Handout: Software Testing

Version: ST/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

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Handout – Software Testing

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................5 About this Module .........................................................................................................................5 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................5 Module Objectives ........................................................................................................................5 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................5 Chapter 1: Introduction to Testing ...............................................................................................6 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................6 What is Software Testing..............................................................................................................6 Testing Life Cycle .........................................................................................................................6 Broad Categories of Testing .........................................................................................................7 The Testing Techniques ...............................................................................................................7 Types of Testing ...........................................................................................................................8 SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................................8 Test your Understanding ..............................................................................................................9 Chapter 2: Black Box Vs. White Box Testing ............................................................................10 Learning Objective:.....................................................................................................................10 Introduction to Black Box and White Box testing........................................................................10 Black box testing ........................................................................................................................10 Black box testing - without user involvement .............................................................................11 Black box testing - with user involvement ..................................................................................11 White Box Testing ......................................................................................................................14 Black Box (Vs) White Box...........................................................................................................18 SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................20 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................20 Chapter 3: Other Testing Types ..................................................................................................21 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................21 What is GUI Testing? .................................................................................................................21 Regression Testing.....................................................................................................................31 Integration Testing ......................................................................................................................38 Acceptance Testing ....................................................................................................................43 Configuration Testing & Installation Testing ...............................................................................45 Alpha testing and Beta testing ....................................................................................................48 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................52
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Handout – Software Testing
Chapter 4: Levels of Testing .......................................................................................................53 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................53 Unit Testing.................................................................................................................................53 Integration Testing ......................................................................................................................60 System Testing ...........................................................................................................................61 SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................64 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................64 Chapter 5: JUnit Testing ..............................................................................................................65 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................65 JUNIT Testing - Introduction.......................................................................................................65 Simple Test Case .......................................................................................................................65 Fixture .........................................................................................................................................66 Test Case ...................................................................................................................................67 Suite............................................................................................................................................67 TestRunner .................................................................................................................................68 Chapter 6: Testing Artifacts ........................................................................................................70 Learning Objective ......................................................................................................................70 Test Strategy and Test Plan .......................................................................................................70 Test Plan.....................................................................................................................................75 Test Case .................................................................................................................................100 SUMMARY ...............................................................................................................................103 Test your Understanding ..........................................................................................................103 Chapter 7: Defect Management .................................................................................................104 Learning Objective ....................................................................................................................104 What is a Defect? .....................................................................................................................104 Defect Lifecycle ........................................................................................................................105 Defect Reporting and Tracking .................................................................................................105 SUMMARY ...............................................................................................................................107 Test your Understanding ..........................................................................................................108 Chapter 8: Automation ...............................................................................................................109 Learning Objective ....................................................................................................................109 What is Automation? ................................................................................................................109 Automation Benefits .................................................................................................................109 Automation Life Cycle...............................................................................................................111 Test Environment Setup ...........................................................................................................113 Other Phases in Automation.....................................................................................................116
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...............163 SUMMARY ................................................167 SUMMARY .................................................................................................126 Sample Test Automation Tool ...............................130 Rational Test Manager .....................................................................142 SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................................167 What is a Test Case Point (TCP)? .........................................................................126 Rational Suite of tools.......................................................143 Chapter 10: Performance Testing ........................172 Test your Understanding ................................................................................................................144 Performance Testing Requirements ............146 Performance Testing Process .........................127 Rational Robot .....................................................................172 REFERENCES ............................. Cognizant Technology Solutions..........117 Automation tool comparison ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................174 BOOKS .........174 WEBSITES ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................140 Supported environments .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................167 Test Case Point Analysis...............................................................175 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007.......................................................................................................................125 Chapter 9: Sample Test Automation Tool .................................................................................................................174 STUDENT NOTES: ....................................................................................................................................................154 Volume and Stress Testing .............................................................................................................................................................................144 Learning Objective ...........................118 SUMMARY ................147 Performance Testing Tools .........................................................................................................................................................................................126 Learning Objective .............................144 What is Performance testing? .................................................................................................126 Rational Administrator .............................................................................................Handout – Software Testing Automation Methods.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................167 Learning Objective ........................................................................................... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .....................................166 Chapter 11: Test Case Point ...............................

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Introduction About this Module This module provides you with a brief description of the module. the student will be able to: Explain Software Testing List the types of testing Explain Test Strategy Describe Test Plan Describe Test Design Describe Test Cases Describe Test Data Explain Test Execution Perform Defect reporting and analyzing the defects List Test Automation advantages and disadvantages Work with Winrunner Describe Performance Testing Work with Loadrunner Too Work with Test Director Pre-requisite This module does not require any prerequisite Page 5 ©Copyright 2007. Target Audience Entry Level Trainees Module Objectives After completing this module. suggested prerequisites and module objectives. audience. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Handout – Software Testing Chapter 1: Introduction to Testing Learning Objectives After completing this topic you will be able to: Explain the need for Software testing What is Software Testing Software testing is a process used to identify the correctness. There are many approaches to software testing. Testing Life Cycle Every testing project has to follow the waterfall model of the testing process. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. Software Testing has been accepted as a separate discipline to the extent that there is a separate life cycle for the testing activity. but the process mentioned above is common to any testing activity. Involving software testing in all phases of the software Page 6 ©Copyright 2007. According to the respective projects. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection.putting the product through its paces. portability. not prove that there are none." where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. testing can never establish the correctness of computer software. It can only find defects. completeness and quality of developed computer software. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product-. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. Actually. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. as this can only be done by formal verification (and only when there is no mistake in the formal verification process). not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. stability. the scope of testing can be tailored. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it. maintainability and usability.

) (But expected results still come requirements). The Testing Techniques To perform these types of testing. there are two widely used testing techniques. namely. we see that there are two categories of testing activities that can be done on software. The above said testing types are performed based on the following testing techniques. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it is called Dynamic Testing. The V-Model of the Software Testing Life Cycle along with the Software Development Life cycle given below indicates the various phases or levels of testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. there needs to be testing done on Software Testing every phase.). user documentation. These topics will be elaborated in the coming chapters Page 7 ©Copyright 2007. Broad Categories of Testing Based on the V-Model mentioned above. Also known as Structural testing. Black-Box testing technique: This technique is used for testing based solely on analysis of requirements (specification. code. Static Testing Dynamic Testing The kind of verification we do on the software work products before the process of compilation and creation of an executable is more of Requirement review. This type of testing is called Static Testing. walkthrough and audits.Handout – Software Testing development life cycle has become a necessity as part of the software quality assurance process. design review. Right from the Requirements study till the implementation. etc. Also known as functional testing. code review. When we test the software by executing and comparing the actual & expected results. White-Box testing technique: This technique us used for testing based on analysis of internal logic (design.

a subset of stress testing. Let us see a brief definition on the widely employed types of testing. SUMMARY “Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors” Evolution of Software Testing The Testing process and lifecycle Broad categories of testing Widely employed Types of Testing The Testing Techniques Page 8 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Types of Testing From the V-model. which enables a customer to determine whether to accept the system or not. Integration Testing: Testing which takes place as sub elements are combined (i. Integration testing. processor utilization) to ensure the system do not break unexpectedly Load Testing: Load Testing. integrated) to form higher-level elements Regression Testing: Selective re-testing of a system to verify the modification (bug fixes) have not caused unintended effects and that system still complies with its specified requirements. memory. Cognizant Technology Solutions.e. namely. verifies that a web site can handle a particular number of concurrent users while maintaining acceptable response times Alpha Testing: Testing of a software product or system conducted at the developer’s site by the Customer Beta Testing: Testing conducted at one or more customer sites by the end user of a delivered software product system. System Testing: Testing the software for the required specifications on the intended hardware Acceptance Testing: Formal testing conducted to determine whether or not a system satisfies its acceptance criteria. Done to verify if it satisfies its functional specification or its intended design structure. Unit Testing: The testing done to a unit or to a smallest piece of software. we see that are various levels or phases of testing. User Acceptance testing etc. Unit testing. Performance Testing: To evaluate the time taken or response time of the system to perform it’s required functions in comparison Stress Testing: To evaluate a system beyond the limits of the specified requirements or system resources (such as disk space. System testing..

Cognizant Technology Solutions. The primary objective of testing is a) To show that the program works b) To provide a detailed indication of quality c) To find errors d) To protect the end –user Answers: 1) c Page 9 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Test your Understanding 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. the tester would only know the "legal" inputs and what the expected outputs should be. black box tests do not necessarily involve the participation of users. Additionally. In practice. It is used to detect errors by means of execution-oriented test cases. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. It is because of this that black box testing can be considered testing with respect to the specifications. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. test groups are often used.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 2: Black Box Vs. glass-box and clear-box. field and laboratory tests. when black box testing is applied to software engineering. the tester and the programmer can be independent of one another. Though centered around the knowledge of user requirements. recovery testing. For this testing. and benchmarks. It is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. and closedbox. Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. Some call this "graybox" or "translucent-box" test design. volume tests. avoiding programmer bias toward his own work. opaque-box. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. and how to build and maintain test data. In the following the most important aspects of these black box tests will be described briefly. there are two types of black box test that involve users. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether!!! Black box testing Black Box Testing is testing without knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested. White Box Testing Learning Objective: After completing this chapter. While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. Cognizant Technology Solutions. test coverage. you will be able to: Explain the methods of testing Introduction to Black Box and White Box testing Test Design refers to understanding the sources of test cases. Among the most important black box tests that do not involve users are functionality testing. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". There are 2 primary methods by which tests can be designed and they are: Black box White box Black-box test design treats the system as a literal "black-box". White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box".e. but it's still discouraged. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. i. For this reason. how to develop and document test cases. stress tests. functional. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. For example. no other knowledge of the program is necessary. but not how the program actually arrives at those outputs.

The term ``scenario'' has entered software evaluation in the early 1990s . A volume test can uncover problems that are related to the efficiency of a system. Particularly in the NLP environment Page 11 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . what is specified in the requirements.Handout – Software Testing Black box testing . however.e. field tests are the only real means to elucidate problems of the organizational integration of the software system into existing procedures. field tests are particularly useful for assessing the interoperability of the software system. i. methodological considerations are rare in SE literature. There are different approaches to functionality testing.g. Does the system provide possibilities to recover all of the data or part of it? How much can be recovered and how? Is the recovered data still correct and consistent? Particularly for software that needs high reliability standards. benchmark tests only denote operations that are independent of personal variables. In the context of this document. each function where it is called first. One is the testing of each program feature or function in sequence. or only show that an error message would be needed telling the user that the system cannot process the given amount of data. Scenario Tests. how the technical integration of the system works. In the following only a rough description of field and laboratory tests will be given.e. Apart from general usability-related aspects.e. The other is to test module by module. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Rather.without user involvement The so-called ``functionality testing'' is central to most testing exercises. e. one may find practical test reports that distinguish roughly between field and laboratory tests. to modify a term bank via different terminals simultaneously). a consumption of too much memory space. incorrect buffer sizes. A scenario test is a test case which aims at a realistic user background for the evaluation of software as it was defined and performed It is an instance of black box testing where the major objective is to assess the suitability of a software product for every-day routines. Moreover. i. The notion of benchmark tests involves the testing of program efficiency. E.with user involvement For tests involving users. some also consider user tests that compare the efficiency of different software systems as benchmark tests. the system has to process a huge amount of data or perform many function calls within a short period of time. in the NLP area. i. Its primary objective is to assess whether the program does what it is supposed to do. or. sending e-mails.g. Black box testing . A typical example could be to perform the same function from all workstations connected in a LAN within a short period of time (e. recovery testing is very important. In field tests users are observed while using the software system at their normal working place. performing a standardised task. Whereas for most software engineers benchmark tests are concerned with the quantitative measurement of specific operations.g. In short it involves putting the system into its intended use by its envisaged type of user. During a stress test. The efficiency of a piece of software strongly depends on the hardware environment and therefore benchmark tests always consider the soft/hardware combination. The objective of volume tests is to find the limitations of the software by processing a huge amount of data. The aim of recovery testing is to make sure to which extent data can be recovered after a system breakdown.

last but not least. test cases are designed to traverse the entire graph Transaction flow testing (nodes represent steps in some transaction and links represent logical connections between steps that need to be validated) Page 12 ©Copyright 2007. especially with real time systems Crash testing should be performed to see what it takes to bring the system down Test monitoring tools should be used whenever possible to track which tests have already been performed and the outputs of these tests to avoid repetition and to aid in the software maintenance Other functional testing techniques include: transaction testing. data collection and analysis are easier than for field tests. Domain tests not covered by the above. where the major implementation problem is not the technical environment. individual translators are not too motivated to change their working habits. logic testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A typical example of the organizational problem of implementing a translation memory is the language service of a big automobile manufacturer. Since laboratory tests provide testers with many technical possibilities. loop. domain testing. Special techniques as appropriate--syntax. as needed. Black box testing Methods Graph-based Testing Methods Black-box methods based on the nature of the relationships (links) among the program objects (nodes). state. that neither source texts nor target texts are properly organised and stored and. Due to the high laboratory equipment costs laboratory tests are mostly only performed at big software houses such as IBM or Microsoft. and state testing. Additional structural tests for branch coverage. Any dirty tests not covered by the above. Laboratory tests are mostly performed to assess the general usability of the system. Finite state machine models can be used as a guide to design functional tests According to Beizer the following is a general order by which tests should be designed: o o o o o o Clean tests against requirements. etc. syntax testing. Additional tests for data-flow coverage as needed. Testing Strategies/Techniques Black box testing should make use of randomly generated inputs (only a test range should be specified by the tester). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . but the fact that many clients still submit their orders as print-out.Handout – Software Testing this problem has frequently been underestimated. to eliminate any guess work by the tester as to the methods of the function Data outside of the specified input range should be tested to check the robustness of the program Boundary cases should be tested (top and bottom of specified range) to make sure the highest and lowest allowable inputs produce proper output The number zero should be tested when numerical data is to be input Stress testing should be performed (try to overload the program with inputs to see where it reaches its maximum capacity).

test cases should include a and b. test cases should be designed to produce the minimum and maxim output reports If internal program data structures have boundaries (e. as well as values just above and just below the minimum and maximum values Apply guidelines 1 and 2 to output conditions.g. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . size limitations). one valid and two invalid equivalence classes are defined If an input condition requires a specific value. one valid and one invalid equivalence class is defined Boundary Value Analysis Black-box technique that focuses on the boundaries of the input domain rather than its center BVA guidelines: If input condition specifies a range bounded by values a and b. be certain to test the boundaries Comparison Testing Black-box testing for safety critical systems in which independently developed implementations of redundant systems are tested for conformance to specifications Often equivalence class partitioning is used to develop a common set of test cases for each implementation Orthogonal Array Testing Black-box technique that enables the design of a reasonably small set of test cases that provide maximum test coverage Focus is on categories of faulty logic likely to be present in the software component (without examining the code) Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. one valid and two invalid equivalence classes are defined If an input condition specifies a member of a set. link weights are required execution times) Equivalence Partitioning Black-box technique that divides the input domain into classes of data from which test cases can be derived An ideal test case uncovers a class of errors that might require many arbitrary test cases to be executed before a general error is observed Equivalence class guidelines: o o o o o If input condition specifies a range.Handout – Software Testing Finite state modeling (nodes represent user observable states of the software and links represent transitions between states) Data flow modeling (nodes are data objects and links are transformations from one data object to another) Timing modeling (nodes are program objects and links are sequential connections between these objects. one valid and one invalid equivalence class is defined If an input condition is Boolean. test cases should exercise the minimum and maximum numbers. Cognizant Technology Solutions. values just above and just below a and b If an input condition specifies and number of values.

Structural testing is sometimes referred to as clear-box testing since white boxes are considered opaque and do not really permit visibility into the code. Cognizant Technology Solutions. including specific programming languages Tester and programmer are independent of each other Tests are done from a user's point of view Will help to expose any ambiguities or inconsistencies in the specifications Test cases can be designed as soon as the specifications are complete Disadvantages of Black Box Testing Only a small number of possible inputs can actually be tested. to test every possible input stream would take nearly forever Without clear and concise specifications. test cases are hard to design There may be unnecessary repetition of test inputs if the tester is not informed of test cases the programmer has already tried May leave many program paths untested Cannot be directed toward specific segments of code which may be very complex (and therefore more error prone) Most testing related research has been directed toward glass box testing White Box Testing Software testing approaches that examine the program structure and derive test data from the program logic. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Synonyms for white box testing Glass Box testing Structural testing Clear Box testing Page 14 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Priorities for assessing tests using an orthogonal array Detect and isolate all single mode faults Detect all double mode faults Multimode faults Specialized Testing Graphical user interfaces Client/server architectures Documentation and help facilities Real-time systems o o o o Task testing (test each time dependent task independently) Behavioral testing (simulate system response to external events) Inter task testing (check communications errors among tasks) System testing (check interaction of integrated system software and hardware) Advantages of Black Box Testing More effective on larger units of code than glass box testing Tester needs no knowledge of implementation.

Perform complete coverage at the component level. results verification and documentation capabilities. Allocation of resources to design. Establishment and maintenance of regression test suites and procedures. test suite execution. white-box testing practices have the following considerations: The allocation of resources to perform class and method analysis and to document and review the same. Developing a test harness made up of stubs. The purpose of white box testing Initiate a strategic initiative to build quality throughout the life cycle of a software product or service. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Open Box Testing Types of White Box testing A typical rollout of a product is shown in figure 1 below. These are test cases that exercise basic set will execute every statement at least once. Page 15 ©Copyright 2007. naming conventions and libraries.1 Flow Graph Notation A notation for representing control flow similar to flow charts and UML activity diagrams. Improve quality by optimizing performance. drivers and test object libraries. Cognizant Technology Solutions. document and manage a test history library.1.1 Basis Path Testing A testing mechanism proposed by McCabe whose aim is to derive a logical complexity measure of a procedural design and use this as a guide for defining a basic set of execution paths. Provide a complementary function to black box testing. In general. 1. The means to develop or acquire tool support for automation of capture/replay/compare. 1 Code Coverage Analysis 1. Practices: This section outlines some of the general practices comprising white-box testing process. Development and use of standard procedures.

Handout – Software Testing 1. Examples: Note that unstructured loops are not to be tested rather. Simple condition: Boolean variable or relational expression. 2).. Boolean expression: Condition without Relational expressions.2 Control Structure testing 1. Boolean operators and parentheses.3 Loop Testing Loops fundamental to many algorithms. they are redesigned. An independent path is any path through a program that introduces at least one new set of processing statements or a new condition (i. Can define loops as simple.1.2 Data Flow Testing Selects test paths according to the location of definitions and use of variables. a new edge). and unstructured. nested.2. 1.2. where E1 and E2 are arithmetic expressions.e. 1. They may define: 1). concatenated.1 Conditions Testing Condition testing aims to exercise all logical conditions in a program module. 4). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Compound condition: composed of two or more simple conditions. 3).2. and an upper bound for the number of tests to ensure that each statement is executed at least once. Cyclomatic complexity provides upper bound for number of tests required to guarantee coverage of all program statements. 1. Page 16 ©Copyright 2007.2 Cyclomatic Complexity The cyclomatic complexity gives a quantitative measure of 4the logical complexity. Cognizant Technology Solutions. possibly proceeded by a NOT operator. This value gives the number of independent paths in the basis set. Relational expression: (E1 op E2).

Assertions that a method must satisfy at specific points of its execution Tools that check DbC contracts at runtime such as Jcontract [http://www.com/journal/sj/391/kazi. 3 Profiling Profiling provides a framework for analyzing Java code performance for speed and heap memory use. Durability). 4 Error Handling Exception and error handling is checked thoroughly are simulating partial and complete fail-over by operating on error causing test vectors.html] may also be used to perform this function. Proper error recovery. It identifies routines that are consuming the majority of the CPU time so that problems may be tracked down to improve performance. These contracts specify such requirements as: Conditions that the client must meet before a method is invoked. Cognizant Technology Solutions. notification and logging are checked against references to validate program design. the code specification is expressed unambiguously using a formal language that describes the code's implicit contracts.Handout – Software Testing 2 Design by Contract (DbC) DbC is a formal way of using comments to incorporate specification information into the code itself. local or distributed.research.ibm. These include the use of Microsoft Java Profiler API and Sun’s profiling tools that are bundled with the JDK. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Consistency.parasoft.com/products/jtract/index. may be validated to ensure that ACID (Atomicity. Basically. 5 Transactions Systems that employ transaction. Conditions that a method must meet after it executes. Isolation. Third party tools such as JaViz [http://www.htm] are used to perform this function. Transactions are checked thoroughly for partial/complete commits and rollbacks encompassing databases and other XA compliant transaction processors. Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. Each of the individual parameters is tested individually against a reference data set. Advantages of White Box Testing Forces test developer to reason carefully about implementation Approximate the partitioning done by execution equivalence Reveals errors in "hidden" code Beneficent side-effects Disadvantages of White Box Testing Expensive Cases omitted in the code could be missed out.

Both are supported by extensive literature and commercial tools. paths. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . depends on how you define the boundary of the box and what kind of access the “blackness” is blocking. Thus. however. This is one way to think about coverage. It’s housed in a black box with lights. “black box” testing becomes another name for system testing. Boundary testing and other attack-based techniques are targeted at common coding errors. yet everyone seems to have a different idea of what they mean. Black box testing begins with a metaphor. Risks: Why are you testing? Sometimes testing is targeted at particular risks. these techniques might be Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. Imagine you’re testing an electronics system. By analogy. Requirements-based testing could be called “black box” because it makes sure that all the customer requirements have been verified. or decisions) is exercised. An opposite test approach would be to open up the electronics system. To help understand the different ways that software testing can be divided between black box and white box techniques. This is black box testing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The distinction here is based on what the person knows or can understand. see how the circuits are wired. Code-based testing is often called “white box” because it makes sure that all the code (the statements. And testing the units inside the box becomes white box testing. but with software. Black box software testing is doing the same thing. Coverage: What is tested? If we draw the box around the system as a whole. These are the two most commonly used coverage criteria. and you can’t see beyond its surface. Another is to contrast testing that aims to cover all the requirements with testing that aims to cover all the code. You have to see if it works just by flipping switches (inputs) and seeing what happens to the lights and dials (outputs). You must test it without opening it up. It lays out five dimensions that can be used for examining testing: People (who do the testing) Coverage (what gets tested) Risks (why you are testing) Activities (how you are testing) Evaluation (how you know you’ve found a bug) Let’s use this system to understand and clarify the characteristics of black box and white box testing. These terms are commonly used.Handout – Software Testing Black Box (Vs) White Box An easy way to start up a debate in a software testing forum is to ask the difference between black box and white box testing. People: Who do the testing? Some people know how software works (developers) and others just use it (users). Effective security testing also requires a detailed understanding of the code and the system architecture. The actual meaning of the metaphor. any testing by users or other non-developers is sometimes called “black box” testing. this is called white box testing. and dials on the outside. apply probes internally and maybe even disassemble parts of it. consider the Five-Fold Testing System. Accordingly. Developer testing is called “white box” testing. switches.

which defines tests based on functional requirements. Related techniques capture code history and stack information when faults occur. Certain test techniques seek to make these kinds of problems more visible. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007. The consequences of test failure at this stage may be very expensive. indicating that part of the specification has not been fulfilled. White box testing is much more expensive than black box testing. These are two design approaches. it cannot guarantee that all parts of the implementation have been tested. Thus black box testing is testing against the specification and will discover faults of omission. To conclude. The advice given is to start test planning with a black box test approach as soon as the specification is available. White box testing is concerned only with testing the software product. which defines tests based on the code itself.Handout – Software Testing classified as “white box”. Memory leaks and wild pointers are examples. and structural test design. Since behavioral testing is based on external functional definition. it is often called “black box. and could be termed “black box.” while structural testing—based on the code internals—is called “white box. Assertions are another technique for helping to make problems more visible. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All of these techniques could be considered white box test techniques. It requires the source code to be produced before the tests can be planned and is much more laborious in the determination of suitable input data and the determination if the software is or is not correct. White box planning should commence as soon as all black box tests have been successfully passed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Another set of risks concerns whether the software will actually provide value to users.” Indeed. We could also focus on the tools used. it cannot guarantee that the complete specification has been implemented. Evaluation: How do you know if you’ve found a bug? There are certain kinds of software faults that don’t always lead to obvious failures. this is probably the most commonly cited definition for black box and white box testing. They may be masked by fault tolerance or simply luck. These contrast with black box techniques that simply look at the official outputs of a program. Another activity-based distinction contrasts dynamic test execution with formal code inspection. The paths should then be checked against the black box test plan and any additional required test runs determined and applied.” Activities: How do you test? A common distinction is made between behavioral test design. and tools that facilitate applying inputs and capturing inputs—most notably GUI capture replay tools—as black box tools. since they use code instrumentation to make the internal workings of the software more visible. A failure of a white box test may result in a change which requires all black box testing to be repeated and the redetermination of the white box paths. In this case. helping with diagnosis. Black box testing is concerned only with testing the specification. White box testing is testing against the implementation and will discover faults of commission. with the production of flowgraphs and determination of paths. there are further constructive means to guarantee high quality software end products. In order to fully test a software product both black and white box testing are required. and maps code inspection (static testing) with white box testing. apart from the above described analytical methods of both glass and black box testing. the metaphor maps test execution (dynamic testing) with black box testing. Testing is then categorized based on the types of tools used. Usability testing focuses on this risk. indicating that part of the implementation is faulty. Some tool vendors refer to code-coverage tools as white box tools.

It is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. structural testing. c Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. rapid prototyping. boundary or security testing (risks). d 2). functional. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. inspection or code-coverage automation (activities). Black-box test design treats the system as a literal "black-box". It is used to detect errors by means of execution-oriented test cases. white-box test case design requires that you have a) Source code b) An operational program c) A detailed procedural design d) The program architecture Answers: 1). White box testing. or testing based on probes. the integration of CASE tools. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. opaque-box. usability testing (risk). and closed-box White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". glass-box and clear-box. unit or code-coverage testing (coverage). and logs (evaluation).Handout – Software Testing Among the most important constructive means are the usage of object-oriented programming tools. or behavioral testing or capture replay automation (activities). Test your Understanding 1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. can sometimes describe developer-based testing (people). Synonyms for white-box include: structural. on the other hand. assertions. and last but not least the involvement of users in both software development and testing procedures SUMMARY Black box testing can sometimes describe user-based testing (people). At a minimum. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. system or requirements-based testing (coverage). Equivalence partitioning is a black-box testing method that a) Looks for equivalent data values in the program b) Looks for classes of output c) Focuses on output errors d) Defines classes of input 2.

you will be able to Explain the methods of testing What is GUI Testing? GUI is the abbreviation for Graphic User Interface. click it. clarity and non-updateable etc. On each window. This icon should correspond to the Original Icon under Program Manager. then some enquiry in progress message should be displayed. Use SHIFT+TAB to move focus backwards. English and clarity. or it can refer to testing the functionality of each and every component involved. Try to start the application twice as it is loading. All controls should get focus . then use all ungrayed options. If Window has a Minimize Button. or cursor.Check for spelling. if the application is busy.) F1 key should work the same. The text in the Micro Help line should change . Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. Check if the title of the window make sense. It is absolutely essential that any application has to be user-friendly. It should not be possible to select them with either the mouse or by using TAB.you should be returned to main window. and a bigger pictorial representation of the icon. GUI Testing can refer to just ensuring that the look-and-feel of the application is acceptable to the user. The main window of the application should have the same caption as the caption of the icon in Program Manager.especially the error messages. Hence it becomes very essential to test the GUI components of any application. If the screen has a Control menu. Double Click the Icon to return the Window to its original size. The following is a set of guidelines to ensure effective GUI Testing and can be used even as a checklist while testing a product / application. version number. Use TAB to move focus around the Window. If there is no hour glass. All screens should have a Help button (i. Window should return to an icon on the bottom of the screen. Section 1 . The end user should be comfortable while using all the components on screen and the components should also perform their functionality with utmost clarity.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 3: Other Testing Types Learning Objective After completing this chapter. The window caption for every application should have the name of the application and the window name . This should not be allowed . Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . No Login is necessary. then the hour glass should be displayed. Tab order should be left to right. Tabbing to an entry field with text in it should highlight the entire text in the field. Try this for every grayed control. especially on the top of the screen. Closing the application should result in an "Are you Sure" message box Attempt to start application twice. and Up to Down within a group box on the screen. The Loading message should show the application name.e. These should be checked for spelling.indicated by dotted box. Check all text on window for Spelling/Tense and Grammar.Windows Compliance Testing Application Start Application by Double Clicking on its ICON. If a field is disabled (grayed) then it should not get focus.

In general. Page 22 ©Copyright 2007. Enter text into Box Try to overflow the text by typing to many characters – should be stopped Check the field width with capitals W. double-clicking is not essential. SPACE should do the same. In a field that may or may not be updateable. and if the user can enter or change details on the other screen then the Text on the button should be followed by three dots. Pressing ‘Ctrl . Items should be in alphabetical order with the exception of blank/none. everything can be done using both the mouse and the keyboard. Make sure only one space appears.This should activate Tab to each button . Refer to previous page. Command Buttons If Command Button leads to another Screen. All others are gray. Drop Down List Boxes Pressing the Arrow should give list of options.Letters in amount fields. Enter invalid characters . which is at the top or the bottom of the list box. and should be done for EVERY command Button.g. Text Boxes Move the Mouse Cursor over all Enterable Text Boxes. there should be a message phrased positively with Yes/No answers where Yes results in the completion of the action. If pressing the Command button results in uncorrectable data e. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This List may be scrollable. This is indicated by a letter underlined in the button text. Double Click should select all text in box.* etc. closing an action step. then pressing <Esc> should activate it. Selection should also be possible with mouse. in All fields. All Buttons except for OK and Cancel should have a letter Access to them. Check Boxes Clicking with the mouse on the box.Press RETURN . Option (Radio Buttons) Left and Right arrows should move 'ON' Selection. Cursor should change from arrow to Insert Bar. If it doesn't then the text in the box should be gray or non-updateable. If there is a Cancel Button on the screen. List boxes are always white background with black text whether they are disabled or not. Pressing a letter should bring you to the first item in the list with that start with that letter.This should activate The above are VERY IMPORTANT. So should Up and Down. the label text and contents changes from black to gray depending on the current status. Tab to another type of control (not a command button). Click each button once with the mouse . SHIFT and Arrow should Select Characters. In general. Pressing Return in ANY no command button control should activate it.). Make sure there is no duplication. You should not be able to type text in the box. Drop down with the item selected should be display the list with the selected item on the top. Select with mouse by clicking. All text should be left justified. All tab buttons should have a distinct letter. Pressing ALT+Letter should activate the button. shouldn't have a blank line at the bottom. followed by a colon tight to it. or on the text should SET/UNSET the box.Handout – Software Testing Never updateable fields should be displayed with black text on a gray background with a black label.Press SPACE This should activate Tab to each button . . try strange characters like + . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . One button on the screen should be default (indicated by a thick black border). Spacing should be compatible with the existing windows spacing (word etc.F4’ should open/drop down the list box.

Assure that all windows have a consistent look and feel. The user must either enter an alternative valid value or leave the default value intact. Is all the micro-help text spelt correctly on this screen? Is all the error message text spelt correctly on this screen? Is all user input captured in UPPER case or lowercase consistently? Where the database requires a value (other than null) then this should be defaulted into fields. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Screen Validation Checklist Aesthetic Conditions: Is the general screen background of the correct color? Are the field prompts of the correct color? Are the field backgrounds of the correct color? In read-only mode.Handout – Software Testing Combo Boxes Should allow text to be entered. should act in the same way as selecting and item in the list box. Validation Conditions: Does a failure of validation on every field cause a sensible user error message? Is the user required to fix entries. then clicking the command button. are the field prompts of the correct color? In read-only mode. does not TAB off the field) is the invalid entry identified and highlighted correctly with an error message? Page 23 ©Copyright 2007. Clicking Arrow should allow user to choose from list List Boxes Should allow a single selection to be chosen. Pressing a letter should take you to the first item in the list starting with that letter. which have failed validation tests? Have any fields got multiple validation rules and if so are all rules being applied? If the user enters an invalid value and clicks on the OK button (i. If there is a 'View' or 'Open' button besides the list box then double clicking on a line in the List Box. or using the Up and Down Arrow keys. are the field backgrounds of the correct color? Are all the screen prompts specified in the correct screen font? Is the text in all fields specified in the correct screen font? Are all the field prompts aligned perfectly on the screen? Are all the field edit boxes aligned perfectly on the screen? Are all group boxes aligned correctly on the screen? Should the screen be resizable? Should the screen be allowed to minimize? Are all the field prompts spelt correctly? Are all character or alphanumeric fields left justified? This is the default unless otherwise specified. make sure all the data can be seen in the box. Force the scroll bar to appear. Cognizant Technology Solutions.e. by clicking with the mouse. Section 2 . Are all numeric fields right justified? This is the default unless otherwise specified. Assure that all dialog boxes have a consistent look and feel.

Handout – Software Testing
Is validation consistently applied at screen level unless specifically required at field level? For all numeric fields check whether negative numbers can and should be able to be entered. For all numeric fields check the minimum and maximum values and also some midrange values allowable? For all character/alphanumeric fields check the field to ensure that there is a character limit specified and that this limit is exactly correct for the specified database size? Do all mandatory fields require user input? If any of the database columns don't allow null values then the corresponding screen fields must be mandatory. (If any field, which initially was mandatory, has become optional then check whether null values are allowed in this field.) Navigation Conditions: Can the screen be accessed correctly from the menu? Can the screen be accessed correctly from the toolbar? Can the screen be accessed correctly by double clicking on a list control on the previous creen? Can all screens accessible via buttons on this screen be accessed correctly? Can all screens accessible by double clicking on a list control be accessed correctly? Is the screen modal? (i.e.) Is the user prevented from accessing other functions when this screen is active and is this correct? Can a number of instances of this screen be opened at the same time and is this correct? Usability Conditions: Are all the dropdowns on this screen sorted correctly? Alphabetic sorting is the default unless otherwise specified. Is all date entry required in the correct format? Have all pushbuttons on the screen been given appropriate Shortcut keys? Do the Shortcut keys work correctly? Have the menu options that apply to your screen got fast keys associated and should they have? Does the Tab Order specified on the screen go in sequence from Top Left to bottom right? This is the default unless otherwise specified. Are all read-only fields avoided in the TAB sequence? Are all disabled fields avoided in the TAB sequence? Can the cursor be placed in the microhelp text box by clicking on the text box with the mouse? Can the cursor be placed in read-only fields by clicking in the field with the mouse? Is the cursor positioned in the first input field or control when the screen is opened? Is there a default button specified on the screen? Does the default button work correctly? When an error message occurs does the focus return to the field in error when the user cancels it?
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Handout – Software Testing
When the user Alt+Tab's to another application does this have any impact on the screen upon return to the application? Do all the fields edit boxes indicate the number of characters they will hold by there length? e.g. a 30 character field should be a lot longer Data Integrity Conditions: Is the data saved when the window is closed by double clicking on the close box? Check the maximum field lengths to ensure that there are no truncated characters? Where the database requires a value (other than null) then this should be defaulted into fields. The user must either enter an alternative valid value or leave the default value intact. Check maximum and minimum field values for numeric fields? If numeric fields accept negative values can these be stored correctly on the database and does it make sense for the field to accept negative numbers? If a set of radio buttons represents a fixed set of values such as A, B and C then what happens if a blank value is retrieved from the database? (In some situations rows can be created on the database by other functions, which are not screen based, and thus the required initial values can be incorrect.) If a particular set of data is saved to the database check that each value gets saved fully to the database. (i.e.) Beware of truncation (of strings) and rounding of numeric values. Modes (Editable Read-only) Conditions: Are the screen and field colors adjusted correctly for read-only mode? Should a read-only mode be provided for this screen? Are all fields and controls disabled in read-only mode? Can the screen be accessed from the previous screen/menu/toolbar in read-only mode? Can all screens available from this screen be accessed in read-only mode? Check that no validation is performed in read-only mode. General Conditions: Assure the existence of the "Help" menu. Assure that the proper commands and options are in each menu. Assure that all buttons on all tool bars have a corresponding key commands. Assure that each menu command has an alternative (hot-key) key sequence, which will invoke it where appropriate. In drop down list boxes, ensure that the names are not abbreviations / cut short In drop down list boxes, assure that the list and each entry in the list can be accessed via appropriate key / hot key combinations. Ensure that duplicate hot keys do not exist on each screen Ensure the proper usage of the escape key (which is to undo any changes that have been made) and generates a caution message "Changes will be lost - Continue yes/no" Assure that the cancel button functions the same as the escape key.
Page 25 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Handout – Software Testing
Assure that the Cancel button operates, as a Close button when changes have been made that cannot be undone. Assure that only command buttons, which are used by a particular window, or in a particular dialog box, are present. – (i.e) make sure they don't work on the screen behind the current screen. When a command button is used sometimes and not at other times, assures that it is grayed out when it should not be used. Assure that OK and Cancel buttons are grouped separately from other command buttons. Assure that command button names are not abbreviations. Assure that all field labels/names are not technical labels, but rather are names meaningful to system users. Assure that command buttons are all of similar size and shape, and same font & font size. Assure that each command button can be accessed via a hot key combination. Assure that command buttons in the same window/dialog box do not have duplicate hot keys. Assure that each window/dialog box has a clearly marked default value (command button, or other object) which is invoked when the Enter key is pressed - and NOT the Cancel or Close button Assure that focus is set to an object/button, which makes sense according to the function of the window/dialog box. Assure that all option buttons (and radio buttons) names are not abbreviations. Assure that option button names are not technical labels, but rather are names meaningful to system users. If hot keys are used to access option buttons, assure that duplicate hot keys do not exist in the same window/dialog box. Assure that option box names are not abbreviations. Assure that option boxes, option buttons, and command buttons are logically grouped together in clearly demarcated areas "Group Box" Assure that the Tab key sequence, which traverses the screens, does so in a logical way. Assure consistency of mouse actions across windows. Assure that the color red is not used to highlight active objects (many individuals are redgreen color blind). Assure that the user will have control of the desktop with respect to general color and highlighting (the application should not dictate the desktop background characteristics). Assure that the screen/window does not have a cluttered appearance Ctrl + F6 opens next tab within tabbed window Shift + Ctrl + F6 opens previous tab within tabbed window Tabbing will open next tab within tabbed window if on last field of current tab Tabbing will go onto the 'Continue' button if on last field of last tab within tabbed window Tabbing will go onto the next editable field in the window Banner style & size & display exact same as existing windows
Page 26 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

28. Assure that fields with a blank in the last position are processed or reported as an error an error. 30 are validated correctly & do not cause errors/ miscalculations. Assure that out of cycle dates are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. Assure that month code 00 and 13 are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. Assure that valid values are handles by the correct procedure.e the tab is opened. Assure that Feb. Assure that century change is validated correctly & does not cause errors/miscalculations. Assure that both + and . Microhelp text for every enabled field & button Ensure all fields are disabled in read-only mode Progress messages on load of tabbed screens Return operates continue If retrieve on load of tabbed window fails window should not open Specific Field Tests Date Field Checks Assure that leap years are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. Assure that invalid values are logged and reported. 30 is reported as an error. Page 27 ©Copyright 2007. generating "changes will be lost" message if necessary.should be no need to scroll Errors on continue will cause user to be returned to the tab and the focus should be on the field causing the error.values are correctly processed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. (i. Numeric Fields Assure that lowest and highest values are handled correctly. highlighting the field with the error on it) Pressing continue while on the first tab of a tabbed window (assuming all fields filled correctly) will not open all the tabs. Assure that day values 00 and 32 are validated correctly & do not cause errors/miscalculations. display all options on open of list box . Assure that Feb. On open of tab focus will be on first editable field All fonts to be the same Alt+F4 will close the tabbed window and return you to main screen or previous screen (as appropriate). Assure that 00 and 13 are reported as errors. 29. Assure that numeric fields with a blank in position 1 are processed or reported as an error.Handout – Software Testing If 8 or less options in a list box. Assure that division by zero does not occur. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Include data items with last position blank.(i. continue saving changes or additions) Add View Change Delete Cancel .Standard Actions Examples of Standard Actions . Include data items with first position blank. Include out of range values above the maximum and below the minimum.Substitute your specific commands Add View Change Delete Continue . Include at least one in-range value.Valid data Fill each field . Include valid characters. Include invalid characters & symbols. Assure that upper and lower values in ranges are handled correctly. Include lowest and highest values. Validation Testing . abandon changes or additions) Fill each field . Alpha Field Checks Use blank and non-blank data.Handout – Software Testing Include value zero in all calculations.e. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .(i.Invalid data Different Check Box / Radio Box combinations Scroll Lists / Drop Down List Boxes Help Fill Lists and Scroll Tab Tab Sequence Shift Tab Page 28 ©Copyright 2007.e. Include maximum and minimum range values. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Handout – Software Testing Shortcut keys / Hot Keys Note: The following keys are used in some windows applications. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and are included as a guide. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 29 ©Copyright 2007.

Page 30 ©Copyright 2007. Applications may use other modifiers for these operations. in the context for which they make sense. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing * These shortcuts are suggested for text formatting applications. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Usually you do not run all the tests at once. Page 31 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example: You can create another set of tests for a particular module in your application. Each time your application changes. At different stages of the quality assurance process. Create Test Cycles During this stage you decide the subset of tests from your test database you want to execute. Also referred to as verification testing Regression testing is initiated after a programmer has attempted to fix a recognized problem or has added source code to a program that may have inadvertently introduced errors. The selective retesting of a software system that has been modified to ensure that any bugs have been fixed and that no other previously working functions have failed as a result of the reparations and that newly added features have not created problems with previous versions of the software. the old test cases are run against the new version to make sure that all the old capabilities still work. A related group of tests is called a test cycle. The reason they might not work because changing or adding new code to a program can easily introduce errors into code that is not intended to be changed. to determine the application's stability before beginning more rigorous testing.Handout – Software Testing Regression Testing What is Regression Testing? Regression testing is the process of testing changes to computer programs to make sure that the older programming still works with the new changes. Also consider issues such as the current state of the application and whether new functions have been added or modified. It is a quality control measure to ensure that the newly modified code still complies with its specified requirements and that unmodified code has not been affected by the maintenance activity. Before a new version of a software product is released. refer to the testing goals you defined at the beginning of the process. and can include both manual and automated tests Example: You can create a cycle containing basic tests that run on each build of the application throughout development. you need to execute different tests in order to address specific goals. Regression testing is a normal part of the program development process. Test Execution Test Execution is the heart of the testing process. Test department coders develop code test scenarios and exercises that will test new units of code after they have been written. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . you will want to execute the relevant parts of your test plan in order to locate defects and assess quality. This test cycle includes tests that check that module in depth. To decide which test cycles to build. You can run the cycle each time a new build is ready.

A regression cycle includes sanity-level tests for testing the entire software. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . or if the expected result needs to be updated. Regression cycle tests maintenance builds. and also test advanced options in the application (depth). You perform manual tests using the test steps. Analyze Test Results After every test run one analyze and validate the test results. This cycle should include basic-level tests containing mostly positive checks. a letter is allowed to be entered in a number field) Change a modification of the existing application. (for example. providing outcome summaries for each test. Any major or minor request is considered a problem with an application and will be entered as a change request. The goal of this type of cycle is to verify that a change to one part of the software did not break the rest of the application. This cycle can be run when more time is available for testing. And have to identify all the failed steps in the tests and to determine whether a bug has been detected. Change Request Initiating a Change Request A user or developer wants to suggest a modification that would improve an existing application. Normal cycle tests the system a little more in depth than the sanity cycle. sorting the files alphabetically by the second field rather than numerically by the first field makes them easier to find) Enhancement Page 32 ©Copyright 2007. Testing Tools executes automated tests for you. as well as in-depth tests for the specific area of the application that was modified. During Automated Test Execution you create a batch of tests and launch the entire batch at once. containing both positive and negative checks. and log the results. rather than depth) to see that it is functional and stable. Testing Tools runs the tests one at a time. compare the application output with the expected output. This cycle can group medium-level tests. Run Test Cycles (Automated & Manual Tests) Once you have created cycles that cover your testing objectives. (for example. Type of Change Request Bug the application works incorrectly or provides incorrect information. The tests in the cycle cover the entire application (breadth). Cognizant Technology Solutions. With Manual Test Execution you follow the instructions in the test steps of each test. you begin executing the tests in the cycle. For each test step you assign either pass or fail status. Advanced cycle tests both breadth and depth. You use the application.Handout – Software Testing Following are examples of some general categories of test cycles to consider: Sanity cycle checks the entire system at a basic level (breadth. enter input. A test cycle is complete only when all tests-automatic and manual-have been run. It then imports results. notices a problem with an application. or wants to recommend an enhancement.

but this is necessary to perform a job. Software developers fix the Open bugs and assign them the status Fixed. These bugs are given the status Open and are assigned to a member of the development team. (for example. High the application works. You also make sure that the QA and development personnel involved in fixing the bug are notified. This also applies to any Section 508 infraction. Bug Tracking involves two main stages: reporting and tracking. and provide all necessary information to reproduce. The bugs are stored in a database so that you can manage them and analyze the status of your application. you report the bugs (or defects) that you detected. it is Closed. a new field. If a bug is detected again. Traceability Matrix A traceability matrix is created by associating requirements with the products that satisfy them. Report Bugs Once you execute the manual and automated tests in a cycle. First you report New bugs to the database. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If a bug does not reoccur. all members of the development and quality assurance team must be well informed in order to insure that bugs information is up to date and that the most important problems are addressed. and closed. Below is a simple traceability matrix structure. The number of open or fixed bugs is a good indicator of the quality status of your application.Tests are associated with the requirements on which they are based and the product tested tomeet the requirement. Bugs can be detected and reported by engineers. and end-users in all phases of the testing process. verified. testers. Information about bugs must be detailed and organized in order to schedule bug fixes and determine software release dates. The Quality Assurance manager or Project manager periodically reviews all New bugs and decides which should be fixed. Bug Tracking Locating and repairing software bugs is an essential part of software development. it is reopened. Communication is an essential part of bug tracking. QA personnel test a new build of the application. you record all the information necessary to reproduce and fix it.Handout – Software Testing new functionality or item added to the application. Track and Analyze Bugs The lifecycle of a bug begins when it is reported and ends when it is fixed. and follow up the bug. You can use data analysis tools such as re-ports and graphs in interpret bug data. There can be more things Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. When you report a bug. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Critical the application does not work. or a new button) Priority for the request Low the application works but this would make the function easier or more user friendly. fix. a new report. job functions are impaired and there is no work around.

The examples below show traceability between user and system requirements. and that all higher level requirements are allocated to lower level requirements. Traceability requires unique identifiers for each requirement and product. Cognizant Technology Solutions. User requirement identifiers begin with "U" and system requirements with "S." Tracing S12 to its source makes it clear this requirement is erroneous: it must be eliminated. Traceability ensures completeness. rewritten. that all lower level requirements derive from higher level requirements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Numbers for products are established in a configuration management (CM) plan. Page 34 ©Copyright 2007. Traceability is also used in managing change and provides the basis for test planning. or the traceability corrected.Handout – Software Testing included in a traceability matrix than shown below. SAMPLE TRACEABILITY MATRIX A traceability matrix is a report from the requirements database or repository.

Determine their information needs and document the information that will be associated with the requirements when you set up your requirements database or repository. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Installation. Acceptance Testing. Goal is to evaluate the system as a whole. etc. not its parts Techniques can be structural or functional. The integration of this code with the internal code is the important objective. Cognizant Technology Solutions. What goes into each report depends on the information needs of those receiving the report(s). Unit testing. Techniques can be used in any stage that tests the system as a whole (System testing.) Types and Phases of Testing Page 35 ©Copyright 2007. Phases of Testing The primary objective of testing effort is to determine the conformance to requirements specified in the contracted documents. other reports are necessary to manage requirements.Handout – Software Testing In addition to traceability matrices.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Page 36 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Handout – Software Testing Page 37 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

most integration testing has been traditionally limited to ``black box'' techniques. Second. Performing only cursory testing at early integration phases and then applying a more rigorous criterion for the final stage is really just a variant of the high-risk "big bang" approach. In fact. top-down. Cognizant Technology Solutions. First. the more important the integration strategy. In general. satisfying any white box testing criterion would be very difficult.Handout – Software Testing Integration Testing One of the most significant aspects of a software development project is the integration strategy. and finally assembling the highest level subsystems into the complete system. or by first integrating functional subsystems and then integrating the subsystems in separate phases using any of the basic strategies. then assembling subsystems into larger subsystems. Large systems may require many integration phases. the larger the project. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the system would fail in so many places at once that the debugging and retesting effort would be impractical. The key is to Page 38 ©Copyright 2007. this is impractical for two major reasons. To be most effective. testing at each phase helps detect errors early and keep the system under control. For most real systems. critical piece first. In a multi-phase integration. an integration testing technique should fit well with the overall integration strategy. bottom-up. However. Very small systems are often assembled and tested in one phase. because of the vast amount of detail separating the input data from the individual code modules. beginning with assembling modules into lowlevel subsystems. Integration may be performed all at once. performing rigorous testing of the entire software involved in each integration phase involves a lot of wasteful duplication of effort across phases.

Handout – Software Testing leverage the overall integration structure to allow rigorous testing at each phase while minimizing duplication of effort. combining module testing with the lowest level of subsystem integration testing. this trivial kind of generalization does not take advantage of the differences between module and integration testing. and then performing pure integration testing at higher levels. for example. Many projects compromise. Generalization of module testing criteria Module testing criteria can often be generalized in several possible ways to support integration testing. In one view. in effect using the entire program as a test driver environment for each module. Page 39 ©Copyright 2007. At the other extreme. Then. so an integration testing method should be flexible enough to accommodate them all. module and integration testing can be combined. However. the most obvious generalization is to satisfy the module testing criterion in an integration context. Applying it to each phase of a multiphase integration strategy. It is important to understand the relationship between module testing and integration testing. verifying the details of each module's implementation in an integration context. Each of these views of integration testing may be appropriate for any given project. modules are rigorously tested in isolation using stubs and drivers before any integration is attempted. integration testing concentrates entirely on module interactions. leads to an excessive amount of redundant testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. assuming that the details within each module are accurate. As discussed in the previous subsection.

remove all control structures that are not involved with module calls. the call rule states that function call ("black dot") nodes cannot be reduced. However. since for poorlystructured code it may be hard to distinguish the ``top'' of the loop from the ``bottom. and then use the resultant "reduced" flow graph to drive integration testing. Figure below shows a systematic set of rules for performing design reduction. Although not strictly a reduction rule. even very complex logic can be eliminated as long as it does not involve any module calls. The idea behind design reduction is to start with a module control flow graph. at which point the design reduction is complete. The sequential rule eliminates sequences of non-call ("white dot") nodes. the appropriate generalization to the integration level requires that just the decision logic involved with calls to other modules be tested independently. Rules 1 through 4 are intended to be applied iteratively until none of them can be applied. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Since structured testing at the module level requires that all the decision logic in a module's control flow graph be tested independently. and looping rules each remove one edge from the flow graph. conditional. in which each statement is required to be exercised during module testing. Page 40 ©Copyright 2007. The remaining rules work together to eliminate the parts of the flow graph that are not involved with module calls. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . they each reduce cyclomatic complexity by one.Handout – Software Testing More useful generalizations adapt the module testing criterion to focus on interactions between modules rather than attempting to test all of the details of each module's implementation in an integration context. it leaves the cyclomatic complexity unchanged. can be generalized to require each module call statement to be exercised during integration testing. The conditional rule eliminates conditional statements that do not contain calls in their bodies. Since application of this rule removes one node and one edge from the flow graph. The statement coverage module testing criterion. the approach is the same.'' For the rule to apply. Although the specifics of the generalization of structured testing are more detailed. structured testing at the integration level focuses on the decision outcomes that are involved with module calls. The design reduction technique helps identify those decision outcomes. there must be a path from the module entry to the top of the loop and a path from the bottom of the loop to the module exit. so that it is possible to exercise them independently during integration testing. The looping rule eliminates bottom-test loops that are not involved with module calls. The repetitive rule eliminates top-test loops that are not involved with module calls. it does simplify the graph so that the other rules can be applied. It is important to preserve the module's connectivity when using the looping rule. By this process. Module design complexity Rather than testing all decision outcomes within a module independently. Since the repetitive.

including support for hierarchical design. The key principle is to test just the interaction among components at each integration stage. it is required that all module call statements from one component into a different component be exercised at each integration stage. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The remainder of this section extends the integration testing techniques of structured testing to handle the general case of incremental integration. To extend statement coverage to support incremental integration. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . To form a completely flexible "statement testing" criterion. which simplifies the derivation of data sets that test interactions among components. and it is important to limit the corresponding stages of testing as well. avoiding redundant testing of previously integrated sub-components. it is required that each statement be executed during the first phase (which may be anything from single modules to the entire Page 41 ©Copyright 2007. Hierarchical design is most effective when the coupling among sibling components decreases as the component size increases.Handout – Software Testing Incremental integration Hierarchical system design limits each stage of development to a manageable effort.

and that at each integration phase all call statements that cross the boundaries of previously integrated components are tested. Given hierarchical integration stages with good cohesive partitioning properties. this limits the testing effort to a small fraction of the effort to cover each statement of the system at each integration phase.Handout – Software Testing program). Page 42 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

As in any system though. Acceptance Testing checks the system against the "Requirements". since the design predicates decision to call module D from module B has been tested in a previous phase. The testing can be based upon the User Requirements Specification to which the system should conform. Acceptance. The main types of software testing are: Component. Factors influencing Acceptance Testing The User Acceptance Test Plan will vary from system to system but. Modules B and D are removed from consideration because they do not contain cross-component calls. Modules A and C have been previously integrated. yielding component-reduced graphs. Acceptance Testing checks that the system delivers what was requested. However. Interface. The test procedures that lead to formal 'acceptance' of new or changed systems. Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. problems will arise and it is important to have determined what will be the expected and required responses from the various parties concerned. including Users. Release. System. User Acceptance Testing is a critical phase of any 'systems' project and requires significant participation by the 'End Users'. in general. and the component module design complexity of module C is 2. The key is to perform design reduction at each integration phase using just the module call nodes that cross component boundaries. To be of real use. only two additional tests are required to complete the integration testing. It would take three tests to integrate this system in a single phase. The forms of the tests may follow those in system testing. It is similar to systems testing in that the whole system is checked but the important difference is the change in focus: Systems Testing checks that the system that was specified has been delivered. acceptance testing is formal testing conducted to determine whether a system satisfies its acceptance criteria and thus whether the customer should accept the system. Figure 7-7 illustrates the structured testing approach to incremental integration. and not the developer should always do acceptance testing. and exclude from consideration all modules that do not contain any cross-component calls. The customer.Handout – Software Testing Structured testing can be extended to cover the fully general case of incremental integration in a similar manner. but at all times they are informed by the business needs. Acceptance Testing In software engineering. the component module design complexity of module A is 1. an Acceptance Test Plan should be developed in order to plan precisely. the means by which 'Acceptance' will be achieved. The final part of the UAT can also include a parallel run to prove the system against the current system. and in detail. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the testing should be planned in order to provide a realistic and adequate exposure of the system to all reasonably expected events. The customer knows what is required from the system to achieve value in the business and is the only person qualified to make that judgment. Cognizant Technology Solutions. as have modules B and D.

you may demand that any problems in severity level 1. or if there are. it must be agreed between End User and vendor. these will be known in advance and your organization is forewarned. fonts. Even where the severity levels and the responses to each have been agreed by all parties. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . testing can continue but live this feature will cause severe disruption to business processes in live operation. This problem should be corrected. To avoid the risk of lengthy and protracted exchanges over the categorization of problems. both testing and live operations may progress. N. in consultation with the executive sponsor of the project. and '6' has the least impact: 'Show Stopper' i. users may agree to accept ('sign off') the system subject to a range of conditions. perhaps unintentionally.Handout – Software Testing Project Team. must then agree upon the responsibilities and required actions for each category of problem. the End Users and the Project Team need to develop and agree a range of 'Severity Levels'. These conditions need to be analyzed as they may. Page 44 ©Copyright 2007. Finally.g. Again. any and all fixes from the software developers. prior consideration of this is advisable. Because no system is entirely fault free. In order to agree what such responses should be. must be subjected to rigorous System Testing and. Medium Problem. colours. '1' is the most severe. Minor Problem . Caution. Critical Problem. In any event. testing can continue but we cannot go into production (live) with this problem. where appropriate Regression Testing. it is crucial to agree the Criteria for Acceptance. These levels will range from (say) 1 to 6 and will represent the relative severity.B. 'Cosmetic' Problem e. Major Problem. For example. but little or no changes to business processes are envisaged. receive priority response and that all testing will cease until such level 1 problems are resolved. found during testing. seek additional functionality which could be classified as scope creep. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The users of the system. it is impossible to continue with the testing because of the severity of this error / bug. we strongly advised that a range of examples are agreed in advance to ensure that there are no fundamental areas of disagreement. if such features are key to the business requirements they will warrant a higher severity level.e. in terms of business / commercial impact. Here is an example which has been used successfully. of a problem with the system. the allocation of a problem into its appropriate severity level can be subjective and open to question. Vendors and possibly Consultants / Contractors. the maximum number of acceptable 'outstanding' in any particular category. pitch size However. or. testing can continue and the system is likely to go live with only minimal departure from agreed business processes. In some cases.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. to determine if it fulfills its configurability requirements). etc. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007. Support internationalization. Multiple variants of the application exist.. The test environment is ready. Internationalization (e.). The relevant system components have passed system integration testing. configuration testing can begin prior to the distribution of the software components onto the hardware components. currencies.e. analyzed. multiple languages.g. Personalization Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. The independent test team is adequately staffed and trained in configuration testing.Handout – Software Testing Configuration Testing & Installation Testing Configuration testing: Testing to determine whether the program operates properly when the software or hardware is configured in a required manner.. However. Support personalization. Examples Typical examples include configuration testing of an application that must: Have multiple functional variants. and prevented in the future. taxes and tariffs. Software integration testing has started. Determine the effect of adding or modifying hardware resources such as: o o o o Memory Disk and tape resources Processors Load balancers Determine an optimal system configuration. Objectives The typical objectives of configuration testing are to: Partially validate the application (i. Cause failures concerning the configurability requirements that help identify defects that are not efficiently found during unit and integration testing: o o o Functional Variants. fixed. The relevant software components have passed unit testing. time zones. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The typical goals of configuration testing are to cause the application to fail to meet its configurability requirements so that the underlying defects can be identified. Preconditions Configuration testing can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The configurability requirements to be tested have been specified.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. The test suites for every scheduled configurability requirement execute successfully on the appropriate configuration. Tasks Configurability testing typically involves the independent test team performing the following testing tasks: Test Planning Test Reuse Test Design Test Implementation Test Execution Test Reporting Environments Configuration testing is performed on the following environments using the following techniques: Test Environment: Test Harness Work Products Configuration testing typically results in the production of all or part of the following work products from the test work product set: Documents: Project Test Plan Master Test List Test Procedures Test Report Test Summary Report Software and Data: Test Harness Test Scripts Test Suites Test Cases Test Data Phases Configuration testing typically consists of the following tasks being performed during the following phases: Page 46 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Completion Criteria Configuration testing is typically complete when the following postconditions hold: At least one configuration test suite exists for each configurability requirement.

To avoid confusion. Likewise. Configuration testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur. there are specific site validation requirements that need to be considered in the planning of installation testing. However. and installation verification have all been used to describe installation testing. Quality System Regulations require installation and inspection procedures (including testing where appropriate) and documentation of inspection and testing to demonstrate proper installation. Test planners should check with Soft Solutions International to determine whether there are any additional regulatory requirements for installation testing. and automated systems be validated for their intended use. Installation testing is any testing that takes place at a user's site with the actual hardware and software that will be part of the installed system configuration.Handout – Software Testing Guidelines The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that configuration testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. manufacturing equipment must meet specified requirements. site validation. To the extent practical. Terms such as beta test. installation testing is defined as any testing that takes place outside of the developer's controlled environment. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 47 ©Copyright 2007. in some areas. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . user acceptance test. The testing is accomplished through either actual or simulated use of the software being tested within the environment in which it is intended to function. Installation testing: Testing to identify the ways in which the installation procedures lead to incorrect results. Guidance contained here is general in nature and is applicable to any installation testing. Terminology in this testing area can be confusing. reuse functional test cases as configuration test cases. and for the purposes of this document.

These may include tests for a high volume of data. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 48 ©Copyright 2007. and recovery). security. If the developers are not involved. the definition of expected test results. In addition to an evaluation of the system's ability to properly perform its intended functions. Launch. Records should be maintained during installation testing of both the system's capability to properly perform and the system's failures. which are encountered. and the recording of all test outputs.Handout – Software Testing Installation testing should follow a pre-defined plan with a formal summary of testing and a record of formal acceptance. Alpha testing and Beta testing Alpha testing is the launch testing consisting of the development organization’s initial internal dry runs of the application’s acceptance tests in the production environment. test input data and test results. there should be an evaluation of the ability of the users of the system to understand and correctly interface with it. if any. which are not apparent during more normal activities. The testing instructions should encourage use through the full range of operating conditions and should continue for a sufficient time to allow the system to encounter a wide spectrum of conditions and events in an effort to detect any latent faults. implementation of safety requirements. If the developers are involved. heavy loads or stresses. There should be evidence that hardware and software are installed and configured as specified. etc. detection. The developers of the software may or may not be involved in the installation testing. The revision of the system to compensate for faults detected during this installation testing should follow the same procedures and controls as any other software change. Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. Operators should be able to perform the intended operations and respond in an appropriate and timely manner to all alarms. warnings. Help determine the extent to which the application is ready for: o o o Beta testing. Some of the evaluations that have been performed earlier by the software developer at the developer's site should be repeated at the site of actual use. errors. they may seamlessly carry over to the user's site the last portions of design-level systems testing. it is all the more important that the user have persons knowledgeable in software engineering who understand the importance of such matters as careful test planning. The developer may be able to furnish the user with some of the test data sets to be used for this purpose. Measures should ensure that all system components are exercised during the testing and that the versions of these components are those specified. tolerance. There should be retention of documented evidence of all testing procedures. and serviceability. fault testing (avoidance. Acceptance testing. Objectives The typical objectives of alpha testing are to: Cause failures that only tend to occur in the production environment. Cognizant Technology Solutions. error messages.

Test Implementation: Fix any defects in the test suites found during evaluation.Handout – Software Testing Provide input to the defect trend analysis effort. The production environment is ready. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The delivery phase has begun. Tasks Typically involves the following teams performing the following testing tasks: Independent Test Team: o Test Planning: Determine alpha testing completion criteria. The acceptance tests execute on the production environment. Test Execution: Execute the alpha test suites on the production environment. The independent test team is adequately staffed. Severity two defects that do not have adequate work arounds. Preconditions Execution of alpha tests can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The application has passed all system tests. Test Reporting: Report failures that occurred during testing to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. Acceptance testing does not discover any: o o Severity one defects. The customer representative has approved these acceptance test suites. Environments Alpha testing is typically performed on the following environments with the following tools: o Production Environments None o o o o Page 49 ©Copyright 2007. The application has been ported to the production environment. Update the alpha testing subsection of Project Test Plan (PTP) Test Design: Select an adequate subset of the system test suites of test cases (both functional and quality) to be repeated on the production environment during alpha testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Completion Criteria Alpha testing is typically complete when the following post conditions hold: An initial version of the acceptance test suites exists.

Launch. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Objectives The typical objectives of beta testing are to: Cause failures that only tend to occur during actual usage by the user community rather than during formal testing. Provide input to the defect trend analysis effort. The delivery phase has begun. Definition Beta testing is the launch testing of the application in the production environment by a few select users prior to acceptance testing and the release of the application to its entire user community. The application has passed alpha testing. Help determine the extent to which the system is ready for: o o Acceptance testing. Obtain additional user community feedback beyond that received during usability testing. Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. Preconditions Beta test execution can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The application has passed all system tests. The production environment is ready.Handout – Software Testing Phases Alpha testing typically involves the following tasks being performed during the following phases: Guidelines To the extent practical. Cognizant Technology Solutions. reuse the tests from system testing when performing alpha testing rather than producing new tests. Page 50 ©Copyright 2007.

Customer Organization: o o o o Environments Beta testing is typically performed on the following environments (limited to a select group of users) using the following tools: Production Environments: Client Environment Contact Center Environment Content Management Environment Data Center Environment Tools: Defect reporting tool.Handout – Software Testing The application has been ported to the production environment. The users have reported any failures observed to the development organization. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Test Reporting . Test Implementation . Tasks Beta testing typically involves the following producers performing the following testing tasks: Independent Test Team: o Test Planning . Test Execution .Pass on reported failures to developer organization. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Select beta test user group. Completion Criteria Beta testing is typically complete when: The time period scheduled for beta testing ends.Use application under normal conditions of operation. These failures have been passed on to the development teams.Report failures to customer organization. The selected group of users is ready.Update beta testing subsection of Project Test Plan (PTP). Test Reporting . User Organizations: Page 51 ©Copyright 2007.

Alpha testing is differentiated from beta testing by a) the location where the tests are conducted b) the types of tests conducted c) the people doing the testing d) the degree to which white-box techniques are used 2. Beta testing is critical if formal usability testing was not performed during system testing.Handout – Software Testing Phases Beta testing typically involves the following tasks being performed during the following phases: Guidelines Limit the user test group to users who are willing to use a lower quality version of the application in exchange for obtaining it early and having input into its iteration. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Test your Understanding 1. Beta testing often uses actual live data rather than data created for testing purposes. The testing that ensures that no unwanted changes were introduced is a) Unit Testing b) System Testing c) Acceptance Testing d) Regression Testing Answers: 1) a 2) d Page 52 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

can it be tested by inspection? If the code is simple enough that the developer can just look at it and verify its correctness then it is simple enough to not require a unit test. "What will these clusters of objects do?" The crucial issue in constructing a unit test is scope. then the tests will be trivial and the objects might pass the tests. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and they also identify those segments of code that are related. or which objects form a cluster. Certainly. and then the unit test will be there to help you fix it. then there is a high chance that not every component of the new code will get tested. if the scope is too broad. Just because we don't test every method explicitly doesn't mean that methods can get away with not being tested. Usually this is a vision of a grand table with every single method listed. The unit test will motivate the code that you write. which is not an effective test strategy. The programmer should know that their unit testing is complete when the unit tests cover at the very least the functional requirements of all the code. then that method can break. Cognizant Technology Solutions. but not relevant in most programming projects. If the scope is too narrow. Likewise. Unit tests will most likely be defined at the method level. you will be able to: List different levels of testing Unit Testing Unit testing: Isn't that some annoying requirement that we're going to ignore? Many developers get very nervous when you mention unit tests. In a sense.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 4: Levels of Testing Learning Objective After completing this chapter. any method that can break is a good candidate for having a unit test. because it may break at some time. Unit tests that isolate clusters of objects for testing are doubly useful. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. interactions of objects are the crux of any object oriented design. The careful programmer will know that their unit testing is complete when they have verified that their unit tests cover every cluster of objects that form their application. Need for Unit Test How do you know that a method doesn't need a unit test? First. Generally. because they test for failures. If error handling is performed in a method. it is a little design document that says. along with the expected results and pass/fail date. "What will this bit of code do?" Or. Hence: Unit tests isolate clusters of objects for future developers. Usually this is the case when the method involves a cluster of objects. The developer should know when this is the case. so the art is to define the unit test on the methods that cannot be checked by inspection. Another good litmus test is to look at the code and see if it throws an error or catches an error. It's important. The danger of not implementing a unit test on every method is that the coverage may be incomplete. People who revisit the code will use the unit tests to discover which objects are related. but there will be no design of their interactions. in the language of object oriented programming. The programmer is then reduced to testing-by-poking-around.

The main Objective to Unit Testing are as follows : To execute a program with the intent of finding an error. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code.e. To uncover an as-yet undiscovered error . Types of Errors detected The following are the Types of errors that may be caught Error in Data Structures Performance Errors Logic Errors Validity of alternate and exception flows Identified at analysis/design stages Page 54 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ..Handout – Software Testing Life Cycle Approach to Testing Testing will occur throughout the project lifecycle i. and Prepare a test case with a high probability of finding an as-yet undiscovered error. Levels of Unit Testing UNIT 100% code coverage INTEGRATION SYSTEM ACCEPTANCE MAINTENANCE AND REGRESSION Concepts in Unit Testing: The most 'micro' scale of testing. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. from Requirements till User Acceptance Testing. To test particular functions or code modules.. As it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.. Page 55 ©Copyright 2007.Functionality Checks Screen Functionalities Field Dependencies Auto Generation Algorithms and Computations Normal and Abnormal terminations Specific Business Rules if any.Handout – Software Testing Unit Testing – Black Box Approach Field Level Check Field Level Validation User Interface Check Functional Level Check Unit Testing – White Box Approach STATEMENT COVERAGE DECISION COVERAGE CONDITION COVERAGE MULTIPLE CONDITION COVERAGE (nested conditions) CONDITION/DECISION COVERAGE PATH COVERAGE Unit Testing – Field Level Checks Null / Not Null Checks Uniqueness Checks Length Checks Date Field Checks Numeric Checks Negative Checks Unit Testing – Field Level Validations Test all Validations for an Input field Date Range Checks (From Date/To Date’s) Date Check Validation with System date Unit Testing – User Interface Checks Readability of the Controls Tool Tips Validation Ease of Use of Interface Across Tab related Checks User Interface Dialog GUI compliance checks Unit Testing .

Other Measures Function coverage Loop coverage Race coverage Execution of Unit Tests Design a test case for every statement to be executed. Also known as: line coverage. This measure reports whether each executable statement is encountered. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Select the unique set of test cases. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 56 ©Copyright 2007. Basic block coverage is the same as statement coverage except the unit of code measured is each sequence of non-branching statements.Handout – Software Testing Unit Testing . segment coverage and basic block coverage.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Page 57 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Disadvantage of Unit Testing Insensitive to some control structures (number of iterations) Does not report whether loops reach their termination condition Statement coverage is completely insensitive to the logical operators (|| and &&). Performance profilers commonly implement this measure.Handout – Software Testing Unit Testing Flow : Advantage of Unit Testing Can be applied directly to object code and does not require processing source code. Method for Statement Coverage Design a test-case for the pass/failure of every decision point Select unique set of test cases Page 58 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

"Basis path" testing selects paths that achieve decision coverage. Reports the true or false outcome of each Boolean sub-expression. As with condition coverage. especially for very complex Boolean expressions Number of test cases required could vary substantially among conditions that have similar complexity Condition/Decision Coverage is a hybrid measure composed by the union of condition coverage and decision coverage. It has the advantage of simplicity but without the shortcomings of its component measures This measure reports whether each of the possible paths in each function have been followed. exception handlers. decisionpath testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . this measure includes coverage of switch-statement cases. and interrupt handlers. when present. Method for Condition Coverage: Test if every condition (sub-expression) in decision for true/false Select unique set of test cases. Additionally. Also known as: branch coverage.Handout – Software Testing This measure reports whether Boolean expressions tested in control structures (such as the if-statement and while-statement) evaluated to both true and false. all-edges coverage. A path is a unique sequence of branches from the function entry to the exit. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Condition coverage measures the sub-expressions independently of each other. Also known as predicate coverage. Reports whether every possible combination of boolean sub-expressions occurs. Disadvantage: Tedious to determine the minimum set of test cases required. The entire Boolean expression is considered one true-or-false predicate regardless of whether it contains logical-and or logical-or operators. Advantage: Simplicity without the problems of statement coverage Disadvantage This measure ignores branches within boolean expressions which occur due to shortcircuit operators. the sub-expressions are separated by logical-and and logical-or. basis path coverage. Predicate coverage views paths as possible combinations of logical conditions Path coverage has the advantage of requiring very thorough testing Page 59 ©Copyright 2007. The test cases required for full multiple condition coverage of a condition are given by the logical operator truth table for the condition. separated by logical-and and logical-or if they occur.

and more than once. and database Page 60 ©Copyright 2007. if they contain any interface defects). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. Broad. web server. shallow testing finds gross deficiencies in a test suite quickly. System Integration System integration testing is the integration testing of two or more system components. Loop Coverage This measure reports whether you executed each loop body zero times. It is useful during preliminary testing to assure at least some coverage in all areas of the software. Kinds of Integration Testing Integration testing includes the following kinds of testing: Commercial Component Integration Commercial component integration testing is the integration testing of multiple commercialoff. application server. loop coverage reports whether you executed the body exactly once. exactly once.theshelf (COTS) software components to determine if they are not interoperable (i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Helps detect failure to synchronize access to resources. client.e. Software Integration Software integration testing is the incremental integration testing of two or more integrated software components on a single platform to produce failures caused by interface defects.. system integration testing is the testing of software components that have been distributed across multiple platforms (e.g. information not reported by others measure. For do-while loops. twice and more than twice (consecutively). Useful for testing multi-threaded programs such as in an operating system. The valuable aspect of this measure is determining whether while-loops and for-loops execute more than once. Integration Testing Integration testing is the testing of a partially integrated application to identify defects involving the interaction of collaborating components. Race Coverage This measure reports whether multiple threads execute the same code at the same time. Identify defects that are not easily identified during unit testing. Objectives The typical objectives of integration testing are to: Determine if components will work properly together.Handout – Software Testing Function Coverage: This measure reports whether you invoked each function or procedure. Specifically.

Once again. Industry sectors such as telecom.Handout – Software Testing server) to produce failures caused by system integration defects (i. because this would be too redundant. and aeronautical and space. an online casino or games testing. Therefore the program has to be given completely. the validation process is close to other activities such as conformance. acceptance and qualification testing. Systems with software components and software-intensive systems are more and more complex everyday. The main goal is rather to demonstrate the discrepancies of the product from its requirements and its documentation. ``Did we build the product right?'' However. the validation process does not often receive the required attention. are good examples. and nevertheless. ``Did we build the right product?'' and not just. this again includes the question.e. System Testing For most organizations. development costs and improved 'time to market' for new systems. We will test that the functionality of your systems meets with your specifications. In other words. This means that those tests should be done in the environment for which the program was designed. automotive. railway. whether testing a financial system. Moreover. it also contains some aspects that are orientated on the word ``system'' . using different strategies for test data selection. software and system testing represents a significant element of a project's cost in terms of money and management time. Making this function more effective can deliver a range of benefits including reductions in risk. A number of time-domain software reliability models attempt to predict the growth of a system's reliability during the system test phase of the development life cycle. system testing does not only deal with this more economical problem. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Integration testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur. In this paper we examine the results of applying several types of Poisson-process models to the development of a large system for which system test was performed in two parallel tracks. like a mulituser network or whetever. ecommerce. This does not mean that now single functions of the whole program are tested. These techniques can be applied flexibly. We test for errors that users are likely to make as they interact with the application as well as your application’s ability to trap errors gracefully. Cognizant Technology Solutions. while this is one of the most incomplete test methods. Guidelines The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that integration testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. Even security guide lines have to be included.. it is beyond doubt that this test cannot be done completely. It is often agreed that testing is essential to manufacture reliable products. defects involving distribution and back-office integration). Page 61 ©Copyright 2007. However. integrating with which-ever type of development methodology you are applying. The difference between function testing and system testing is that now the focus is on the whole application and its environment . it is one of the most important.

) Techniques not mutually exclusive Structural techniques Stress testing . precision. Execution testing. data. also encompass many other types of testing. users. Cognizant Technology Solutions. You will have a personal interest in its success in which case it is only human for your objectivity to be compromised. speed. etc. installation.Handout – Software Testing System Testing is more than just functional testing.test how the system fits in with existing operations and procedures in the user organization Compliance testing .test adherence to standards Page 62 ©Copyright 2007. increased independence naturally increases objectivity.test larger-than-normal capacity in terms of transactions. Recovery testing . has been proven over the last 3decades to deliver real business benefits including: These benefits are achieved as a result of some fundamental principles of testing. not its parts Techniques can be structural or functional Techniques can be used in any stage that tests the system as a whole (acceptance. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Operations testing . commercial and technical. such as: Security Load/stress Performance Browser compatibility Localisation Need for System Testing Effective software testing. when appropriate.test performance in terms of speed. however. etc. Your test strategy must take into consideration the risks to your organisation. for example.test how the system recovers from a disaster. and can. etc. etc. as a part of software engineering. how it handles corrupted data. System Testing Techniques Goal is to evaluate the system as a whole.

test required control mechanisms Parallel testing . then pick a test case from each partition Boundary value . it’s usually ad-hoc and looks a lot like debugging More structured approaches exist Functional techniques Input domain testing .partition the range of allowable input so that the program is expected to behave similarly for all inputs in a given partition. Cognizant Technology Solutions.fundamental form of testing .includes user documentation Intersystem handling testing .test that the system is compatible with other systems in the environment Control testing .choose test cases that violate the format rules for input Special values .pick test cases that will produce output at the extremes of the output domain Structural techniques Statement testing .) in isolation Techniques can be structural or functional In practice.feed same input into two versions of the system to make sure they Produce the same output Unit Testing Goal is to evaluate some piece (file.Handout – Software Testing Security testing .ensure the set of test cases exercises every statement at least once Branch testing . module. etc.makes sure the system does what it’s required to do Regression testing .choose test cases with input values at the boundary (both inside and outside) of the allowable range Syntax checking .test security requirements Functional techniques Requirements testing .make sure unchanged functionality remains unchanged errorhandling testing . including high. low.every part of every expression is exercised Path testing .test that the system can be used properly .pick test cases representative of the range of allowable input. component.each branch of an if/then statement is exercised Conditional testing .test required error-handling functions (usually user error) Manual-support testing .each truth statement is exercised both true and false Expression testing . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .every path is exercised (impossible in practice) Error-based techniques Page 63 ©Copyright 2007. and average values Equivalence partitioning .design test cases that use input values that represent special situations Output domain testing . program.

create mutants of the program by making single changes. In general. you can estimate whether or not you’ve found all of them or not Fault seeding .Handout – Software Testing Basic idea is that if you know something about the nature of the defects in the code. especially with the top-down method. then test until they are all found Mutation testing . SQA d. white-box oriented b. The customer Answers: 1) a 2) b Page 64 ©Copyright 2007. an independent test group b.put a certain number of known faults into the code. System testing can occur in parallel with integration test. Test your Understanding 1). Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .an organization keeps records of the average numbers of defects in the products it produces. black-box oriented c. then tests a new product until the number of defects found approaches the expected number SUMMARY Testing irrespective of the phases of testing should encompass the following: Cost of Failure associated with defective products getting shipped and used by customer is enormous To find out whether the integrated product work as per the customer requirements To evaluate the product with an independent perspective To identify as many defects as possible before the customer finds To reduce the risk of releasing the product Hence the system Test phase should begin once modules are integrated enough to perform tests in a whole system environment. the software engineer c. then run test cases until all mutants have been killed Historical test data . none of the above 2). Unit testing is predominantly a. unit testing is performed by: a. both black-and-white-box oriented d.

It is an instance of the xUnit architecture for unit testing frameworks. "CHF"). When you need to test something. You can change debug expressions without recompiling. Also.Introduction JUnit is a simple framework to write repeatable tests. Both styles of tests are limited because they require human judgment to analyze their results. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and you can wait to decide what to write until you have seen the running objects. JUnit features include: Assertions for testing expected results Test fixtures for sharing common test data Test suites for easily organizing and running tests Graphical and textual test runners JUnit was originally written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck Simple Test Case How do you write testing code? The simplest way is as an expression in a debugger.you can only execute one debug expression at a time and a program with too many print statements causes the dreaded "Scroll Blindness". Override the method runTest() When you want to check a value. here is what you do: Create an instance of Test Case: Create a constructor which accepts a String as a parameter and passes it to the superclass. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . "CHF"). you will be able to: Write a Junit Testing. Page 65 ©Copyright 2007. to test that the sum of two Moneys with the same currency contains a value which is the sum of the values of the two Moneys. JUNIT Testing . You can also write test expressions as statements which print to the standard output stream. Money m14CHF= new Money(14. write: public void testSimpleAdd() { Money m12CHF= new Money(12. and it is easy to run many of them at the same time. JUnit tests do not require human judgment to interpret. they don't compose nicely.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 5: JUnit Testing Learning Objective After completing this chapter. call assertTrue() and pass a boolean that is true if the test succeeds For example.

you can write as many Test Cases as you'd like. "CHF"). to write several test cases that want to work with different combinations of 12 Swiss Francs. "USD"). When you have a common fixture. first create a fixture: public class MoneyTest extends TestCase { private Money f12CHF. you can make writing the fixture code easier by paying careful attention to the constructors you write. here is what you do: Create a subclass of TestCase Create a constructor which accepts a String as a parameter and passes it to the superclass. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . When you are writing tests you will often find that you spend more time writing the code to set up the fixture than you do in actually testing values. Page 66 ©Copyright 2007.equals(result)). you will be able to use the same fixture for several different tests. private Money f28USD.Handout – Software Testing Money expected= new Money(26. protected void setUp() { f12CHF= new Money(12. f28USD= new Money(28.add(m14CHF). Add an instance variable for each part of the fixture Override setUp() to initialize the variables Override tearDown() to release any permanent resources you allocated in setUp For example. This set of objects is called a test fixture. When you want to run more than one test. } } Once you have the Fixture in place. However. assertTrue(expected. To some extent. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and 28 US Dollars. a much bigger savings comes from sharing fixture code. Often. "CHF"). Each case will send slightly different messages or parameters to the fixture and will check for different results. private Money f14CHF. f14CHF= new Money(14. write a Fixture instead. 14 Swiss Francs. Fixture What if you have two or more tests that operate on the same or similar sets of objects? Tests need to run against the background of a known set of objects. Money result= m12CHF. create a Suite. } If you want to write a test similar to one you have already written. "CHF").

after a few such tests you would notice that a large percentage of your lines of code are sacrificed to syntax. JUnit provides a more concise way to write a test against a Fixture. MoneyBag expected= new MoneyBag(bag). For example. you'll want to run them together. organize them into a Suite.add(f14CHF))). write: public void testMoneyMoneyBag() { // [12 CHF] + [14 CHF] + [28 USD] == {[26 CHF][28 USD]} Money bag[]= { f26CHF. by making a subclass of TestCase for your set up code and then making anonymous subclasses for the individual test cases. To create a suite of two test cases and run them together. execute: TestSuite suite= new TestSuite(). Another way is to let JUnit extract a suite from a TestCase.addTest(new MoneyTest("testSimpleAdd")). TestSuite which runs any number of test cases together.addTest(new MoneyTest("testMoneyEquals")). but you would quickly grow tired of that. you execute: TestResult result= (new MoneyTest("testMoneyMoneyBag")). However. or it can't be invoked through reflection. Be sure to make it public. Once you have several tests. f28USD }. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . to run a single test case.add(f28USD. Instead. JUnit provides an object. Page 67 ©Copyright 2007. suite. You could run the tests one at a time yourself. Cognizant Technology Solutions. f12CHF. TestResult result= suite.override runTest in an anonymous subclass of TestCase.run(). To do so you pass the class of your Test Case to the TestSuite constructor. the name of the test is used to look up the method to run.Create an instance of the TestCase class and pass the name of the test case method to the constructor. } Create an instance of of MoneyTest that will run this test case like this: new MoneyTest("testMoneyMoneyBag") When the test is run.Handout – Software Testing Test Case How do you write and invoke an individual test case when you have a Fixture? Writing a test case without a fixture is simple. Suite How do you run several tests at once? As soon as you have two tests. For example. You write test cases for a Fixture the same way.run(). assertEquals(expected. to test the addition of a Money and a MoneyBag. suite. Here is what you do: Write the test case method in the fixture class.

JUnit distinguishes between failures and errors.addTest(new MoneyTest("testSimpleAdd")). TestRunner How do you run your tests and collect their results? Once you have a test suite.Start it by typing java junit. You make your suite accessible to a TestRunner tool with a static method suite that returns a test suite For example. For example. add the following code to MoneyTest: public static Test suite() { TestSuite suite= new TestSuite().class).TestRunner. The graphical user interface presents a window with: A field to type in the name of a class with a suite method.swingui. Otherwise the automatic suite extraction is the preferred way. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .run(). to make a MoneyTest suite available to a TestRunner. } If a TestCase class doesn't define a suite method a TestRunner will extract a suite and fill it with all the methods starting with "test".run(). A failure is anticipated and checked for with assertions.Handout – Software Testing TestSuite suite= new TestSuite(MoneyTest. Use the manual way when you want a suite to only contain a subset of the test cases. you can create a TestSuite in your code and I can create one in mine.awtui. A progress indicator that turns from red to green in the case of a failed test. They contain any object that implements the Test interface. A run button to start the test. TestResult result= suite.addTest(Erich. It avoids you having to update the suite creation code when you add a new test case. In the case of an unsuccessful test JUnit reports the failed tests in a list at the bottom. TestResult result= suite.addTest(new MoneyTest("testMoneyEquals")). JUnit provides both a graphical and a textual version of a TestRunner tool.suite()). suite.TestRunner or junit. suite. JUnit provides tools to define the suite to be run and to display its results. return suite. Errors are unanticipated problems like an Page 68 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.addTest(Kent. and we can run them together by creating a TestSuite that contains both: TestSuite suite= new TestSuite(). TestSuites don't only have to contain TestCases. suite. A list of failed tests. you'll want to run it.suite()). suite.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In a dynamic programming environment like VisualAge for Java which supports hot code update you can leave the JUnit window up all the time.textui. to start the batch TestRunner for MoneyTest. Cognizant Technology Solutions. As an alternative JUnit's AWT and Swing UIs use junit. The following figure shows an example of a failed test. Page 69 ©Copyright 2007. An alternative way to invoke the batch interface is to define a main method in your TestCase class.TestRunner.run(suite()).textui.runner. write: public static void main(String args[]) { junit. To use it typejava junit. There is a batch interface to JUnit. In other environments you have to restart the graphical version for each run. This LoadingTestCollector reloads all your classes for each test run. also. The batch interface shows the result as text output.Handout – Software Testing ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException. } With this definition of main you can run your tests by simply typing java MoneyTest at an operating system prompt.jar file is on your CLASSPATH.LoadingTestCollector . For example.This feature can be disabled by unchecking the 'Reload classes every run' checkbox.TestRunner followed by the name of the class with a suite method at an operating system prompt. For using either the graphical or the textual version make sure that the junit. This is tedious and time consuming.

The testing strategy also forms the basis for the creation of a standardized documentation set. The project framework under which the testing activities will be carried out is reviewed. high level test phase plans prepared and resource schedules considered. The required outcome of each test must be known before the test is attempted. Page 70 ©Copyright 2007. A detailed test plan and schedule is prepared with key test responsibilities being indicated. Test planning – the requirements definition and design specifications facilitate in the identification of major test items and these may necessitate the test strategy to be updated. Test organization also involves the determination of configuration standards and the definition of the test environment. Test management is also concerned with both test resource and test environment management. and in support of. It is the role of test management to ensure that new or modified service products meet the business requirements for which they have been developed or enhanced. The test environment should also be under configuration control and test data and results stored for future evaluation. and facilitates communication of the test process and its implications outside of the test discipline. the test strategy. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Key elements of Test Management: Test organization –the set-up and management of a suitable test organizational structure and explicit role definition. Unit. The status of the configuration items should be reviewed against the phase plans and test progress reports prepared providing some assurance of the verification and validation activities. The Testing strategy should define the objectives of all test stages and the techniques that apply. Test Approach/Test Architecture are the acronyms for Test Strategy.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 6: Testing Artifacts Learning Objective After completing this chapter. Cognizant Technology Solutions. you will be able to: Create a test plans and test cases Test Strategy and Test Plan Introduction This Document entails you towards the better insight of the Test Strategy and its methodology. Test monitoring and assessment – ongoing monitoring and assessment of the integrity of the development and construction. Any test support tools introduced should be aligned with. Test specifications – required for all levels of testing and covering all categories of test. integration and system testing – configuration items are verified against the appropriate specifications and in accordance with the test plan.

non-functional testing and the associated techniques such as performance. Reporting requirements. Fitness for purpose checklist: Is there a documented testing strategy that defines the objectives of all test stages and the techniques that may apply.Handout – Software Testing Product assurance – the decision to negotiate the acceptance testing program and the release and commissioning of the service product is subject to the ‘product assurance’ role being satisfied with the outcome of the verification activities. Traditionally the responsibility for testing and commissioning is buried deep within the supply chain as a sub-contract of a subcontract. Evaluation criteria. e. Product assurance may oversee some of the test activity and may participate in process reviews. stress and security etc? Does the test plan prescribe the approach to be taken for intended test activities. Testing and commissioning is often considered by teams as a secondary activity and given a lower priority particularly as pressure builds on the program towards completion. Test schedules. e-commerce testing may involve new user interfaces and a business focus on usability may mean that the organization must review its testing strategies.g. Page 71 ©Copyright 2007. The testing to be performed. identifying: The items to be tested. The time necessary for testing and commissioning will vary from project to project depending upon the complexity of the systems and services that have been installed. The Project Sponsor should ensure that the professional team and the contractor consider realistically how much time is needed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A common criticism of construction programmers is that insufficient time is frequently allocated to the testing and commissioning of the building systems together with the involvement and subsequent training of the Facilities Management team. Resource and facility requirements. Sufficient time must be dedicated to testing and commissioning as ensuring the systems function correctly is fairly fundamental to the project’s success or failure. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is possible to gain greater control of this process and the associated risk through the use of specialists such as Systems Integration who can be appointed as part of the professional team. Risks requiring contingency measures? Are test processes and practices reviewed regularly to assure that the testing processes continue to meet specific business needs? For example.

Test Strategy – Selection Selection of the Test Strategy is based on the following factors Product o Test Strategy based on the Application to help people and teams of people in making decisions. Understand the underlying Algorithm. Capability test each major function. Unable to handle Complex Decisions. Review Documentation and Help. Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. People will use the Product Incorrectly Incorrect comparison of scenarios. . Scenarios may be corrupted. Test for sensitivity to user Error. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Test Strategy Flow: Test Cases and Test Procedures should manifest Test Strategy. Suggestion of Wrong Ideas. Simulate the Algorithm in parallel. Create complex scenarios and compare them. Generate large number of decision scenarios. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected Based on the Key Potential Risks o o o o o o o o o o o o Determination of Actual Risk.

Review the Documentation. The two components of the testing strategy are the Test Factors and the Test Phase. This will be done using the GUI test Automation system or through the direct generation of Decide Right scenario files that would be loaded into the product during test. Create a means to generate and apply large numbers of decision scenarios to the product. The strategy must address the risks and present a process that can reduce those risks. The difficulty of automating decision tests. Page 73 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and the design of the user interface and functionality for its sensitivity to user error. Test the product for the risk of silent failures or corruptions in decision analysis. The system concerns on risks then establish the objectives for the test process. Issues in Execution of the Test Strategy The difficulty of understanding and simulating the decision algorithm The risk of coincidal failure of both the simulation and the product. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Test Strategy Execution: Understand the decision Algorithm and generate the parallel decision analyzer using the Perl or Excel that will function as a reference for high volume testing of the app. General Testing Strategies Top-down Bottom-up Thread testing Stress testing Back-to-back testing Need for Test Strategy The objective of testing is to reduce the risks inherent in computer systems. Test with decision scenarios that are near the limit of complexity allowed by the product Compare complex scenarios.

Select and rank Test Factors Identify the System Developmental Phases Identify the Business risks associated with the System under Development. Place risks in the Matrix Page 74 ©Copyright 2007. The strategy will select those factors that need to be addressed in the testing of a specific application system. Test Phase – The Phase of the systems development life cycle in which testing will occur. The test phase will vary based on the testing methodology used. For example the test phases in as traditional waterfall life cycle methodology will be much different from the phases in a Rapid Application Development methodology. The development team will need to select and rank the test factors for the specific software systems being developed. Not all the test factors will be applicable to all software systems. The applicable test factors would be listed as the phases in which the testing must occur. Developing a Test Strategy The test Strategy will need to be customized for any specific software system.Handout – Software Testing Test Factor – The risk or issue that needs to be addressed as part of the test strategy. Four test steps must be followed to develop a customized test strategy. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

the testing tasks. It identifies test items. responsibilities. and any risks requiring contingency planning. who will do each task. deadlines and deliverables for the project. The main purpose of preparing a Test Plan is that everyone concerned with the project are in sync with regards to the scope. Test Plan A Test Plan can be defined as a document that describes the scope. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. resources and schedule of intended test activities. Thus the Test team needs to acquire and study the test strategy that should question the following: What is the relationship of importance among the test factors? Which of the high level risks are the most significant? What damage can be done to the business if the software fails to perform correctly? What damage can be done to the business if the business if the software is not completed on time? Who are the individuals most knowledgeable in understanding the impact of the identified business risks? Hence the Test Strategy must address the risks and present a process that can reduce those risks. the features to be tested.Handout – Software Testing Conclusion: Test Strategy should be developed in accordance with the business risks associated with the software when the test team develop the test tactics. Purpose of preparing a Test Plan A Test Plan is a useful way to think through the efforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software product. approach. The system accordingly focuses on risks thereby establishes the objectives for the test process. It is in this respect that reviews and a sign-off are very important since it means that everyone is in agreement of the contents of the test plan and this also helps in case of any dispute during the course of the project (especially between the developers and the testers). It should be thorough enough to be useful but not so thorough that no one outside the test group will read it. Contents of a Test Plan Purpose Scope Test Approach Entry Criteria Resources Tasks / Responsibilities Exit Criteria Schedules / Milestones Page 75 ©Copyright 2007. The completed document will help people outside the test group understand the 'why' and 'how' of product validation.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Tasks / Responsibilities This section talks about the tasks to be performed and the responsibilities assigned to the various members in the project.e. Entry Criteria This section explains the various steps to be performed before the start of a test (i. Resources This section should list out the people who would be involved in the project and their designation etc. Page 76 ©Copyright 2007. database. Schedules / Milestones This sections deals with the final delivery date and the various milestone dates to be met in the course of the project. database refresh etc. Cognizant Technology Solutions.) prerequisites. restoring system to pre-test environment. For example: Timely environment set up.Handout – Software Testing Hardware / Software Requirements Risks & Mitigation Plans Tools to be used Deliverables References Procedures Templates Standards/Guidelines Annexure Sign-Off Contents (in detail) Purpose This section should contain the purpose of preparing the test plan Scope This section should talk about the areas of the application which are to be tested by the QA team and specify those areas which are definitely out of scope (screens. Exit criteria Contains tasks like bringing down the system / server. Test Approach This would contain details on how the testing is to be performed and whether any specific strategy is to be followed (including configuration management). mainframe processes etc). successful implementation of the latest build etc. starting the web server / app server.

Referenced documents can also be attached here. Actual customer names or contact details should also not be used for such tests. FSD etc) Annexure This could contain embedded documents or links to documents which have been / will be used in the course of testing (e. These could include Test Plans. Status Reports.) templates used for reports. ADD. correctly chosen. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .) QView Project related documents (RSD. be prepared which is representative of normal business transactions. the simulated conditions used. Deliverables This section contains the various deliverables that are due to the client at various points of time (i. Test Data Preparation . Sign-Off This should contain the mutual agreement between the client and the QA team with both leads / managers signing off their agreement on the Test Plan.g.) WinRunner. Test data should however. Test Matrices. Test Director. Each separate test should be given a unique reference number which will identify the Business Process being recorded. The first stage of any recogniser development project is data preparation. Test Procedure. Test Scripts etc. the persons involved in the testing Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. Risks & Mitigation Plans This section should list out all the possible risks that can arise during the testing and the mitigation plans that the QA team plans to implement incase the risk actually turns into a reality. Templates for all these could also be attached. test cases etc.g. WinSQL.Introduction A System is programmed by its data. Good test data can be structured to improve understanding and testability. connectivity related issues etc. PCOM. Cognizant Technology Solutions. References Procedures Templates (Client Specific or otherwise) Standards / Guidelines (e. and good data can help improve functional testing. Its contents.g. Preparation of the data can help to focus the business where requirements are vague. specific software that needs to be installed on the systems to get the application running or to connect to the database. Tools to be used This would list out the testing tools or utilities (if any) that are to be used in the project (e. It is recommended that a full test environment be set up for use in the applicable circumstances. Functional testing can suffer if data is poor. end of the project etc.) daily.e. weekly. start of the project. can reduce maintenance effort and allow flexibility.Handout – Software Testing Hardware / Software Requirements This section would contain the details of PC’s / servers required (with the configuration) to install the application or perform the testing.

if you're testing a specific functionality. how the protocols behave. A System Is Programmed By Its Data Many modern systems allow tremendous flexibility in the way their basic functionality can be used. the way the test is going to be run and applied. Testing is the process of creating. which finally spews forth yet more data to be checked against expectations. you must know how it's supposed to work. In other words. In doing this. you should design test cases. what steps are required. This will enable the monitoring and testing reports to be co-coordinated with any feedback received. an individual may look for a personalized experience from commonly-available software. and will show that testing can be improved by a careful choice of input data.Handout – Software Testing process and the date the test was carried out. extrapolated. is the medium through which the tester influences the software. Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. A system can be configured to fit several business models. as input data has the greatest influence on functional testing and is the simplest to manipulate. Data is a crucial part of most functional testing. summarized and referenced by the functionality under test. Data describes the initial conditions for a test. You must understand the limits inherent in the tests themselves. The paper will not consider areas where data is important to non-functional testing. you have to decide such things as what exactly you are testing and testing for. data manipulation. You must have a consistent schedule for testing. etc. implementing and evaluating tests. forms the input. You should have a definition of what success and failure are. the paper will concentrate most on data-heavy applications. Effective quality control testing requires some basic goals and understanding: You must understand what you are testing. presentation and user interface. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The paper will focus on input data. A business may look to an application's configurability to allow them to keep up with the market without being slowed by the development process. etc. rather than output data or the transitional states the data passes through during processing. Configuration data can dictate control flow. Tests must be planned and thought out a head of time. such as operational profiles. is close enough good enough? You should have a good idea of a methodology for the test. those which use databases or are heavily influenced by the data they hold. Data is manipulated. the more formal a plan the better. Roles of Data in Functional Testing Testing consumes and produces large amounts of data. This paper sets out to illustrate some of the ways that data can influence the test process. massive datasets and environmental tuning. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . performing a specific set of tests at appropriate points in the process is more important than running the tests at a specific time. work (almost) seamlessly with a variety of cooperative systems and provide tailored experiences to a host of different users.

effective reporting. Good data can greatly assist in speedy diagnosis and rapid re-testing. a nominated testing and across the organization. It should also list the duties of the appointed co-ordinators. A formal test plan is a document that provides and records important information about a test project. they may be hard to maintain. Identify Who is to Control and Monitor the Tests In order to ensure consistency when measuring the results. Poor data tends to result in poor tests. Identify Who is to Conduct the Tests In order to ensure consistency of the testing process throughout the organization. whether they are good or bad. Good data allows diagnosis. Without this. Page 79 ©Copyright 2007. and varied to allow diagnosis. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Good Data Can Help Testing Stay On Schedule An easily comprehensible and well-understood dataset is a tool to help communication. it is hard to communicate problems to coders. They may obscure problems or avoid them altogether. that take longer to execute. and allows tests to be repeated with confidence. for example: Project and quality assumptions Project background information Resources Schedule & timeline Entry and exit criteria Test milestones Tests to be performed Use cases and/or test cases Criteria for Test Data Collection This section of the Document specifies the description of the test data needed to test recovery of each business process. the tests should be independently monitored. while an elegantly-chosen dataset can often allow new tests without the overhead of new data. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and it can become difficult to have confidence in the QA team's results.Handout – Software Testing Functional Testing Suffers If Data Is Poor Tests with poor data may not describe the business model effectively. Regression testing and automated test maintenance can be made speedier and easier by using good data. This task would normally be carried out by a nominated member of the Business Recovery Team or a member of the Business Continuity Planning Team. Good Data Is Vital To Reliable Test Results An important goal of functional testing is to allow the test to be repeated with the same result. Each business process should be thoroughly tested and the coordinator should ensure that each business unit observes the necessary rules associated with ensuring that the testing process is carried out within a realistic environment. one or more members of the Business Continuity Planning (BCP) Team should be nominated to co-ordinate the testing process within each business unit. or require lengthy and difficult setup. This section of the BCP should contain the names of the BCP Team members nominated to coordinate the testing process.

This is probably best handled in a workshop environment and should be presented by the persons responsible for developing the emergency procedures. it is necessary for the core testing team to be trained in the emergency procedures. may require particularly expensive back up strategies to be implemented. It should be mandatory for the management of a business unit to be present when that unit is involved with conducting the tests. It is important that clear instructions are given to the Core Testing Team regarding the simulated conditions which have to be observed. Critical parts of the business process such as the IT systems. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The 'Preparing for a Possible Emergency' Phase of the BCP process will involve the identification and implementation of strategies for back up and recovery of data files or a part of a business process. Prepare Budget for Testing Phase Each phase of the BCP process which incurs a cost requires that a budget be prepared and approved. It will also contain a list of the duties to be undertaken by the monitoring staff. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Training Core Testing Team for each Business Unit In order for the testing process to proceed smoothly. This feedback will hopefully enable weaknesses within the Business Recovery Process to be identified and eliminated. It should be noted whenever part of the costs is already incorporated with the organization’s overall budgeting process. Where the costs are significant they should be approved separately with a specific detailed budget for the establishment costs and the ongoing maintenance costs. Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. Completion of feedback forms should be mandatory for all persons participating in the testing process. It is important that all persons who are likely to be involved with recovering a particular business process in the event of an emergency should participate in the testing process. Prepare Feedback Questionnaires It is vital to receive feedback from the persons managing and participating in each of the tests. This will enable observations and comments to be recorded whilst the event is still fresh in the persons mind.Handout – Software Testing This section of the BCP will contain the names of the persons nominated to monitor the testing process throughout the organization. Conducting the Tests The tests must be carried out under authentic conditions and all participants must take the process seriously. The forms should be completed either during the tests (to record a specific issue) or as soon after finishing as practical. This section of the BCP should contain a template for a Feedback Questionnaire. It is inevitable that these back up and recovery processes will involve additional costs. This section of the BCP should contain a list of the core testing team for each of the business units who will be responsible for coordinating and undertaking the Business Recovery Testing process. This section of the BCP will contain a list of the testing phase activities and a cost for each.

in a realistic manner. All contact numbers are to be validated for all involved employees. The following questions may be appropriate: Were objectives of the Business Recovery Process and the testing process met . This section of the BCP is to contain a list of each business process with a test schedule and information on the simulated conditions being used. Assess Test Results Prepare a full assessment of the test results for each business process. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This process must have safety features incorporated to ensure that if one person is not contactable for any reason then this is notified to a nominated controller. adequate or requiring further testing. The testing co-ordination and monitoring will endeavor to ensure that the simulated environments are maintained throughout the testing process.if not. This is particularly important for management and key employees who are critical to the success of the recovery process.if not. provide further comment What were the main comments received in the feedback questionnaires Each test should be assessed as fully satisfactory. in the event of an emergency occurring outside of normal business hours. each critical part of the business recovery process should be fully tested. This training may be integrated with the training phase or handled separately.Handout – Software Testing Test each part of the Business Recovery Process In so far as it is practical. Training may be delivered either using in-house resources or external resources depending upon available skills and related costs. Page 81 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .if not. Training Staff in the Business Recovery Process All staff should be trained in the business recovery process. Every part of the procedures included as part of the recovery process is to be tested to ensure validity and relevance. The training should be assessed to verify that it has achieved its objectives and is relevant for the procedures involved. This is particularly important when the procedures are significantly different from those pertaining to normal operations. provide further comment Did the tests proceed without any problems . Test Accuracy of Employee and Vendor Emergency Contact Numbers During the testing process the accuracy of employee and vendor emergency contact information is to be re-confirmed.if not. This activity will usually be handled by the HRM Department or Division. provide further comment Was test data representative . a hierarchical process could be used whereby one person contacts five others. a large numberof persons are to be contacted. The training should be carefully planned and delivered on a structured basis. Where. This will enable alternative contact routes to be used. provides further comment Were simulated conditions reasonably "authentic" .

for smaller organizations the training may be better handled in a workshop style. Training Needs Assessment The plan must specify which person or group of persons requires which type of training. This will enable the training to be consistent and organized in a manner where the results can be measured. These manual procedures must be fully understood by the persons who are required to carry them out. it could delay the organization in reaching an adequate level of preparedness. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . what specific training is required. The objectives for the training could be as follows : "To train all staff in the particular procedures to be followed during the business recovery process". who needs it and a budget prepared for the additional costs associated with this phase. Consideration should also be given to the development of a comprehensive corporate awareness program for communicating the procedures for the business recovery process. This section of the BCP will identify for each business process what type of training is required and which persons or group of persons need to be trained. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The scope of the training could be along the following lines: o "The training is to be carried out in a comprehensive and exhaustive manner so that staff become familiar with all aspects of the recovery process. It will be necessary to identify the objective and scope for the training.Handout – Software Testing Managing the Training Process For the BCP training phase to be successful it has to be both well managed and structured. This can be a time consuming task and unless priorities are given to critical training programmes. Training Materials Development Schedule Once the training needs have been identified it is necessary to specify and develop suitable training materials. It is necessary for all new or revised processes to be explained carefully to the staff. This section of the BCP contains information on each of the training programmes with details of the training materials to be developed. For example it may be necessary to carry out some process manually if the IT system is down for any length of time. as appropriate. For larger organizations it may be practical to carry out the training in a classroom environment. Prepare Training Schedule Once it has been agreed who requires training and the training materials have been prepared a detailed training schedule should be drawn up. The training will cover all aspects of the Business Recovery activities section of the BCP including IT systems recovery". The BCP should contain a description of the objectives and scope of the training phase. Develop Objectives and Scope of Training The objectives and scope of the BCP training activities are to be clearly stated within the plan. an estimate of resources and an estimate of the completion date. and the training fine tuned. however. Page 82 ©Copyright 2007.

However.Handout – Software Testing This section of the BCP contains the overview of the training schedule and the groups of persons receiving the training. or the process. the training costs will vary greatly. Communication to Staff Once the training is arranged to be delivered to the employees. Each member of staff will be given information on their role and responsibilities applicable in the event of an emergency. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Assessing the Training The individual BCP training programmes and the overall BCP training process should be assessed to ensure its effectiveness and applicability. The forms should be completed either during the training (to record a specific issue) or as soon after finishing as practical. This section of the BCP will contain a format for assessing the training feedback. Prepare Budget for Training Phase Each phase of the BCP process which incurs a cost requires that a budget be prepared and approved. Completion of feedback forms should be mandatory for all persons participating in the training process. This section of the BCP will contain a list of the training phase activities and a cost for each. Depending upon the cross charging system employed by the organization. The communication should provide for feedback from the staff member where the training dates given are inconvenient. This section of the BCP should contain a template for a Feedback Questionnaire for the training phase. Feedback Questionnaires Assess Feedback Feedback Questionnaires It is vital to receive feedback from the persons managing and participating in each of the training programmes. If there are a significant number of negative issues raised then consideration should be given to possible retraining once the training materials. Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. have been improved. Assess Feedback The completed questionnaires from the trainees plus the feedback from the trainers should be assessed. training incurs additional costs and these should be approved by the appropriate authority within the organization. A separate communication should be sent to the managers of the business units advising them of the proposed training schedule to be attended by their staff. This information will be gathered from the trainers and also the trainees through the completion of feedback questionnaires. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This feedback will enable weaknesses within the Business Recovery Process. to be identified and eliminated. it is necessary to advise them about the training programmes they are scheduled to attend. This section of the BCP contains a draft communication to be sent to each member of staff to advise them about their training schedule. or the training. It should be noted whenever part of the costs is already incorporated with the organization’s overall budgeting process. This will enable observations and comments to be recorded whilst the event is still fresh in the persons mind. The key issues raised by the trainees should be noted and consideration given to whether the findings are critical to the process or not. Identified weaknesses should be notified to the BCP Team Leader and the process strengthened accordingly. it has to be recognized that. however well justified.

It is necessary for the BCP to keep pace with these changes in order for it to be of use in the event of a disruptive emergency. This chapter deals with updating the plan and the managed process which should be applied to this updating activity. This is necessary due to the level of complexity contained within the BCP. and particularly within the last five. An assessment should be made on whether the change necessitates any re-training activities. Responsibilities for Maintenance of Each Part of the Plan Each part of the plan will be allocated to a member of the BCP Team or a Senior Manager with the organization who will be charged with responsibility for updating and maintaining the plan. A Change request Form / Change Order form is to be prepared and approved in respect of each proposed change to the BCP. the BCP Testing Co-ordinator will be notified. This section of the BCP contains a draft communication from the BCP Co-ordinator to affected business units and contains information about the changes which require testing or re-testing. Whenever changes are made to the BCP they are to be fully tested and appropriate amendments should be made to the training materials. It is important that the relevant BCP coordinator and the Business Recovery Team are kept fully informed regarding any approved changes to the plan.Handout – Software Testing Keeping the Plan Up-to-date Changes to most organizations occur all the time. The increase in technological based processes over the past ten years. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This section of the BCP will contain a Change Request Form / Change Order to be used for all such changes to the BCP. Whenever changes are made or proposed to the BCP. Page 84 ©Copyright 2007. The BCP Team Leader will remain in overall control of the BCP but business unit heads will need to keep their own sections of the BCP up to date at all times. The BCP Testing Co-ordinator will then be responsible for notifying all affected units and for arranging for any further testing activities. Advise Person Responsible for BCP Training A member of the BCP Team will be given responsibility for co-ordinating all training activities (BCP Training Co-ordinator). have significantly increased the level of dependency upon the availability of systems and information for the business to function effectively. HRM Department will be responsible to ensure that all emergency contact numbers for staff are kept up to date. Products and services change and also their method of delivery. Maintaining the BCP It is necessary for the BCP updating process to be properly structured and controlled. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The BCP Team Leader will notify the BCP Training Co-ordinator of all approved changes to the BCP in order that the training materials can be updated. Change Controls for Updating the Plan It is recommended that formal change controls are implemented to cover any changes required to the BCP. This will involve the use of formalized change control procedures under the control of the BCP Team Leader. These changes are likely to continue and probably the only certainty is that the pace of change will continue to increase. Similarly. Test All Changes to Plan The BCP Team will nominate one or more persons who will be responsible for co-ordinating all the testing processes and for ensuring that all changes to the plan are properly tested.

Restoring the data to a clean set gets rid of the symptom. Reduced flexibility in test execution If datasets are large or hard to set up. Problems which can be caused by Poor Test Data Most testers are familiar with the problems that can be caused by poor data. the cost of test maintenance is correspondingly increased. Degradation of test data over time Program faults can introduce inconsistency or corruption into a database. not to be faults at all. Larger proportion of problems can be traced to poor data. This can be a symptom of an uncontrolled environment. Confusion between developers. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Most projects experience these problems at some stage . An assessment should be made on whether the change necessitates any re-training activities. Poor data can make these reports hard to understand. Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. they can cause hard-to-diagnose failures that may be apparently unrelated to the original fault. as the data is restored. Requirements problems can be hidden in inadequate data. but the original fault is undiagnosed and can carry on into live operation and perhaps future releases. evidence of the fault is lost. If that data is itself hard to understand or manipulate. unrecognized database corruption. testers and business. Furthermore. testers stand a greater chance of missing important diagnostic features of a failure. or indeed of missing the failure entirely. If the datasets are poorly constructed. Data can play a significant role in these failures. It is important to consider inputs and outputs of a process for requirements modeling. A proportion of all failures logged will be found. the less time spent testing. The following list details the most common problems familiar to the author. Poor data will cause more of these problems. Unreliable test results Running the same test twice produces inconsistent results. Inadequate data can lead to ambiguous or incomplete requirements. If not spotted at the time of generation. Obscure results and bug reports without clearly comprehensible data. A failure to understand each others data can lead to ongoing confusion. Increased test maintenance cost If each test has its own data. the cost increases further. Each of these groups has different data requirements. it may not be time-effective to construct further data to support investigator tests. Confusing or over-large datasets can make data selection mistakes more common. some tests may be excluded from a test run. after further analysis. Everybody makes mistakes. The BCP Team Leader will notify the BCP Training Co-ordinator of all approved changes to the BCP in order that the training materials can be updated. Less time spent hunting bugs the more time spent doing unproductive testing or ineffective test maintenance. or of a failure to recognize all the data that is influential on the system. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Most reports make reference to the input data and the actual and expected results.recognizing them early can allow their effects to be mitigated. Simpler to make test mistakes.Handout – Software Testing Advise Person Responsible for BCP Training A member of the BCP Team will be given responsibility for co-ordinating all training activities (BCP Training Co-ordinator).

and may lend themselves to automated testing / sanity checks. It includes communications addresses. or methods of debt collection from different kinds of customers. Poor database/environment integrity. setup data causes different functionality to apply to otherwise similar data. business can offer new intangible products without developing new functionality . Accounts. products. Typically. The following broad categories allow data to be handled and discussed more easily. it can be hard for the business or the end users to feel confidence in the test effort if they feel distanced from it. If a large number of testers. Small datasets can be manipulated more easily than large datasets. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and can be seen as part of the test conditions. share the same dataset. This can make portions of the application untestable for many testers simultaneously. For the purposes of testing. Environmental data Environmental data tells the system about its technical environment. where new billing products are supported and indeed created by additions to the setup data. a complex dataset will positively hinder diagnosis. Fixed Input Data Fixed input data is available before the start of the test. Inability to spot data corruption caused by bugs. Page 86 ©Copyright 2007. particularly in configuration data. many references are made to "The Data" or "Data Problems". A few datasets are easier to manage than many datasets.Handout – Software Testing Unwieldy volumes of data. it is useful to be able to classify the data according to the way it is used. It might include a cross reference between country and delivery cost or method. Setup data Setup data tells the system about the business rules. Although it is perhaps simpler to discuss data in these terms. A few well-known datasets can be more easily be checked than a large number of complex datasets. or tests. documents can all be input data. actions. The current date and time can be seen as environmental data. it is useful to split the categorization once more. they can influence and corrupt each others results as they change the data in the system. directory trees and paths and environmental variables. but can lead to database integrity problems and data corruption. orders. Classification of Test Data Types In the process of testing a system. Test requirements. often don't reflect the way the system will be used in practice. With an effective approach to setup data. A readily understandable dataset can allow straightforward diagnosis.as can be seen in the mobile phone industry. Input data Input data is the information input by day-to-day system functions. While this may arguably lead to broad testing for a variety of purposes. Business data not representatively tested. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This can not only cause false results.

test handles and instrumentation make it output data). It is most effective when the following conditions are satisfied. but the data maintenance required will be greatly lessened by the small size of the dataset and the amount of reuse it allows. or diagnostic tests. Finally. the test data can contain all possible pairs of permutations in a far smaller set than that which contains all possible permutations. A good approach increases data reliability. this produces a far smaller set of tests than the brute-force approach for all permutations. Transitional data is not seen outside the system (arguably. This allows a small. It generally has a correspondence with the input data (cf. and includes not only files. Output Data Output data is all the data that a system outputs as a result of processing input data and events. Pair wise. on fixed input data. Typically held in internal system variables. Permutations Most testers are familiar with the concept of permutation. and so is comprehensive enough to allow a great many new. easy to handle dataset . during processing of input data. Good data assists testing. as above. Fortunately. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Database changes will affect it. rather than hinders it. but its state can be inferred from actions that the system has taken. This small. Transitional data Transitional data is data that exists only within the program. Most are also familiar with the ways in which this generally vast set can be cut down. or combinatorial testing addresses this problem by generating a set of tests that allow all possible pairs of combinations to be tested.Handout – Software Testing Consumable Input Data Consumable input data forms the test input It can also be helpful to qualify data after the system has started to use it. this method of working with fixed input data can help greatly in testing the setup data. the way it is chosen and described. generating tests so that all possible permutations of inputs are tested. Organizing the data A key part of any approach to data is the way the data is organized. reports and database updates. but can also include test measurements. and easy to manipulate dataset is capable of supporting many tests. This method is most appropriate when used. A subset of the output data is generally compared with the expected results at the end of test execution. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . To sum up.which also allows a wide range of tests. Jackson's Structured Programming methodology). The same techniques can be applied to test data. it is temporary and is lost at the end of processing. Achieves good test coverage without having to construct massive datasets Page 87 ©Copyright 2007. It allows complete pairwise coverage. adhoc. reduces data maintenance time and can help improve the test process. permutation helps because: Permutation is familiar from test planning. for non-trivial sets. Typically. these criteria apply to many traditional database-based systems: Fixed input data consists of many rows Fields are independent You want to do many tests without loading / you do not load fixed input data for each test. transmissions. As such. influenced by the uses that are planned for it. it does not directly influence the quality of the tests.

Handout – Software Testing
Can perform investigative testing without having to set up more data Reduces the impact of functional/database changes Can be used to test other data - particularly setup data Partitioning Partitions allow data access to be controlled, reducing uncontrolled changes in the data. Partitions can be used independently; data use in one area will have no effect on the results of tests in another. Data can be safely and effectively partitioned by machine / database / application instance, although this partitioning can introduce configuration management problems in software version, machine setup, environmental data and data load/reload. A useful and basic way to start with partitions is to set up, not a single environment for each test or tester, but to set up three shared by many users, so allowing different kinds of data use. These three have the following characteristics: Safe area o Used for enquiry tests, usability tests etc. o No test changes the data, so the area can be trusted. o Many testers can use simultaneously Change Area o o o Used for tests which update/change data. Data must be reset or reloaded after testing. Used by one test/tester at a time.

Scratch area o Used for investigative update tests and those which have unusual requirements. o Existing data cannot be trusted. o Used at tester's own risk! o Testing rarely has the luxury of completely separate environments for each test and each tester. Controlling data, and the access to data, in a system can be fraught. Many different stakeholders have different requirements of the data, but a common requirement is that of exclusive use. While the impact of this requirement should not be underestimated, a number of stakeholders may be able to work with the same environmental data, and to a lesser extent, setup data – and their work may not need to change the environmental or setup data. The test strategy can take advantage of this by disciplined use of text / value fields, allowing the use of 'soft' partitions. 'Soft' partitions allow the data to be split up conceptually, rather than physically. Although testers are able to interfere with each others tests, the team can be educated to avoid each others work. If, for instance, tester 1's tests may only use customers with Russian nationality and tester 2's tests only with French, the two sets of work can operate independently in the same dataset. A safe area could consist of London addresses, the change area Manchester addresses, and the scratch area Bristol addresses. Typically, values in free-text fields are used for soft partitioning.

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Handout – Software Testing
Data partitions help because: Allow controlled and reliable data, reducing data corruption / change problems Can reduce the need for exclusive access to environments/machines Clarity Permutation techniques may make data easier to grasp by making the datasets small and commonly used, but we can make our data clearer still by describing each row in its own free text fields, allowing testers to make a simple comparison between the free text (which is generally displayed on output), and actions based on fields which tend not to be directly displayed. Use of free text fields with some correspondence to the internals of the record allows output to be checked more easily. Testers often talk about items of data, referring to them by anthropomorphic personification – that is to say, they give them names. This allows shorthand, but also acts as jargon, excluding those who are not in the know. Setting this data, early on in testing, to have some meaningful value can be very useful, allowing testers to sense check input and output data, and choose appropriate input data for investigative tests. Reports, data extracts and sanity checks can also make use of these; sorting or selecting on a free text field that should have some correspondence with a functional field can help spot problems or eliminate unaffected data. Data is often used to communicate and illustrate problems to coders and to the business. However, there is generally no mandate for outside groups to understand the format or requirements of test data. Giving some meaning to the data that can be referred to directly can help with improving mutual understanding. Clarity helps because: Improves communication within and outside the team Reduces test errors caused by using the wrong data Allows another method way of doing sanity checks for corrupted or inconsistent data Helps when checking data after input Helps in selecting data for investigative tests Data Load and Data Maintenance An important consideration in preparing data for functional testing is the ways in which the data can be loaded into the system, and the possibility and ease of maintenance. Loading the data Data can be loaded into a test system in three general ways. Using the system you're trying to test o The data can be manually entered, or data entry can be automated by using a capture/replay tool.

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Handout – Software Testing
o This method can be very slow for large datasets. It uses the system's own validation and insertion methods, and can both be hampered by faults in the system, and help pinpoint them. If the system is working well, data integrity can be ensured by using this method, and internally assigned keys are likely to be effective and consistent. Data can be well-described in test scripts, or constructed and held in flat files. It may, however, be input in an ad-hoc way, which is unlikely to gain the advantages of good data listed above. Data load tools directly manipulate the system's underlying data structures. As they do not use the system's own validation, they can be the only way to get broken data into the system in a consistent fashion. As they do not use the system to load the data, they can provide a convenient workaround to known faults in the system's data load routines. However, they may come up against problems when generating internal keys, and can have problems with data integrity and parent/child relationships. Data loaded can have a range of origins. In some cases, all new data is created for testing. This data may be complete and well specified, but can be hard to generate. A common compromise is to use old data from an existing system, selected for testing, filtered for relevance and duplicates and migrated to the target data format. In some cases, particularly for minor system upgrades, the complete set of live data is loaded into the system, but stripped of personal details for privacy reasons. While this last method may seem complete, it has disadvantages in that the data may not fully support testing, and that the large volume of data may make test results hard to interpret.

o

Using a data load tool o

o

Not loaded at all o Some tests simply take whatever is in the system and try to test with it. This can be appropriate where a dataset is known and consistent, or has been set up by a prior round of testing. It can also be appropriate in environments where data cannot be reloaded, such as the live system. However, it can be symptomatic of an uncontrolled approach to data, and is not often desirable. o Environmental data tends to be manually loaded, either at installation or by manipulating environmental or configuration scripts. Large volumes of setup data can often be generated from existing datasets and loaded using a data load tool, while small volumes of setup data often have an associated system maintenance function and can be input using the system.Fixed input data may be generated or migrated and is loaded using any and all of themethods above, while consumable input data is typically listed in test scripts or generated as an input to automation tools. When data is loaded, it can append itself to existing data, overwrite existing data, or delete existing data first. Each is appropriate in different circumstances, and due consideration should be given to the consequences. Testing the Data A theme bought out at the start of this paper was 'A System is Programmed by its Data'. In order to test the system, one must also test the data it is configured with; the environmental and setup data. Environmental data is necessarily different between the test and live environment. Although testing can verify that the environmental variables are being read and used correctly, there is little point in testing their values on a system other than the target system. Environmental data is often checked
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The advantages of testing the setup data include: Overall testing will be improved if the quality of the setup data improves Problems due to faults in the live setup data will be reduced The business can re-configure the software for new business needs with increased confidence Data-related failures in the live system can be assessed in the light of good data testing Conclusion Data can be influential on the quality of testing. and good data can be used as a tool to enable and improve communication throughout the project. throughout testing. Setup data can change often. The following points summarize the actions that can influence the quality of the data and the effectiveness of its usage: Plan the data for maintenance and flexibility Know your data.Handout – Software Testing manually on the live system during implementation and rollout. and the wide variety of possible methods will not be discussed further here. Effective testing of setup data is a necessary part of system testing. Aspects of all the elements above come into play. The setup data should be organized to allow a good variety of scenarios to be considered The setup data needs to be able to be loaded and maintained easily and repeatable The business needs to become involved in the data so that their setup for live can be properly tested When testing the setup data. This allows the effects of changes made to the setup data to be assessed repeat ably and allows results to be compared. Well-planned data can allow flexibility and help reduce the cost of test maintenance. Common data problems can be avoided or reduced with preparation and automation. and make its structure and content transparent Use the data to improve understanding throughout testing and the business Test setup data as you would test functionality Page 91 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it is important to have a well-known set of fixed input data and consumable input data. as the business environment changes – particularly if there is a long period between requirements gathering and live rollout. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Testing done on the setup data needs to cover two questions. Does the planned/current setup data induce the functionality that the business requires? Will changes made to the setup data have the desired effect? Testing for these two questions only becomes possible when that data is controlled.

making up the statement of condition. The “What should be” shall be called the “Criteria”. Page 92 ©Copyright 2007. and worded as clearly and precisely as possible. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . such as Criteria: Why is the current state inadequate? Effect: How significant is it? Cause: What could have cause of the problem? Factors defining the Test Log Generation Document Deviation: Problem statements begin to emerge by process of comparision. and the criteria. as they exist. Carefully and completely documenting a test problem is the first step in correcting the problem. These concepts are the first two and the most basic .Introduction Test Problem is a condition that exists within the software system that needs to be addressed.Essentially the user compares” what is” with “what should be”. which represents what the user desires. as they currently exist. What is a fact? The statement of condition will of course depend on the nature and extent of the evidence or support that is examined and noted. Identification of the cause is the necessary as a basis for corrective action. Criteria – Tells what should be. A well developed problem statement will include each of these attributes. Effect: Tells why the difference between what is and what should be is significant Cause: Tells the reasons for the deviation. If a comparison between the two gives little or no practical consequence. no finding exists. For those facts. attributes of a problem statement. The documenting of the deviation is describing the conditions. The following four attributes should be developed for all the test problems: Statement of condition –Tells what it is. It is difficult to visualize any type of problem that is not in some way characterized by this deviation. The ‘What is”: can be called the statement of condition. When one or more these attributes is missing. questions almost arise. These two attributes are the basis for a finding.Handout – Software Testing Test Logs . The statement of condition should document as many of the following attributes as appropriate of the problem. When a deviation is identified between what is found to actually exist and what the user thinks is correct or proper . well supported. The statement of condition is uncovering and documenting the facts. The actual deviation will be the difference or gap between “what –is” and “ what is desired”. the I/S professional will need to ensure that the information is accurate. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the first essential step toward development of a problem statement has occurred.

and document the statement of condition and the statement of criteria. Outputs /Deliverables – The products that are produced from the activity. Inputs . For example .Handout – Software Testing Activities Involved:. – The specific step-by –step activities that are utilized in producing the output from the identical activities. Work Paper to describe the problem.or class users/customers serviced by this activity. Cognizant Technology Solutions.individuvals. For example the following Work paper provides the information for Test Log Documentation: Page 93 ©Copyright 2007. The Criterion is the user’s statement of what is desired. Deficiencies noted – The status of the results of executing this activity and any appropriate interpretation of those facts. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .events. It can be stated in the either negative or positive terms.or documents that cause this activity to be executed. it could indicate the need to reduce the complaints or delays as well as desired processing turn around time.The specific business or administered activities that are being performed during Test Log generation are as follows: Procedures used to perform work.The triggers. Users/Customers served –The organization .

The hardware and Software environment in which the software system will operate. Functions/Sub functions . Units. Test Suites. Business Objective –The validation that specific business objectives have been met. Reviews: Verification that the process deliverables / phases are meeting the user’s true needs. Defect This category includes a Description of the individual defects uncovered during the testing process. Test transactions/events: The type of tests that will be conducted during the execution of tests.Handout – Software Testing Collecting Status Data Four categories of data will be collected during testing.The smallest identifiable software components Platform. These are explained in the following paragraphs. the validation of which becomes the Test Objective. and Test Events These are the test products produced by the test team to perform testing. which will be based on software requirements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Validation that data/Objects can be correctly passed among Software components.Identifiable Software components normally associated with the requirements of the software. Inspections – A verification of process deliverables against deliverable specifications. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Interface Objectives . Test factors -The factors incorporated in the plan. Test Results Data This data will include. Test Transactions. This description includes but not limited to : Data the defect uncovered Name of the Defect Location of the Defect Page 94 ©Copyright 2007.

The frequency of the test reports should be based on the discretion of the team and extensiveness of the test process. and the software development team. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which indicates the project component for which the status is requested. Storing Data Collected during Testing It is recommended that a database be established in which to store the results collected during testing. The intersection can be coded with a number or symbol to indicate the following: 1=Test is needed. test managers. The test reports are for use of testers. and the results of testing at any point of time.Handout – Software Testing Severity of the Defect Type of Defect How the defect was uncovered (Test Data/Test Script) The Test Logs should add to this information in the form of where the defect originated . the test that will be performed to determine the status of that component. Use of Function/Test matrix: This shows which tests must be performed in order to validate the functions and also used to determine the status of testing. when it was corrected. Developing Test Status Reports Report Software Status Establish a Measurement Team Inventory Existing Project Measures Develop a Consistent Set of Project metrics Define Process Requirements Develop and Implement the Process Monitor the Process The Test process should produce a continuous series of reports that describe the status of testing. Many organizations use spreadsheet package to maintain test results. As described the most common test Report is a simple Spread sheet . and when it was entered for retest. It is also suggested that the database be put in online through client/server systems so that with a vested interest in the status of the project can be readily accessed for the status update. but not performed 2=Test currently being performed 3=Minor defect noted 4=Major defect noted 5=Test complete and function is defect free for the criteria included in this test Page 95 ©Copyright 2007.

DocBook. organizing. delimited ASCII text file or a SQL query to a RDBMS and produces a report listing. This allows each person to use the normal functions of the computer keyboard that are common to all word processors. database.GNU Report Generator The GRG program reads record and field information from a dBase3+ file. defect tracking. Word –Processing: One way of increasing the utility of computers and word processors for the teaching of writing may be to use software that will guide the processes of generating. Cognizant Technology Solutions. but plain ASCII text. Reports can be viewed and printed from the application or output as HTML.or comma-separated text files. LaTeX2e.Use of word processing. HTML. however. XML. Some query tools available for Linux based databases include: MySQL dbMetrix PgAccess Cognos Powerhouse This is not yet available for Linux.'' GRG .Handout – Software Testing Methods of Test Reporting Reporting Tools . text. and data base management products. and graphic tools to prepare test reports. From the LaTeX2e and DocBook output files you can in turn produce PDF. PostScript. The program was loosely designed to produce TeX/LaTeX formatted output. PostScript. and more. order entry systems. A one-page summary report may be printed with either the Report Manager program or from the individual keyboard or keypad software at any time. Status Report Word Processing Tests or Keypad Tests Basic Skills Tests or Data Entry Tests Progress Graph Game Scores Test Report for each test Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. Cognos is looking into what interest people have in the product to assess what their strategy should be with respect to the Linux ``market. email editors. composing and revising text. Some Database test tools like Data Vision is a database reporting tool similar to Crystal Reports. or tab. HTML or any other kind of ASCII based output format can be produced just as easily. you can quickly scan through any number of these reports and see how each person's history compares. troff. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . From the Report Manager. Individual Reports include all of the following information.

business analysts and Client can participate and contribute to the testing process Traceability throughout the testing process Test Cases can be mapped to requirements providing adequate visibility over the test coverage of requirements Test Director links requirements to test cases and test cases to defects Manages Both Manual and Automated Testing Test Director can manage both manual and automated tests (Win Runner) Scheduling of automated tests can be effectively done using Test Director Test Report Standards . once the software has been integrated and functional testing is complete. o Average duration between defect detection and defect correction o Average effort to correct a defect o Total number of defects remaining at delivery o Software performance data us usually generated during system testing.Defining the components that should be included in a test report.Ability to draw statistically valid conclusions from quantitative test results. test execution progress.Handout – Software Testing Test Director: Facilitates consistent and repetitive testing process Central repository for all testing assets facilitates the adoption of a more consistent testing process. tester. defect statistics can be used for production planning Provides Anytime. Statistical Analysis . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. o Average CPU utilization o Average memory Utilization o Measured I/O transaction rate Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. The following measurements generated during testing are applicable: o Total number of tests o Number of Tests executed to date o Number of tests executed successfully to date o Data concerning software defects include o Total number of defects corrected in each activity o Total number of defects entered in each activity. Testing Data used for metrics Testers are typically responsible for reporting their test status at regular intervals. run schedules. Anywhere access to Test Assets Using Test Director’s web interface. developers. which can be repeated throughout the application life cycle Provides Analysis and Decision Support Graphs and reports help analyze application readiness at any point in the testing process Requirements coverage.

and if so. For example. Individual Project Test Report These reports focus on the Individual projects(software system). they should prepare a report on their results. These defect prone components identify tasks/steps that if improved. as paper report will summarize the data. there is no reason to print that. The immediate purpose is to provide information to customers of the software system so that they can determine whether the system is ready for production . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The Third long term purpose is to show what was accomplished in case of an Y2K lawsuit. The test report can be a combination of electronic data and hard copy. could eliminate or minimize the occurrence of high frequency defects.9 . Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. if the function matrix is maintained electronically.Purpose of a Test Report: The test report has one immediate and three long term purposes.Handout – Software Testing Test Reporting A final test report should be prepared at the conclusion of each test activity. to assess the potential consequences and initiate appropriate actions to minimize those consequences. Integration Test Report Integration testing tests the interfaces between individual projects. Knowing which functions have been correctly tested and which ones still contain defects can assist in taking corrective actions. The second long term purpose is to use the data to analyze the rework process for making changes to prevent the defects from occurring in the future. This includes the following Individual Project Test Report Integration Test Report System Test Report Acceptance test Report These test reports are designed to document the results of testing as defined in the testplan. draws appropriate conclusions and present recommendations. Given is the Individual Project test report except that conditions tested are interfaces. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The first of the three long term uses is for the project to trace problems in the event the application malfunctions in production. A good test plan will identify the interfaces and institute test conditions that will validate interfaces.when different testers should test individual projects.

The second objective is to ensure that software system can operate in the real world user environment. Page 99 ©Copyright 2007. One Long term objective is for the Project and the other is for the information technology function. then it need only be referenced . These defect prone components identify tasks/steps that if improved. testing should have accomplished this objective. changing business conditions. The project can use the test report to trace problems in the event the application malfunction in production. time pressures. which includes people skills and attitudes. Conclusion The Test Logs obtained from the execution of the test results and finally the test reports should be designed to accomplish the following objectives: Provide Information to the customer whether the system should be placed into production. Acceptance Test Report There are two primary objectives of Acceptance testing Report: The first is to ensure that the system as implemented meets the real operating needs of the user/customer. not included in the report. could eliminate or minimize the occurrence of high frequency defects in future. if so the potential consequences and appropriate actions to minimize these consequences.Handout – Software Testing System Test Reports A System Test plan standard that identified the objective of testing . what was to be tested. Knowing which functions have been correctly tested and which ones still contain defects can assist in taking corrective actions. If these details are maintained Electronically . and when tests should occur. The data can also be used to analyze the developmental process to make changes to prevent defects from occurring in the future. and so forth. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the defined requirements are those true needs. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The Acceptance Test Report should encompass these criteria’s for the User acceptance respectively. The system test Report should present the results of executing the test plan. how was it to be tested.

Objectives To support these goals. use case path and class responsibilities) of the item under test. This document would contain a summary of the entire project and would have to be presented in a way that any person who has not worked on the project would also get a good overview of the testing effort.Handout – Software Testing Test Report A Test Report is a document that is prepared once the testing of a software product is complete and the delivery is to be made to the customer.. Cause failures that uncover underlying defects so that they can be identified and removed.. a single test of a use case path or class method). Help developers understand the behavior of the item under test. Help improve the quality of the item under test.g. Help developers improve the quality of the specifications (e. Contents of a Test Report The contents of a test report are as follows: Executive Summary Overview Application Overview Testing Scope Test Details Test Approach Types of testing conducted Test Environment Tools Used Metrics Test Results Test Deliverables Recommendations Test Case A test case is a testing work product that automatically performs a single test on an executable work product. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the objectives of a single test case include: Document the purpose of the test case (i. the type of failures to be elicited).e. Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the part of the item under test being tested.g.. Document the producer of the test case. Goals The goals of a test case is to automate or document the following: Perform a single test (e.

The Architecture Team for architecture model test cases. Report the results of the associated test. raise test exceptions). The Integration Team for integration test cases. values returned. The Independent Test Team for system test cases.g. oracle. Maintainers: o The Requirements Team for requirements model test cases.. Documents test results Failure to produce test cases increases the probability that the item under test will contain defects that will make the application fail to meet its requirements. The SoftwareDevelopment Team for design model and unit test cases. Failure to automate test cases makes regression testing more expensive and less likely to occur. Stimulate the item (e.. exceptions raised.g. Cognizant Technology Solutions. o The Architecture Team for architecture model test cases. Benefits A test case provides the following benefits: Automates a single test. etc. test oracle) Test reporting script Test finalization script Stakeholders Producers: o o o o o The Requirements Team for requirements model test cases. the test stimuli. place the item under test.g.e. Documents a single test in terms of objective.g. and provide the necessary test data). Observe how the item responds (e.e. send it test messages. to place objects under test into the appropriate pre-test states) Test stimuli (e. thereby supporting regression testing. Evaluator: Test Inspection Team Approvers: None. Contents Test case objectives Test preparation (e. postconditions) to the expected responses to identify failures that imply the existence of defects in the item under test. Compare the actual responses (i. to send test messages or raise test exceptions) Expected behavior (i. changes in state and messages sent) to the test stimuli. o The Software Development Team for design model and unit test cases. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007...Handout – Software Testing Prepare the item under test for testing (i..e. and the collaborators of the item under test into their correct pretest states. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ...

The Integration Team for integration test cases. Model testing of the software design 2). assertions. The relevant test suite is started. architecture. Unit testing of the software components 3).g. Unit testing of the software architecture prototype The SoftwareDevelopment Team for 1). The relevant team is staffed. The Integration Team for performing integration testing. The relevant item under test is started.Handout – Software Testing o o Users: o Tumultuous 1). Cognizant Technology Solutions. o o Phases Initiation: Completed Construction: Completed Delivery: Completed Usage: Maintained Retirement: Archived Preconditions A test case typically can be started if the following preconditions hold: The relevant sections of the Project Test Plan are completed. Inputs Work products: Project Test Plan System Requirements Specification System Architecture Document Software Architecture Document Javadoc including responsibilities Software components (e. Model testing of the software architecture 2). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Use case model 2).. method signatures. The relevant requirements. The Independent Test Team for system test cases. Domain object model The Architecture Team for: 1). or design are completed. branching and looping logic) Stakeholders: None Page 102 ©Copyright 2007. 4). The Test Team for performing system testing.

Test Log d. Test harness 2). then it will be difficult to know if the defect causing the failure is in the item under test or in the test case. Test Case b. A test reflects what tests need to be performed. and system testing). Thus. Test your Understanding 1). Test Plan c. If the quality of the test cases is not at least as good as the quality of the item under test. Test Deliverables. this information is documented in the associated test procedure. Cognizant Technology Solutions. To support regression testing.g.Handout – Software Testing Guidelines Test cases will be used at all levels of testing (e. Test Environment (Hardware. Software. Communication etc. test cases will be automated whenever practical. A series of test data that is logically tested together is a. unit testing. The document that describes the expected output as well as inputs is a. Test Strategy/Approach based on customer priorities. Guidelines A test case is constrained by the following conventions: Content and Format Standard Inspection Checklist SUMMARY A test plan contains description of testing objectives and Goals. Test cases do not document the results of the tests. model testing. integration testing. test cases need to be evaluated for defects. When performed manually. Test Script Answers: 1) c 2) c Page 103 ©Copyright 2007. Test Specification b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . execution conditions and expected results. Test Result c. and the test case developer can make mistakes.) Features to test with priority/criticality. The oracle can be incorrect. Test Case d. A test case has set of test inputs. which are documented in the associated test report. Network.. Test cases need not document how to perform the test unless they are automated.

Such an evaluation estimates the current system reliability and predicts how the reliability will grow if testing and defect removal continue. A software error is present when the program does not do what its end user expects it to do. The actual data about defect rates are then fit to the model. Quality is the indication of how well the system meets the requirements. Symptoms (flaws) of faults contained in software that is sufficiently mature for production will be considered as defects. A Defect is a product anomaly or flaw. This evaluation is described as system reliability growth modelling. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and reporting What is a Defect? A mismatch in the application and its specification is a defect. Rigorous evaluation uses assumptions about the arrival or discovery rates of defects during the testing process. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A deviation from expectation that is to be tracked and resolved is also termed a defect. you will be able to: Describe defect lifecycle. Defect evaluation is based on methods that range from simple number count to rigorous statistical modeling. An evaluation of defects discovered during testing provides the best indication of software quality. Defect Classification The severity of bugs will be classified as follows: Page 104 ©Copyright 2007. tracking.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 7: Defect Management Learning Objective After completing this chapter. Defects include such things as omissions and imperfections found during testing phases. So in this context defects are identified as any failure to meet the system requirements.

This can be broken down into 5 points: Give a brief description of the problem List the steps that are needed to reproduce the bug or problem Supply all relevant information such as version. how to get it and what needs to be changed. project and data used.Handout – Software Testing Defect Lifecycle Defect Reporting and Tracking The key to making a good report is providing the development staff with as much information as necessary to reproduce the bug. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the easier it will be for the developers to determine the problem and fix it. Page 105 ©Copyright 2007. but the more complex the problem– the more information the developer is going to need. For example: cosmetic errors may only require a brief description of the screen. Simple problems can have a simple report. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Supply a copy of all relevant reports and data including copies of the expected results. When you are reporting a defect the more information you supply. Summarize what you think the problem is.

In most cases the product is not static. In most cases the more information/ correct information given the better. (Perceived results) An explanation of how the results differed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . if available. list them. Copies of any output should be included. an error in processing will require a more detailed description. Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. a copy of the data both before and after the process should be included. In either case. If the dataset from before the process is not included.Handout – Software Testing However. developers will be forced to try and find the bug based on forensic evidence. such as a cosmetic error on a screen. supply the exact data entered. you should include two versions of the dataset. If specific data is involved. Steps: List the steps taken to recreate the bug. they need to know which version to use when testing out the bug. an earlier version of the software and any formulas used) Documentation on what actually happened.make sure you’ve included everything you type and do to get to the problem. As a rule the detail of your report will increase based on The severity of the bug. If there are parameters. They have to give developers something to work with so that they can successfully reproduce the problem. This includes spread sheets. follow them . Product: If you are developing more than one product– Identify the product in question. With the data. After you’ve finished writing down the steps. such as: The name of the process and how to get to it. Identify the individual items that are wrong. Documentation on what was expected. If you’re reporting a processing error. Include all proper menu names. one before the process and one after. Data: Unless you are reporting something very simple. Anatomy of a bug report Bug reports need to do more than just describe the bug. developers can trace what is happening. you should include a dataset that exhibits the error. The level of the processing. If you have to enter any data. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The complexity of reproducing the bug. When you report the steps they should be the clearest steps to recreating the bug. (Expected results) The source of the expected results. The report should explain exactly how to reproduce the problem and an explanation of exactly what the problem is. don’t abbreviate and don’t assume anything. Go through the process again and see if there are any steps that can be removed. developers will have been working on it and if they’ve found a bug– it may already have been reported or even fixed. The basic items in a report are as follows: Version: This is very important.

It should include information about the product. SUMMARY A bug report is a case against a product. Include a list of what was expected. On re-testing the defect. In order to work it must supply all necessary information to not only identify the problem but what is needed to fix it as well. Duplicate – The bug has already been reported. After the development team has fixed the defect. which will follow the same cycle as an open defect. Invalid Bug – The reported bug is not valid one as per the requirements/design As Designed – This is an intended functionality as per the requirements/design Deferred –This will be an enhancement. Page 107 ©Copyright 2007. Remember report one problem at a time. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it must be reported to development so that it can be fixed.Handout – Software Testing Description: Explain what is wrong . It is not enough to say that something is wrong. Include what you expected. Testers will need this information for later regression testing and verification. The Project Lead of the development team will review the defect and set it to one of the following statuses: o o o o o o Open – Accepts the bug and assigns it to a developer. The Initial State of a defect will be ‘New’. which means the defect is ready to re-test. The report must also say what the system should be doing. The developers need it to reproduce the bug. If the process is a report. and the testing team does not agree with the development team it is set to document status. include the version number and the dataset used) This information should be stored in a centralized location so that Developers and Testers have access to the information. they will set to Dev Waiting. Document – Once it is set to any of the above statuses apart from Open. identify it and fix it. the status is set to REOPENED. Once the development team has started working on the defect the status is set to WIP ((Work in Progress) or if the development team is waiting for a go ahead or some technical feedback. The report should be written in clear concise steps. it is set to Closed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. include a copy of the report with the problem areas highlighted. including the version number. supply documentation. Defect Tracking After a defect has been found. the status is set to FIXED. If the fixed defect satisfies the requirements/passes the test case.Try to weed out any extraneous information. so that someone who has never seen the system can follow the steps and reproduce the problem. If you have a report to compare against. don’t combine bugs in one report. Supporting documentation: If available. but detail what is wrong. and the defect still exists. what data was used. include it and its source information (if it’s a printout from a previous version.

Software problem that requires corrective action b. Tracking a defect to closure c. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . All the above 2). The following is NOT a defect management activity a. Unexpected error/event that needs investigation c. Logging a defect b.Handout – Software Testing Test your Understanding 1). Temporary problem that is not related to the software d. Defect is defined as a. Finding the person who introduced the defect d. Preventing defects Answers: 1) a&b 2) c Page 108 ©Copyright 2007.

Automation of testing processes allows machines to complete the tedious. testing is a repetitive activity.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 8: Automation Learning Objective After completing this chapter. and with fewer errors than individuals. The reason is that computers can execute instructions many times faster. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . As more organizations develop mission-critical systems to support their business activities. Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. Automation allows the tester to reduce or eliminate the required “think time” or “read time” necessary for the manual interpretation of when or where to click the mouse or press the enter key. built according to specification. Many automated testing tools can replicate the activity of a large number of users (and their associated transactions) using a single computer. the need is greatly increased for testing methods that support business objectives. Imagine performing a load test on a typical distributed client/server application on which 50 concurrent users were planned. Many internal and external factors are forcing organizations to ensure a high level of software quality and reliability. Automation Benefits Today. An automated test executes the next operation in the test hierarchy at machine speed. you will be able to: Explain automated testing What is Automation? Automated testing is automating the manual testing process currently in use. and have the ability to support business processes. Therefore. Every organization has unique reasons for automating software quality activities. In the past. most software tests were performed using manual methods. but several reasons are common across industries. load/stress testing using automated methods require only a fraction of the computer hardware that would be necessary to complete a manual test. Reducing Testing Costs The cost of performing manual testing is prohibitive when compared to automated methods. The very nature of application software development dictates that no matter which methods are employed to carry out testing (manual or automated). manual testing is no longer a viable option for most testing situations. are virtually impossible to perform manually. It is necessary to ensure that these systems are reliable. they remain repetitious throughout the development lifecycle. Owing to the size and complexity of today’s advanced software applications. allowing tests to be completed many times faster than the fastest individual. Using Testing Effectively By definition. such as load/stress testing. This required a large staff of test personnel to perform expensive. some types of testing. rigorous application testing is a critical part of virtually all software development projects. and time-consuming manual test procedures. Furthermore. repetitive work while human personnel perform other tasks.

automated tests can be executed as many times as necessary without requiring a user to recreate a test script each time the test is run. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the entire test operation could be created on a single machine having the ability to run and rerun the test as necessary. Greater Application Coverage The productivity gains delivered by automated testing allow and encourage organizations to test more often and more completely. In some industries such as healthcare and pharmaceuticals.Handout – Software Testing To do the testing manually. automated tests can be built that extract variable data from external files or applications and then run a test using the data as an input value. Most importantly. It is easy to see why manual methods for load/stress testing is an expensive and logistical nightmare. the tester has a very high degree of control over which types of tests are being performed. Repeatability and Control By using automated techniques. and how the tests will be executed. For example. an available network. and a cadre of coordinators to relay instructions to the users would be required. Using automated tests enforces consistent procedures that allow developers to evaluate the effect of various application modifications as well as the effect of various user actions. With an automated scenario. As another example. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 50 application users employing 50 PCs with associated software. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007. Greater application test coverage also reduces the risk of exposing users to malfunctioning or non-compliant software. When applications need to be deployed across different hardware or software platforms. at night or on weekends without having to assemble an army of end users. organizations are required to comply with strict quality regulations as well as being required to document their quality assurance efforts for all parts of their systems. imagine the same application used by hundreds or thousands of users. Replicating Testing Across Different Platforms Automation allows the testing organization to perform consistent and repeatable tests. standard or benchmark tests can be created and repeated on target platforms to ensure that new platforms operate consistently.

This modular approach saves time and money when compared to creating a new end-to-end script for each and every test. The following are examples of criteria that can be used to identify tests that are prime candidates for automation. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007. common outline files can be created to establish a testing session. production planning. Mission-critical processes are prime candidates for automated testing. but not all. types of tests can be automated.In many situations.If a testing procedure can be reused many times. If the application fails. and tests that require constant human intervention are usually not worth the investment to automate. These automated modules can be used again and again without having to rebuild the test scripts. High Path Frequency . For example. Certain types of tests like user comprehension tests.Handout – Software Testing Automation Life Cycle Identifying Tests Requiring Automation . tests that run only once. Examples include: creating customer records. Critical Business Processes . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . software applications can literally define or control the core of a company’s business. it is also a prime candidate for automation. close a testing session and apply testing values. Any application with a high-degree of risk associated with a failure is a good candidate for test automation. sales order entry and other core activities.Automated testing can be used to verify the performance of application paths that are used with a high degree of frequency when the software is running in full production. Examples include: financial month-end closings. Repetitive Testing . invoicing and other high volume activities where software failures would occur frequently.Most. the company can face extreme disruptions in critical operations. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Page 112 ©Copyright 2007. Test components built for performing functional tests should also support other types of testing including regression and load/stress testing. and one which often poses enterprise-wide implications. What to Look For in a Testing Tool Choosing an automated software testing tool is an important step. Here are several key issues. A robust tool will allow users to integrate existing test results into an automated test plan. Finally. Ease of Use Testing tools should be engineered to be usable by non-programmers and application endusers. It should also provide test results in an easy-tounderstand reporting format. The tests created for testing Internet or intranet-based applications should be portable across browsers. provide organization for testing components. Even if programmers are responsible for testing. Also. Test Planning and Management A robust testing tool should have the capability to manage the testing process. Test component reusability should be a cornerstone of the product architecture. an automated test should be able to link business requirements to test results. Testing Product Integration Testing tools should provide tightly integrated modules that support test component reusability. allowing users to evaluate application readiness based upon the application's ability to support the business requirements. With much of the testing responsibility shifting from the development staff to the departmental level.If an application is planned to be in production for a long period of time. and should automatically adjust for different load times and performance levels. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It should also allow users to include non-automated testing procedures within automated test plans and test results.Handout – Software Testing Applications with a Long Life Span . which should be addressed when selecting an application testing solution. the testing tool itself should have a short learning curve. easy-to-modify tests. All products within the testing product environment should be based upon a common. and create meaningful end-user and management reports. Internet/Intranet Testing A good tool will have the ability to support testing within the scope of a web browser. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the greater the benefits are from automation. the architecture of the testing tool environment should be open to support interaction with other technologies such as defect or bug tracking packages. easy-to-understand language. User training and experience gained in performing one testing task should be transferable to other testing tasks. Load and Performance Testing The selected testing solution should allow users to perform meaningful load and performance tests to accurately measure system performance. GUI and Client/Server Testing A robust testing tool should support testing with a variety of user interfaces and create simple-to manage. a testing tool that requires programming skills is unusable by most organizations.

and the procedures needed for installation and restoration of the environment. This plan is very much a “living document” that should evolve as the application functions become more clearly defined. The definition of these tasks. locate and configure test-related hardware and software products and coordinate the human resources required to complete all testing.Handout – Software Testing Test Environment Setup Once the test cases have been created. To guarantee the best possible result from an automated testing program. those evaluating test automation should consider these fundamental planning steps. Make sure that other groups that might share these resources are informed of this schedule. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Creating a Test Plan For the greatest return on automated testing. By doing this.Identify the times during which your testing facilities will be used for a given test. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Restoration Procedures .Document the technical environment needed to execute the tests. the software development team. a business requirement for a payroll application might be to calculate a salary. Operational Support . a testing plan should be created at the same time the software application requirements are defined. A good testing plan should be reviewed and approved by the test team. the test environment can be prepared. Inputs to the Test Environment Preparation Process Technical Environment Descriptions Approved Test Plan Test Execution Schedules Resource Allocation Schedule Application Software to be installed Test Planning Careful planning is the key to any successful process. The test environment includes initial set up and description of the environment. For example.Outline the procedures necessary to install the application software to be tested. outline those procedures needed to restore the test environment to its original state. you are ready to re-execute tests or prepare for a different set of tests.Identify any support needed from other parts of your organization. These business requirements should be defined in such a way as to make it abundantly clear that the software system correctly (or incorrectly) performs the necessary business functions. functional requirements of the software system in question. Evaluating Business Requirements Begin the automated testing process by defining exactly what tasks your application software should accomplish in terms of the actual business activities of the end-user. This enables the testing team to define the tests. The test environment is defined as the complete set of steps necessary to execute the test as described in the test plan. Test Schedule . Description . The time invested in detailed planning significantly improves the benefits resulting from test automation. or to print a salary check. all user groups and the Page 113 ©Copyright 2007. Installation Procedures . defines the high-level.Finally. or business requirements.

Handout – Software Testing organization’s management. Test Data Sources .Identify set up or testing criteria that must be established before a test can be successfully executed. the action to be completed. Expected Results .When is the scheduled release? When are updates or enhancements planned? Are there any specific events or actions that are dependent upon the application? Acceptance Criteria for implementation .What is the application intended to do? These should be stated in the terms of the business requirements of the end users. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . These expected results will be used to measure the acceptance criteria. Input Values . so that the results of these test elements can be traced and analyzed. Application Implementation Schedules . Test Procedures – Identify the application steps necessary to complete the test case.Each test case must have a unique name. Page 114 ©Copyright 2007. A test case identifies the specific input values that will be sent to the application. Test Case Execution Order . The following items detail the input and output components of the test planning process. if necessary.Take note of the sources for extracting test data if it is not included in the test case.Specify any relationships. run orders and dependencies that might exist between test cases. A proper test case will include the following key components: Test Case Name(s) .Document all screen identifier(s) and expected value(s) that must be verified as part of the test.What critical actions must the application accomplish before it can be deployed? This information forms the basis for making informed decisions on whether or not the application is ready to deploy. the standardized test cases can be created that will be used to test the application. Inputs to the Test Planning Process Application Requirements . and the expected application values for the procedure being tested. the procedures for applying those inputs. The type and number of test cases needed will be dictated by the testing plan. Test Design and Development After the test components have been defined.This section of the test case identifies the values to be supplied to the application as input including. and therefore the ultimate success of the test. Test Case Prerequisites . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and validates those results against expected performance. test execution environment Standardized Test Logging Procedures Outputs from the Test Execution Process Test Execution Log(s) Restored test environment Page 115 ©Copyright 2007. test execution and restoration Executing the Test The test is now ready to be run. This step applies the test cases identified by the test plan.Handout – Software Testing Inputs to the Test Design and Construction Process Test Case Documentation Standards Test Case Naming Standards Approved Test Plan Business Process Documentation Business Process Flow Test Data sources Outputs from the Test Design and Construction Process Revised Test Plan Test Procedures for each Test Case Test Case(s) for each application function described in the test plan Procedures for test set up. Specific performance measurements of the test execution phase include: Application of Test Cases – The test cases previously created are applied to the target software application as described in the testing environment Documentation .Activities within the test execution are logged and analyzed as follows: Actual Results achieved during test execution are compared to expected application behavior from the test cases Test Case completion status (Pass/Fail) Actual results of the behavior of the technical test environment Deviations taken from the test plan or test process Inputs to the Test Execution Process Approved Test Plan Documented Test Cases Stabilized. Cognizant Technology Solutions. repeatable. documents the results.

The secret to a controlled test execution is comprehensive planning.This final and very important report identifies potential defects in the software. there may be several test execution cycles necessary to complete all the necessary types of testing required for your application. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The problems experienced in test execution are usually attributed to not properly performing steps from earlier in the process. operating environment. and the completion status. This step of the process can range from very chaotic to very simple and schedule driven. Determine Application Status .The Log Review compiles a listing of the activities of all test cases. and a separate test execution cycle may be required for the stress/volume testing of the same application. noting those that passed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .This step identifies the overall status of the application after testing. Additionally. Other Phases in Automation Phase I: Tool Acquisition Assessment Evaluation/Selection Installation With the right tool. An automation assessment allows us to evaluate your tool needs. you may inadvertently cause problems for subsequent testing. Phase II: Tool Implementation Preparation Execution Page 116 ©Copyright 2007. including application processes that need to be analyzed further. and test team. test automation can offer a dramatic increase in productivity.Handout – Software Testing The test execution phase of your software test process will control how the test gets applied to the application. Test Execution Statistics . Without an adequate test plan in place to control your entire test process. provide an objective selection of the best tool(s). the type of test. Application Defects . Measuring the Results This step evaluates the results of the test as compared to the acceptance criteria set down in the test plan. etc. and install and configure the tool(s) for your application and environment. needs more testing.This summary identifies the total number of tests that were executed. A complete and thorough test plan will identify this need and many of the test cases can be used for both test cycles. a test execution may be required for the functional testing of an application. The first and most important step in the process is acquiring a tool that is suitable for your application. For example. failed or were not executed. for example: ready for release. Specific elements to be measured and analyzed include: Test Execution Log Review .

Scripts need to be reviewed and validated for results and accepted as functioning as expected before they are used live. This allows one script to test multiple sets of positive data. if the system functionality changes. These sequences are played back during the test execution. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . During the implementation phase. This sometimes reduces the effort over the completely manual approach. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Test Script execution: In this phase we execute the scripts that are already created. and automate tests. Page 117 ©Copyright 2007. and it is possible for engineers to edit and maintain such scripts.Handout – Software Testing Selecting the right test tool is only the beginning of a successful test automation effort. Tools like Winrunner provide a scripting language. reusable automated test environment. however overall savings is usually minimal. The benefit of this approach is that the time consumed is less and accurate than manually testing it. As with any tool. Automation Methods Capture/Playback Approach The Capture/Playback tools capture the sequence of manual operations in a test script that are entered by the test engineer. This is applicable when large volume and different sets of data need to be fed to the application and tested for correctness. The short-comings of Capture/Playback are that in many cases. This process will result in a robust. Select the script that needs to be executed and run it… Wait until execution is done. The benefit of this approach is that the captured session can be re-run at some later point in time to ensure that the system performs the required behavior. it takes time to define. Steps to be followed before execution of scripts: Test tool to be installed in the machine. Testing can be done with both positive and negative approach simultaneously. necessary data table or data pool updation needs to be taken care. Test environment /application to be tested to be installed in the machine. playback options. Prerequisite for running the scripts such as tool settings. we will prepare the test environment. Data Driven Approach Data driven approach is a test that plays back the same user actions but with varying input values. Although test automation tools can save time through unattended execution. develop the automated scripts. and execute the tests. it is how you use it that counts. Analysis the results via Test manager or in the logs. the capture/playback session will need to be completely re-run to capture the new sequence of user interactions. design the test cases. design.

3 = Basic/ support only. Empirix/RSW. This appendix evaluates major tool vendors on their test tool characteristics. and vendor qualification. Functional Test Tool Matrix The Tool Matrix is provided for quick and easy reference to the capabilities of the test tools. 5 = No support. 4 = This is only supported by use of an API call or third party add-in but not included in the general test tool/below average. Cognizant Technology Solutions. test execution capability. tool integration capability. In general a set of criteria can be built up by using this matrix and an indicative score obtained to help in the evaluation process. test reporting capability. which in turn will dictate how automation will be invoked to support the process. Mercury. 1 = Excellent support for this functionality. performance testing and analysis. Each category in the matrix is given a rating of 1 – 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 118 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Test script execution process: Automation tool comparison Anyone who has contemplated the implementation of an automated test tool has quickly realized the wide variety of options on the market in terms of both the kinds of test tools being offered and the number of vendors. The following tool vendors evaluated are Compuware. Rational. Usually the lower the score the better but this is subjective and is based on the experience of the author and the test professionals opinions used to create this document. and Segue. The best tool for any particular situation depends on the system engineering environment that applies and the testing methodology that will be used. 2 = Good support but lacking or another tool provides more effective support.

etc.Handout – Software Testing A detailed description is given below of each of the categories used in the matrix. They will speak different languages. checking what is in the backend database usually verifies the proper validation of tests carried out on the front end of an application. databases. they may be disabled. and the screen resolution on their computer will be different. etc. exact screen location)? Is there object recognition when recording and playing back or does it appear to record ok but then on playback (without environment change or unique id’s. Record and Playback This category details how easy it is to record & playback a test. Eventually record and playback becomes less and less part of the automation process as it is usually more robust to use the built-in functions to directly test objects. etc all of them support a universal query language known as SQL and a protocol for communicating with these databases called ODBC (JDBC can be used on java environments). They will record a simple script. A person may be connecting from the USA or Africa. will have fast connections and slow connections. Database Tests Most applications will provide the facility to preserve data outside of itself. etc changes) fail? How easy is it to read the recorded script. DOM. a cursor. This is usually achieved by holding the data in a Database. DB2. How does the tool manipulate this returned data? Can it call stored procedures and supply required input variables? What is the range of functions supplied for this testing? Page 119 ©Copyright 2007. Web testing can be riddled with problems if various considerations are not taken into account. frames. look at the code and then playback. ODBC and how they hold returned data e. etc. a variable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . SQLServer.g. When automating. they may use various browsers. this is the first thing that most test professionals will do. the title? A hidden form element? With Client server testing the target customer is usually well defined you know what network operating system you will be using. As such the test tool should provide good web based test functionality in addition to its client/server functions. In judging the rating for this category I looked at the tools native support for HTML tables. does it contain data. Web Testing Web based functionality on most applications is now a part of everyday life. Oracle. As such. is this in an array. Here are a few examples Are there functions to tell me when the page has finished loading? Can I tell the test tool to wait until an image appears? Can I test whether links are valid or not? Can I test web based objects functions like is it enabled. connect using MAC. the applications and so on but on the web it is far different. Web site maps and links. So the cost to set up a test environment is usually greater than for a client server test where the environment is fairly well defined. Informix. Are there facilities that will allow me to programmatically look for objects of a certain type on a web page or locate a specific object? Can I extract data from the web page itself? E.g. I have looked at all the tools support for SQL. etc. Ingres. etc. Because of the many databases available e. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Does the tool support low-level recording (mouse drags. various platforms for browsers.g. This is very similar to recording a macro in say Microsoft Access. However this should be done as a minimum in the evaluation process because if the tool of choice cannot recognize the applications objects then the automation process will be a very tedious experience. Linux or Windows. Sybase.

spreadsheets. for the aforementioned bulk data input sometimes carried out in data migration or application upgrades. address. Frameworks are usually the ultimate goal in deploying automation test tools. extract data? Can you randomise the access to that data? Is the data access truly random? This functionality is normally more important than database tests as the databases will usually have their own interface for running queries. These functions are also very important as you move from the record/playback phase. Most custom objects will behave like a similar standard control here are a few standard objects that are seen in everyday applications. databases etc and expose functions. However to do this requires a lot of time. However you may find that most (hopefully) of the application has been implemented using standard objects supported by your test tool vendor but there may be a few objects that are custom ones. etc with variables supplied from an external source usually a CSV (Comma Separated variable) file. Data-driven tests are tests that replace hard coded names. try to get the development/design team to use standard and not custom objects. input data. I have looked at all the tools facilities for creating and manipulating data. Frameworks provide an interface to all the applications under test by exposing a suitable list of functions. The added benefit (as I have found) is this functionality can be used for a production reason e. Pushbuttons Checkboxes Radio buttons List views Edit boxes Combo boxes If you have a custom object that behaves like one of these are you able to map (tell the test tool that the custom control behaves like the standard) control? Does it support all the standard controls methods? Can you add the custom control to it’s own class of control? Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. to datadriven to framework testing. Object Mapping If you are in a role that can help influence the design of a product. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . etc to create. However applications (except for manual input) do not usually provide facilities for bulk data input. So to test this. classes. A test framework has parallels to Software frameworks where you develop an encapsulation layer of software (framework) around the applications. etc. we will need to create data to input into the application. spreadsheet or database. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Data Functions As mentioned above applications usually provide a facility for storing data off line. This allows an inexperienced tester/user to run tests by just running/providing the test framework with know commands/variables.g. etc. databases. return data. skilled resources and money to facilitate the first two. methods etc that is used to call the underlying applications. Does the tool allow you to specify the type of data you want? Can you automatically generate data? Can you interface with files. numbers. Then hopefully you will not need this functionality.

can be programmed to reference windows and object names in one place (say via a variable) and that variable can be used throughout the script (where that object appears). I have looked at these facilities in the base tool set. How easy is it to build this into your code? The rating given will depend on how much errors the tool can capture. A sort of spy that looks at the internals of the object givi ng you details like the object ame. I found this to be true but not as big a point as some have stated because those tools that don’t support the central repository scheme. etc. The last and least desirable should be by coordinates on the screen. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The premise is it is better to change the reference in one place rather than having to go through each of the scripts to replace it there. object ID. etc. Once you are well into automation and build up 10’s and 100’s of scripts that reference these objects you will want to have a mechanism that provides an easy update if the application being tested changes. how it recovers from errors. Page 121 ©Copyright 2007. index. it provides the foundation to produce a truly robust test suite. Suppose the application crashes while I am testing what can I do? If a function does not receive the correct information how can I handle this? If I get an error message how do I deal with that? If I access a web site and get a warning what do I do? I cannot get a database connection how do I skip those tests? The test tool should provide facilities to handle the above questions. Test/Error recovery This can be one of the most difficult areas to automate but if it is automated. name. I looked at built in wizards of the test tools for standard test recovery (when you finish tests or when a script fails). At least one of the tools allows you to map painted controls to standard controls but to do this you have to rely on the screen co-ordinates of the image. Does the Object Name Map allow you to alias the name or change the name given by the tool to some more meaningful name? Object Identity Tool Once you become more proficient with automation testing one of the primary means of identifying objects will be via an ID Tool. These objects are either identified through the coordinates on the screen or preferably via some unique object reference referred to as a tag. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Does the tool provide OCR (optical character recognition)? Can it compare one image against another? How fast does the compare take? If the compare fails how long does that take? Does the tool allow you to mask certain areas of the screen when comparing. Firstly the tool should provide services to uniquely identify each object it interacts with and by various means. ID and similar. Error recovery caused by the application and environment. the types of errors. Also when the application has painted controls like those in the calculator app found on a lot of windows applications you may need to use this. Object Name Map As you test your application using the test tool of your choice you will notice that it records actions against the objects that it interacts with. All tools provide a search and replace facility but the best implementations are those that provide a central repository to store these object identities.Handout – Software Testing Image Testing Lets hope this is not a major part of your testing effort but occasionally you may have to use this to test bit map and similar images.

Handout – Software Testing
This will allow you to reference that object within a function call. The tool should give you details of some of the object’s properties, especially those associated with uniquely identifying the object or window. The tool will usually provide the tester with a point and ID service where you can use the mouse to point at the object and in some window you will see all of that objects ID’s and properties. A lot of the tools will allow you to search all the open applications in one swoop and show you the result in a tree that you can look at when required. Extensible Language Here is a question that you will here time and time again in automation forums. “How do I get {insert test tool name here} to do such and such”, there will be one of four answers. I don’t know It can’t do it It can do it using the function x, y or Z It can’t in the standard language but you can do it like this What we are concerned with in this section is the last answer e.g. if the standard test language does not support it can I create a DLL or extend the language in some way to do it? This is usually an advanced topic and is not encountered until the trained tester has been using the tool for at least 6 – 12 months. However when this is encountered the tool should support language extension. If via DLL’s then the tester must have knowledge of a traditional development language e.g. C, C++ or VB. For instance if I wanted to extend a tool that could use DLL’s created by VB I would need to have Visual Basic then open say an ActiveX dll project, create a class containing various methods (similar to functions) then I would make a dll file. Register it on the machine then reference that dll from the test tool calling the methods according to their specification. This will sound a lot clearer as you go on in the tools and this document will be updated to include advanced topics like this in extending the tools capabilities. Some tools provide extension by allowing you to create user defined functions, methods, classes, etc but these are normally a mixture of the already supported data types, functions, etc rather than extending the tool beyond it’s released functionality. Because this is an advanced topic I have not taken into account ease of use, as those people who have got to this level should have already exhausted the current capabilities of the tools. So want to use external functions like win32api functions and so on and should have a good grasp of programming. Environment Support How many environments does the tool support out the box? Does it support the latest Java release, what Oracle, Powerbuilder, WAP, etc. Most tools can interface to unsupported environments if the developers in that environment provide classes, dll’s etc that expose some of the applications details but whether a developer will or has time to do this is another question. Ultimately this is the most important part of automation. Environment support. If the tool does not support your environment/application then you are in trouble and in most cases you will need to revert to manually testing the application (more shelf ware).

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Handout – Software Testing
Integration How well does the tool integrate with other tools. This is becoming more and more important. Does the tool allow you to run it from various test management suites? Can you raise a bug directly from the tool and feed the information gathered from your test logs into it? Does it integrate with products like word, excel or requirements management tools? When managing large test projects with an automation team greater than five and testers totaling more than ten. The management aspect and the tools integration moves further up the importance ladder. An example could be a major Bank wants to redesign its workflow management system to allow faster processing of customer queries. The anticipated requirements for the new workflow software numbers in the thousands. To test these requirements 40,000 test cases have been identified 20,000 of these can be automated. How do I manage this? This is where a test management tool comes in real handy. Also how do I manage the bugs raised as a result of automation testing, etc? Integration becomes very important rather than having separate systems that don’t share data that may require duplication of information. The companies that will score larger on these are those that provide tools outside the testing arena as they can build in integration to their other products and so when it comes down to the wire on some projects, we have gone with the tool that integrated with the products we already had. Cost In my opinion cost is the least significant in this matrix, why? Because all the tools are similar in price except Visual Test that is at least 5 times cheaper than the rest but as you will see from the matrix there is a reason. Although very functional it does not provide the range of facilities that the other tools do. Price typically ranges from $2,900 - $5,000 (depending on quantity brought, packages, etc) in the US and around £2,900 - £5,000 in the UK for the base tools included in this document. So you know the tools will all cost a similar price it is usually a case of which one will do the job for me rather than which is the cheapest. Visual Test I believe will prove to be a bigger hit as it expands its functional range it was not that long ago where it did not support web based testing. The prices are kept this high because they can. All the tools are roughly the same price and the volumes of sales is low relative to say a fully blown programming language IDE like JBuilder or Visual C++ which are a lot more function rich and flexible than any of the test tools. On top of the above prices you usually pay an additional maintenance fee of between 10 and 20%. There are not many applications I know that cost this much per license not even some very advanced operating systems. However it is all a matter of supply. The bigger the supply the less the price as you can spread the development costs more. However I do not anticipate a move on the prices upwards as this seems to be the price the market will tolerate. Visual Test also provides a free runtime license.

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Handout – Software Testing
Ease Of Use This section is very subjective but I have used testers (my guinea pigs) of various levels and got them from scratch to use each of the tools. In more cases than not they have agreed on which was the easiest to use (initially). Obviously this can change as the tester becomes more experienced and the issues of say extensibility, script maintenance, integration, data-driven tests, etc are required. However this score is based on the productivity that can be gained in say the first three months when those issues are not such a big concern. Ease of use includes out the box functions, debugging facilities, layout on screen, help files and user manuals. Support In the UK this can be a problem as most of the test tool vendors are based in the USA with satellite branches in the UK. Just from my own experience and the testers I know in the UK. We have found Mercury to be the best for support, then Compuware, Rational and last Segue. However having said that you can find a lot of resources for Segue on the Internet including a forum at www.betasoft.com that can provide most of the answers rather than ringing the support line. On their website Segue and Mercury provide many useful user and vendor contributed material. I have also included various other criteria like the availability of skilled resources, online resources, validity of responses from the helpdesk, speed of responses and similar Object Tests Now presuming the tool of choice does work with the application you wish to test what services does it provide for testing object properties? Can it validate several properties at once? Can it validate several objects at once? Can you set object properties to capture the application state? This should form the bulk of your verification as far as the automation process is concerned so I have looked at the tools facilities on client/server as well as web based applications. Matrix What will follow after the matrix is a tool-by-tool comparison under the appropriate heading (as listed above) so that the user can get a feel for the tools functionality side by side. Each category in the matrix is given a rating of 1 – 5. 1 = Excellent support for this functionality, 2 = Good support but lacking or another tool provides more effective support, 3 = Basic/ support only. 4 = This is only supported by use of an API call or third party add-in but not included in the general test tool/below average, 5 = No

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Owing to the size and complexity of today’s advanced software applications.Handout – Software Testing Matrix score Win Runner = 24 QARun = 25 SilkTest = 24 Visual Test = 39 Robot = 24 SUMMARY Automated testing is automating the manual testing process currently in use. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . manual testing is no longer a viable option for most testing situations. Page 125 ©Copyright 2007.

RequistePro. Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. including enhancement requests. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Chapter 9: Sample Test Automation Tool Learning Objective After completing this chapter. including thirdparty libraries. you can access it in Test Manager. defect reports. Rational Robot. and browsers accessing a Web server. When you define a test requirement in RequisitePro. Allows you to write. Rational Clear Quest is a change-request management tool that tracks and manages defects and change requests throughout the development process. Rational Pure Coverage is a customizable code coverage analysis tool that provides detailed application analysis and ensures that all code has been exercised. organize. and documentation modifications. and to capture and analyze the results. you can manage every type of change activity associated with software development.g. RequisitePro organizes your requirements by linking Microsoft Word to a requirements repository and providing traceability and change management throughout the project lifecycle. Use Robot to record client/server conversations and store them in scripts. When it comes to Object Oriented development they are the acknowledged leaders with most of the leading OO experts working for them. Facilitates functional and performance testing by automating record and playback of test scripts. Rational Rose. Rational Suite Performance Studio is a sophisticated tool for automating performance tests on client/server systems. Clear case. With Clear Quest. Use Load Test to schedule and play back the scripts. Rational Purify is a comprehensive C/C+ + run-time error checking tool that automatically pinpoints run-time errors and memory leaks in all components of an application. Performance Studio includes Rational Robot and Rational Load Test. test cases and a whole set of tools to support the process. A client/server system includes client applications accessing a database or application server. you will be able to: Work with Rational Testing tool Sample Test Automation Tool Rational offers the most complete lifecycle toolset (including testing) of these vendors for the windows platform. Rational Suite of tools Rational RequisitePro is a requirements management tool that helps project teams control the development process. A baseline version of RequisitePro is included with Rational Test Manager. enabling developers to quickly find. etc. Rational Robot. Cognizant Technology Solutions. preventing untested code from reaching the end-user. ensuring that code is reliable Rational Quantify is an advanced performance profiler that provides application performance analysis. prioritize and eliminate performance bottlenecks within an application. Their Unified Process is a very good development model that allows mapping of requirements to use cases. and run tests. Some of their products are worldwide leaders e.

Rational Test categorizes test information within a repository by project. even thousands. How to create a new project? Page 127 ©Copyright 2007. including all GUI features and all lines of source code. one RequisitePro database. The tools that are to discussed here are Rational Administrator Rational Robot Rational Test Manager Rational Administrator What is a Rational Project? A Rational project is a logical collection of databases and data stores that associates the data you use when working with Rational Suite. and optionally places them under configuration management. and multiple Rose models and RequisitePro projects. You can use the Rational Administrator to create and manage projects. Rational Load Test can emulate hundreds. A Rational project is associated with one Rational Test data store.Handout – Software Testing Rational Test Factory. During playback. of users placing heavy loads and stress on your database and Web servers. users and groups and manage security privileges. Automates testing by combining automatic test generation with ourcecode coverage analysis. one Clear Quest databases. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Rational administrator is used to create and manage rational repositories. Tests an entire application. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

enter the Password if you want to protect the project with password. Accept the default path and click OK button. In the configure project window displayed click the Create button. In the corresponding window displayed. Once the Create button in the Configure project window is chosen. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . to manage test assets create associated test data store and for defect management connect to Clear quest database. Page 128 ©Copyright 2007. Click Next. the below seen Create Test Data store window will be displayed. In the above window opened enter the details like Project name and location. which is required to connect to.Handout – Software Testing Open the Rational administrator and go to File->New Project. configure or delete the project. Click Finish. To manage the requirements assets connect to Requisite Pro. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Once the below window is displayed it is confirmed that the Test datastore is successfully created and click OK to close the window. Rational Administrator will display your “TestProject” details as below: Page 129 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Click OK in the configure project window and now your first Rational project is ready to play with….

Collect diagnostic information about an application during script playback. Create and edit scripts using the SQABasic.Handout – Software Testing Rational Robot Rational Robot to develop three kinds of scripts: GUI scripts for functional testing and VU and VB scripts for performance testing. Perform full performance testing. Robot can be used to: Perform full functional testing. Use Robot and TestManager together to record and play back scripts that help you determine whether a multi-client system is performing within user-defined standards under varying loads. The Robot editor provides color-coded commands with keyword Help for powerful integrated programming during script development. and Java. PowerBuilder. HTML. and PureCoverage. Test objects even if they are not visible in the application's interface. VB. Quantify. and VU scripting environments. Robot uses Object-Oriented Recording to identify objects by their internal object names. Oracle Forms. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 130 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. not by screen coordinates. You can play back scripts under a diagnostic tool and see the results in the log. The Object-Oriented Recording technology in Robot lets you generate scripts quickly by simply running and using the application-under-test. Robot is integrated with Rational Purify. Test applications developed with IDEs such as Visual Basic. Robot still finds them on playback. If objects change locations or their text changes. Record and play back scripts that navigate through your application and test the state of objects through verification points.

Handout – Software Testing The Object Testing technology in Robot lets you test any object in the application-under-test. Page 131 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . whether they are visible in the interface or hidden. Once logged you will see the robot window. You can test standard Windows objects and IDEspecific objects. Go to File-> New->Script In the above screen displayed enter the name of the script say “First Script” by which the script is referred to from now on and any description (Not mandatory). including the object's properties and data. Cognizant Technology Solutions.The type of the script is GUI for functional testing and VU for performance testing.

How to record a play back script? To record a script just go to Record->Insert at cursor Then perform the navigation in the application to be tested and once recording is done stop the recording. editing. The Output window bottom pane) has two tabs: Build – Displays compilation results for all scripts compiled in the last operation. Record-> Stop Page 132 ©Copyright 2007. or debugging.Handout – Software Testing The GUI Script top pane) window displays GUI scripts that you are currently recording. Console – Displays messages that you send with the SQAConsoleWrite command. Also displays certain system messages from Robot. To display the Output window: Click View ® Output. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Line numbers are enclosed in parentheses to indicate lines in the script with warnings and errors. It has two panes: Asset pane (left) – Lists the names of all verification points and low-level scripts for this script. Script pane (right) – Displays the script. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Handout – Software Testing

In this window we can set general options like identification of lists, menus, recording think time in General tab: Web browser tab: Mention the browser type IE or Netscape… Robot Window: During recording how the robot should be displayed and hotkeys details… Object Recognition Order: the order in which the recording is to happen. For ex: Select a preference in the Object order preference list. If you will be testing C++ applications, change the object order preference to C++ Recognition Order.

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Handout – Software Testing

Go to Tools-> Playback options to set the options needed while running the script. This will help you to handle unexpected window during playback, error recovery, mention the time out period, to manage log and log data. Verification points A verification point is a point in a script that you create to confirm the state of an object across builds of the application-under-test. During recording, the verification point captures object information (based on the type of verification point) and stores it in a baseline data file. The information in this file becomes the baseline of the expected state of the object during subsequent builds When you play back the script against a new build, Robot retrieves the information in the baseline file for each verification point and compares it to the state of the object in the new build. If the captured object does not match the baseline, Robot creates an actual data file. The information in this file shows the actual state of the object in the build. After playback, the results of each verification point appear in the log in Test Manager. If a verification point fails (the baseline and actual data do not match), you can select the verification point in the log and click View ® Verification Point to open the appropriate Comparator. The Comparator displays the baseline and actual files so that you can compare them. Verification point
Page 134 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Handout – Software Testing
is stored in the project and is always associated with a script. When you create a verification point, its name appears in the Asset (left) pane of the Script window. The verification point script command, which always begins with Result =, appears in the Script (right) pane. Because verification points are assets of a script, if you delete a script, Robot also deletes all of its associated verification points. You can easily copy verification points to other scripts if you want to reuse them. List of Verification Points The following table summarizes each Robot verification point.

Page 135 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Page 136 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Inserting a Comment into a GUI Script: During recording or editing. and then click Open. you can insert lines of comment text into a GUI script.sbh. Robot inserts the comment into the script (in green by default) preceded by a single quotation mark. Click the Preferences tab.SQABasic files are stored in the SQABas32 folder of the project. Set the file type to Header Files (*. and variables that you want to use with multiple scripts or SQABasic library source files.sbh. Page 137 ©Copyright 2007. Robot will check this location first. Under SQABasic path. position the pointer in the script and click the Display GUI Insert Toolbar button on the Standard toolbar. If the file is not there. Datapools let you automatically pump test data to virtual testers under high-volume conditions that potentially involve hundreds of virtual testers performing thousands of transactions.Handout – Software Testing About SQABasic Header Files SQABasic header files let you declare custom procedures. To insert a comment into a script during recording or editing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If editing. They can be accessed by all modules within the project. You can specify another location by clicking Tools ® General Options. click the Display GUI Insert Toolbar button on the GUI Record toolbar. To open Global. Click Edit ® Comment Line or Edit ® Uncomment Line. If recording.sbh is a project-wide header file stored in SQABas32 in the project. Type the comment (60 characters maximum).sbh: Click File ® Open ® SQABasic File. Adding Declarations to the Global Header File For your convenience. SQABasic header files have the extension . Click OK to continue recording or editing. Global. Click the Comment button on the GUI Insert toolbar. constants. Select global. unless you specify another location.sbh). Comments are helpful for documenting and editing scripts. About Data pools A datapool is a test dataset. For example: This is a comment in the script To change lines of text into comments or to uncomment text: Highlight the text. Robot ignores comments at compile time. It supplies data values to the variables in a script during script playback. You can add declarations to this global header file and/or create your own. use the Browse button to find the location. You can use Robot to create and edit SQABasic header files. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Robot provides a blank header file called Global.sbh. it will look in the SQABas32 directory.

you might want a datapool to supply those values during playback. you define a datapool for either type of script using TestManager in exactly the same way. If you plan to repeat the transaction multiple times during playback. Also. There is no DATAPOOL_CONFIG statement in a GUI script. part name. A single virtual tester that performs the same transaction multiple times can send realistic data to the server in each transaction. The SQADatapoolOpen command defines the access method to use for the datapool. A GUI script can access a datapool when it is played back in Robot. There are differences in the way GUI scripts and sessions are set up for datapool access: You must add datapool commands to GUI scripts manually while editing the script in Robot. you might be filling out a data entry form and providing values such as order number. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and so forth. Although there are differences in setting up datapool access in GUI scripts and sessions. you might want to provide a different set of values each time. Cognizant Technology Solutions. You can also compile scripts and SQABasic library source files manually. when a GUI script is played back in a TestManager suite. Compiling the script When you play back a GUI script or VU script. Using Datapools with GUI Scripts If you are providing one or more values to the client application during GUI recording. Robot compiles the script if it has been modified since it last ran. the GUI script can access the same datapool as other scripts. you use a datapool so that: Each virtual tester that runs the script can send realistic data (which can include unique data) to the server. Debug menu The Debug menu has the following commands: Go Go Until Cursor Animate Pause Stop Set or Clear Breakpoints Clear All Breakpoints Step Over Step Into Step Out Note: The Debug menu commands are for use with GUI scripts only. Page 138 ©Copyright 2007. or when you debug a GUI script.Handout – Software Testing Typically. For example. Robot adds datapool commands to VU scripts automatically.

Page 139 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing During compilation. the Build tab in the Output window displays compilation results and error messages with line numbers for all compiled scripts and library source files. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The compilation results can be viewed in the Build tab of the Output window.

Rational Test Manager Test Manager is the open and extensible framework that unites all of the tools. Create and manage data pools and data types Page 140 ©Copyright 2007. Under this single framework. assets. implement. design. and run reports. In Test Manager you can plan. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and test documents.Handout – Software Testing Compilation errors After the script is created and compiled and errors fixed it can be executed. execute tests and evaluate results. and track test coverage and progress. And. The reporting tools help you track assets such as scripts. and logs. it provides the entire team with one place to go to determine the state of the system at any time. builds. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and data both related to and produced by the testing effort. Create and manage builds. With Test manager we can: Create. all participants in the testing effort can define and refine the quality goals they are working toward. most importantly. It is where the team defines the plan it will implement to meet those goals. manage. The results need to be analyzed in the Test Manager. log folders.

you could see the results stored. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The folder in which the log is to stored and the log name needs to be given in this window. In the Results tab of the Test Manager.Handout – Software Testing When the script execution is started the following window will be displayed. From Test Manager you can know start time of the script and Page 141 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.0 or later Netscape navigator (limited support) Page 142 ©Copyright 2007.0 with service pack 5 Win2000 WinXP(Rational 2002) Win98 Win95 with service pack1 Protocols Oracle SQL server HTTP Sybase Tuxedo SAP People soft Web browsers IE4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Supported environments Operating system WinNT4.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .g.5 Delphi Power builder 5. To test these types of application.0 or later.com SUMMARY Rational offers the most complete lifecycle toolset (including testing) of these vendors for the windows platform. RequistePro. Development environments Visual basic 4. etc. you have to download and run a free enabler program from Rational’s website. Rational Rose.0 and above The basic product supports Visual basic. VC++ and basic web pages. Clear case. When it comes to Object Oriented development they are the acknowledged leaders with most of the leading OO experts working for them. Page 143 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Markup languages HTML and DHTML pages on IE4. Cognizant Technology Solutions. For more details visit www.0 or above Visual C++ Java Oracle forms 4. Rational Robot. Some of their products are worldwide leaders e.rational.

In such cases. As the user base grows. Identification of bottlenecks in a system is more of an effort at troubleshooting. analysis must be done to forecast performance under load. Performance analysis is also carried for various purposes such as: During a design or redesign of a module or a part of the system. high throughput. the system is unable to scale to higher levels of performance. developers would execute their applications using different execution streams (i. more than one alternative presents itself. the cost of failure becomes increasingly unbearable. Cognizant Technology Solutions. performance is a secondary issue to features. This helps to replace and focus efforts at improving overall system response.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 10: Performance Testing Learning Objective After completing this chapter. however. To increase confidence and to provide an advance warning of potential problems in case of load conditions. Why Performance testing? Performance problems are usually the result of contention for.. it is still an issue. are automated test scripts and an infrastructure to be used to execute automated tests for extended periods. some system resource. One of the main objectives of performance testing is to maintain a web site with low latency. and low utilization. When looking for errors in the application.e. Post-deployment realities create a need for the tuning the existing system. and utilization of the web site while simulating attempts by virtual users to simultaneously access the site. you will be able to: Test performance of a software What is Performance testing? The performance testing is a measure of the performance characteristics of an application. the evaluation of a design alternative is the prime mover for an analysis. When a system resource is exhausted. In general. The main deliverables from such a test. Maintaining optimum Web application performance is a top priority for application developers and administrators. A systematic approach like performance analysis is essential to extract maximum benefit from an existing system. throughput. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The main objective of a performance testing is to demonstrate that the system functions to specification with acceptable response times while processing the required transaction volumes in real-time production database. The objective of a performance test is to demonstrate that the system meets requirements for transaction throughput and response times simultaneously. we want to measure the latency. or exhaustion of. Page 144 ©Copyright 2007. Performance testing of an application is basically the process of understanding how the web application and its operating environment respond at various user load levels. prior to execution. Typically to debug applications. completely exercise the application) in an attempt to find errors.

Measure Application Server components performance under various loads.a response time should be defined such that it can be measured using a tool or stopwatch and at reasonable cost. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Quantitative . First and foremost thing is. the design specification or a separate performance requirements document should: Defines specific performance goals for each feature that is instrumented. which can be re-used for other tests with broader objectives. Page 145 ©Copyright 2007. Bases performance goals on customer requirements. achievable requirements As a foundation to all tests. a sensible comparison can be derived. this infrastructure is a test bed. relevant.Handout – Software Testing Performance Testing Objectives The objective of a performance test is to demonstrate that the system meets requirements for transaction throughput and response times simultaneously. Measurable . but rather. so it pays to make as much use of this infrastructure as possible. realistic. measurable. Fortunately.response time requirements should be justifiable when compared with the durations of the activities within the business process the system supports. the list defines what is required before a test can be executed. Relevant . Not all of these need be in place prior to planning or preparing the test (although this might be helpful). A comprehensive test strategy would define a test infrastructure to enable all these objectives be met. Monitor system resources under various loads. Defines specific customer scenarios. performance requirements should be agreed prior to the test. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Quantitative. Measure database components performance under various loads.response times should take some account of the cost of achieving them. The performance testing goals are: End-to-end transaction response time measurements.expressed in quantifiable terms such that when response times are measured.a response time must be relevant to a business process. This infrastructure is an asset and an expensive one too. Achievable . The following attributes will help to have a meaningful performance comparison. This helps in determining whether or not the system meets the stated requirements. Realistic . Measure the network delay between the server and clients Pre-requisites for Performance Testing We can identify five pre-requisites for a performance test.

defining the numbers of table rows which should be present in the database after a specified period of live running complete the load profile. Some functions are critical and require short response times. the test environment should be comparable to the actual production environment. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. However. Performance Testing Requirements Performance requirements normally comprise three components: Response time requirements Transaction volumes detailed in ‘Load Profiles’ Database volumes Response time requirements When asked to specify performance requirements. useless for a performance test. and often wishes to define requirements in terms of generic response times.Handout – Software Testing Stable system A test team attempting to construct a performance test of a system whose software is of poor quality is unlikely to be successful. or may not be able to execute a test for a reasonable length of time before the software. Load profiles The second component of performance requirements is a schedule of load profiles. A load profile is the level of system loading expected to occur during a specific business scenario. Realistic test environment The test environment should ideally be the production environment or a close simulation and be dedicated to the performance test team for the duration of the test. If the software crashes regularly. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Even with an environment which is somewhat different from the production environment. A test environment which bears no similarity to the actual production environment may be useful for finding obscure errors in the code. but is. but others are less critical and response time requirements can be less stringent. with some confidence. depending on the business application. users normally focus attention on response times. A single response time requirement for all transactions might be simple to define from the user’s point of view. data volumes estimated to exist after one year’s use of the systems are used. however. the behavior of the target environment. which must be supported by the system. Typically. it should still be possible to interpret the results obtained using a model of the system to predict. but two year volumes or greater might be used in some circumstances. for the results of the test to be realistic. but is unreasonable. middleware or operating systems crash. it will probably not withstand the relatively minor stress of repeated use. Often this is not possible. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Database volumes Data volumes. Business scenarios might cover different situations when the users’ organization has different levels of activity or involve a varying mix of activities. Testers will not be able to record scripts in the first instance.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Performance Testing Process Page 147 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Response Time Transactions Per Second Hits Per Second Workload No of con current users Volume of data Data growth rate Resource usage Hardware and Software configurations Phase 2 – Test Plan The following configuration information will be identified as part of performance testing environment requirement identification. The objective is to understand the performance test requirements. Hardware & Software components and Usage Model.Handout – Software Testing Phase 1 – Requirements Study This activity is carried out during the business and technical requirements identification phase. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is important to understand as accurately and as objectively as possible the nature of load that must be generated. Hardware Platform Server Machines Processors Memory Disk Storage Load Machines configuration Network configuration Page 148 ©Copyright 2007. Following are the important performance test requirement that needs to be captured during this phase.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Software Configuration Operating System Server Software Client Machine Software Applications Phase 3 – Test Design Based on the test strategy detailed test scenarios would be prepared. Synchronizations points) Data Generation Parameterization/ Data pooling Page 149 ©Copyright 2007. During the test design period the following activities will be carried out: Scenario design Detailed test execution plan Dedicated test environment setup Script Recording/ Programming Script Customization (Delay. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Checkpoints.

Virtual user loads are simulated based on the usage pattern and load levels applied as stated in the performance test strategy. All the scenarios identified will be executed.Handout – Software Testing Phase 4 –Scripting Phase 5 – Test Execution The test execution will follow the various types of test as identified in the test plan. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The following artifacts will be produced during test execution period: Test logs Test Result Page 150 ©Copyright 2007.

Handout – Software Testing Phase 6 – Test Analysis Phase 7 – Preparation of Reports The test logs and results generated are analyzed based on Performance under various load. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Manual and automated results analysis methods can be used for performance results analysis. Network delay. Think time. database throughput. Transaction Distribution and Data handling. Transaction/second. Network throughput. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The following performance test reports/ graphs can be generated as part of performance testing:Transaction Response time Transactions per Second Transaction Summary graph Transaction performance Summary graph Transaction Response graph – Under load graph Virtual user Summary graph Page 151 ©Copyright 2007. Resource usage.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Common Mistakes in Performance Testing No Goals No general purpose model Goals =>Techniques. suggestions on improvement or tuning will be provided to the design team: Performance improvements to application software. Metrics. Upgrades to client or server hardware. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Workload Not trivial Biased Goals ‘To show that OUR system is better than THEIRS” Analysts = Jury Unsystematic Approach Analysis without Understanding the Problem Incorrect Performance Metrics Unrepresentative Workload Wrong Evaluation Technique Overlook Important Parameters Ignore Significant Factors Inappropriate Experimental Design Inappropriate Level of Detail No Analysis Erroneous Analysis Page 152 ©Copyright 2007. network capacity or routing. database organization.Handout – Software Testing Error Statistics graph Hits per second graph Throughput graph Down load per second graph Based on the Performance report analysis. Changes to server system parameters. middleware.

Performance issues must be identified as soon as possible to prevent further degradation. testers must guess. the management team must decide to enforce the goals. Therefore. The performance tests should not be used to find functionality-type bugs. This typically means measuring performance on "clean" test environments. Therefore. The performance tests should be modified consistently. Creating an automated test suite to measure performance is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Significant changes to the performance test suite skew or make obsolete all previous data. Performance goals need to be ensured. we should run the performance test suite under controlled conditions from build to build. it is important to define concrete performance goals. If we decide to make performance a goal and a measure of the quality criteria for release. Establish incremental performance goals throughout the product development cycle. keep the performance test suite fairly static throughout the product development cycle. the tool can also assess Internet Server Application Programming Interface and application server provider (ISAPI/ASP) applications. All the members in the team should agree that a performance issue is not just a bug. Page 153 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. it is a software architectural problem. The Web Capacity Analysis (WebCAT) tool provides Web server performance analysis. We should run the automated performance test suite against every build and compare the results against previous results. perturb only one variable at a time for each build. Performance testing of Web services and applications is paramount to ensuring an excellent customer experience on the Internet. Also.Handout – Software Testing No Sensitivity Analysis Ignoring Errors in Input Improper Treatment of Outliers Assuming No Change in the Future Ignoring Variability Too Complex Analysis Improper Presentation of Results Ignoring Social Aspects Omitting Assumptions and Limitations Benchmarking Lessons Ever build needs to be measured. Design the build verification test (BVT) suite to ensure that no new bugs are injected into the build that would prevent the performance test suite from successfully completing. Without defined performance goals or requirements. at how to instrument tests to best measure various response times. Design the performance test suite to measure response times and not to identify bugs in the product. If the design or requirements change and you must modify a test. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . without a clear purpose.

Performance is known to degrade slightly during the stabilization phase of the development cycle. Although secondary metrics look good on wall charts and in reports. Webload generates load by creating virtual clients that emulate network traffic. load and functional tests or by running them individually. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It can measure the performance of your application under any load conditions. client certificates. per-transaction and per-instance level from the computers that are generating the load. Using a minimum of hardware resources. Repeatable and measurable load to execute your client/server system just as real users would. it gathers results at a per-client. authentifications. Achieving performance goals early also helps to ensure that the ship date is met because a product rarely ships if it does not meet performance goals. LoadRunner enables you to test your system under controlled and peak load conditions. LoadRunner 6. WebLoad 4. these Virtual users provide consistent. Load Runner’s in depth reports and graphs provide the information that you need to evaluate the performance of your client/server system. Tests are capturing secondary metrics when the instrumented tests have nothing to do with measuring clear and established performance goals.5 LoadRunner is Mercury Interactive’s tool for testing the performance of client/server systems. For example.5 Webload is a testing tool for testing the scalability. functionality and performance of Web-based applications – both Internet and Intranet. You create test scripts (called agendas) using Java Scripts that instruct those virtual clients about what to do. When Webload runs the test. You should reuse automated performance tests Automated performance tests can often be reused in many other automated test suites. LoadRunner runs thousands of Virtual Users that are distributed over a network. SSL. if the data is not going to be used in a meaningful way to make improvements in the engineering cycle. Page 154 ©Copyright 2007. TSL.5 and Webload 4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Webload displays them in graphs and tables in real-time and you can save and export the results when the test is finished. Webload supports HTTP1. The tools used for performance testing are Loadrunner 6. Webload can also gather information server’s performance monitor. including cookies. Ensure that you know what you are measuring and why. You can watch the results as they occur. To generate load. it is probably wasted data. Tools used for testing would be the tool pecified in the requirement specification. incorporate the performance test suite into the stress test suite to validate stress scenarios and to identify potential performance issues under different stress conditions. persistent connections and chunked transfer coding. Use WebLoad to test how well your web site will perform under realworld conditions by combining performance.1.5x. Performance Testing Tools Testing for most applications will be automated.0 and 1.Handout – Software Testing Strive to achieve the majority of the performance goals early in the product development cycle because: Most performance issues require architectural change. proxies.

summary and comparison Page 155 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing Performance Testing Tools . Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Handout – Software Testing Page 156 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing Page 157 ©Copyright 2007.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Page 158 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Defining the right placement and composition of software instances can help in vertical scalability of the system without addition of hardware resources. This is achieved through software benchmark test. It is significantly different from capacity planning exercise in that it is done after development and before deployment Software Benchmarking . Page 159 ©Copyright 2007.Hardware benchmarking is performed to size the application with the planned Hardware platform. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing Architecture Benchmarking Hardware Benchmarking . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Performance Metrics The Common Metrics selected /used during the performance testing is as below Response time Turnaround time = the time between the submission of a batch job and the completion of its output. allowing one to use a wide range of tools to conduct the assessments.. E. Or. The response time at maximum throughput is too high. The methodologies below are generic.g. Time estimate: a rough estimate of the amount of time that the test may take to complete. This methodology specification provides information on the appropriate script of pages or transactions for the user. What to look for: contains information on behaviors. bandwidth in bits per second. Constraints: details any constraints and values that should not be exceeded during testing. Utilization: The fraction of time the resource is busy servicing requests. the ratio of the performance of an nprocessor system to that of a one-processor system is its efficiency. Stretch Factor: The ratio of the response time with single user to that of concurrent users. Purpose: explains the value and focus of the test. Type of workload: in order to properly achieve the goals of the test. Usable capacity: Maximum throughput achievable without exceeding a pre-specified response-time limit Efficiency: Ratio usable capacity to nominal capacity. Throughput: Rate (requests per unit of time) Examples: Jobs per second Requests per second Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS) Millions of Floating Point Operations Per Second (MFLOPS) Packets Per Second (PPS) Bits per second (bps) Transactions Per Second (TPS) Capacity: Nominal Capacity: Maximum achievable throughput under ideal workload conditions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . each test requires a certain type of workload. Page 160 ©Copyright 2007. Methodology Definitions Result: provide information about what the test will accomplish. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Handout – Software Testing General Tests What follows is a list of tests adaptable to assess the performance of most systems. Methodology: a list of suggested steps to take in order to assess the system under test. along with some simple background information that might be helpful during testing. issues and errors to pay attention to during and after the test.

execution. application and database servers and make sure those numbers recede as load decreases. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . metrics such as response times for transactions. design. memory.Handout – Software Testing Average Fraction used for memory. Third party monitoring tools are also used based on the requirement. analysis and reporting. However. Cognizant has built custom monitoring tools to collect the statistics. performance testing can unearth issues that otherwise cannot be done through mainstream testing. Without the rigor described in this paper. It is very typical of the project manager to be overtaken by time and resource pressures Page 161 ©Copyright 2007.e strategy.. executing performance testing does not yield anything more than finding more defects in the system. Client Side Statistics Running Vusers Hits per Second Throughput HTTP Status Code HTTP responses per Second Pages downloaded per Second Transaction response time Page Component breakdown time Page Download time Component size Analysis Error Statistics Errors per Second Total Successful/Failed Transactions Server Side Statistics System Resources . SQL Queries Transaction Profiling Code Block Analysis Network Statistics Bandwidth Utilization Network delay time Network Segment delay time Conclusion Performance testing is an independent discipline and involves all the phases as the mainstream testing lifecycle i. if executed systematically with appropriate planning. Cache Hit Ratio Application Server Resources–Heap size. should be collected. HTTP requests per second.Processor Utilization. Cognizant Technology Solutions. throughput etc. disk space and network usage on individual web. Memory and Disk Space Web Server Resources–Threads. JDBC Connection Pool Database Server Resources–Wait Events. It is also important to monitor and collect the statistics such as CPU utilization. plan. As tests are executed.

robust and viable solutions exist to help fend off disasters that result from poor performance. performance testing to check if it offers an acceptable response time and load testing to see what hardware or software configuration will be required to provide acceptable response time and handle the load that will created by the real users of the system Why is load testing important? Load Testing increases the uptime for critical web applications by helping you spot the bottlenecks in the system under large user stress scenarios before they happen in a production environment. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The discipline helps businesses succeed in leveraging Web technologies to their best advantage. leveraging an ongoing. When should load testing be done? Load testing should be done when the probable cost of the load test is likely less than the cost of a failed application deployment. the consequences of which could be disastrous to the final system. it may be too late in the software development cycle to correct serious performance issues. Fortunately. Before testing the system for performance requirements.Handout – Software Testing leading not enough budget being allocated for performance testing. Testing of critical web applications during its development and before its deployment should include functional testing to confirm to the specifications. Cognizant Technology Solutions. business can confidently and proactively execute strategic corporate initiatives for the benefit of shareholders and customers alike. If not. Load testing gives the greatest line of defense against poor performance and accommodates complementary strategies for performance management and monitoring of a production environment. Load Testing Load Testing is creation of a simulated load on a real computer system by using virtual users who submit work as real users would do at real client workstations and thus testing the systems ability to support such workload. However there is an important point to be noted here. Automated load testing tools and services are available to meet the critical need of measuring and optimizing complex and dynamic application and infrastructure performance. lifecycle-focused approach. There is another flip side of the coin. Once these solutions are properly adopted and utilized. Thus a load testing is accomplished by stressing the real application under simulated load provided by virtual users. the system should have been architect and designed for meeting the required performance goals. By continuously testing and monitoring the performance of critical software applications. businesses can begin to take charge and leverage information technology assets to their competitive advantage. Web-enabled applications and infrastructures must be able to execute evolving business processes with speed and precision while sustaining high volumes of changing and unpredictable user audiences. enabling new business opportunity lowering transaction costs and strengthening profitability. Page 162 ©Copyright 2007.

fixed. Page 163 ©Copyright 2007. Configuration and/or Stress Testing.g. or an entry at the maximum amount of data in a field. extreme utilization. analyzed. to determine if it fulfills its scalability requirements). blackbox application that attempts to cause failures involving how its performance varies under extreme but valid conditions (e. Determine if the application will support "worst case" production load conditions. as its name implies.Handout – Software Testing Volume and Stress Testing Volume testing: Volume Testing. Stress testing is the system testing of an integrated. amount of data). A system including software. is testing that purposely subjects a system (both hardware and software) to a series of tests where the volume of data being processed is the subject of the test. Report these failures to the development teams so that the associated defects can be fixed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . number of transactions. Such systems can be transactions processing systems capturing real time sales or could be database updates and or data retrieval. Determine how an application degrades and eventually fails. stress testing could involve an extreme number of simultaneous users. Help determine the extent to which the application is ready for launch. Examples Typical examples include stress testing of an application that is: Software only. queries with an extreme number of restrictions. Provide input to the defect trend analysis effort. as conditions become extreme. and prevented in the future. Cognizant Technology Solutions.... Volume testing will seek to verify the physical and logical limits to a system's capacity and ascertain whether such limits are acceptable to meet the projected capacity of the organization's business processing. Batch with no realtime requirements. extreme numbers of transactions. Objectives The typical objectives of stress testing are to: Partially validate the application (i. Huge (e.g. number of users. hardware. Goals The typical goals of stress testing are to: Cause the application to fail to scale gracefully under extreme conditions so that the underlying defects can be identified. and data components. For example.e. queries that return the entire contents of a database. and dependency on over-utilized shared resources). Provide data that will assist systems engineers in making intelligent decisions regarding future scaling needs. Volume Testing is conducted in conjunction with Component. insufficient memory inadequate hardware.

. A research prototype that will not be placed into service. Cognizant Technology Solutions.. Test Execution: o o Regression Testing Profiling Test Reporting Environments Load testing is typically performed on the following environments using the following tools: Test Environment: o Test Harness o Use case modeling tool o Performance analyzer o Profiler Page 164 ©Copyright 2007. radar. Tasks Stress testing typically involves the independent test team performing the following testing tasks using the following techniques: Test Planning Test Reuse Test Design: o o Use Case Based Testing Workload analysis to determine the maximum production workloads. Preconditions Stress test execution can typically begin when the following preconditions hold: The scalability requirements to be tested have been specified. automotive engine control). Software integration has occurred (i. cruise-control software).e.Handout – Software Testing Soft realtime (i..e. The relevant software components have passed unit testing. Completion Criteria Stress testing is typically complete when the following postconditions hold: At least one stress test suite exists for each scalability requirement. The relevant system components have passed system integration testing. Hard realtime (e.. load testing can begin prior to the distribution of the software components onto the hardware components). The test environment is ready. avionics. Client/server or n-tier distributed. human reaction times). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .g.g. Embeded within another system (e. Test Implementation: o Develop test scripts o Simulating extreme workloads. Business-critical or safety-critical. The independent test team is adequately staffed and trained in stress testing. The test suites for every scheduled scalability requirement execute successfully. flight-control software.

Handout – Software Testing Work Products Stress testing typically results in the production of all or part of the following work products from the test work product set: Documents: o Project Test Plan o Master Test List o Test Procedures o Test Report o Test Summary Report Software and Data: o o o o o Phases Test Harness Test Scripts Test Suites Test Cases Test Data (*) Optional stress testing of COTS software components during the technology analysis and technology vendor selection tasks. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . (**) Optional stress testing of the executable architecture as well as the COTS components during the vendor and tool evaluation and vendor and tool selection tasks. Page 165 ©Copyright 2007.

reuse functional test cases as stress test cases. are automated test scripts and an infrastructure to be used to execute automated tests for extended periods. The main deliverables from such a test. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Stress testing can elicit failures prior to launch. To the extent practical. Develop test scripts simulating exceptional workloads. The objective of a performance test is to demonstrate that the system meets requirements for transaction throughput and response times simultaneously. The main objective of a performance testing is to demonstrate that the system functions to specification with acceptable response times while processing the required transaction volumes in real-time production database. SUMMARY The performance testing is a measure of the performance characteristics of an application. Page 166 ©Copyright 2007. Stress testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur. prior to execution.Handout – Software Testing Guidelines A system can fulfilits operational requirements and still be a failure if it does not scale. The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that stress testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. Perform stress testing for several minutes to several hours.

Average and Complex based on the following four factors. you will be able to: Describe TCP and TCP Analysis What is a Test Case Point (TCP)? TCP is a measure of estimating the complexity of an application. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . An Average requirement is ranked between 4 and 7. A Simple requirement is one. The test cases for a particular requirement are classified into Simple. which can be given a value in the scale of 1 to3. This is also used as an estimation technique to calculate the size and effort of a testing project.Handout – Software Testing Chapter 11: Test Case Point Learning Objective After completing this chapter. of verification points OR Baseline Test data Refer the test case classification table given below Page 167 ©Copyright 2007. average and complex and quantifying the same into a measure of complexity. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Test case complexity for that requirement OR Interface with other Test cases OR No. Average and Complex based on the number and complexity of the requirements for that module. A Complex requirement is ranked between 8 and 10. In this courseware we shall give an overview about Test Case Points and not elaborate on using TCP as an estimation technique. the application is classified into various modules like say for a web application. we can have ‘Login and Authentication’ as a module and rank that particular module as Simple. The TCP counts are nothing but ranking the requirements and the test cases that are to be written for those requirements into simple. Test Case Point Analysis Calculating the Test Case Points Based on the Functional Requirement Document (FRD).

average and complex test case points. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. we arrive at the count of Total Test Case Points. Summing up the three results. which interfaces with or interacts with another application is classified as 'Complex' Any verification point consisting of report verification is considered as 'Complex' A verification point comprising Search functionality may be classified as 'Complex' or 'Average' depending on the complexity Depending on the respective project. the complexity needs to be identified in a similar manner. The Adjustment Factor in the table mentioned below is pre-determined and must not be changed for every project. average and complex test cases. we can get the number of simple. Based on the test case type an adjustment factor is assigned for simple. Page 168 ©Copyright 2007.Handout – Software Testing A sample guideline for classification of test cases is given below. From the break up of Complexity of Requirements done in the first step. average and complex test case types. This adjustment factor has been calculated after a thorough study and analysis done on many testing projects. Any verification point containing a calculation is considered 'Complex' Any verification point. we get the simple. By multiplying the number of requirements with it s corresponding adjustment factor.

This simple statistic is typically available from execution profiling tools. The two terms are synonymous. Also an optional aspect of test coverage analysis is: Identifying redundant test cases that do not increase coverage. you need to write new tests that hit those procedures. Cognizant Technology Solutions. But this measure of test coverage is so coarse-grained it's not very practical. Code coverage analysis is a structural testing technique (white box testing). Coverage analysis requires access to test program source code and often requires recompiling it with a special command. The academic world more often uses the term "test coverage" while practitioners more often use "code coverage". Here is a description of some fundamental measures and their strengths and weaknesses Procedure-Level Test Coverage Probably the most basic form of test coverage is to measure what procedures were and were not executed during the test suite. which compares test program behavior against a requirements specification. whose job is really to measure performance bottlenecks. Test coverage analysis is sometimes called code coverage analysis. which is an indirect measure of quality. This contrasts with functional testing (black-box testing). Test coverage analysis can be used to assure quality of the set of tests. and Determining a quantitative measure of code coverage. Test Coverage analysis is the process of: Finding areas of a program not exercised by a set of test cases. If the execution time in some procedures is zero. Functional testing examines what the program accomplishes. Test coverage measures A large variety of coverage measures exist. without regard to how it works internally. A test coverage analyzer automates this process. taking into account possible pitfalls in the structure and logic.Handout – Software Testing Test Coverage Test Coverage is an important measure of quality for software systems. and not the quality of the actual product. Page 169 ©Copyright 2007. Creating additional test cases to increase coverage. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Structural testing compares test program behavior against the apparent intention of the source code. Structural testing examines how the program works.

But in practice. You need condition coverage to know. A large project that achieved 90% code coverage might be considered a well-tested product. Proponents claim this technique can provide higher levels of code coverage measurement (condition coverage. For example. or virtual machine).the provider of the tool must explicitly choose which languages to support. This type of instrumentation is dependent on programming language -. is often the key to writing more tests that will increase coverage: By studying the unexecuted code. There are many other test coverage measures.Handout – Software Testing Line-Level Test Coverage The basic measure of a dedicated test coverage tool is tracking which lines of code are executed. file. They analyze the source code as written. Some products. Runtime Instrumentation Probes need not be added until the program is actually run. Source-Level Instrumentation Some products add probes at the source level. the performance factor may be significant.) than other forms of instrumentation. it is an enviable commitment to quality! How Test Coverage Tools Work To monitor execution. such as debug (un optimized) and release (optimized) needs to be maintained. or project level giving a percentage of the code that was executed. of course. and which are not. for example. and add additional code (such as calls to a code coverage runtime) that will record where the program reached. OS..the provider of the tool must explicitly choose which processors or virtual machines to support. most available code coverage tools do not provide much beyond basic line coverage. you should have more. you don't know whether you have tested the case when it is skipped. instrumented one. Typically the line coverage information is also presented at the source code level. the file itself is not modified. consider a block of code that is skipped under certain conditions (e. code coverage version in addition to other versions. it is dependent on operating environment -. The tool will analyze the existing executable. Adding probes to the program will make it bigger and slower. etc. intercept the compiler after parsing but before code generation to insert the changes they need. Executable Instrumentation Probes can also be added to a completed executable file. However. Such a tool may not actually generate new source files with the additional code. test coverage tools generally "instrument" the program by inserting "probes". This type of instrumentation is independent of programming language. Condition Coverage and Other Measures It's easy to find cases where line coverage doesn't really tell the whole story. The same executable file used for product release testing should be used for code coverage. if you achieve 95+% line coverage and still have time and budget to commit to further testing improvements. The probes exist only in the inmemory copy of the executable file. allowing you to see exactly which lines of code were executed and which were not. But it can be somewhat independent of operating environment (processor. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. One drawback of this technique is the need to modify the build process. A separate version namely. This result is often presented in a summary at the procedure. just executing it will not automatically start code coverage (as it would with the other methods of Page 170 ©Copyright 2007. Because the file is not modified in any way.g. If the test suite is large and timeconsuming. and then create a new. In theory. How and when this instrumentation phase happens can vary greatly between different products. This. However. a statement in an if clause). If that code is shown as executed. you can see exactly what functionality has not been tested.

up-to-date requirements specification. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It helps most in the absence of a detailed. Clearly. Each project must choose a minimum percent coverage for release criteria based on available testing resources and the importance of preventing post-release failures. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Test Coverage Tools at a Glance Coverage analysis is a structural testing technique that helps eliminate gaps in a test suite. the code coverage tool will add a tiny bit of instrumentation to the executable. and does nothing if the coverage tool is not waiting. We must set a higher coverage goal for unit testing than for system testing since a failure in lower-level code may affect multiple high-level callers. Like Executable Instrumentation. This new code will wake up and connect to a waiting coverage tool whenever the program executes. safety-critical software should have a high goal. This added code does not affect the size or performance of the executable. Page 171 ©Copyright 2007. Instead. Alternatively. the code coverage tool must start program execution directly or indirectly.Handout – Software Testing instrumentation). Runtime Instrumentation is independent of programming language but dependent on operating environment.

frm. These entries can be modified directly from here by clicking the edit button. As a whole it is designed for personal use and security was not a concern while designing it.phone. The Personal Address book is designed for people to access their contacts online from a central database on the server.frm. Test your Understanding Assignment 1 There is an application on personal address book. The view only pages are reached through the results page on clicking the hyperlinks.focus().frm. an additional field for credit card number is provided. along with email is displayed. Address2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The entries can be seen in a tabular form also by choosing the search by list option. However the system is not compatible with Netscape browser and is designed specifically for the IE 5.. Country. Case Study: Application Personal Address book. so that effectively reduces the network traffic. However only the name and phone numbers are mandatory fields. Address1. It uses ASP in the server side and java script in the client side. document.0 and above.value=="") Page 172 ©Copyright 2007. find the independent paths b) Develop Test cases based on that.value=="") { alert ("Please Fill in the name"). flag=0. c) Also develop other test cases for complete testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Validation code at client side function save() { var flag. The details that can be stored are Name. The database is Microsoft Access. State. } if (document.Handout – Software Testing SUMMARY TCP is a measure of estimating the complexity of an application.name1. if (document. you need to submit the following artifacts: a) Draw the flow chart.name1. Phone no. return false. The search page provides with facility to search by name or place and the results are displayed in a tabular form where the essential fields name and phone no. The phone number and credit card number are numeric and email address is also verified for a character '@'. In the personal information page. Note that the pages are not submitted to the server for this action. City. This is also used as an estimation technique to calculate the size and effort of a testing project. Email address.

document.length. return false. document. document.charAt(i)=="@") { flag=1. return false.phone.email. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .focus(). } Page 173 ©Copyright 2007.email.submit(). document.frm.Handout – Software Testing { alert ("Please Fill in the Phone number").frm.frm.frm. Cognizant Technology Solutions.select().frm. } } if (flag!=1) { alert ("Please Fill email in correct format"). break.frm.phone.phone.value!="") { for (i=0.email.focus(). return true. } if (document.email.i<document.value.frm. } } document.frm.select().i++) { if (document.value)==true) { alert ("Phone number should be numeric").focus().frm.value.email.phone. return false.frm. document. } if (isNaN(document.

Paul Jorgensen Automated Software Testing: Introduction.mtsu.edu/~storm/ http://www. by. John Paul & Paperback Practical Tools and Techniques for Managing Hardware and Software Testing. Mark Fewster & Dorothy Graham The craft of software testing. Boris Beizer Client Server Software Testing on the Desktop and the Web.com/ Cognizant eResources: http://elibrary/ \\ctsintcosaca\library BOOKS The Art of Software Testing. Boris Beizer Testing Applications on the Web: Test Planning for Mobile and Internet-Based Systems. Bret Pettichord Page 174 ©Copyright 2007. Hayes Automating Specification-Based Software Testing.sqatester.Michael Hacke & Robert Johnson Software Testing: A Craftsman's Approach. by. and Performance. by. by.Handout – Software Testing REFERENCES WEBSITES http://members. Mosley Fundamental Concepts for the Software Quality Engineer. Nguyen. by.com/ http://www. Paulc. Nguyen Software Test Automation.com/ http://www.aptest. by. Jorgensen. Elfriede Dustin. Brian Marick Software test automation.testing. by.Bob Johnson . Glenford J. Hung Q. by. by. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .co. by.softwaretestinginstitute.softwaretesting. Management. Hung Q.uk/ http://www.nildram. by.tripod. by. Rex Black 50 Ways to improve your testing. IEEE Black Box Testing. by. by. Bill Hetzel Software Testing Techniques. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Linda G. Jeff Rashka.com/~bazman/ http://www. Boris Beizer Automated Testing Handbook. by. Myers The Complete Guide to Software Testing. Robert M. Poston. by. by.softwareqatest.html http://www.com/resources. Mark Fewster & Dorothy Graham Black-Box Testing . by.com/ http://www. Daniel J. Taz Daughtrey Testing Applications on the Web. by. Elfriede Dustin Effective use of Test automation tools.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Handout – Software Testing STUDENT NOTES: Page 175 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

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