language e.g. C, C++ or VB. For instance if I wanted to extend a tool that could use DLL’s created by VB I would need to have Visual Basic then open say an ActiveX dll project, create a class containing various methods (similar to functions) then I would make a dll file. Register it on the machine then reference that dll from the test tool calling the methods according to their specification. This will sound a lot clearer as you go on in the tools and this document will be updated to include advanced topics like this in extending the tools capabilities. Some tools provide extension by allowing you to create user defined functions, methods, classes, etc but these are normally a mixture of the already supported data types, functions, etc rather than extending the tool beyond it’s released functionality. Because this is an advanced topic I have not taken into account ease of use, as those people who have got to this level should have already exhausted the current capabilities of the tools. So want to use external functions like win32api functions and so on and should have a good grasp of programming. Environment Support How many environments does the tool support out the box? Does it support the latest Java release, what Oracle, Powerbuilder, WAP, etc. Most tools can interface to unsupported environments if the developers in that environment provide classes, dll’s etc that expose some of the applications details but whether a developer will or has time to do this is another question. Ultimately this is the most important part of automation. Environment support. If the tool does not support your environment/application then you are in trouble and in most cases you will need to revert to manually testing the application (more shelf ware).

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Handout – Software Testing
Integration How well does the tool integrate with other tools. This is becoming more and more important. Does the tool allow you to run it from various test management suites? Can you raise a bug directly from the tool and feed the information gathered from your test logs into it? Does it integrate with products like word, excel or requirements management tools? When managing large test projects with an automation team greater than five and testers totaling more than ten. The management aspect and the tools integration moves further up the importance ladder. An example could be a major Bank wants to redesign its workflow management system to allow faster processing of customer queries. The anticipated requirements for the new workflow software numbers in the thousands. To test these requirements 40,000 test cases have been identified 20,000 of these can be automated. How do I manage this? This is where a test management tool comes in real handy. Also how do I manage the bugs raised as a result of automation testing, etc? Integration becomes very important rather than having separate systems that don’t share data that may require duplication of information. The companies that will score larger on these are those that provide tools outside the testing arena as they can build in integration to their other products and so when it comes down to the wire on some projects, we have gone with the tool that integrated with the products we already had. Cost In my opinion cost is the least significant in this matrix, why? Because all the tools are similar in price except Visual Test that is at least 5 times cheaper than the rest but as you will see from the matrix there is a reason. Although very functional it does not provide the range of facilities that the other tools do. Price typically ranges from $2,900 - $5,000 (depending on quantity brought, packages, etc) in the US and around £2,900 - £5,000 in the UK for the base tools included in this document. So you know the tools will all cost a similar price it is usually a case of which one will do the job for me rather than which is the cheapest. Visual Test I believe will prove to be a bigger hit as it expands its functional range it was not that long ago where it did not support web based testing. The prices are kept this high because they can. All the tools are roughly the same price and the volumes of sales is low relative to say a fully blown programming language IDE like JBuilder or Visual C++ which are a lot more function rich and flexible than any of the test tools. On top of the above prices you usually pay an additional maintenance fee of between 10 and 20%. There are not many applications I know that cost this much per license not even some very advanced operating systems. However it is all a matter of supply. The bigger the supply the less the price as you can spread the development costs more. However I do not anticipate a move on the prices upwards as this seems to be the price the market will tolerate. Visual Test also provides a free runtime license.

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Handout – Software Testing
Ease Of Use This section is very subjective but I have used testers (my guinea pigs) of various levels and got them from scratch to use each of the tools. In more cases than not they have agreed on which was the easiest to use (initially). Obviously this can change as the tester becomes more experienced and the issues of say extensibility, script maintenance, integration, data-driven tests, etc are required. However this score is based on the productivity that can be gained in say the first three months when those issues are not such a big concern. Ease of use includes out the box functions, debugging facilities, layout on screen, help files and user manuals. Support In the UK this can be a problem as most of the test tool vendors are based in the USA with satellite branches in the UK. Just from my own experience and the testers I know in the UK. We have found Mercury to be the best for support, then Compuware, Rational and last Segue. However having said that you can find a lot of resources for Segue on the Internet including a forum at www.betasoft.com that can provide most of the answers rather than ringing the support line. On their website Segue and Mercury provide many useful user and vendor contributed material. I have also included various other criteria like the availability of skilled resources, online resources, validity of responses from the helpdesk, speed of responses and similar Object Tests Now presuming the tool of choice does work with the application you wish to test what services does it provide for testing object properties? Can it validate several properties at once? Can it validate several objects at once? Can you set object properties to capture the application state? This should form the bulk of your verification as far as the automation process is concerned so I have looked at the tools facilities on client/server as well as web based applications. Matrix What will follow after the matrix is a tool-by-tool comparison under the appropriate heading (as listed above) so that the user can get a feel for the tools functionality side by side. Each category in the matrix is given a rating of 1 – 5. 1 = Excellent support for this functionality, 2 = Good support but lacking or another tool provides more effective support, 3 = Basic/ support only. 4 = This is only supported by use of an API call or third party add-in but not included in the general test tool/below average, 5 = No

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Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Matrix score Win Runner = 24 QARun = 25 SilkTest = 24 Visual Test = 39 Robot = 24 SUMMARY Automated testing is automating the manual testing process currently in use. manual testing is no longer a viable option for most testing situations. Owing to the size and complexity of today’s advanced software applications. Page 125 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

prioritize and eliminate performance bottlenecks within an application. organize. Rational Suite of tools Rational RequisitePro is a requirements management tool that helps project teams control the development process. Performance Studio includes Rational Robot and Rational Load Test. Rational Clear Quest is a change-request management tool that tracks and manages defects and change requests throughout the development process. and browsers accessing a Web server. test cases and a whole set of tools to support the process. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and documentation modifications.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 9: Sample Test Automation Tool Learning Objective After completing this chapter. Rational Pure Coverage is a customizable code coverage analysis tool that provides detailed application analysis and ensures that all code has been exercised. enabling developers to quickly find. A client/server system includes client applications accessing a database or application server. Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. you will be able to: Work with Rational Testing tool Sample Test Automation Tool Rational offers the most complete lifecycle toolset (including testing) of these vendors for the windows platform. preventing untested code from reaching the end-user.g. A baseline version of RequisitePro is included with Rational Test Manager. Use Robot to record client/server conversations and store them in scripts. Cognizant Technology Solutions. defect reports. Rational Robot. Rational Suite Performance Studio is a sophisticated tool for automating performance tests on client/server systems. you can manage every type of change activity associated with software development. Allows you to write. and run tests. RequistePro. Clear case. Rational Robot. including thirdparty libraries. Rational Rose. Use Load Test to schedule and play back the scripts. you can access it in Test Manager. Their Unified Process is a very good development model that allows mapping of requirements to use cases. Facilitates functional and performance testing by automating record and playback of test scripts. etc. With Clear Quest. and to capture and analyze the results. When it comes to Object Oriented development they are the acknowledged leaders with most of the leading OO experts working for them. including enhancement requests. When you define a test requirement in RequisitePro. RequisitePro organizes your requirements by linking Microsoft Word to a requirements repository and providing traceability and change management throughout the project lifecycle. Rational Purify is a comprehensive C/C+ + run-time error checking tool that automatically pinpoints run-time errors and memory leaks in all components of an application. ensuring that code is reliable Rational Quantify is an advanced performance profiler that provides application performance analysis. Some of their products are worldwide leaders e.

The tools that are to discussed here are Rational Administrator Rational Robot Rational Test Manager Rational Administrator What is a Rational Project? A Rational project is a logical collection of databases and data stores that associates the data you use when working with Rational Suite. Automates testing by combining automatic test generation with ourcecode coverage analysis. users and groups and manage security privileges. and multiple Rose models and RequisitePro projects. Rational administrator is used to create and manage rational repositories. A Rational project is associated with one Rational Test data store. even thousands. of users placing heavy loads and stress on your database and Web servers. Rational Test categorizes test information within a repository by project. You can use the Rational Administrator to create and manage projects.Handout – Software Testing Rational Test Factory. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and optionally places them under configuration management. one Clear Quest databases. During playback. How to create a new project? Page 127 ©Copyright 2007. Rational Load Test can emulate hundreds. including all GUI features and all lines of source code. one RequisitePro database. Tests an entire application. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Once the Create button in the Configure project window is chosen. In the corresponding window displayed. In the above window opened enter the details like Project name and location. enter the Password if you want to protect the project with password.Handout – Software Testing Open the Rational administrator and go to File->New Project. to manage test assets create associated test data store and for defect management connect to Clear quest database. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Click Finish. In the configure project window displayed click the Create button. To manage the requirements assets connect to Requisite Pro. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the below seen Create Test Data store window will be displayed. configure or delete the project. which is required to connect to. Accept the default path and click OK button. Click Next. Page 128 ©Copyright 2007.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Click OK in the configure project window and now your first Rational project is ready to play with…. Rational Administrator will display your “TestProject” details as below: Page 129 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Once the below window is displayed it is confirmed that the Test datastore is successfully created and click OK to close the window.

Robot is integrated with Rational Purify. Robot uses Object-Oriented Recording to identify objects by their internal object names. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Quantify. Robot still finds them on playback. HTML. If objects change locations or their text changes. The Robot editor provides color-coded commands with keyword Help for powerful integrated programming during script development. and VU scripting environments. Test applications developed with IDEs such as Visual Basic. Record and play back scripts that navigate through your application and test the state of objects through verification points. not by screen coordinates. You can play back scripts under a diagnostic tool and see the results in the log. The Object-Oriented Recording technology in Robot lets you generate scripts quickly by simply running and using the application-under-test. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Create and edit scripts using the SQABasic. Collect diagnostic information about an application during script playback. Use Robot and TestManager together to record and play back scripts that help you determine whether a multi-client system is performing within user-defined standards under varying loads. and Java. Page 130 ©Copyright 2007. VB.Handout – Software Testing Rational Robot Rational Robot to develop three kinds of scripts: GUI scripts for functional testing and VU and VB scripts for performance testing. Robot can be used to: Perform full functional testing. Perform full performance testing. PowerBuilder. Test objects even if they are not visible in the application's interface. and PureCoverage. Oracle Forms.

You can test standard Windows objects and IDEspecific objects. including the object's properties and data. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Go to File-> New->Script In the above screen displayed enter the name of the script say “First Script” by which the script is referred to from now on and any description (Not mandatory).The type of the script is GUI for functional testing and VU for performance testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing The Object Testing technology in Robot lets you test any object in the application-under-test. whether they are visible in the interface or hidden. Once logged you will see the robot window. Page 131 ©Copyright 2007.

How to record a play back script? To record a script just go to Record->Insert at cursor Then perform the navigation in the application to be tested and once recording is done stop the recording. Line numbers are enclosed in parentheses to indicate lines in the script with warnings and errors. Also displays certain system messages from Robot. or debugging.Handout – Software Testing The GUI Script top pane) window displays GUI scripts that you are currently recording. The Output window bottom pane) has two tabs: Build – Displays compilation results for all scripts compiled in the last operation. Script pane (right) – Displays the script. To display the Output window: Click View ® Output. editing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Console – Displays messages that you send with the SQAConsoleWrite command. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It has two panes: Asset pane (left) – Lists the names of all verification points and low-level scripts for this script. Record-> Stop Page 132 ©Copyright 2007.

Handout – Software Testing

In this window we can set general options like identification of lists, menus, recording think time in General tab: Web browser tab: Mention the browser type IE or Netscape… Robot Window: During recording how the robot should be displayed and hotkeys details… Object Recognition Order: the order in which the recording is to happen. For ex: Select a preference in the Object order preference list. If you will be testing C++ applications, change the object order preference to C++ Recognition Order.

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Handout – Software Testing

Go to Tools-> Playback options to set the options needed while running the script. This will help you to handle unexpected window during playback, error recovery, mention the time out period, to manage log and log data. Verification points A verification point is a point in a script that you create to confirm the state of an object across builds of the application-under-test. During recording, the verification point captures object information (based on the type of verification point) and stores it in a baseline data file. The information in this file becomes the baseline of the expected state of the object during subsequent builds When you play back the script against a new build, Robot retrieves the information in the baseline file for each verification point and compares it to the state of the object in the new build. If the captured object does not match the baseline, Robot creates an actual data file. The information in this file shows the actual state of the object in the build. After playback, the results of each verification point appear in the log in Test Manager. If a verification point fails (the baseline and actual data do not match), you can select the verification point in the log and click View ® Verification Point to open the appropriate Comparator. The Comparator displays the baseline and actual files so that you can compare them. Verification point
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Handout – Software Testing
is stored in the project and is always associated with a script. When you create a verification point, its name appears in the Asset (left) pane of the Script window. The verification point script command, which always begins with Result =, appears in the Script (right) pane. Because verification points are assets of a script, if you delete a script, Robot also deletes all of its associated verification points. You can easily copy verification points to other scripts if you want to reuse them. List of Verification Points The following table summarizes each Robot verification point.

Page 135 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Page 136 ©Copyright 2007.

You can use Robot to create and edit SQABasic header files. you can insert lines of comment text into a GUI script.sbh.sbh). Robot will check this location first.Handout – Software Testing About SQABasic Header Files SQABasic header files let you declare custom procedures.sbh is a project-wide header file stored in SQABas32 in the project. Adding Declarations to the Global Header File For your convenience. For example: This is a comment in the script To change lines of text into comments or to uncomment text: Highlight the text.sbh: Click File ® Open ® SQABasic File. click the Display GUI Insert Toolbar button on the GUI Record toolbar. If the file is not there. You can specify another location by clicking Tools ® General Options. and variables that you want to use with multiple scripts or SQABasic library source files. and then click Open.sbh.SQABasic files are stored in the SQABas32 folder of the project. To insert a comment into a script during recording or editing. About Data pools A datapool is a test dataset. It supplies data values to the variables in a script during script playback. You can add declarations to this global header file and/or create your own. If recording. Under SQABasic path. Page 137 ©Copyright 2007. Select global. it will look in the SQABas32 directory. position the pointer in the script and click the Display GUI Insert Toolbar button on the Standard toolbar. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . constants. use the Browse button to find the location. Datapools let you automatically pump test data to virtual testers under high-volume conditions that potentially involve hundreds of virtual testers performing thousands of transactions. Global. If editing.sbh. Click Edit ® Comment Line or Edit ® Uncomment Line. SQABasic header files have the extension . Type the comment (60 characters maximum). Inserting a Comment into a GUI Script: During recording or editing. unless you specify another location. Comments are helpful for documenting and editing scripts. Click the Comment button on the GUI Insert toolbar. Click the Preferences tab. Robot provides a blank header file called Global. They can be accessed by all modules within the project. To open Global. Robot ignores comments at compile time. Set the file type to Header Files (*. Click OK to continue recording or editing. Robot inserts the comment into the script (in green by default) preceded by a single quotation mark. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Robot compiles the script if it has been modified since it last ran. Also. Cognizant Technology Solutions. you use a datapool so that: Each virtual tester that runs the script can send realistic data (which can include unique data) to the server. For example. part name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Compiling the script When you play back a GUI script or VU script. you might want a datapool to supply those values during playback. you might be filling out a data entry form and providing values such as order number. Debug menu The Debug menu has the following commands: Go Go Until Cursor Animate Pause Stop Set or Clear Breakpoints Clear All Breakpoints Step Over Step Into Step Out Note: The Debug menu commands are for use with GUI scripts only. If you plan to repeat the transaction multiple times during playback. or when you debug a GUI script. the GUI script can access the same datapool as other scripts. Page 138 ©Copyright 2007. A single virtual tester that performs the same transaction multiple times can send realistic data to the server in each transaction. There is no DATAPOOL_CONFIG statement in a GUI script. you define a datapool for either type of script using TestManager in exactly the same way. Robot adds datapool commands to VU scripts automatically. when a GUI script is played back in a TestManager suite. and so forth. You can also compile scripts and SQABasic library source files manually. you might want to provide a different set of values each time. A GUI script can access a datapool when it is played back in Robot. There are differences in the way GUI scripts and sessions are set up for datapool access: You must add datapool commands to GUI scripts manually while editing the script in Robot. Although there are differences in setting up datapool access in GUI scripts and sessions. The SQADatapoolOpen command defines the access method to use for the datapool. Using Datapools with GUI Scripts If you are providing one or more values to the client application during GUI recording.Handout – Software Testing Typically.

The compilation results can be viewed in the Build tab of the Output window. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 139 ©Copyright 2007. the Build tab in the Output window displays compilation results and error messages with line numbers for all compiled scripts and library source files. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing During compilation.

and test documents. Under this single framework. implement. manage. and logs. most importantly. execute tests and evaluate results. The results need to be analyzed in the Test Manager.Handout – Software Testing Compilation errors After the script is created and compiled and errors fixed it can be executed. it provides the entire team with one place to go to determine the state of the system at any time. all participants in the testing effort can define and refine the quality goals they are working toward. design. and data both related to and produced by the testing effort. builds. The reporting tools help you track assets such as scripts. Rational Test Manager Test Manager is the open and extensible framework that unites all of the tools. and run reports. log folders. assets. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In Test Manager you can plan. And. Create and manage builds. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is where the team defines the plan it will implement to meet those goals. With Test manager we can: Create. Create and manage data pools and data types Page 140 ©Copyright 2007. and track test coverage and progress.

you could see the results stored.Handout – Software Testing When the script execution is started the following window will be displayed. In the Results tab of the Test Manager. Cognizant Technology Solutions. From Test Manager you can know start time of the script and Page 141 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The folder in which the log is to stored and the log name needs to be given in this window.

0 with service pack 5 Win2000 WinXP(Rational 2002) Win98 Win95 with service pack1 Protocols Oracle SQL server HTTP Sybase Tuxedo SAP People soft Web browsers IE4.Handout – Software Testing Supported environments Operating system WinNT4.0 or later Netscape navigator (limited support) Page 142 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

For more details visit www. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . VC++ and basic web pages. RequistePro.com SUMMARY Rational offers the most complete lifecycle toolset (including testing) of these vendors for the windows platform.g. When it comes to Object Oriented development they are the acknowledged leaders with most of the leading OO experts working for them.0 or above Visual C++ Java Oracle forms 4.rational. Cognizant Technology Solutions. To test these types of application. Page 143 ©Copyright 2007. Rational Robot. etc. Development environments Visual basic 4.Handout – Software Testing Markup languages HTML and DHTML pages on IE4.0 and above The basic product supports Visual basic.0 or later. Some of their products are worldwide leaders e. Clear case.5 Delphi Power builder 5. Rational Rose. you have to download and run a free enabler program from Rational’s website.

the system is unable to scale to higher levels of performance. throughput. the cost of failure becomes increasingly unbearable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Typically to debug applications. Performance analysis is also carried for various purposes such as: During a design or redesign of a module or a part of the system. some system resource. the evaluation of a design alternative is the prime mover for an analysis. A systematic approach like performance analysis is essential to extract maximum benefit from an existing system. The objective of a performance test is to demonstrate that the system meets requirements for transaction throughput and response times simultaneously. performance is a secondary issue to features. we want to measure the latency. When looking for errors in the application. Page 144 ©Copyright 2007. Why Performance testing? Performance problems are usually the result of contention for. In such cases. Post-deployment realities create a need for the tuning the existing system. high throughput. or exhaustion of.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 10: Performance Testing Learning Objective After completing this chapter.e. you will be able to: Test performance of a software What is Performance testing? The performance testing is a measure of the performance characteristics of an application. completely exercise the application) in an attempt to find errors. As the user base grows. more than one alternative presents itself. however. are automated test scripts and an infrastructure to be used to execute automated tests for extended periods. analysis must be done to forecast performance under load. To increase confidence and to provide an advance warning of potential problems in case of load conditions. When a system resource is exhausted. Performance testing of an application is basically the process of understanding how the web application and its operating environment respond at various user load levels. developers would execute their applications using different execution streams (i. and utilization of the web site while simulating attempts by virtual users to simultaneously access the site.. it is still an issue. One of the main objectives of performance testing is to maintain a web site with low latency. The main objective of a performance testing is to demonstrate that the system functions to specification with acceptable response times while processing the required transaction volumes in real-time production database. This helps to replace and focus efforts at improving overall system response. Maintaining optimum Web application performance is a top priority for application developers and administrators. Identification of bottlenecks in a system is more of an effort at troubleshooting. Cognizant Technology Solutions. prior to execution. and low utilization. In general. The main deliverables from such a test.

Page 145 ©Copyright 2007. a sensible comparison can be derived. measurable. performance requirements should be agreed prior to the test. Defines specific customer scenarios. which can be re-used for other tests with broader objectives. A comprehensive test strategy would define a test infrastructure to enable all these objectives be met. The performance testing goals are: End-to-end transaction response time measurements. Fortunately.response time requirements should be justifiable when compared with the durations of the activities within the business process the system supports.response times should take some account of the cost of achieving them. This infrastructure is an asset and an expensive one too. Cognizant Technology Solutions. relevant. Measurable . realistic. Measure the network delay between the server and clients Pre-requisites for Performance Testing We can identify five pre-requisites for a performance test. but rather. Not all of these need be in place prior to planning or preparing the test (although this might be helpful).a response time must be relevant to a business process. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Measure database components performance under various loads. so it pays to make as much use of this infrastructure as possible. Bases performance goals on customer requirements. the list defines what is required before a test can be executed.expressed in quantifiable terms such that when response times are measured. Monitor system resources under various loads. the design specification or a separate performance requirements document should: Defines specific performance goals for each feature that is instrumented. this infrastructure is a test bed. This helps in determining whether or not the system meets the stated requirements. First and foremost thing is. Realistic . Achievable . Quantitative. Measure Application Server components performance under various loads.a response time should be defined such that it can be measured using a tool or stopwatch and at reasonable cost. Quantitative . achievable requirements As a foundation to all tests.Handout – Software Testing Performance Testing Objectives The objective of a performance test is to demonstrate that the system meets requirements for transaction throughput and response times simultaneously. The following attributes will help to have a meaningful performance comparison. Relevant .

however. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A test environment which bears no similarity to the actual production environment may be useful for finding obscure errors in the code. but is. the test environment should be comparable to the actual production environment. If the software crashes regularly. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A single response time requirement for all transactions might be simple to define from the user’s point of view. the behavior of the target environment. Typically. but others are less critical and response time requirements can be less stringent. Business scenarios might cover different situations when the users’ organization has different levels of activity or involve a varying mix of activities. Even with an environment which is somewhat different from the production environment.Handout – Software Testing Stable system A test team attempting to construct a performance test of a system whose software is of poor quality is unlikely to be successful. which must be supported by the system. Realistic test environment The test environment should ideally be the production environment or a close simulation and be dedicated to the performance test team for the duration of the test. but is unreasonable. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. Database volumes Data volumes. data volumes estimated to exist after one year’s use of the systems are used. A load profile is the level of system loading expected to occur during a specific business scenario. and often wishes to define requirements in terms of generic response times. However. but two year volumes or greater might be used in some circumstances. depending on the business application. defining the numbers of table rows which should be present in the database after a specified period of live running complete the load profile. middleware or operating systems crash. it should still be possible to interpret the results obtained using a model of the system to predict. users normally focus attention on response times. with some confidence. Often this is not possible. Performance Testing Requirements Performance requirements normally comprise three components: Response time requirements Transaction volumes detailed in ‘Load Profiles’ Database volumes Response time requirements When asked to specify performance requirements. for the results of the test to be realistic. useless for a performance test. Some functions are critical and require short response times. it will probably not withstand the relatively minor stress of repeated use. or may not be able to execute a test for a reasonable length of time before the software. Load profiles The second component of performance requirements is a schedule of load profiles. Testers will not be able to record scripts in the first instance.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Performance Testing Process Page 147 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Hardware & Software components and Usage Model. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Phase 1 – Requirements Study This activity is carried out during the business and technical requirements identification phase. The objective is to understand the performance test requirements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is important to understand as accurately and as objectively as possible the nature of load that must be generated. Following are the important performance test requirement that needs to be captured during this phase. Hardware Platform Server Machines Processors Memory Disk Storage Load Machines configuration Network configuration Page 148 ©Copyright 2007. Response Time Transactions Per Second Hits Per Second Workload No of con current users Volume of data Data growth rate Resource usage Hardware and Software configurations Phase 2 – Test Plan The following configuration information will be identified as part of performance testing environment requirement identification.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Software Configuration Operating System Server Software Client Machine Software Applications Phase 3 – Test Design Based on the test strategy detailed test scenarios would be prepared. During the test design period the following activities will be carried out: Scenario design Detailed test execution plan Dedicated test environment setup Script Recording/ Programming Script Customization (Delay. Checkpoints. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Synchronizations points) Data Generation Parameterization/ Data pooling Page 149 ©Copyright 2007.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. All the scenarios identified will be executed. Virtual user loads are simulated based on the usage pattern and load levels applied as stated in the performance test strategy. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The following artifacts will be produced during test execution period: Test logs Test Result Page 150 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Phase 4 –Scripting Phase 5 – Test Execution The test execution will follow the various types of test as identified in the test plan.

Network throughput. The following performance test reports/ graphs can be generated as part of performance testing:Transaction Response time Transactions per Second Transaction Summary graph Transaction performance Summary graph Transaction Response graph – Under load graph Virtual user Summary graph Page 151 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Phase 6 – Test Analysis Phase 7 – Preparation of Reports The test logs and results generated are analyzed based on Performance under various load. Transaction Distribution and Data handling. Manual and automated results analysis methods can be used for performance results analysis. database throughput. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Transaction/second. Resource usage. Network delay. Think time.

Metrics. Upgrades to client or server hardware. network capacity or routing. database organization.Handout – Software Testing Error Statistics graph Hits per second graph Throughput graph Down load per second graph Based on the Performance report analysis. middleware. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Common Mistakes in Performance Testing No Goals No general purpose model Goals =>Techniques. suggestions on improvement or tuning will be provided to the design team: Performance improvements to application software. Changes to server system parameters. Workload Not trivial Biased Goals ‘To show that OUR system is better than THEIRS” Analysts = Jury Unsystematic Approach Analysis without Understanding the Problem Incorrect Performance Metrics Unrepresentative Workload Wrong Evaluation Technique Overlook Important Parameters Ignore Significant Factors Inappropriate Experimental Design Inappropriate Level of Detail No Analysis Erroneous Analysis Page 152 ©Copyright 2007.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing No Sensitivity Analysis Ignoring Errors in Input Improper Treatment of Outliers Assuming No Change in the Future Ignoring Variability Too Complex Analysis Improper Presentation of Results Ignoring Social Aspects Omitting Assumptions and Limitations Benchmarking Lessons Ever build needs to be measured. Creating an automated test suite to measure performance is time-consuming and labor-intensive. perturb only one variable at a time for each build. at how to instrument tests to best measure various response times. testers must guess. This typically means measuring performance on "clean" test environments. Performance testing of Web services and applications is paramount to ensuring an excellent customer experience on the Internet. Design the build verification test (BVT) suite to ensure that no new bugs are injected into the build that would prevent the performance test suite from successfully completing. keep the performance test suite fairly static throughout the product development cycle. All the members in the team should agree that a performance issue is not just a bug. The performance tests should be modified consistently. The Web Capacity Analysis (WebCAT) tool provides Web server performance analysis. Performance goals need to be ensured. Page 153 ©Copyright 2007. without a clear purpose. If the design or requirements change and you must modify a test. If we decide to make performance a goal and a measure of the quality criteria for release. Significant changes to the performance test suite skew or make obsolete all previous data. Therefore. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . we should run the performance test suite under controlled conditions from build to build. Design the performance test suite to measure response times and not to identify bugs in the product. Establish incremental performance goals throughout the product development cycle. Also. the tool can also assess Internet Server Application Programming Interface and application server provider (ISAPI/ASP) applications. We should run the automated performance test suite against every build and compare the results against previous results. it is important to define concrete performance goals. Performance issues must be identified as soon as possible to prevent further degradation. it is a software architectural problem. Without defined performance goals or requirements. Therefore. The performance tests should not be used to find functionality-type bugs. the management team must decide to enforce the goals.

WebLoad 4. You create test scripts (called agendas) using Java Scripts that instruct those virtual clients about what to do. Repeatable and measurable load to execute your client/server system just as real users would. Webload can also gather information server’s performance monitor. incorporate the performance test suite into the stress test suite to validate stress scenarios and to identify potential performance issues under different stress conditions. LoadRunner 6. The tools used for performance testing are Loadrunner 6. client certificates. LoadRunner runs thousands of Virtual Users that are distributed over a network. Use WebLoad to test how well your web site will perform under realworld conditions by combining performance. Tests are capturing secondary metrics when the instrumented tests have nothing to do with measuring clear and established performance goals. LoadRunner enables you to test your system under controlled and peak load conditions.5 LoadRunner is Mercury Interactive’s tool for testing the performance of client/server systems. persistent connections and chunked transfer coding. To generate load. these Virtual users provide consistent. it is probably wasted data. Using a minimum of hardware resources. SSL.5 and Webload 4. Webload generates load by creating virtual clients that emulate network traffic.5x. Webload supports HTTP1. load and functional tests or by running them individually. It can measure the performance of your application under any load conditions. per-transaction and per-instance level from the computers that are generating the load. including cookies. TSL. You should reuse automated performance tests Automated performance tests can often be reused in many other automated test suites. Performance Testing Tools Testing for most applications will be automated.Handout – Software Testing Strive to achieve the majority of the performance goals early in the product development cycle because: Most performance issues require architectural change.0 and 1. if the data is not going to be used in a meaningful way to make improvements in the engineering cycle.1. it gathers results at a per-client. functionality and performance of Web-based applications – both Internet and Intranet. Load Runner’s in depth reports and graphs provide the information that you need to evaluate the performance of your client/server system. proxies. For example. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . When Webload runs the test. You can watch the results as they occur. Ensure that you know what you are measuring and why. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Tools used for testing would be the tool pecified in the requirement specification.5 Webload is a testing tool for testing the scalability. Performance is known to degrade slightly during the stabilization phase of the development cycle. authentifications. Achieving performance goals early also helps to ensure that the ship date is met because a product rarely ships if it does not meet performance goals. Page 154 ©Copyright 2007. Although secondary metrics look good on wall charts and in reports.Webload displays them in graphs and tables in real-time and you can save and export the results when the test is finished.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Performance Testing Tools .summary and comparison Page 155 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Page 156 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Page 157 ©Copyright 2007.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Page 158 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Page 159 ©Copyright 2007. It is significantly different from capacity planning exercise in that it is done after development and before deployment Software Benchmarking .Defining the right placement and composition of software instances can help in vertical scalability of the system without addition of hardware resources. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This is achieved through software benchmark test.Handout – Software Testing Architecture Benchmarking Hardware Benchmarking .Hardware benchmarking is performed to size the application with the planned Hardware platform. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

The methodologies below are generic. The response time at maximum throughput is too high. Or. along with some simple background information that might be helpful during testing. Type of workload: in order to properly achieve the goals of the test.Handout – Software Testing General Tests What follows is a list of tests adaptable to assess the performance of most systems. Cognizant Technology Solutions. issues and errors to pay attention to during and after the test. This methodology specification provides information on the appropriate script of pages or transactions for the user. the ratio of the performance of an nprocessor system to that of a one-processor system is its efficiency. each test requires a certain type of workload. Page 160 ©Copyright 2007. bandwidth in bits per second. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. Utilization: The fraction of time the resource is busy servicing requests. What to look for: contains information on behaviors. Purpose: explains the value and focus of the test. Throughput: Rate (requests per unit of time) Examples: Jobs per second Requests per second Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS) Millions of Floating Point Operations Per Second (MFLOPS) Packets Per Second (PPS) Bits per second (bps) Transactions Per Second (TPS) Capacity: Nominal Capacity: Maximum achievable throughput under ideal workload conditions. Methodology Definitions Result: provide information about what the test will accomplish. Stretch Factor: The ratio of the response time with single user to that of concurrent users. Methodology: a list of suggested steps to take in order to assess the system under test. Usable capacity: Maximum throughput achievable without exceeding a pre-specified response-time limit Efficiency: Ratio usable capacity to nominal capacity. Time estimate: a rough estimate of the amount of time that the test may take to complete. Performance Metrics The Common Metrics selected /used during the performance testing is as below Response time Turnaround time = the time between the submission of a batch job and the completion of its output.g. Constraints: details any constraints and values that should not be exceeded during testing. allowing one to use a wide range of tools to conduct the assessments. E.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. analysis and reporting. design. It is also important to monitor and collect the statistics such as CPU utilization. should be collected. disk space and network usage on individual web.e strategy.Handout – Software Testing Average Fraction used for memory. plan.. Memory and Disk Space Web Server Resources–Threads. Without the rigor described in this paper. Cache Hit Ratio Application Server Resources–Heap size. JDBC Connection Pool Database Server Resources–Wait Events. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . application and database servers and make sure those numbers recede as load decreases. However. memory. HTTP requests per second. performance testing can unearth issues that otherwise cannot be done through mainstream testing. Cognizant has built custom monitoring tools to collect the statistics. As tests are executed. throughput etc. if executed systematically with appropriate planning. Third party monitoring tools are also used based on the requirement. It is very typical of the project manager to be overtaken by time and resource pressures Page 161 ©Copyright 2007. SQL Queries Transaction Profiling Code Block Analysis Network Statistics Bandwidth Utilization Network delay time Network Segment delay time Conclusion Performance testing is an independent discipline and involves all the phases as the mainstream testing lifecycle i. Client Side Statistics Running Vusers Hits per Second Throughput HTTP Status Code HTTP responses per Second Pages downloaded per Second Transaction response time Page Component breakdown time Page Download time Component size Analysis Error Statistics Errors per Second Total Successful/Failed Transactions Server Side Statistics System Resources . executing performance testing does not yield anything more than finding more defects in the system.Processor Utilization. execution. metrics such as response times for transactions.

the consequences of which could be disastrous to the final system. Testing of critical web applications during its development and before its deployment should include functional testing to confirm to the specifications. By continuously testing and monitoring the performance of critical software applications. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the system should have been architect and designed for meeting the required performance goals. leveraging an ongoing. If not. The discipline helps businesses succeed in leveraging Web technologies to their best advantage. enabling new business opportunity lowering transaction costs and strengthening profitability. When should load testing be done? Load testing should be done when the probable cost of the load test is likely less than the cost of a failed application deployment. businesses can begin to take charge and leverage information technology assets to their competitive advantage. lifecycle-focused approach. robust and viable solutions exist to help fend off disasters that result from poor performance. Thus a load testing is accomplished by stressing the real application under simulated load provided by virtual users. Page 162 ©Copyright 2007. Load testing gives the greatest line of defense against poor performance and accommodates complementary strategies for performance management and monitoring of a production environment. Load Testing Load Testing is creation of a simulated load on a real computer system by using virtual users who submit work as real users would do at real client workstations and thus testing the systems ability to support such workload.Handout – Software Testing leading not enough budget being allocated for performance testing. Once these solutions are properly adopted and utilized. business can confidently and proactively execute strategic corporate initiatives for the benefit of shareholders and customers alike. Automated load testing tools and services are available to meet the critical need of measuring and optimizing complex and dynamic application and infrastructure performance. performance testing to check if it offers an acceptable response time and load testing to see what hardware or software configuration will be required to provide acceptable response time and handle the load that will created by the real users of the system Why is load testing important? Load Testing increases the uptime for critical web applications by helping you spot the bottlenecks in the system under large user stress scenarios before they happen in a production environment. it may be too late in the software development cycle to correct serious performance issues. However there is an important point to be noted here. Before testing the system for performance requirements. Fortunately. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Web-enabled applications and infrastructures must be able to execute evolving business processes with speed and precision while sustaining high volumes of changing and unpredictable user audiences. There is another flip side of the coin.

Configuration and/or Stress Testing.e. number of transactions. fixed. Such systems can be transactions processing systems capturing real time sales or could be database updates and or data retrieval. For example. analyzed. and dependency on over-utilized shared resources). Stress testing is the system testing of an integrated. Determine how an application degrades and eventually fails. Provide input to the defect trend analysis effort. Examples Typical examples include stress testing of an application that is: Software only.. or an entry at the maximum amount of data in a field.. as conditions become extreme..Handout – Software Testing Volume and Stress Testing Volume testing: Volume Testing. as its name implies. to determine if it fulfills its scalability requirements). blackbox application that attempts to cause failures involving how its performance varies under extreme but valid conditions (e. hardware. A system including software. queries with an extreme number of restrictions. number of users. Determine if the application will support "worst case" production load conditions. Volume testing will seek to verify the physical and logical limits to a system's capacity and ascertain whether such limits are acceptable to meet the projected capacity of the organization's business processing. Batch with no realtime requirements. queries that return the entire contents of a database.g. Volume Testing is conducted in conjunction with Component. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . stress testing could involve an extreme number of simultaneous users. is testing that purposely subjects a system (both hardware and software) to a series of tests where the volume of data being processed is the subject of the test. Goals The typical goals of stress testing are to: Cause the application to fail to scale gracefully under extreme conditions so that the underlying defects can be identified.g. Huge (e. and data components. Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Provide data that will assist systems engineers in making intelligent decisions regarding future scaling needs. Help determine the extent to which the application is ready for launch. Objectives The typical objectives of stress testing are to: Partially validate the application (i. Page 163 ©Copyright 2007. and prevented in the future. insufficient memory inadequate hardware. extreme utilization. amount of data). extreme numbers of transactions.

. human reaction times).g. Cognizant Technology Solutions. automotive engine control).e.Handout – Software Testing Soft realtime (i. The relevant system components have passed system integration testing. Preconditions Stress test execution can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The scalability requirements to be tested have been specified. The independent test team is adequately staffed and trained in stress testing.. The relevant software components have passed unit testing. Test Implementation: o Develop test scripts o Simulating extreme workloads. avionics. The test suites for every scheduled scalability requirement execute successfully. Test Execution: o o Regression Testing Profiling Test Reporting Environments Load testing is typically performed on the following environments using the following tools: Test Environment: o Test Harness o Use case modeling tool o Performance analyzer o Profiler Page 164 ©Copyright 2007.g. flight-control software. Completion Criteria Stress testing is typically complete when the following postconditions hold: At least one stress test suite exists for each scalability requirement. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Business-critical or safety-critical. Tasks Stress testing typically involves the independent test team performing the following testing tasks using the following techniques: Test Planning Test Reuse Test Design: o o Use Case Based Testing Workload analysis to determine the maximum production workloads. cruise-control software). A research prototype that will not be placed into service. Software integration has occurred (i. Embeded within another system (e.e. Hard realtime (e.. radar. The test environment is ready.. load testing can begin prior to the distribution of the software components onto the hardware components). Client/server or n-tier distributed.

Handout – Software Testing Work Products Stress testing typically results in the production of all or part of the following work products from the test work product set: Documents: o Project Test Plan o Master Test List o Test Procedures o Test Report o Test Summary Report Software and Data: o o o o o Phases Test Harness Test Scripts Test Suites Test Cases Test Data (*) Optional stress testing of COTS software components during the technology analysis and technology vendor selection tasks. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . (**) Optional stress testing of the executable architecture as well as the COTS components during the vendor and tool evaluation and vendor and tool selection tasks. Page 165 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Stress testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Develop test scripts simulating exceptional workloads.Handout – Software Testing Guidelines A system can fulfilits operational requirements and still be a failure if it does not scale. The main deliverables from such a test. To the extent practical. Page 166 ©Copyright 2007. prior to execution. Perform stress testing for several minutes to several hours. The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that stress testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. The objective of a performance test is to demonstrate that the system meets requirements for transaction throughput and response times simultaneously. SUMMARY The performance testing is a measure of the performance characteristics of an application. Stress testing can elicit failures prior to launch. The main objective of a performance testing is to demonstrate that the system functions to specification with acceptable response times while processing the required transaction volumes in real-time production database. are automated test scripts and an infrastructure to be used to execute automated tests for extended periods. reuse functional test cases as stress test cases.

This is also used as an estimation technique to calculate the size and effort of a testing project. In this courseware we shall give an overview about Test Case Points and not elaborate on using TCP as an estimation technique. Average and Complex based on the following four factors. The TCP counts are nothing but ranking the requirements and the test cases that are to be written for those requirements into simple. A Simple requirement is one. the application is classified into various modules like say for a web application. An Average requirement is ranked between 4 and 7. you will be able to: Describe TCP and TCP Analysis What is a Test Case Point (TCP)? TCP is a measure of estimating the complexity of an application.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 11: Test Case Point Learning Objective After completing this chapter. of verification points OR Baseline Test data Refer the test case classification table given below Page 167 ©Copyright 2007. A Complex requirement is ranked between 8 and 10. which can be given a value in the scale of 1 to3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The test cases for a particular requirement are classified into Simple. Test Case Point Analysis Calculating the Test Case Points Based on the Functional Requirement Document (FRD). Test case complexity for that requirement OR Interface with other Test cases OR No. average and complex and quantifying the same into a measure of complexity. we can have ‘Login and Authentication’ as a module and rank that particular module as Simple. Average and Complex based on the number and complexity of the requirements for that module. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

we arrive at the count of Total Test Case Points. This adjustment factor has been calculated after a thorough study and analysis done on many testing projects.Handout – Software Testing A sample guideline for classification of test cases is given below. By multiplying the number of requirements with it s corresponding adjustment factor. average and complex test case points. which interfaces with or interacts with another application is classified as 'Complex' Any verification point consisting of report verification is considered as 'Complex' A verification point comprising Search functionality may be classified as 'Complex' or 'Average' depending on the complexity Depending on the respective project. Any verification point containing a calculation is considered 'Complex' Any verification point. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . average and complex test case types. The Adjustment Factor in the table mentioned below is pre-determined and must not be changed for every project. Page 168 ©Copyright 2007. the complexity needs to be identified in a similar manner. Based on the test case type an adjustment factor is assigned for simple. we get the simple. Cognizant Technology Solutions. average and complex test cases. Summing up the three results. we can get the number of simple. From the break up of Complexity of Requirements done in the first step.

without regard to how it works internally. Functional testing examines what the program accomplishes. A test coverage analyzer automates this process. Test coverage analysis can be used to assure quality of the set of tests. taking into account possible pitfalls in the structure and logic. If the execution time in some procedures is zero. and not the quality of the actual product. Code coverage analysis is a structural testing technique (white box testing). Creating additional test cases to increase coverage. But this measure of test coverage is so coarse-grained it's not very practical. Also an optional aspect of test coverage analysis is: Identifying redundant test cases that do not increase coverage. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Coverage analysis requires access to test program source code and often requires recompiling it with a special command. Test coverage analysis is sometimes called code coverage analysis. The academic world more often uses the term "test coverage" while practitioners more often use "code coverage".Handout – Software Testing Test Coverage Test Coverage is an important measure of quality for software systems. Structural testing compares test program behavior against the apparent intention of the source code. and Determining a quantitative measure of code coverage. Structural testing examines how the program works. Test Coverage analysis is the process of: Finding areas of a program not exercised by a set of test cases. Here is a description of some fundamental measures and their strengths and weaknesses Procedure-Level Test Coverage Probably the most basic form of test coverage is to measure what procedures were and were not executed during the test suite. which is an indirect measure of quality. This contrasts with functional testing (black-box testing). you need to write new tests that hit those procedures. The two terms are synonymous. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This simple statistic is typically available from execution profiling tools. Test coverage measures A large variety of coverage measures exist. which compares test program behavior against a requirements specification. whose job is really to measure performance bottlenecks. Page 169 ©Copyright 2007.

This. OS. Cognizant Technology Solutions. How and when this instrumentation phase happens can vary greatly between different products. or virtual machine).the provider of the tool must explicitly choose which languages to support.Handout – Software Testing Line-Level Test Coverage The basic measure of a dedicated test coverage tool is tracking which lines of code are executed. the performance factor may be significant. Adding probes to the program will make it bigger and slower.) than other forms of instrumentation. A separate version namely. The tool will analyze the existing executable. file. Source-Level Instrumentation Some products add probes at the source level. and add additional code (such as calls to a code coverage runtime) that will record where the program reached.the provider of the tool must explicitly choose which processors or virtual machines to support. One drawback of this technique is the need to modify the build process. and which are not. for example. it is dependent on operating environment -. They analyze the source code as written. you can see exactly what functionality has not been tested. You need condition coverage to know. such as debug (un optimized) and release (optimized) needs to be maintained. Because the file is not modified in any way. Typically the line coverage information is also presented at the source code level. and then create a new. test coverage tools generally "instrument" the program by inserting "probes". allowing you to see exactly which lines of code were executed and which were not. Such a tool may not actually generate new source files with the additional code. The same executable file used for product release testing should be used for code coverage. or project level giving a percentage of the code that was executed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The probes exist only in the inmemory copy of the executable file.g. Proponents claim this technique can provide higher levels of code coverage measurement (condition coverage. A large project that achieved 90% code coverage might be considered a well-tested product. This result is often presented in a summary at the procedure. However. code coverage version in addition to other versions. Some products. This type of instrumentation is independent of programming language. But in practice. There are many other test coverage measures. For example. is often the key to writing more tests that will increase coverage: By studying the unexecuted code. consider a block of code that is skipped under certain conditions (e. you should have more. But it can be somewhat independent of operating environment (processor. However. If the test suite is large and timeconsuming. a statement in an if clause).. If that code is shown as executed. just executing it will not automatically start code coverage (as it would with the other methods of Page 170 ©Copyright 2007. it is an enviable commitment to quality! How Test Coverage Tools Work To monitor execution. the file itself is not modified. instrumented one. most available code coverage tools do not provide much beyond basic line coverage. In theory. you don't know whether you have tested the case when it is skipped. intercept the compiler after parsing but before code generation to insert the changes they need. Condition Coverage and Other Measures It's easy to find cases where line coverage doesn't really tell the whole story. if you achieve 95+% line coverage and still have time and budget to commit to further testing improvements. Runtime Instrumentation Probes need not be added until the program is actually run. of course. This type of instrumentation is dependent on programming language -. Executable Instrumentation Probes can also be added to a completed executable file. etc.

Page 171 ©Copyright 2007. Alternatively.Handout – Software Testing instrumentation). Each project must choose a minimum percent coverage for release criteria based on available testing resources and the importance of preventing post-release failures. safety-critical software should have a high goal. Clearly. We must set a higher coverage goal for unit testing than for system testing since a failure in lower-level code may affect multiple high-level callers. the code coverage tool must start program execution directly or indirectly. This new code will wake up and connect to a waiting coverage tool whenever the program executes. the code coverage tool will add a tiny bit of instrumentation to the executable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Test Coverage Tools at a Glance Coverage analysis is a structural testing technique that helps eliminate gaps in a test suite. It helps most in the absence of a detailed. Instead. and does nothing if the coverage tool is not waiting. Runtime Instrumentation is independent of programming language but dependent on operating environment. Like Executable Instrumentation. up-to-date requirements specification. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This added code does not affect the size or performance of the executable.

Email address.focus(). an additional field for credit card number is provided. Note that the pages are not submitted to the server for this action.phone. find the independent paths b) Develop Test cases based on that. Address2. The details that can be stored are Name. Address1. } if (document. State. The Personal Address book is designed for people to access their contacts online from a central database on the server. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . These entries can be modified directly from here by clicking the edit button. if (document. The view only pages are reached through the results page on clicking the hyperlinks. However the system is not compatible with Netscape browser and is designed specifically for the IE 5.frm. so that effectively reduces the network traffic. document.Handout – Software Testing SUMMARY TCP is a measure of estimating the complexity of an application. Test your Understanding Assignment 1 There is an application on personal address book. Country. In the personal information page. However only the name and phone numbers are mandatory fields. flag=0. you need to submit the following artifacts: a) Draw the flow chart. This is also used as an estimation technique to calculate the size and effort of a testing project. Validation code at client side function save() { var flag. The database is Microsoft Access. City. Phone no.frm. It uses ASP in the server side and java script in the client side..0 and above.value=="") Page 172 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. As a whole it is designed for personal use and security was not a concern while designing it. along with email is displayed. The search page provides with facility to search by name or place and the results are displayed in a tabular form where the essential fields name and phone no.name1.frm.name1. Case Study: Application Personal Address book.value=="") { alert ("Please Fill in the name"). The phone number and credit card number are numeric and email address is also verified for a character '@'. return false. c) Also develop other test cases for complete testing. The entries can be seen in a tabular form also by choosing the search by list option.

frm.i<document.focus().email.phone.select().Handout – Software Testing { alert ("Please Fill in the Phone number").select().frm. document. document.length.frm.value)==true) { alert ("Phone number should be numeric").frm. return false.focus().focus(). document.value.frm. } } if (flag!=1) { alert ("Please Fill email in correct format"). document.frm.frm. break.submit(). } if (isNaN(document.phone. document. return false. Cognizant Technology Solutions. return true.email.value!="") { for (i=0.i++) { if (document.phone.frm. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .charAt(i)=="@") { flag=1. } if (document. } Page 173 ©Copyright 2007.frm.email.frm.phone.email.value. } } document.email. return false.

by. by.nildram. Poston.aptest. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Bill Hetzel Software Testing Techniques. Management.sqatester. Elfriede Dustin Effective use of Test automation tools.Bob Johnson . Hung Q.co. by. by. and Performance. by.Michael Hacke & Robert Johnson Software Testing: A Craftsman's Approach. Taz Daughtrey Testing Applications on the Web. Rex Black 50 Ways to improve your testing.html http://www. Nguyen Software Test Automation.com/ http://www. by. IEEE Black Box Testing. Boris Beizer Client Server Software Testing on the Desktop and the Web.testing. Myers The Complete Guide to Software Testing.com/resources. Paul Jorgensen Automated Software Testing: Introduction. Hayes Automating Specification-Based Software Testing. Paulc. Mark Fewster & Dorothy Graham Black-Box Testing . Jeff Rashka.edu/~storm/ http://www. Hung Q. Boris Beizer Testing Applications on the Web: Test Planning for Mobile and Internet-Based Systems.softwaretesting. Mark Fewster & Dorothy Graham The craft of software testing. Robert M. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing REFERENCES WEBSITES http://members. by. Mosley Fundamental Concepts for the Software Quality Engineer.com/ Cognizant eResources: http://elibrary/ \\ctsintcosaca\library BOOKS The Art of Software Testing.com/ http://www. Jorgensen.softwareqatest. by.uk/ http://www.mtsu.com/ http://www. Nguyen. by. by. Daniel J. Elfriede Dustin. by.tripod. Bret Pettichord Page 174 ©Copyright 2007. by. Glenford J.com/~bazman/ http://www. Linda G. John Paul & Paperback Practical Tools and Techniques for Managing Hardware and Software Testing. by. Boris Beizer Automated Testing Handbook. by. Brian Marick Software test automation. by. by.softwaretestinginstitute. by. by. by.

Handout – Software Testing STUDENT NOTES: Page 175 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

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