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THE

ATHANASIAN CREED
ETC., ETC.

BY THE SxiME AUTHOR.


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IS

THE

WESTERN CHURCH ANATHEMA ?


is

UNDER

A PKOBLEM FOE THE (ECUMENICAL COUNCIL.


mainly concerned to show is, that a certain to be part of the Nicene Creed, was not recognized by any of the first four Councils, nor by the different Popes who have spoken of them, from Saint Leo to Leo III. fourteen in all ; but that, as precisely defined by the Council of Chalcedon, and confirmed by the fifth and sixth Councils, any one who should compile, put together, hold, or teach others another faith,' should be deposed, if bishops or ecclesiastics monks or laymen, aju&them&iiaed.'" Western Daily Mercury.
theological doctrine,

" What Mr. Ffoulkes

now held

'

'

g*
I

THE

ATHANASIAN CREED:
BY

WHOM WRITTEN
AND

BY

WHOM

PUBLISHED;

WITH OTHER

ENQUIRIES ON CREEDS IN GENERAL,

BY

THE

REV.

E.

S.

FFOULKES,
;

B.D.

LATE FELLOW AND TUTOR OF JESUS COLLEGE, OXFORD AUTHOR OF " Christendom's divisions," etc.

LONDON
J.T.

HAYES, LYALL PLACE, EATON SQUARE;


&
4,

HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN.

1$?/.

UviXv^A,

v/[.

3. (3>^

SWIFT AND

CO.,

LONDON REGENT PRESS, KING STREET, REGENT STREET, W.

/./

BRIGHAM YOUNG UWVER JtV ^' PROVO, UTAH

TO

BARTLE
IN

I.

L.

FRERE, ESQ.

GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENT

OF NEVER-TO-BE REPAID KINDNESS,


THIS

WORK

IS

INSCRIBED,
ITS

BUT WITHOUT COMMITTING HIM TO

CONTENTS,

WITH THE BEST WISHES AND REGARDS


OF

THE AUTHOR

CONTENTS.
PAGE

Preface

Chapter

I.

The

Exposition of the Creed by Rufinus

ii

II.

The Roman Creed


III.

8i

From Creeds Variable to Creeds Fixed AND Uniform 134


IV.

The Age,

Aim, and Authorship

Athanasian Creed
V.

....

of the
189

The Athanasian Creed


AN Original

a Compilation, not

Work
VI.

....

278

Concluding Remarks

351

PREFACE.

Three
rupture

or four years ago

ventured to

illustrate

some general remarks on the


between the Latin and Greek

Churches, by reference to the Athanasian


Creed, as follows
:

" Whether from wilfulness, or from


sheer ignorance, whether to give colour
to their separation
pire,

from the Greek


Christianity

Emmy-

or to gratify the passion for


that

thology,
eradicate

even

cannot

from the heart of man, there


of

can be no doubt but that one of the principal occupations

men

of

letters in

the

West, contemporary with Charlemagne,

must have been


under
fictitious

to fabricate

documents
B

names, and multiply pseu-

PREFACE.
subject

donymous compositions on every


of public
to
interest at that date.

According
those

the absence or presence of malicious


in

motives

the

minds of
lies

v^ho

framed them, legends or


their

w^ould be
the effect

proper

name.
so

But
it

as

which they were designed


decidedly practical,

to

have was
been far

has

more
taries

pestiferous,

we may

be allowed to

hope, than any of their most ardent vocould have intended.

an

air

of positiveness,

There was assurance, and me-

nace about them highly characteristic ot


the autocrat, and powerfully ministering
to the naturally

domineering propensities
that stood

of the

Latin

mind,

out in

marked

contrast to the genuine

freedom

and philanthropy of the Gospel, and to the hitherto large and free spirit of the
Church.

To

instance the most perfect


all

specimen of the kind in


the Athanasian Creed
:

other respects,
least

claiming at

equal antiquity with the Nicene, besides


identity with
it

as regards doctrine.

The

PREFACE.

3
the faith

Nicene Fathers having

set forth

of the Church in terms taken from Scripture, with one exception, end by anathematising
errors,
'

the

maintainers
are

of

certain

which

carefully

specified

was a time when the Son of God was not, or that He was not before He was begotten, or that He was begotten after the manner
Those
say
there

who

of a creature
those

'

only

and

so

forth,

but only

those are anathematised


transgressed.

who

had actually

How

different

the tenor of the Athanasian Creed, which,


after setting forth the faith

of the Church,

reasoned out with extraordinary precision,

but couched in anything but Scriptural


language, finishes with the sweeping sentence
:

'

This

is

the Catholic faith, which,

except a
not be

man
is

believe faithfully ^ he can-

saved^

While the Church


obstinately
to

in

Council
cific

content in denouncing a spe-

class

of persons

mainleading
private

taining
articles

errors

opposed
public

the

of her

creed,

B 2

4
doctor
tion of
is

PREFACE.

made

to

pronounce the salva-

all

impossible,

who

are not faith-

ful believers in every single particular

of

his

own

dogmatic statement.
itself set

Whether
the fashion,

the Alhanasian Creed


or

was drawn up

to suit a fashion already


it

set,

the resemblance between

and the

known
magne
This
'

formularies of the age of Charleis,

to say the least, very striking.

is

the Catholic faith,' says Charlethe creed

magne of
self^

paraphrased by himwhich every one keeping whole and


life.'

undefiled will have everlasting

And
to

Leo
him,

III., in

the profession attributed to


in

but

any
before

case
it

submitted

Charlemagne
*

was published:
the Catholic and

He

that

believes not according to this


is

right faith

damned by

Apostolic Church.' " *

In a former chapter,
clusively,

had shown conof


fact''''

that

"/;/ point

the

''

Christendom's Divisions," Part

II., c. x.

pp.

553-4-

PREFACE.

5
used for conthe

Athanasian Creed was


troversial

first

purposes
efFect

against

Greeks
to set

and that the

of

it

had been

up

fictitious

antiquity for Latin docset

trine,

analogous to what had been

up

through the False Decretals for Latin discipline.*

On
to

its

authorship, having only

conjecture to put forward at that time, I

forebore

speculate;

but

resolved

to

take the earliest opportunity that offered

of coming to a sound conclusion.


has been

This

commenced and

laid aside again

and again, on the plan of making an


independent search
finitely less
:

a task rendered init

formidable than

used to be,

by the
Reading

judicious

arrangements

of

the

Room

in the British
Patristic

Museum,
Series

where the invaluable

of

Abbe Migne, comprising almost every


line that has ever

been printed of

ecclesi-

''

Chap,

viii.,

pp. 429-30.

b
astlcal

PREFACE.

literature

from the

first

to

the

middle of the thirteenth century, has been


placed within easy access of every reader,
so that
it

would be unpardonable
future
to be content

for

any

such

in

to

quote

second-hand, instead of going to the originals for themselves.

Had I

read

Water-

land and

other moderns

on the Athashould have

nasian Creed at the beginning instead of


at the

end of

my

inquiry,

probably given up in despair a problem


that had
baffled
:

so

many

wiser

heads
at
its

than

my own
made no

or

from looking

various surroundings through their spectacles,

real progress

beyond them
the
I

in

detecting

its

clue.

Even now
conclusions

number of accepted
must challenge before
appals

that

my own
it

is

reached
in
this
?

me.

Still

was

not

way

precisely that they

came

to theirs

When Voss published his celebrated treatise " On the Three Creeds," he was aghast

PREFACE.

at his

own boldness in maintaining that the


Athanasius, or

Athanasian Creed had not been written

by

S.

by a Greek
composed

at all

and that the Apostles' Creed could not


have
been
possibly

by the
upon
thunder-

Apostles.

Both

statements
like

fell

Western Christendom
clap
;

and were regarded

as little short

of sacrilege by the majority;


tured to give
to accept

few venstill

them a hearing,
publicly.*

fewer
is

them

Now,

there

not a
"

learned

man

in

any communion

Comber

testifies to

the prevailing opinion, in


in support of

Voss " All which

spite of all that

Ussher had written

hath prevailed with the sober

and learned men of these ages, whether Roman or Reformed, Lutheran or Calvinistical, to assent to
his truth, as

may
;

be seen in the writings of

many

Roman
in

doctors

and

in the

works of M. Luther,
;

of Calvin, Beza, P. Martyr, and BuUinger


the public

as also

Confessions and Articles of the Churches of England, Saxony, France, Bohemia, etc., this Creed is asserted to be the Apostles' own " Companion to the Temple," composition."

Part L,

c. 17.

PREFACE.
dispute them.

who would
which the

In the Cate-

chism of the Council of Trent, to be sure,

Roman

clergy must teach as

gospel to this day, the old story that the


Apostles, under inspiration of the

Holy
after

Ghost, arranged

the

creed

called
is

them "
length
lish
;

in

twelve

articles,"

told

at

and

in the rubrics of the

Eng-

Prayer

Book

directions are given for

the use of " the Apostles' Creed," and of

the " Creed of S. Athanasius," as though

both

had
still

been
all

called

by

their

right

names;
lics,

educated

Roman
know

Catho-

as well as Anglicans,

have long been


that the

too well informed not to

supposed
utterly
reality,

authorship
;

of both

has been
neither,
in

exploded

and that
as its

was composed

name would

imply.

By vfhom

they were composed, indeed,


" Part
I., c.

I.

PREFACE.
a

is

further problem
;

which has not yet


just here that the

been solved

and

it

is

labours of Voss and others require to be

supplemented, or even revised.


left

For they

standing, or rather

they acquiesced

in, several positions as

untenable as those

which
these

they

overthrew

among
That the

them
creed

two

particularly:

i.

known
and
it

to us as the Apostles'

Creed was,

in reality, that of the


2.

Roman Church;
name which
it

That the
bears
period.

distinctive

now

was given

to

at a

very

early

They had

positively

no

ground

for either position, but

what was

supposed to be contained in a well-known

" Exposition " of


terly

this creed,

supposed

lat-

to

have been written by Rufinus,

a presbyter of Aquileia, a
Italy,

town

in north

towards A.D. 400.


are

There
I
.

two suppositions here

What
;

Rufinus was supposed to have

written

and

PREFACE.

2.

What was
hope

supposed to be contained

in

it.

I shall

to

throw some

light

upon

both in

my

first

chapter.

II

CHAPTER

I.

ON THE EXPOSITION OF THE CREED BY


RUFINUS.

RuFiNUS ToRANUS, or Tyrannius, as he was surnamed, is said to have been a native of Concordia, a town of North Italy,
near Aquilela, then the capital of
at the
east.

Istria,

head of the Adriatic, on the north-

And

neither his personal character,

nor his

travels,

ought to be quite passed


examination of his
is

over in any
writings.
certain
as
;

critical

The

year of his birth

un-

but he was baptized at Aquileia,


us in the fifth chapter of the
his

he

tells

first

book of

" Apology,"
in

after

having

spent thirty years there

a monastery,

12

ON THE EXPOSITION
faith

and been instructed in the


previously
to

and creed

receiving

baptism

by

deacon of the church there, named Eusebius.

A.D.

371

is

generally supposed to
;

have been the date of his baptism


soon afterwards he started, in

and

company

with a

Roman

lady

named Melania, who

from that time seems to have been his travelling companion through life, for Egypt, where he spent six years, off and
on,

among

the

monks of
for

Nitria.

Then

quitting
his

Egypt

Palestine,

he fixed

head-quarters

for

twenty years or

more in a convent on Mount Olives, and so became intimate with John, Bishop of Jerusalem, by whom he was ordained presbyter, and with whom he sided against SS. Epiphanius and Jerome, in their hot controversy respecting the works of Origen, in which all shocked Christendom equally by their intemperate
language, perhaps he most of
all.

A.D.

397, he re-visited Italy, and spent some time at Rome, adding fuel to the flame

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.

and being in the end severely reprimanded, if not excommunicated as a heretic, in This consequence, by Pope Anastasius.
induced him to keep quiet at Aquileia
for the
its

next ten years, notwithstanding

siege
1,

by the Goths
set

and when, A.D.


it

41

he next

out on his travels,

was

to die in Sicily.

Rufinus so far profited

become thoroughly conversant with the Greek language, which he might never have learnt so well at home and his translations from Greek into Latin were most extensive, though

by

his travels as to

exhibiting

nothing of the conscientious


once
friend

exactness of his

and near
the Jews,"

neighbour,

S.

Jerome.

Among them were


Wars of

the " Antiquities and

by Josephus
Origen
;

several of the

several

works of of the then reputed works


;

of S. Clement of Rome and the ten books of " Ecclesiastical History," by Eusebius,

which he supplemented by two of his own. Of these last, Socrates, the historian, says that he had followed them implicitly.

14
till

ON THE EXPOSITION
he had discovered

they contained.*
generally,

how many mistakes And of his translations


v^ith

Cave says

great truth

"

It

cannot be denied that Rufinus in

translating the w^orks of others, acted for

the most part in bad faith,


mutilating,
to

by changing,
rather

and adding

to that extent as

make them appear

originals

than composed by others, so that nobody


can divine with
are

which parts by him, and which by their real


certainty
city
to

authors."f

whose Church Rufinus was attached, had a history of It was situated, as has its own likewise.
Aquileia, the

been

said, at

the head of the Adriatic,


sea,

about a dozen miles from the

with

which it communicated by rivers, and in becoming a Roman colony, B.C. i8o, was designed to be the bulwark of Italy against the barbarous tribes of Illyria and
Pannonia
to

the

north-east.

Strongly

fortified against these,


- Hist. II. I.

but with increased


I

Hist. Lit.

I. v.

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


security, therefore, for

commerce,

it

at-

tained such eminence in a short time that


it

ranked only second to

Rome ;*

and of

course

when

Illyria

and Pannonia became


it

Roman
porium

provinces,
as well
all
;

became

their

em-

the frontier town, through

which
produce
to

the luxuries and world-wide

from the seat of empire the new territory, and to which all the
filtered

aspiring but untutored spirits in the


territory flocked to

new

be schooled In accom-

plishments.

Aquileia was therefore both a


first

commercial and a border town of the


order, seething

with

life,

when

it

received

and being situated between the extremes of barbarism and civilisation, it must have been inhabited by a motley, though stirring, race; and spoke a lanChristianity
;

guage

" Canusini more


1.

bilinguis "

that

was

far

from pure. This

may

account also

for several peculiarities in the character of

Roma, seu Romania dicta, quia florente Imperio secundum semper locum obtinuit "... Hoffman I. v.
''

" Herodlano

viii. c. 2,

l6

ON THE EXPOSITION

Rufinus, commented upon by Cave and


others.

Again, the invasion of the Goths and


Ostrogoths, their more permanent settle-

ments

in the

Danubian
Italy,

provinces^ and in

Thrace and

coupled with

their

adoption of Arianism^ cannot have failed to tinge the theological mind of the

Aquileian Church, any more than those


border
influences

thus

aggravated

the

general tone of the city.

And

this

may

help us to appreciate several ecclesiastical


as well as theological

developments that

occurred there subsequently to his time.

When
by

Aquileia was sacked and destroyed

452, the jurisdiction of its Metropolitan, extended over Istria and


Attila, A.D.
less

the whole of Venetia, comprising no

than twenty-seven suffragan Sees.^


after
-'^

it

had been
"De

restored

partially

But by

Cone. Forojul." by Madrisius, editor of the works of S. Paulinus (Patrol,


:

See Diss. III.

xcix., 533-46)

showing the extent

of

its

jurisdic-

tion at various times.

7
OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.
Narses,
that
arose

new phenomenon
curiously

and

one

has

remained unique ever since

there,

character as
dignity,

symboHcal of its a border-town an Eastern


:

that of patriarch,

assumed by

Western prelate. Further, this distinction was assumed by him not merely
at the

without consulting Rome, but

com:

mencement of a long schism from Rome which schism again was equally characteristic, as on the point which gave rise to
it,

the condemnation of the three chapas

ters,

they were

called,

the heads of

the Western and Eastern

Rome

and Constantinople
also the

were
its

communions
agreed.

Such was
in spite of

tenacity with

which
acts,

the Aquileian church upheld


all

own

the later reverses endured


its
its

by the

city,

and even

own temporary
patriarchs

removal to Grado, that

were
but,

not merely recognised in their

new dignity
ceased,

by Rome when the schism


committed by one of them

notwithstanding a fresh act of disloyalty


in siding

with

ON THE EXPOSITION

John XIX. was content to speak of the See of Aquileia, two centuries
Photius,
later,

as

being second in rank to


all

Rome,

and above
out Italy.
elapsed

other Episcopal sees through-

In short, 150 years have barely

since the Patriarch

of Aquileia

ceased to exist, though the See of Venice

formally received a grant of his dignity

from Nicholas V. three

centuries earlier,
fell
]

or three years before Constantinople


into the hands of the Turks.

Such was Aquileia, and such Rufinus,


its

presbyter,

to

whom,

as author
specific

of a of

commentary upon the

creed

the Aquileian church, almost

all

learned

men have
true

for

the

last

three

centuries

appealed exclusively for the origin and


character
;

of

what

is

called

the

Apostles' Creed

and that he did actually


his

write some such commentary, nay, some


part of the

commentary now bearing


as

name, cannot be denied,

we

shall see.

But

this

is

altogether

beside

the
I

real

question.

The

question

which

am

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


about
to

propose

to

the

learned,

and

hope

to supply
is.

deciding,

them with materials for Whether Rufinus has been

more interpolated than misunderstood, or more misunderstood than interpolated. I begin, then, by expressing my surprise that the learned should not have bestowed more criticism upon a work on which they have built so much. It
used, indeed, to be difficult of access to
students.
It

has recently been reprinted

in

a very convenient shape

by
''

Professor

Heurtley,

among

the documents forming

his smaller manual, entitled


t

De
it

Fide
into

Symbolo," which, in

fact,

put

my own

hands portably for the

first

time.

Tendering, therefore,

my

hearty acknow-

ledgments to the Professor for the boon or


its text,

he must allow me, nevertheless,


history,

to regret that he should have told us so


little

about

its

and that he should


use

not have

made more
to

of

his

own

proximity

the
to

Bodleian and
verify

Christ
others

Church

libraries

what

c 2

20

ON THE EXPOSITION
it

had written of
as

before following them,

well

as

to

inform us whether

any
about

different
it

views had been current


since.

before or

In his brief notice


it

of Rufinus, he says

has been printed

from the

text of Vallarsius ;* accordingly,

when

its

turn comes,

it

appears headed

" Commentarius in
tero Auctore,"

Symbolum Apostolois

rum, Tyrannio Rufino Aquileiensi Presby-

f which

the

title

given

to

it

by

Vallarsius, but

on what authority

the

Lady Margaret
;

Professor forbears to

ask

and

cannot discover that Vallarsius


any.

could
earliest

have produced
discoverable

That the
have:|:

should

been

the Oxford Edition of S.

Cyprian, a.d.
it

1692, numerous as the editions of

had

been for 200


surely,
to

years

previously,
;

ought,

have been stated

and one

would have supposed an Oxford editor might have felt interest in recording that
it

W2isjirst printed at Oxford, being one


* P. 29,
I

t P. lOI.

Append.

III., p. 17.

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


of the
as
''

21

first

books ever printed

in

England,

Hieronymi expositio in symbolo Apostolorum ad Papam Laurcntium," A.D., 1468, from which title we should
Beati

have learnt

at

once that in those days


not to
it

it

was
S.

attributed

Rufinus,
at

but to

Jerome.

So

was printed
at

Oxford

again, A.D.

1498;

and 1576, as with the letters of


A.D.

Rome, A.D. 1470 "Expositio in Symbolum,"


S.

Jerome
at

at Basle,

15 19, as

"Symbolum
;

fidei,"

with

the works of S. Cyprian

Paris, A.D.

1570, as " Commentarius in Symbolum," in a separate form.* Schoennemann's


titlef

for

it,

in giving

it

to Rufinus,

is,

" Explicatio symboli."

The

truth

is,

stated therefore,

and should have been that few treatises have

ever been printed under so


titles,

many

different

more to one author after another. How it came to be so long dissevered from Rufinus and his other
or shifted about
-''

See the

list in

Migne's Patrol,

xxi. 17-20.

I Ibid. 15.


ON THE EXPOSITION
is

22

works
for

for those
it

moderns
it

who have
stands, not

concluded

to be his as

me, to explain.

But one MS. of any


it

reputed

antiquity connects

with his

name

and even there "

Incipit Expositio

symboli sancti Rufini" reads like a clerical error for " Hieronymi," or some one else,
for

Rufinus

is

literature as a

known generally to saint. To return to the


not
is

heading of Vallarsius, the probability


that he took
it

of
the

S.

from the Oxford edition Cyprian, a.d. 1682, and the Oxford
Bishops Fell and Pearson, from
printed edition of this exposition

editors.
first

namely, that of Oxford, A.D. 1468, substituting, on their own authority, " Rufini" for " Hieronymi." But here they should

have

reflected

that

if

one part of their


correction,

adopted heading required


;

so

might another and a very brief inquiry would have convinced them that the word " Apostolorum" should have been ejected,
intrinsic

as

well

as
it.

extrinsic

evidence
S.

being opposed to

Neither

John

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


Cassian nor

23

Gennadius,

on whose auto be credited

thority Rufinus has

come

with

this

Exposition

the former writing

within
cation

fifty years

of
his

its

supposed pubU-

speaks of

having commented

on the " Creed of the Apostles^'^ but merely the " Creed ;" and Cassian, in
fact,

appHes what
apostolic

Rufinus had said of


of
the

the

origin

Creed

in

general (unless, indeed, this passage

afterwards introduced into his

was work from

Cassian) to the Creed then current in the

Church of Antioch, on which he is engaged himself. In the same way SAugustine, writing about the same time, and commenting upon the same Creed
practically

with Rufinus, fixed the


treatise

title

of his

own

by naming
Fide ac

it

in his

Retractations

"
to

De

Symbolo."

His sermons

own title
S.

Catechumens contain their viz., " De Symbolo ;" likewise,

published homilies in the next generation, " De Traditione

Maximus of Turin
"

Symboli

and

S.

Nicetas of Aquileia

24

ON THE EXPOSITION

shortly afterwards explained the identical

Creed on which Rufinus had written in a treatise still called " Explanatio symboli
habita ad competentes."
It
is

true that

seven sermons of S. Peter Chrysologus of

Ravenna, preached about the same time, are now headed " De Symbolo Aposto-

lorum;" but the last word is wholly unauthorised by anything they contain. Besides, that having been all preached

on a
of
S.

special occasion,

like

the homilies
delivery of

Maximus

viz.,

"

The

the Creed to the baptized"

must have been designated originally from the phrase for it which was then in use.

they

Now,
ditio

this

phrase was invariably

''

Tra-

Symboli,"

without
the treatise

addition.

Even

any further by Venantius

Fortunatus, supposed to have been written


at the

commencement of
on

the seventh cen-

tury, and founded

this

of Rufinus,

is

entitled " Expositio Symboli."

But, inis

deed, the text of this Exposition


itself fatal to its

of

modern

title.

It

begins

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.

25

by discoursing on the Creed in general then, after admonishing the reader that additional Articles were found in one Church's Creed that were not in another's,* it selects that of the Church of Aquileia for comment. As it proceeds, it notices various points on which this Creed differed from other forms current elsewhere, till at last we come to the following passage,f "As
is

also said in the


shall

Creed
;'

'

dom
issue

have no end
decisive

"

Whose kingwhich may be


question
at

considered

of

the

this Article

being peculiar to the

Eastern form of the Creed, at the same


time that
it is

acknowledged by the author

of

this

Exposition in express terms to be

part of the Creed

on which he was then

commenting.
If
it is

Rufinus

who

is

here speaking,

he clearly could not have dreamt of exIllud non inopportune commonendum puto, quod in diversis ecclesiis aliqua in his verbis
-

inveniuntur adjecta.
t
34-

3.

26

ON THE EXPOSITION

pounding what we call the Apostles' Creed apart from the rest, or known it distinguished from all other existing forms

by

that name.

There

is

indeed another, and a

much

more celebrated statement in this treatise, which has given rise to the idea that he was but as it is just one of those passages which determine this treatise not to
;

be his in

its

existing form, I shall refrain


it
till

from quoting
that purpose.

its

turn comes for

What
is

has

made
:

critics

so

ready to

concur in attributing this

treatise to

him

wanted an author, after it had been pronounced not to be the work of either S. Cyprian or S.
simply
this
First,
it

Jerome; secondly,

it

professed to

have

been written by a member of the Church


of Aquileia ; thirdly, Rufinus, one of the
best

known members of

that church,

is

pointedly stated

by Cassian and Gennatreatise

dius to have written a

of
is

this

kind

pointedly

stated, as there

con-

ai

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


siderable point of

27

one kind or another in

both passages.

Gennadius wrote latest, so let us commence with him. In the printed editions
of his " Catalogue of Illustrious Men,"

he

speaks

as

follows,
:

amongst

other
dili-

things, of Rufinus

"

By

his

own

gence, or rather

by the

gift

of the grace

of God, the same Rufinus so expounded


the Creed, that others

comparison of him ^ not it at alir But in a very old,


oldest

may be deemed^ in to have expounded


if

not the

MS.

of

this

work of Gennadius,
;

words following " expounded the Creed " are not found the words preceding " Rufinus " indeed are no longer legible, still there is space left which they may have once filled. But there is no
the
space for the laudatory sentence
after

coming

the

word " Creed


If
also

" in the printed

editions.*

Rufinus has been inter-

polated,

Gennadius interpolated by his


-'=

may have
to

been

interpolator,

add

give the

MS. and

the printed version as they

28
lustre

ON THE EXPOSITION
to
his

own
?

performance.
*

What
" Expoof God,''

says

John Cassian

" Rufinus
sitiofi

also testifies, in his

of the Creed^^ as follows, on our


:

Lord's Incarnation

"

The Son

he says, " was born of a Virgin, not being


united to the flesh only, nor principally

but having a soul intermediate between


the flesh and God."

These words occurring

in the thirteenth

section of this Exposition,

we may

not

doubt some parts of it having been penned

by Rufinus.

But even Cassian suggests doubts of the whole being his in its present
stand
in the

Ben. Edit, of S.Jerome,

vol. v. p.

49

and

seq.

Codex MS.
Rufinus symbolum disseruit,
et

Editi Libri,

Exposuit idem Rufinus sym-

Benedictiones

Jacob

supra
ser-

bolum, ut in ejus comparatione


alii

Patriarchas

.... mystico

non exposuisse

videantur.

mone.

Disseruit et benedictionem Jacob

super Patriarchas .... mystico


sensu.

Cave says of this work in Cod. MS. Corb :" which


-'

*'

Extat longe integrior


Hist. Lit.
iii.

is this.

5.

De

Incarn.

vii.

27.


OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.
shape
for

29

111

another chapter,^ while reI

peating and appropriating, as

have said
is

before, the explanation, if genuine, which

there given of the

word

''

symbolum," he
the " locus

omits

all

reference to the traditional story


this
is

by which

prefaced

and from then till and which, now, of the whole work
classicus^'* in later ages,
:

literally translated,

runs thus

" Tradunt major es^ our ancestors relate,


'

that

after

our

Lord's
:

Ascension,

put them in parallel columns


Cassian.

Rufinus.

Symbolum, ut
tlone

scis,

ex

colla-

Symbolum autem hoc


at justissimis

multis

nomen accepit. enim Grsce a-vfi^oXov


latio

Quod
dicitur,

ex causis appellari

voluerunt.

Symbolum
est,

enim

Latine coUatio nominatur. Col-

Grsece et indicium dici potest et


collatio,

autem ideo, quia

in

unum
to-

hoc

collata ab Apostolis
tiu-i

Domini

unum
in

conferunt.

quod plures in Id enim fece-

Catholicas legis fide, quid-

runt Apostoli in his sermonibus,

quid per universum divinorum

unum conferendounusquisque
sensit

voluminum

corpus

immensa

quod

2.

funditur copia, totum in symboli


colligitur brevitate perfecta, se-

In his vere comperitur pro-

phetia

quas

dicit

" Verbum

cundum

Apostoli; "verbum," inquit, " consummans et


illud

enim consummans, et brevians quia verbum brein zequitate


;

hrevians in sequitate; quia ver-

viatum
terra

faciet

Dominus

super

bum

braviatum

faciet

Dominus
vi. 3.

super terram "

"

i.

Hist.Lit.

2.

30

ON THE

EXPOSITION

when by
fiery

the coming of the


sat

Holy Ghost

tongues had

upon each of the

Apostles, so that they spake with diverse

tongues, causing no nation to seem foreign


to them, nor

any barbarisms of language


the

impervious or inaccessible, they received

commandment of
preach His

Lord

Word

to all

go and nations. Acto

cordingly, being about to

each other, they


selves

first

from appointed themdepart

a rule mutually for their future


lest,

preaching,
tions,

separated in different direc-

any of them perchance should expound any thing differently to those

whom
All,
place,

they invited to the faith of Christ.


being assembled
in

therefore,

one

and
for

filled

with the Holy Ghost,

they compiled,

as

we have
of

said, this briet

token

themselves

their

future

preaching,

by throwing
have

together

what
given
effect

each thought himself, and ordained that


all

believers should

this rule

them."*

And more
-

to the

same

further on.
2.

1 ;

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


This passage, in
as
spite

of Cassian writing

though he had never seen it, has for centuries been thought to imply that a
definite creed

of twelve

articles

was actu-

ally

composed by the twelve Apostles


and that
in
it

before separating, each Apostle contribut-

ing one

is

on

this identical

Creed, enlarged

only by

the additions

made

to

it

the Church of Aquileia,

that Rufinus wrote.


inferences I

The

first

of these
or

am

not concerned to dispute

the author of this passage

may

may

not have meant to assert as much, or more

probably did

all

that

am

concerned to

show

is

that he

persons in

and Rufinus were difi^erent any case that Rufinus, for


:

several reasons, could not


this passage at all,

have written
it is

and that

unquesread
time,

tionably but one of

many

that have since

been added to his work.


it,

When
was
all

in

its

present shape, for the


it

first

my
this

impression was that


:

patch-

work

now hope

to be able to prove
it

of some parts of

conclusively.

32

ON THE EXPOSITION

" Tradu7tt major es^"* but who were Bingham* has given a Hst of the they ?
authorities

usually cited, and

believe

that

it

could not be enlarged materially

but of these SS. Isidore, Cassian,

Maximus

of Turin, and Leo, could not have been called " ancestors" by Rufinus, as they
lived after

him

nor again SS. Augustine,

Jerome,

and Ambrose,
;

who were
only general
:

his

contemporaries

what
say

Tertullian, Origen,
to

and

S. Irenaeus

is

the effect that a rule of faith instituted Christ had been taught

by

by the Apostles, and handed down in the Church. There was one Father to be sure that was once thought to have spoken more definitely, and had he written S. Clement of Rome really what was attributed to him, there might have been some ground for inferring that those who followed him could mean no less. But the letter in which
;

this

passage occurs has long since been


is

proved spurious, and

always printed in
3, 5.

* Antiq. x.

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


its

1,^

existing shape with the False Decretals.


it

Let us understand, however, that


/lol

was

all

forged
it,

at the

same

t'lme^

and that

part of

most singularly^ had been in


a

circulation
lived,

long time

when Rufinus

and was actually one of the works translated by him from Greek into Latin,

But
is

this part

ends abruptly with what

is it

now the first

half of chapter twenty; and

in the twenty-first chapter,just

where the
is

pseudo-Isidorian addition begins, that the


history of the formation of the Creed

epitomised,

word
its

for

word, from
letter

this

Exposition.

The supposed

of S.

Clement, in
printed

original shape, has been

by Coteler,''^ with the Latin version of it by Rufinus immediately following; and in its enlarged shape by Hinschius

among

the pseudo-Decretals-f

Anyof

body, then,

who

will be at the pains


see, that

examining both vnW

v/hat used to

be quoted as the chief authority for this


''

Pat. Apost.

i.

6i6.

f Tauchnitz edit. p. 37.

34
legendary

ON THE EXPOSITION
tale

which Rufinus is supposed to have penned, was actually not in existence when the letter, to which a summary of it has since been appended, was translated by Rufinus himself. This coincidence would alone suffice to
suggest grave doubt of the authorship of
this

Exposition as

it

stands now.
authenticity

What
first

shook

my
it

faith in

its

on

reading

was

its

dedication.

It is

dedi-

cated to a " most faithful

Pope Laurence,"

whom nobody has ever been able to verify,


save
that

by " pope " must be meant

" bishop," or rather a bishop to


tended.*
'-

whom
in-

more than ordinary deference was

Now,

it is

not a

little

curious

him

Bingham's own instances should have told this (the italics are mine) "Dionysius, Pres:

speaking of Heraclas, his bishop, gives him the very same title the blessed pope Heraclas. And Arius himself speaks of his Bishop, Alexander, in the same style. S. Jerome gives the title to Athanasius, Epiphanius, and Paulinus and writing often to S. Austin he always inscribes his epistles 'beatissimo papas
byter of

Alexandria,

'

'

Augustino.' "

I. ii. 7.

Just so; but then he

is

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


that a

^^

esteemed as the " Enchiridion," or Manual " on


so well

work

known and

Faith,
tine,

Hope, and Charity," by

S.

AugusAugusconoften
it

should have been also dedicated to a


S.

Laurence, but of whose identity


tine informs us himself;

and

that, in

sequence, part of the


in

title

given to
'^

manuscripts

has

been,

Ad Lauurbis

rentium

primicerium

notariorum

Romse
and

;" or,

"Ad

so forth.
this

fame of

Laurentium diaconum," A person emulous of the work might have aped its

dedication in publishing a kindred per-

formance of

his

own

nor possibly would


this

Rufinus have been above doing


self,
far

had

S.

Augustine written j^rj-/.

himBut

from calling every bishop ''pope." All these are cases of presbyters addressing or speaking of bishops. S. Austin, on the other hand, is as paras
in

ticular in styling his Metropolitan Aurelius " pope,"

not giving any mere brother-bishop that

style.

Curiously enough, this

is

not the

style

employed by Rufinus himself

in

dedicating his

Ecclesiastical History to Chromatius,

Bishop of

Aquileia, or his " Recognitions of S. Clement " to Gaudentius, Bishop of Brescia.

2,6

ON THE EXPOSITION
410, and
S.

as Rvifinus died A.D.

Augusof
S.

tine speaks

in

his

own

treatise"^

Jerome

as

dead likewise, his


death of

own

cannot

for certain
till

have been given to the world


S.

after the

Jerome, which
to miC

occurred a.d. 420.

This suggested

the possibility that the dedication of the

w^ork
a
later

of

Rufinus

was
I

fictitious,

and

addition.

have become conbut

vinced
grounds.

of

it

since,

upon

different

Another doubt was suggested

to

me

by what

is

said

in

various parts of this

Exposition on the '' descent into hell." " Rufinus himself," says Bingham,^ " tells
us,
'

the descent into hell

'

was
is

neither in

the

Roman

Creed, which

that

we

call

the Apostles' Creed, nor yet in any creed

of the Eastern Churches


of
it

only the sense


in

might be

said to be
'

couched

other

expression,
is

He

was

buried.'

that "

Bingham
is

quite correct so far, that this

the interpretation given to those


* C. 87.
-I-

words

X. 315.

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


in

37

one place,

viz.,

8 ;^ but he should

have read on.


differently
in

They

are

explained very

28, and again 30; and 48, where the sum of all that had
to

gone before purports


advantage
hell
is

be resumed, the

Lord's descent into stated to be the " recal of souls


there,"

of our

from captivity
thing

which
led

is

another
to

altogether.

This
in

me

in-

quire whether Rufinus

tioned

this

article

had ever menconnection with


For,
as

the

Creed

elsewhere.

most
at all

people know,

who know

anything
at

of his history, he had

one time to

defend himself against S. Jerome, and to


clear himself to the Pope.

And

in each

case he has left us a full account of his


faith.

Now, on both
faith,

occasions, the heads

of his

he maintains with emphasis,

from the Creed of the Church in which he had received catechetical instruction and been baptized viz., the
are taken
;
-'

" Vis
'

tamen
'

verbi

eadem videtur

esse in eo

quod

sepultus

dicitur."

38

ON THE EXPOSITION

Church of Aquileia; but among these, " the descent into hell " is on neither
occasion reckoned as one
faintest
sort.*
;

nor

is

there the

allusion to

it

in

either
article

of any

Again, the
is

first

of the

same Creed

Exposition stated " I believe in expressly to have been


in
this
:

God
told,

the Father Almighty, invisible and


;"

impassible

these last

two words, we
it

are

" having been added to

in conse-

quence of the heresy ot Sabellius,


''

known
:

Pope, for instance " FiHum quoque Dei in novissimis diebus natum esse confitemur ex Virgine et Spiritu Sancto carnem naturas humanas atque animam suscepisse, in qua passus est, et sepultus, et resurrexit a mortuis." And then adds '' Hanc fidem quam supra exposui id est, quam ecclesia
to the
.
. .
:

Take what he says

Alexandrina, et Aquileiensis nostra tenet, quaeque Hierosolymis praedicatur." See the


et

Romana,

where are '' Damasi printed also the Symbolum," and '' Symb. explan. ad Damasum," and " Expl. fidei ad S. Cyril," all composed about the same time, and equally silent on the " Descent into hell." So, too, is the treatise " De fide," given to Rufinus by
Ben. Edit, of
S.

Jerome,

vol. v. p. 259,

Sirmond., Op.

i.

160.

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


to our people"

39
is

"

by

the Aquileians, that

as the Patripassian ;" the

twofold in-

ference from

which would be, that the Aquileians were peculiar in designating Sabellius and his followers Patripassians, and that the Church of Aquileia had in time past been infested by this heresy to
a

much

greater degree

than

its

neigh-

bours.

The former

is

contrary to fact

the latter unsupported

by anything

that

we
his

read elsewhere.

Rufinus, again, says

nothing about

this addition in vindicating S.

orthodoxy to

Jerome and the Pope.

Considering he was accused of Origenism,

and defended himself, as has been said, by reference to the Creed of his Church a Creed to which S. Jerome, a native

of Dalmatia, could have been no omission seemed


this

stranger
to

as

difficult

account for as the other.


finitely
is

And

both in-

more

so

by

contrast.

For there
Creed of
affirm-

yet a third peculiarity declared in this


to

Exposition
Aquileia
;

attach

to

the

which not content with

40

ON THE EXPOSITION
it

ing " the resurrection of the body " as


stands
in

other Creeds,

by adding the

demonstrative pronoun, and changing it into " the resurrection of this body,"

seemed intent upon bringing

it

home

to

the individual each time that he professed '' this body," namely, " with his faith

which
fifth

am now
of
S.

clothed."

Now,

in

the
his

chapter
against

the

first

book of
the

work

Jerome, Rufinus
to

attri-

butes this

peculiarity

Aquileian
it

Creed, and then

expatiates

upon

in

terms so similar, that


clude

we

can only con-

what he

says there to have been

copied from this Exposition, or this


position

from what he says


Creed
in
this

there.

ExThus

of the three peculiarities attributed to the


Aquileian
Exposition,
person, and

Rufinus writing in his


treating of the

own

same

subject,

remarkably

confirms the
the others.

last,

but altogether ignores

Let us

at

once pass on to another work

of the same kind, recently proved to have

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.

been written by a
of

member of
later,

the

Church
this

Aquileia, and in

the same century,

though somewhat

with which

Exposition has not as yet been sufficiently compared I mean the " Explanation of

the Creed,"* addressed

to candidates for

baptism,

by

S.

Nicetas,

who became
fifty years after

Bishop of Aquileia some

the death of Rufinus, and

corresponded

with Pope Leo


destruction
A.D.

I.

Possibly the sack and

of

Aquileia

by

the

Huns,
the

452,

may

be one reason

why

precise

limits

of

his

episcopate

have
could

proved so
S. Nicetas

difficult to fix.

Nobody

doubt on reading both works, that either

must have borrowed from

this

Exposition, or the author of this Exposition

from Nicetas

and anybody that was unconclude that S. Nicetas


that

acquainted with their respective histories,

would
wrote

see cause to
first
;

the simple truth being


this

he wrote before
' In

work of Rufinus had


Hi.

Migne's

Patrol.

865

et

seq.,

with

P. Braida's Dissert.

42

ON THE EXPOSITION
Braida,f the learned

been interpolated.*
editor

of

S.

Nicetas,

from not having

perceived

this, is

hopelessly bewildered to

by a presbyter and bishop of the same Church, separated only by fifty years from each
reconcile the

accounts given

other,

of the

Creed in use there

and

hazards a conjecture, refuted beforehand,


as

we

shall
S.

see,

by what
had
it

actually took

place.

Nicetas

his

eyes on this

Exposition, not as
it

stands

now, but

as

was

originally

penned by Rufinus, in

writing his own.

Like Rufinus
Jerome,
this

in his
in

work
'"

against

S.

and

the

genuine portion of
I

Exposition, he

instance the following as looking that

way

8.

S. Nicetas.

Cautissime autem qui symbolum tradiderunt etiam tempus quo hasc sub Pontic Pilatogesta
sunt designarunt, ne ex aiiqua
parte velut vaga et incerta ges-

Tempus
et Palestinae.

designatur,
fuit

quo
rM/^

Pontius Pilatus

prases Syrias

Hoc autem

ponitur, quia aliquanti

lisereti-

corum demoniacis fraudibus decepti, diversos garriunt Christos*

torum

traditio vacillaret.

Superlatives are rarely dwarfed into positives by


copiers.

This

take, therefore, to be another case

of interpolation,

M. Migne's

Patrol. Hi. p. 63, et seq.

mm

'

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


lays stress

43
in the

upon the pronoun which

Creed of Aquileia brought out the doctrine

of the resurrection of the body with

such marked emphasis:


resurrection of
fess

"It
'

is

in

'the

belief,"

your body he tells his

that

you proLike

hearers.

Rufinus writing in his


notices

own name, he

no other peculiarity than this in the Creed explained by him, viz., that What he says of its of his Church.
Apostolic origin
is still

more noteworthy

" This rule of faith the Apostles received from our Lord, that they should " baptize
all

nations in the

name of
back
to

the Father, and

of the Son, and of the


thus
tracing
its
it

Holy Ghost
the

:'

baptismal

form,

undoubted, and therefore so far


Contrast this explana-

Apostolic, source.
tion,

so thoroughly real
tale

and

intelligible

with the legendary


Rufinus.

fathered

upon

The

true Rufinus lives in this


prelate,

work of an Aquileian

who may
;

have been a child when he died

the false
is

Rufinus, unrecognised in this work,

in

44

ON THE EXPOSITION
the pseudo-Decretals pubafter his death.

harmony with

hshed four hundred years


Cassian's reticence, then,

on which I remarked previously, can create no further


surprise.

Let us

now go back

" to the descent

into hell," which, in deference to this

Ex-

position, has been supposed so generally

to

have formed

part of

the Aquileian

Creed in the days of Rufinus, remembering always


that

the question

is

not

whether any opinions had been expressed

on

this

head by any of the Fathers as


;

commenting upon Scripture but whether it was in the habit of being handled by them then in their discourses to catechumens, or insisted upon in expounding the Creed of the Church.
yet in
First,
article

then,

let

it

be

said

that

this

was

originally

brought out in a
it

semi-Arian Creed, that


gated no
less

was promulthan four times by semi;

Arian synods contemporary with Rufinus

and

that, putting this Exposition

on one

iCjf!ilM

J..

'

J--'i

v.t

'.

. ..!>
'

f^mr:

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


side, there is

45

no proof of

its

having formed

part of

any orthodox Creed before the


it

seventh century.
in

which

The heterodox Creed appeared first, is now known


This was
It

as the third Sirmian, A.D. ^^Sl*

accepted at

Rimini, A.D. 359.*

was

contained in that of the


in

Synod of Nice

Thrace the same year;f and in that of

If it was in Constantinople, A.D. 360.J the Aquileian Creed therefore, when Rufinus wrote,
it

must have been adopted

from the semi-Arian creeds into this, or from this into them. We are not told even by the supposed Rufinus, who put
it

into

the Aquileian Creed

that they
into
"'

were semi-Arians,
creeds of

we who

knoz^
put
it

those
Soc.

Sirmium,

Rimini,

ii. 37. f Theodor. ii. 21. Soc. ii. 41. They may be seen at length in t Prof. Heurtley's " Harmonia Symbolica," but he

As Pearson Oxford Edit.) 199, ** At Sirmium the descent was mentioned, and the burial omitted ;" at Nice and Constantinople, *' both the burial and the descent were mendraws no conclusion from them.
remarks, (on the Creed, vol.
ii.

tioned."

46

ON THE EXPOSITION
This circumadoption as a

Nice, and Constantinople.


stance

may

serve to explain several anoits

malies connected v^ith

dogma.

The

first

person to

whom

it

is

ever stated to have been preached

was

Abgarus, King of Edessa, the preacher


being either the Apostle, or one of the
seventy disciples,

named Thaddeus. Euse-

whose semi-Arian connections are well known, avers he procured and translated the document containing this apocryphal tale himself from the Syrian archives.* Not many years after his death,
bius, the historian,
S. Cyril,

then a presbyter, delivered his

catechetical lectures a.d.

348, at Jerusalem on the Creed, in which, though the


Jerusalem contained no such article,f he asserts that " our Lord de-

Creed of

scended into the parts beneath the earth


to liberate the just

years
* E.

from thence." J Two afterwards he was consecrated


i.

H.

13.
:

f In Heurtley
:|:

''

De

fide," etc., p. g.

lb. 47.

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


Bishop of Jerusalem by Acacius,*

47

who

had succeeded Eusebius, the historian, at Cassarea " had been his pupil, and on his
:

death inherited his library;" and

who was
'

then the most distinguished for


learning,

ability,

and unscrupulousness,'

of the

semi-Arian party.f S. Cyril, however, was not long in withdrawing from this connection on becoming bishop
;

and

as

he was

deposed at the fourth of the semi-Arian

Synods above-named,J in whose Creed the descent into hell was expressed, he would have been the last person, probably, to have advocated its insertion into the
orthodox Creed just then. On the other hand, its adoption by the semi-Arians
aided the orthodox materially just then,
in

refuting a

new

error usually charged


in reality, broached

upon Apollinarius, but, by them, to the effect


'''

that our

Lord had

Soc.

ii.

38.
c. iv. i.

f Newman's " Arians,"


X

Soc. ii. 42. " Apollinaristas Apollinaris

instituit, qui

de

anima

Christi a Catholicis dissenserunt, dicentes,

48

ON THE EXPOSITION

only taken upon

His Divinity For these a soul.

Him our flesh, and that stood to Him in the place of


heretics

having made

public profession of His descent into hell,

the orthodox turned their position

them
viz.,

at once,

by

rejoining that
it

upon there was


thither.*

but one w^ay of explaining


that
are

intelligibly,

His soul had gone

There

two

distinct

references to this
I

error of theirs in

what

take to be the

genuine part of

this

Exposition, one of

which is the passage cited in disproof of It by S. John Cassian ;j~ but there is no reference whatsoever to its refutation by
sicnt Ariaiii,

Christum carnem sine anima vS. Aug. de Haer. 55. suscepisse." The fragment from Eudoxius quoted by Gieseler, E. H. 83, note 29, proves what S. Augustine says of the
-''

Deum

Arians.

Pearson on the Creed, vol. The other f Above, p. 28.


congregavit
pertinax
et
et

ii.

203-5.

is

39.

''

Quod
sus-

dim

prava contentio,

asserens Christum carnem quidem


cepisse,

humanam

non
is

tamen
not

Apollinarius

animam rationalem." named possibly because


:

Eunomius, who held


spoken
of.

this also,

was the

last

person

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.

49

means of our Lord's descent into hell in a single passage where that subject is Would a topic like this have handled. been unnoticed by Rufinus, had " the
descent into hell" entered the orthodox

Creed of his Church then

Four hetethe

rodox synods in succession had authorised


it

as

we have seen
of them held

during his lifetime


at

first

Sirmium, not

far

from

where he lived, and it had been turned against them triumphantly by the orthodox.
S.

Nicetas in explaining the Creed


fifty years

of Aquileia within
article

of his death,
to
its

by

article, fails

to

testify

existence there.

S.

Augustine commented

on the Creed
Turin,
S. Peter

in Africa, S.

Maximus

at

Chrysologus at Ravenna,
of

during the same period, without alluding


to
it.

The only mention


I

it,

in short,

that

can find in any contemporary


is

work
in a

designed for popular instruction,

sermon of S.Gaudentius, Bishop of Brescia,

who was on
and there

intimate terms with Rufinus


is

it

explained

in

terms so

so
similar to

ON THE EXPOSITION
what occur
led to
in this Exposition,*

that

am

infer,

not that what

occur there were composed, or even inserted there,

by Rufinus

himself, but that

they were dove-tailed aftevwards into


his

work by

his interpolator,
It

from

this

discourse

of his friend.

was

to S.

Gaudentius, strangely enough, that


" Recognitions

Ru-

finus dedicated his translation of the socalled

of

S.

Clement,'^
S.

with the spurious


already

letter

of

Clement
to

mentioned

appended

them

S.

Gaud. Serm.

viii,

Sed etiam quod in infernum


descendit, cvldentcr

De Exodi

Lect.

pronuncia.

Descendisse autem Salvatoiis

tur

in

Psalmis
dicit.

unde

ct

Petrus

anima ad inferos visitandos, no7i solum beat'i Petri epistola, verum etiam Da'vidis prcphetia testatur.

Again
Qus
ferna

S.

Gaud.

Ibid.

utilitas

di'v'mi
. . .

ad
et

in-

Filius

descensus

aiii-

cum
ferno

suscepti hominis

enim Dei non idcircl anima ad


sed
ut

marum

de

infernis

rcvocata

inferos descendit, ut earn in inrelinqueret,

captivitas.

plu-

rimas

resurrecturis

sanctorum

corporibus

anima s

re'vocaret.

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.

5
is

and
the
his

S.

Gaudentius be
in

it

observed,
his

far

from hinting

any of

sermons that

" descent into hell " formed part of

own, or any other Creed then. The profession of the Fourth Council of Toledo, A.D. 61,^^
fession extant
it.

is

the

first

orthodox pro-

and authentic that contains

Once more, the substance of the account

here given of those words " invisible and

impassible"

may

be

seen

embodied

in

well-known Arian profession, earlier by twelve years than the third Sirmian, and called from its unusual prolixity the Macrostyche ;* which I shall
another
cite further on.

Such

are the grounds for concluding

the possibility that this Exposition could

have been written in

its

present shape
;

by
to

Rufinus to be small indeed

and such the


it,

principal interpolations occurring in

which
" Soc.

could add more, but none more


ii.

19

(p.

100, 5;
(al.

Comp.

S.

Aug. Ep. 238

and loi, 15 et seq), 174), to Count Pas-

centius the Arian.

52

ON THE EXPOSITION
If we
enter

to the point*

now

ask

who
I

inter-

polated
difficult

it,

we

upon a much more


can only

problem of course, and


twenty-third

suggest

what may seem not improbable.


chapter

In

the

of

the

second book of his

work on "

Ecclesiasrecites

tical Offices,"f S. Isidore

of Seville

the legendary tale beginning with "

dunt major es^^ nearly word for


* This would be the list of Dedication to " auditum," in i.
ut manifestius fiat," ... to
;

Traword as
First, the

them

Then from

"

Sed

regulam statuunt," and from Discessuri igitur" to the end in 2 of that section. Then, from *' His additur," in 5, The clause '' Descento the end of that section. dit in inferna," in 14; and from " Cautissime autem " ... to ' dicitur," 18, comprising the *' first explanation given of it Sed etiam quod in in*' to descendentibus in locum, fernum descendit "
*' ''
;
. . .

28

and, " Plenas sunt his sacramentis,"


'*

29, to

plura coacervare non possumus," at the


30,

end of
**
*'

Lastly, " Sicut

comprising its second explanation. enim unus dicitur Pater," ... to cuncta sanctificans," 35 with the two clauses, Quae utilitas divini ad inferna descensus,"

;
,

et

animarum de

infernis revocata captivitas,"

48.
his

**

J There is a bit Etym." vi. 19, 57.

of

it

also

quoted

in

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


it
Is

^^

now
second
it

found, to nearly the end of


chapter of this Exposition.

the

This, if

existed there in his time,

was of

course the obvious thing for

him

to do, in

treating of the Creed, yet tends to

make

the absence of any reference to

John Cassian and Nicetas all markable, had it existed there when they Again, S. Isidore, though he is wrote.

by SS. the more reit

who quotes it in full, is not the first writer who quotes it at all to explain which properly we must turn
the
first

writer

over the records of his age with


care.

some Venantius Fortunatus, by some


senior,

years

his

according

to

Father

Lucchi, was a native of Italy, pursued his


studies at

Ravenna, removed

to a convent

at Aquileia,

was

called Fortunatus

from a

saint

much

venerated at Aquileia of that


just before the

name, passed into France


invasion of those parts
A.D. 568,
A.D.

by the Lombards,
of
Poitiers,

became Bishop

599, four years after the death of S. Gregory of Tours, with whom he was

52

ON THE EXPOSITION
If we
enter

to the point*

now

ask

who
I

inter-

polated
difficult

it,

we

upon a much more


can only of

problem of course, and


twenty-third

suggest

what may seem not improbable.


chapter
the

In

the

second book of his


tical

work on "

Ecclesias-

Offices,"f S. Isidore of Seville recites

the legendary tale beginning with "

dunt majores^^ nearly word for


* This would be the
b'st

Traword as
First, the

of

them

Dedication to '' auditum," in i. Then from " Sed ut manifestius fiat," ... to " regulam statuunt," and from *' Discessuri igitur" to the end in 2 of that section. Then, from " His additur," in 5,
;

to the

clause ^' Descendit in inferna," in 14; and from " Cautissime autem " ... to '' dicitur," 18, comprising the

end of that section.

The

first

explanation given of

it

'*

Sed etiam quod


in

in in-

fernum descendit" ...to "descendentibus


28
;

locum,
.

and, " Plense sunt his sacramentis," . " plura coacervare non possumus," at the 29, to end of 30, comprising its second explanation.
.

Lastly,

*'

Sicut

enim unus
;

dicitur Pater," ... to

" cuncta sanctificans," 35 with the two clauses, *' Quae utilitas divini ad inferna descensus," et animarum de infernis revocata captivitas," 48. f There is a bit of it also quoted in his
.

''

Etym."

vi. 19, 57.

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


it
Is

^ ^^

now
second
if
it

found, to nearly the end of


chapter of this Exposition.

the

This,

existed there in his time,

was of

course the obvious thing for

him

to do, in

treating of the Creed, yet tends to

make

the absence of any reference to

John Cassian and Nicetas all markable, had it existed there when they Again, S. Isidore, though he is wrote.

by SS. the more reit

who quotes it in full, is not the first writer who quotes it at all to explain which properly we must turn
the
first

writer

over the records of his age with


care.

some Venantius Fortunatus, by some


senior,

years

his

according

to

Father

Lucchi, was a native of Italy, pursued his


studies at

Ravenna, removed

to a convent

at Aqullela,

was

called Fortunatus

from a

saint

much

venerated at Aqullela of that


just before the

name, passed into France


invasion of those parts
A.D. 568,
A.D.

by the Lombards,
of
Poitiers,

became Bishop

599, four years after the death of S. Gregory of Tours, with whom he was

54
intimate,

ON THE EXPOSITION
and died
in the
first

decade of
eleventh

the

seventh

century.*

The

book of his Miscellanies, which are in prose and verse, begins v^ith an " Exposition

of the Creed " in prose, supposed to

have been written by him when bishop.


*'

He who

will

compare

this Exposition,"

says Lucchi, " with the

one published
fail

among
to

the works of Rufinus, cannot


the former
is

perceive that

mere

epitome of the

latter,

and due

to

Rufinus

rather than Fortunatus.f

Father Lucchi

was not aware of the existence of a similar treatise by S. Nicetas, equally revered at
Aquileia with Rufinus;

and

as

it

had
the

never occurred to him to question


genuineness of any part of the
the
'''

work of

latter, it

never occurred to him, either,


and then 26 and 89,
p. 68,

Vit.

i-t8,

in

Migne's

Patrol. Ixxxviii. 23.

f
Prof.

Ad

1.

Braida on Nicet.
*'

says the same.

Heurtley,

guarded.
himself."

Harm. Symb. p. 55, is more Venantius was evidently familiar with


which he has frequently availed

R.'s Exposition, of

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


that Fortunatus

^5

was

just

as

capable of

expanding
sequently

as

of epitomising Ruiinus, and

of being served in each

way

himself sub-

by

others.

Father

Lucchi

would hardly seem


this

to

have scrutinised

work of
for

his author

with the care that

might have been expected of him.


says,

He
no

instance,

that

it

contains

allusion

to the characteristic

" /?^W' of
;"

the Aquileian Creed * in connection with

the " resurrection of the


it

body

whereas

two such pointed allusions.f And the mere absence of that word from the heading of the paragraph in which this article is discussed is not more surcontains
prising than

the absence of

all

heading
in the

from the corresponding paragraph

work of
* Vit.
f His
cluditur
;

S. Nicetas.

Further, there are

i6.
is,

comment

"

Summa
And

perfectionis con-

et ipsa caro, qiics cadit,

resurrectura erit

immortalis, ut maneat."
still

in his introduction

more

clearly:

*'

Resurrectio tandem humani

generis in eandem carnem in vitam seternam futura


est."

^6

ON THE EXPOSITION
which are any way de-

passages in this " Exposition"


neither epitomised
rivable
as

nor in

from that of Rufinus, taking both

they

now

stand.

instance the con-

cluding remarks of Fortunatus on " the


Crucifixion,"

which

are clearly

borrowed

from some other source than Rufinus, if And there is a similar not his own.*
passage, unlike anything in the

work of
notices,

Rufinus,

at

the end of the next para-

graph.f

Again, Fortunatus never

or alludes to the existence of those words, " invisible " and " impassible," in the first
article.

Consequently,

when

Fortunatus,

at the
sition,

very commencement of his Expotells

the story of the formation of

the Creed in fewer words than the "


'''

Tra-

" Ideo crucifigitur, quia mortui eramus per pomum et arborem. ut denuo crux et Christus, id
est arbor et

pomum,
of the

per ipsam similitudinem nos

a morte liberaret.

Pomum

dulce

cum

arbore."
pre-

And

the

same

two or three sentences

ceding. I " Et legatus Dominus, magis legatarius, pax inter partes extitit, et judices a livore dissolvit."

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


diuit

57
so far

major cs " of the other,

am

from thinking he was epitomising Rufinus, that I feel convinced he was expanding
him,* and was expanded himself after-

wards into the full-blown narrative with

which Rufinus has been


since.

credited

ever

This, as the full-blown narrative


in
S. Isidore,

first appears

who became

Bishop of Seville four years before Fortunatus became Bishop of Poitiers, but
survived

him by

thirty

years

and upall,

must have been done speedily can it have been by S. Isidore ? Let me begin by stating what put this into my head first. Setting this Exposition on one side, I searched through other works for the
:

wards, to have been done at

earliest

mention

of,

or

allusion to,

the

legendary story
"

now found
;

there

then

he says on '* Credo in S. Spiritu " I take to be another expansion and therefore marked "Sicut enim cuncta sanctificans " . in a previous note as having been interpolated in They are the w^ords of Fortu 35 of Rufinus.
.
.
.

What

natus, not his.


6o
to

ON THE EXPOSITION
name no more, with some
colour

though inaccurately, as will be shown hereafter -who were contemporary with And he is himor lived after Rufinus.

self the first, let

it

be said once more,


in so

who

makes the Apostles

many words

authors of a Creed anterior to the Nicene.


Lastly, that the style employed in dedi-

cating this Exposition to Bishop or Arch-

bishop Laurence " fidelissime Papa Laurenti,"

was still current, is shown from its employment in various letters scattered
''

about the
was, as

Miscellanies "

of Venantius
;

Fortunatus addressed to bishops

and he

we have

seen,

of the same age

with
to

S. Isidore.

Closer readings of his-

tory supply grounds for believing

them

have been
at

still

more

closely connected.

Venantius, according to his biographer,


studied

Ravenna, which Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths, had so largely


embellished and enriched as his capital,*
" See the glowing description of
c.
it

by Gibbon,

xxxix.

;;

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.

and

then

resided

at

Aquileia

from

whence, some years before the Lombard invasion, he removed into France at the
invitation of Sigebert

King of

Austrasia,

whose marriage with Brunechilde, daughter

of Athanagild King of Spain, together

with her conversion from Arianism, he celebrates as a poet in the sixth book of
his Miscellanies.

Their daughter Ingundis married back


into
S.

Spain, and converted her husband,


at

Hermenegild,

the cost of his

life

but Reccared, his son, on succeeding to


the throne abjured Arianism at the Third

Council of Toledo, A.D. 589, thanks, as we are told by S. Gregory, to the influence
of Leander, elder brother of
S. Isidore,

and
of

his

immediate predecessor

in the

See

Seville.

Now, how much


certain,

is

known
early

of
?

the history of S. Isidore and his brother


Little,
still

for

of their
is

life

the general belief


father.

that Severian,

their

Governor of the Province of Carthagena in Spain, was either son

62
or

ON THE EXPOSITION
son-in-law of the

Ostrogoth King,

Theodoric,* that he was exiled on account

of

his faith, A.D.

that S.

^^2^ or thereabouts, and Isidore was born in exile. Where


has never been ascertained,
;

this occurred

though variously conjectured but many years afterwards S. Gregory the Great

met Leander

at Constantinople

during his
if

own

residence there, A.D.

578-84, and

they had not been

acquainted

before,f

they continued friends from that time


so

much

so, that

writing his

Gregory commenced great work, called " Morals,"


S.

on the Book of Job, at the request of Leander, and dedicated it to him when finished. What was Leander doing at " He had Constantinople just then ?
come," says the biographer of
ambassador." J
-''

S.

Gregory,
then got

" thither on business of the Visigoths as

Had

his family
c.

Areval. Proleg. ad S. Isid.

17 et seq.
:

f S. Gregory himself says elsewhere " Dudum mihi in amicitiis familiariter functo,' ... of Leander
1

Dial.
Vit.
i.

iii.

31.
'

17.

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS

6^

back to Spain in the interim, or were


they
at
still

exilcvS ?

all

necessarily

would not follow from his transacting


It

business at Constantinople for his Spanish


friends

that

he
or

should
Spain,
in

have

" come

thither "
resident

Jrom
there,

Had

he been
this

the vicinity,

alone might have determined their

em-

ploying him to negotiate for them at the


seat

of the empire, as better acquainted


its

with

usages and language than one

who had never been there previously. To which add this further consideration.
At
A.D.

the before-named Council of Toledo,

589, where Leander figured conspicuously, and his master abjured Arianit

ism,

was the
dy the
;

Creed

and

definition

published

Fourth

Council that

were professed

nor were the rulings of

any General Council whatever, other than the first four, recognised in any way there by the bishops or by the king. #
^"

The king
all

says indeed, incidentally, that he

accepts

other Councils not at variance with

'64

ON THE EXPOSITION
they forgotten
the

Had
not,

Fifth

Council,
?

held only thirty-six years before

If

on what grounds could they have


it

passed

over?

Neither

at

Constanti-

Rome, by Patriarch John or by Pope Pelagius II., was respect for any Council insisted upon more just then, as
nople nor at

Leander must have known well from But there was just one disS. Gregory. trict in Italy still where it had never been received, and was as persistently rejected as
ever,

and that

district

was

Istria,

of which

Aquileia was, as
cipal

we have seen, the printown; and Istria, when Severian, the


Leander and
S.

father of

Isidore,

was

turned out of Spain, was and had long

been subject to the Ostrogoths, his near


kinsmen.
After
their
first
I.

overthrow

by

Narses, one of the

requests addressed
their conqueror,

by Pope
A.D. ^^6^
those four
Councils,
can.
ii.
;

Pelagius

to

was

that the "false


is

Bishop" of

but here he but


of

speaking not of General Comp. Councils generally


OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.
Aquileia*

6^

false

merely, because persisto

tently opposed

the Fifth Council


;"

"might be turned out

but Narses elected

to leave Paulinus undisturbed ;f

and Pauli-

nus held on there for twelve years longer


at least, afraid

of none but the Lombards.

May

it

not have been in his diocese that


S. Isidore passed the greater
?

Leander and

part of their exile

They

v^ould have

certainly been treated there


respect

with

all

the

due to the descendants of the great


:

Theodoric
of
S.

and the varied acquirements


his

Isidore,

knowledge of

Greek
to

and of Greek
account for

literature,

so difficult

on the hypothesis of his having been educated in any part of a remote, and then re-barbarised country like Spain, would thus at once be ex" Hispalensis " he would natuplained.
Baron, a.d. 556, n. 10. f See '*Vit. Patriarch. Aqull.," in Muratori xvi. 7. He removed, a.d. 568, of his own accord to the adjacent island of Grado, " Lombardorum rabiem metuens," says Paul the Deacon: Hist,
^

li.

10.


ON THE EXPOSITION
be called from having died Bishop

66
rally

of

Seville.
w^as,

Educated

there, educated as

he could not have been. He may well have been educated, on the other hand, in schools that Venantius he
Fortunatus was just leaving, and in the
laying of whose foundations such

men

as

Boethius and Cassiodorus had been concerned.


Istria

being again

in

the line

then taken to Constantinople from Italy

went in those days by Gregory may have made acS. sea quaintance with Leander in passing and Leander, and even S. Isidore, may have visited Constantinople more than once
for people rarely

before

they

finally

returned

to

Spain.

Residence, too, by the former in Istria

would explain what may be called the Istrian bias of the Third Council of Toledo residence there by the latter,
;

the contemporaneous attention directed to the Aquileian Creed as

by Venantius,
let

so

by

S.

Isidore.

For here

me

state

clearly

my

contention to be, not that

we

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


are told anything about
tion
it

67

in this

Exposithat

absolutely

fictitious,

but

the

addition of those words " invisible " and

" impassible " to


descent
into
I

its

first,
its

and
fourth

of

the

hell

to

article^
it

which
there

deny

to

have been in

in the

days of Rufinus, had really been

made

by

this time,

and both through in-

fluences

obvious

enough

to

appreciate

when
was

stated.

The Ostrogoth

dynasty

more disposed to favour Arianism than orthodoxy ;* and for both


at all times

additions, as

we have

seen, the only pre-

cedents on

record, in

any formal profes-

sion of faith,

had hitherto been semi-

Arian.
this

" Invisible and impassible^'* says Exposition, " words added to our
the heresy called
it

Creed on account of the heresy of Sabellius


:

by our people the


the

Patripassian, as

asserts

Father to

have been born of a Virgin, and become


visible,
"

or suffered on the

Cross."

To

See Gibbon, as before, on the reign of Thtoc.

doric,

xxxix.

68

ON THE EXPOSITION

exclude, therefore, such impiety respecting

the

Father, our ancestors seem

to

have

added these words, and called the Father " invisible " and " impassible." " Those
w^ho speak of the Father, Son, and
.

Holy

Ghost as the same person v^e exclude with good reason from the Church, as they represent the incomprehensible and
.
.

impassible Father at once comprehensible

and

passible

through

the

Incarnation.
Patripas-

Such
sians

are they

who

are called

by the Romans, and

Sabellians

by

us," said the authors of the Macrostyche.

"

believe in

God
"
I

the Father Almighty,

invisible

and impassible," says the Creed


believe
invisible,
saicl

of Aquileia.

in

God

the

Father Almighty,

unbegotten,

and incomprehensible,"
exactly

Count Pas-

centius, the Arian, to S. Augustine, being

what the authors of the Macros-

tyche had written to the bishops of Italy


sixty years before.
to be as

The

Arians affected
as

much opposed
;

the orthodox

to the Sabellians

and the Sabellians had

OF THE CREED BY RUFLNUS.

69

been revived in France, Spain, and Italy

by the
for

Priscillianists.

The

Arians w^ere
hell

having the descent into


:

inserted

into Greeds

the orthodox would be reinsertion, as

conciled to

its

demolishing a

favourite tenet of the Arians themselves.

Both additions

to the

Creed of Aquileia, without


hesitation,

we may
North

therefore,

attribute to the effect


Italy,

of Arian influences in

subsequently to the estab-

lishment of the Ostrogoth


those parts.

kingdom
to

in

And
Creed,

those

who

thus

added
seek
to

the

would naturally
local
it

bring

what

celebrity like

Rufinus had
its

written on

into keeping with


so bespeak

en-

larged form, and

equal anti-

quity for

the

whole.

Quite possibly,

may have Interpolated Rufinus to a much greater extent than this: transformed his work, 'in short, to what it now is. But of the two, it seems to me rather
they

more probable that Venantius, from what he had read elsewhere, supplied the

yo
legendary
gives
it,

ON THE EXPOSITION
tale, to

the extent to
to

which he
his

as a

kind of preface
;"

own

" Exposition been

and that

S. Isidore

having

asked by Archbishop Laurence to

furnish

him with

a sound

commentary on

the Creed to take to his remote diocese

perhaps on the very ground that their


joint

friend

and

superior,

S.

Gregory,

had

obliged his

-similarly

borrowing
it

own

brother
this

Leander

story

from

Fortunatus, whose writings he must have


read, even if they

had never met


in
its

in Istria,

and expanding
corporated
it

own

fashion, in-

into the

work of Rufinus

then current, which, appropriated and re-

touched by himself, he finally dedicated

and forwarded
wanted.

to

the

Anglo-Saxon Me-

tropolitan, as furnishing

him with

all

he

Strange coincidence, should this

prove the correct account of one of the

works printed at Oxford That this description of book-making was in high vogue then, and long afterwards, hardly needs any proof, except for
first

1 ;

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


those

who

never have

made

the hterature

of of

this period their study.


S. Isidore

The

writings
'

and of S. Ildefouse, Archbishop of Toledo some thirty years later, are mainly constructed on this principle.
Rarely naming
their
authorities,

they

string passages together

from the Fathers,

sometimes not in their entirety, but broken,


off purposely
to

be

dovetailed as one,

sometimes interspersed and glossed upon

by remarks of their own. Sometimes you begin with four or five lines only from one writer, unnamed then you have, without any warning, a long extract from another unnamed equally, whose views henceforth are preferred
;

then

several

sentences

charged

with a

further idea,
at
all

which you cannot discover


;

in other authors

then a sentence
as

of which one clause seems


tended
to

much

in\

betray

its

origin as

the reIt
is

maining
that ever

clauses

to conceal theirs.

the most confusing literature to deal with

was penned.

Let us hope that

72
it

ON THE EXPOSITION
to mislead.
It is as

was not designed

perplexing to reconcile with chronology,


as the different additions, in so

many

dif-

ferent styles of architecture, to our cathedrals.

There

is

a treatise to which, as

it

will again be

brought under notice further


has come

on,

may

be allowed to refer here, simply


It

for illustration.
as a

down

to us

work of Alcuin,

written at the reTrinity,

quest
It
is,

of Charlemagne, on the
in point of fact,

an adaptation of
the

S.

Augustine's

work on

Trinity to

the views then current;


I

exactly what,

contend, had been done by S. Isidore,

or some contemporary, for this Exposition

of Rufinus.
all

That

it

could not have been


as
it

written
I

by Rufinus

stands

now

has,

beyond dispute. That S. Isidore republished and dedicated it in its enlarged form to S. Laurence of Canterbury is a conjecture that I would not be understood to press for more than
think, been proved
it
is

worth.

Although next

to nothing

authentic has been preserved of S. Isidore

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.

73

beyond that he was brother of Leander, his predecessor in the See of Seville, and composed many works remarkable for their varied erudition and scholarlike style,

nobody can read what he wrote, and call to mind what Spain then was, without feeling morally certain that he must
have been educated elsewhere than
Spain.
in

At
Italy,

that

time there could have

been no better schools anywhere than in

North

to

judge from the

literary

achievements of those

who were
precisely to

brought

up

in

them

or contributed to their founit

dation.

And
been

is

Italy that the parents of S. Isidore

North would
their

have
quit

drawn

naturally

by

Ostrogoth connections
Carthagena.

when obliged to The monarch who


Carthagena
at

expelled

them

from

must
and,

have been equally potent


could the conversion of

Seville,

indeed, throughout Spain, otherwise


all

how

Spain from
afterwards

Arianism have been decided by that of

King

Reccared

so

soon

74

ON THE EXPOSITION

North Italy to have been the place where Leander and S. Isidore were brought up, and all that is authentic
Lastly, grant
in their respective histories,
intelligibly,
is

is

explained
for that

and much accounted


S.
S.

fictitious.

Isidore

dwells

on the

character

Gregory with the enthusiasm of one that had once known


of

him ;* but
during his

the story that he visited


pontificate
is

Rome

discredited not

merely by his
fact that

own

silence,

but by the
as

he

is

not so
to

much

named

in

his letters.

Even

Leander the Pope

seems to have written but twice, and then


rather as to one he

than with

whom

had known formerly he was still intimate ;

and some people


detect

may

fancy they can


as

a certain reserve in his style,


reticence of the

though the
interest to

Third Council

of Toledo on a subject of such urgent

him.
that

He

him just then had not escaped was rejoiced, of course, to hear
abjured

Spain had
=;'

Arianism
f.

he

De

Vir. Illust. ad


OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.

75

would have been doubly


proclaimed
its

rejoiced

had

it

adhesion to that General


all

Council which, in spite of

he could

say or do, North Italy would not receive.

There
not
to

is

one more

topic, in conclusion,

be

forgotten in favour

of this

hypothesis.
as

Venantius Fortunatus had,


seen, studied at Aquileia.

we have

He
of

seems to have
literally,

been

the

first

Western,
treats

not of Aquileia,

who

the descent into hell in expounding the

That he carried it with him from Aquileia must be considered as certain as that it was not in the Creed there when
Creed.

Rufinus wrote.
wrote,
neither

When
France,

even Venantius
Spain,
Africa,
into

Rome, nor Milan had adopted it Creeds. their respective Hence


author of the
initiandos"

the

one
Mai

" Explanatio Symboli ad of the

many

tracts

on

the Creed impudently palmed


brose

upon S.Am-

by

their authors or transcribers*


(Script. Vet.
it,

- Printed by

Nov.

Coll.

VIL

157), but without

saying of

as he does of a letter

76

ON THE EXPOSITION
have seen the work of

who must
finus in a

Ru-

more or

less
it

interpolated form,
in that

and often
to S.

outstrips

direction

Jerome, which he prints next, *' I scarce doubt this being a genuine work of S. Ambrose." (Pref. r.) Another used to be headed " In Symbolum.

Apostolorum

Tractatus,"

consisting
to

of

thirty-two chapters, and had the Apostles' Creed,

word
S.
*'

for

word as now used, prefixed


it

it.

The
tract

Benedictines, while rejecting this as a work of

Ambrose, printed

in their

Appendix as a

On

the Trinity," without any Creed prefixed to

and enlarged by three chapters. (App. p. 322.) Another appeared in the Roman Edition as *' Sancti Ambrosii Episcopi Expositio fidei sive Symboli Nicseni contra Arium et Photinum Explicatio." This the Benedictines would not print even in their Appendix. Each of these tracts was printed as his at Rome on the faith of a '' vetiistissiniiis codex. Just what the Cardinal pleads in behalf of the tract in question: ^^ Earn deprehendi But then he had in pervetiisto Vaticano Codicc.'"
it,
""

The treatise another reason for publishing it. *' De Sacramentis," printed among the works of S. Ambrose, should have contained, he thinks, some such instruction on the Creed, but does not. And the MS. in which he found this tract contained But who has not heard of the also this treatise. The Benefeather that broke the camel's back ?
dictines only printed this treatise

among

the works

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


himself,

77

ignores

this

article.

Gregory,

bishop of Tours, and patron of Venantius

when

in France, prefaced his history

with
it is

a solemn profession of faith, in

which

wanting.

Nevertheless, S. Isidore, in ar-

ranging a formula for the fourth Council

of Toledo some forty years


Venantius, not Gregory.

after,

follows

We

have no

proof that he corresponded with either


but supposing him to have been acquainted
of S.

Ambrose

to avoid giving

any
i.

offence, loudly

proclaiming their own doubts of on which see Cave, Hist. Lit.


idea of improving
far
it

its

genuineness

263.

And

the

by encumbering with a tract

more questionable was not, after all, quite as Eminence seemed to think, his original as " Enimvero non possumus satis mirari," say they
ad

(Prof,

Tom.

iii.

p. 2,

Ed. 1751),

''

tot libros

atque sermones sancto Doctori suppositos fuisse, que ab ejits ingenio, stylo, scuctUo, politics, abhorrent; et quorum etiam nonnulli inter aliorum Scrip-

torum opera circumferuntur. Sed hoc admirationem nobis incutit multo majorem, quod male feristi quidam homines adeo illiiserint fidei piiblicce, ut aliquas commentationes qtias Ainhrosii non esse liqitido prodebat prima lectio, variis locis interpolarent, quo eas pro Ambrosianis securius liceret
obtrudere," etc.

ON THE EXPOSITION

with the writings of both equally through


the mother of

King Reccared, who came

from France,
than
Istria

why

should he not have

followed the tradition of France rather


?

Plainly,

some

direct channel

must have existed for Aquileian leanings and literature to have found their way
into Spain to the extent they did
leian literature,

Aquihad the
already

for S. Ildefouse

" Exposition" of S. Nicetas as unmistakeably before him* as S. Isidore that of


Rufinus
:

Aquileian

leanings,

shown

to

have
S.

been exhibited in

the

Third and Fourth Councils of Toledo.

Now, had

Isidore

studied in North

Italy, like Fortunatus,

he would not

fail

to exhibit similar leanings;

and then the


article

simultaneous importation of this

of the descent into

hell into

Spain and
last sen-

'-

De
for

Cognit. Bapt.,

c.

33,

where the

tence of

word
of

c. 13 of S. Nicetas de Symb. occurs word. In the same way the first sentence 14 of Rufinus occurs word for word, 5,
i.

c. 30, b.

of S. Isidore

De

Off. Eccl.

OF THE CREED BY RUFINUS.


France
is

79
is,

explained naturally.

There
its

of course, no necessity for supposing either

him

or Venantius conscious of

Arian

origin.

The

re-publication of this

Exand
to

position of Rufinus, with additions


corrections,

dedicated to Archbishop
S.

Lau-

rence

by

Isidore,

would go
it

far

account for the incognito that


so

preserved

long, and for the


to
it

diversities

of

title
first

given

when

its

authorship

began

to be

inquired into.

Possibly the

dedication to Archbishop Laurence

may

have been substituted for one by Rufinus


himself, in

which

his

work by Rufinus
the

been supplied with


translation of

own name occurred. may just as well have a new preface as the

Rufinus with a
of

work of another by new ending. As was


letter

observed previously, the so-called


S.

Clement
it

to

S.

James contained,

when
exactly

was

translated

by

Rufinus,

twenty chapters, and no more.


are tacked

Twenty-four new chapters


to
it

on

in the edition of the pseudo-Isidore,

8o
and

THE EXPOSITION OF THE CREED,


it

ETC.

Is

in the very

first

of these that
this

the legendary tale

now commencing

Exposition
fail

is

epitomised.

Nobody can

to

be struck by such a coincidence.


suggests

It

almost
Isidore

doubt

how
been

far

S.

may

not

have

here

tampered with himself.

In one case he
letter,

has certainly been credited with a

some
his,

parts of
as will

which cannot possibly be


out hereafter in
;

be pointed

treating of the Athanasian Creed


this instance the

but in

evidence both from his

own
S.

writings and from the writings of

Ildefouse,

who was
for

almost his con-

temporary, suggests that

we

need not go
in

beyond him
this

anything contained
as
it

Exposition

now

stands,

any
him.
every

more than we can


It
is,

stop short

of

accordingly,

worthless
it

for

purpose for which


cited as evidence
till

has

been usually

the seventh century.

8i

CHAPTER
ON THE ROMAN
Divested of
with that of
precise
its

11.

CREED.

interpolations,

we

find the

work of Rufinus
form
day
its
;

in substantial

harmony
Creed
as

S. Nicetas, as preserving the

of the

Aquileian

in their

the bishop in reality, testi-

fying to

having advanced,

natural, rather than receded, as his

was com-

mentator was driven to


century between
cording to Rufinus,
1.
I

infer, in the half-

him and Rufinus.


it

Ac-

ran thus

believe in
in

God

the Father Almighty:

2.

And

Jesus Christ,

His only Son, our


Spirit of the

Lord,
3.

Who
Was

was born by the Holy

Virgin Mary,
4.

Crucified under Pontius Pilate,


:

and

buried
5.

Rose again the

third

day from the dead,

82
6.

ON THE ROMAN
Ascended into Heaven, hand of the Father,

CREED.
sitteth at the right

7.

From thence he

shall
:

come

to

judge the

quick and the dead


8.
g.

10. 11.

And in the Holy Ghost The Holy Church The remission of sins The resurrection of the body."
;
;

Eleven
of
it

articles in all.

And what
to this
:

he says
that
it

at startingf

amounts

was one of the fuller forms of the Creed, compared with that of the Roman Church,
in use then
:

all

other Churches, as far as

he could

learn,

having expanded

their

Creeds to exclude some novel teaching or


* S. Nicetas makes "
article,
''

life

everlasting"

its

last

" Catholic " before Church," and by explaining " Church " to be

supplies

the

word

"the congregation of Saints," prepared the way


for If he omits " et a distinct article. " mortuus." And in fact sepultus," he supplies

this

as

each of his apparent omissions here are supplied


in his other treatises
fid.
*'
:

e.g.,

" et sepultus

" in

Rat.

c.

" Unigenitum,"

De

Sp.

c.

14

and,

Dominum Nostrum," De

div. appelL, c.

i.

For

"

htijus carnis resurrectionem," as

he was address-

ing his catechumen, he says "


\

tucc.'"

3-

ON THE ROMAN
Other

CREED.

83
the

advanced

by

heretics,

while

Roman
heresy,

Church,
still

never
to

having
the

bred
ancient

adhered

custom of making her catechumens rehearse the

Creed publicly, so
all

as

to

be

heard by
challenged

present,

that

none might
to
it

ever be able to

add a v^ord

uni

by their predecessors in the faith, who would of course remember what they had recited themselves.
In the days of Rufinus, as everybody

knows, the only public occasion on which any Creed was ever used in any Church,

was at the administration of the Sacrament of Baptism, for which the candidates, or

catechumens

as

they were called


prepared
this

in

consequence, had

been

by
in-

previous instruction.

Part of

struction consisted in delivering

them a Creed by word of mouth, to be learnt by heart and afterwards rehearsed publicly by them on presenting themselves at the font.

The
ing
it

act of the bishop or priest in deliver-

to

them was

called " Traditio

Sym-

G 2

84
boli,"

ON THE ROMAN
and he explained
;

CREED.

its

parts to

them
it

simultaneously
in the

their act in rehearsing

same form was called " Redditio Symboli :" and this, whether it took place, in conformity with the forty-sixth Canon
of Laodicea,^ on " the
fifth

week
is

"

of
any

day of the

the

week

before Easter, that

or

different

day varied in Churches, everywhere formed


other,
for the

part

of the baptismal ceremony.

The

Creed of a Church in those days, accordingly,


office

was the Creed employed in its for baptism, and no other. As

Eusebius said of that of his


reciting

own

See, in

and distinguishing
Fathers
:

it

from that of

the Nicene

"

It

was what he
catechetical

had received from the bishops preceding


him,
both

when
and

under

instruction
'"

on

receiving

bap-

''

As Johnson (Vade Meciim ii. 117) translates That those who are to be enHghtened " (or
*'

ought perfectly to learn the Creed," (compare the language of Canon 7,) '' and rehearse it to the bishop or priest on Maundy Thursday."
baptized)

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

85

tism."* Similarly, the Creed of the

Church

of Jerusalem has been preserved to us in the

on it by S. Cyril the Creed of the Church of Aquileia in this Exposition of Rufinus, being what, as he tells S. Jerome, he had learnt as a catecatechetical lectures
;

chumen

himself

the

Creeds

of

the

Churches of Ravenna, Turin, and Africa

were what SS. Peter Chrysologus, Maximus, and Augustine commented upon, in
homilies that are
their
still

extant, orally

to

hearers,

to

be

repeated

afterwards at their baptism.


S.

by them Just what


text

John Cassian

said of another form.f

"
I

The Creed
have

then,

heretic,

been reciting "

most unfortunately
on the Incariif

whose

he stops short
nation

"

at the article
all

is

that of
faith

the churches
all

some

sense

the
:

of

being one

but peculiarly that of the city and church

of Antioch

the Church in which


forth,

you
re-

were brought
''

instructed,

and

Soc.

i.

8.
vi. 6.

-j-

De

Incarn.

The Creed

is

given

c. 3.

86

ON THE ROMAN The


faith

CREED.

generated.

of

this

Creed

it

was

that conducted

you

to the font of

life,

to the

regeneration of salvation, to the

grace of the Eucharist, and

Communion

of our Lord."

And

S.

Epiphanius of

both forms which he has given at length in his " Ancoratus :"* of the shorter one
first:

" Continue,

then,

faithful

and

orthodox, to preserve this holy faith of


the Catholic Church, as she, the one holy
virgin

of

God,
each

received

it

from

the

Apostles of our Lord, and so ought ye


to
instruct

of

the

catechumens
merely to
sons in

coming

to the sacred laver, not

rehearse their faith to their

own

the Lord, but to say in words, as doth

our

common Mother
etc.

'

We

believe in

one God,' "

Then of
heresies

the longer one,

which he says
the

had been adopted


invented

in consequence of the

between

Nicene

Council and the publication of his treatise


" C. 118-121.


ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

8J

precisely

fuller

what Rufinus forms in the West


this

says

of

the

"

On
all

account both

we and

you,

and

orthodox bishops, and in a word

the whole Catholic Church, to meet the


heresies that

have

arisen, agreeably

with
holy

the

faith

promulgated
to

Fathers, enjoin those


laver especially,

by coming

those

to the sacred

repeat,

and say

as

follows

'
:

We

believe,' " etc.

Later, the form promulgated at


stantinople,

Conlocal

and confirmed

at

Chalcedon,

became the baptismal Creed of one


church after another in the East,
acts

as the

of the

Council of
a.d.

Constantinople
testify
;

under Mennas,
are there quoted

S3^'>

the

Fathers of three previous Councils which

at Constantinople,

Jeruit

salem, and Tyre, A.D.

518

all

calling

the Creed used at their

own

baptisms, and
others.*

which they used

in

baptizing

And

this

form, as everybody knows, has


viii.

* Mansi,

pp. 1044, 1052, 1059, 1063, io70>

and 1079.

88

ON THE ROMAN
down
to

CREED.
length

been handed

us at

full

and with the exception of the gloss of King Reccared on the Procession, is still
recited in

our churches after the Gospel,

word
are,

for

word

therefore,

There these four Western, and


as
it

stood then.

five

Eastern forms of the Creed at

least,

extant

word

for

word

as

they were used


in

during the fourth and


the

fifth centuries

churches

whose

catechumens were
they contained, as
used,

taught them.
well as
is

What

when and where they were


fact.

matter, not of inference or conjecture,

but of plain
corded at
this or

Either they are re-

full length, as

being peculiar to
else

that church, or

commented

upon
it

article

by

article

for the benefit of

this or that church's

catechumens.
is
it

Has

been ascertained, or

ascertainable,

what the Creed of the Church of Rome was then, upon equally clear evidence ? It would have been so ascertained long
since,

had authors thought

less

of per-

petuating conjectures, than of investigating

ON THE ROMAN
facts.

CREED.

89

Professor Heurtley

must excuse

me

for referring to

of

this

his

him again as an instance manuals, drawn up with so


all

much

care in

that

concerns himself,

would have been worth twice what they are, had he followed others less implicitly by half. Voss and Usher, unquestionably, must always be quoted with respect on
every
subject

they

handled

but

the

liturgical discoveries

of Muratori, Mabil-

lon,

not

name no more, had and been made when they wrote


and Martene,
to
;

they would have been the

last to

ignore

them, could they have seen them.

One

of their conjectures, in default of direct

the

had been, that the Creed of the Church of Rome was ascertainable from this Exposition of Rufinus. Professor Heurtley, accordingly, sets down a form
proof,
his
:

fifth

in

order

-which

he heads
Rufini

thus

"

Symbolum Romanum ex
:"*

commentario
*'

and then

describes,
given

"
it

as
in

De

Fide,"

etc., p. 31.

Walch had

same terms.

90

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

on the whole, the normal text of the Western Creed of the fourth and
exhibiting,
fifth centuries."

That
his
:

his

description

is

at

variance

with

heading, will be
us

shown
ing.
is
^*

presently

let

examine
his

the

justification

adduced by him for

head-

The Creed expounded by Rufinus


of the
Aquileian Church.
as

that

He

notes,

however,

he proceeds, sundry

discrepancies between this Creed

and that
that

of the Church

of

Rome

so

we

thus obtain the text of the


leian." *

Roman

Creed

of his day, as well as that of the Aqui-

Sundry

discrepancies

my
me

readers will,

perhaps, hardly credit


will find

when

I tell

them they
all
;

but two

such noted in
bability,

and

neither, in all pro-

by Rufinus himself, as has been shown above. But this is a point on which I will not insist here. Taking his
treatise as
it

now
in
''

stands, the

first

discre-

pancy noted
X

it

between the two Creeds


Fide,"
etc., p. 29.

De

ON THE ROMAN
relates to the

CREED.

Aquileian addition of those two words, " invisible and impassible," which it says are " wanting in the Creed

of the Roman Church;" the second to the " descent into hell," which it says is

wanting there likewise.*

As no

other

discrepancies are pointed out. Professor

H.

assumes the two Creeds must have been


identical in all other respects, save

where

the Aquileian differs from

all

other Creeds,

in asserting " the resurrection,"

not " of

the body," merely, but " of this

body

:"

which
see.

is

a hasty inference, as

we

shall

Of

the descent

into

hell,

Rufinus

went on
little

to say, that this

article

was
said

as as

known

to the Eastern

Churches

to the

Roman.

As he had not
invisible
if

the

same of those words "


passible,"

and im-

we

must,

we

accept the Pro-

fessor's reasoning,

assume that the Eastern


Again,
as to that

Creeds contained them.


other statement

of

this
at

Exposition, on
:

which

remarked
''

starting

" As

is

De

Fide, p. 122.

92
also

ON THE ROMAN
said

CREED.

in

the

Creed,"*

'

And
:'

of His
"

kingdom
are

there shall be
to
infer

no end

what

we

article

from hence, that this was the Aquileian and the Roman
?

Creeds

The

fact

being

that

it

was
con-

common
sistent,

to neither.

Walch,
to

to be

endeavoured

apply the same

principle to other Creeds, that Professor

has applied exclusively to that

H. of Rome.

For
in

besides the

two

discrepancies noted

Aquileian and the Roman, he saw there were two likewise noted in it between the One Aquileian and the Eastern Creeds. of them has been discussed already *' the descent into hell," which no Eastern Creed ever contained the other had reference to the commencement of the Creed, which in all Eastern forms sets out with belief " in one God, and in one Lord Walch, therefore, conJesus Christ." structed an Eastern Creed f on the
this

Exposition

between

the

''

"

De

Fide,"

etc., p. 136.

f Biblioth. Symb.

p. 38.

The Roman

is p.

37.

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

93

assumption of the Eastern and Aqulleian


Creeds being identical, except where their

had been set down by Rufinus and the result was that he produced a form as unlike any of the
discrepancies
;

Eastern
conceived

Creeds extant,
:*

as

can well be

save that

it

begins as they do

but

is

in all other respects as

much

too

contracted, as the
fessor

H.

to

form assigned by Prothe Church of Rome is too


Heurtley has so
far

diffuse.

Professor

more colour
assigned
is

for his heading, as the

form

by him

to the

Church of
treatises

Rome
of SS.

proved directly by the


to

Peter Chrysologus,
tine

Maximus, and Augusall

have been in
describes
it

other

respects

what he
and
fifth

to be, " the

normal
not

form of the Western Creed of the fourth


centuries :" only that
I

it

is

would not willingly resort to the ridiculous but I cannot help likening this attempt to putting a bonnet on the head of a person otherwise dressed as a man, and then declaring him to be in female garb from head to foot.
a subject of this kind
;

" In

94

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

therefore proved to

have been that of


In the absence of
the
contrary,

the

Roman
direct

Church.
proof
to

any

we

might, to be sure, consider ourselves free


to infer this
;

but, as I have said aheady,

Rufinus

himself

intimates

in
:

express

terms that such

not the fact " Other Churches," he says, " had made certain
v>ras
;

additions to their respective Creeds


in the

but

had not been done. For there the candidate for baptism had never ceased to rehearse the
this

Roman Church

Creed publicly, just


it,

as

he had been taught

and the addition of a single word would have been instantly noticed by the
baptized of

former

years."

In

other

words, the Creed of the

Roman Church
but retained
its

had not been added


pristine

to,

simplicity

being identical with


in administering

what had been used


Sacrament of
immemorial.
office
If,

the

Baptism there from time


therefore, the baptismal

of
is

the

Roman Church
is

of those

days

extant, so

its

Creed.

We

are

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

95

thus brought to the Uturglcal discoveries

of which

have spoken. Muratori's " Liturgia


I

Romana "

tains three

" sacramentaries " or "

rituals

con"

of the

Roman
Leo

Church, called
L, Gelasius
I.,

after three

Popes, SS.

and Gre-

gory L,
visers,

their respective

compilers or re-

not authors,
;*

as

shows

and Mabillon's

W. Palmer " Museum ItaliSir


as fifteen short
;

cum"

contains as

many

" orders " or " uses " of the same Church

but of these

we may

dismiss the last five

from consideration on account of their lateness. I am not aware that any comparative analysis of these collections

on
:

made still less on that of the Creeds. At all events, what Gavanti, and after him
any
particular subject has yet been

Merati,t

has written

on the Apostles'

Creed

can

only be characterized as so

much
It is

rubbish, based
this
"'

on

on spurious evidence. head, and on this head only,


i.

Orig. Liturg. vol.


ii.

6.

f Thesaur.

v. c. 3.


ON THE ROMAN
I

g6
that

CREED.

profess to

have

tested these collec-

tions myself,
results.

and proceed
the
first

to

give

my

Unfortunately,

part
to

of the

Leonine Sacramentary seems


lost

have been
office this
I

at

least
it

it

has not been printed

and with
to be able

whatever baptismal
Still,

Sacramentary contained.
to

expect
offices

prove the baptismal


as old.

Pope Gelasius L, in fact, being separated by little more than thirty years from S. Leo, almost equal antiquity might seem beof the next to have been
spoke
for the sacramentary bearing his
as a

name
of
it

whole.

But

as

our

copies

contain some later additions


it is

that

we

can detect,

possible that they

may

contain others also to which


clue.

we have no

Muratori's copy, for instance, con-

tains

an addition to the Canon of the

Mass which we know from unexceptionbeen made by able sources'' to have


'-

Palmer,
etc.

as

before.

"

Hanc

igitur

obla-

tionem,"

ON THE ROMAN
S.

CREED.

97

Gregory.

This copy, therefore, canthe

not

have been in existence before


in

seventh century, and possibly not then


as

the
is

office

for

Good

Friday * a

blessing

asked not only for the

Roman
been
;

but for the Frank empire.


time, quite possibly, this

At

the same

may have

interpolated into the existing copy

for,

on another occasion, f only the Roman empire is prayed for, as in Muratori's


copy, though not
in
it

Migne's,J of the
not follow from

Gregorian.

Should

these accounts, that

no greater antiquity
as w^e

can be claimed for the Gelasian Sacra-

mentary than the Gregorian,

have

them
theirs

Hov^ever,

am

concerned only

w^ith their baptismal offices,

and not with


as
I

by themselves
read side

either,

said

before, but
''

by

side

with such
sive

*'

Resplce propitius ad

corum imperium."
" in f Prayers
t

Liturg. Rom. time of war."

Romanum,
i.

Fran-

561.

lb. 727.

MS.
date.

Muratori tells us his edition is from a Vatican Migne's is evidently from a MS. of later

98
of the

ON THE ROMAN
"

CREED.

Roman
so

orders "

published

by

Mabillon

as contain any.
it

happens that in the Gelasian Sacramentary we have two baptismal


offices
:

Now,

one for

Easter,

and

one

for

Whitsuntide, which were precisely the " two seasons " which S. Leo pronounced

" legitimate

;"

while

S.

Gelasius prohibited

administering baptism, except in cases of


illness, at

any

other.*

And

in both offices
is

the part relating to the Creed

identical,

and runs
such
is

as follows

" Before pouring water over him "


the direction
to

minister in the

first office

" you ask him


:

the

officiating

the njoords of the Creed^ and say

'

Dost

thou

believe
?'

in

God
'

the

Father
'

AlDost

mighty

He

answers,

I believe.'

thou believe also in Jesus Christ His only Son our Lord, born, and suffered ?' He
answers,
'

believe.'

'

Dost thou be:

lieve also in the

Holy Ghost
sins
:

the holy the resur-

Church: the remission of


'''

Bingham,

xi. 6, 7,

with the notes.

ON THE ROMAN
rection

CREED.

99

of the body?'
"

He

answers, 'I

believe;

" You ask him the words of the Creed " of the whole Creed then in use for
;

otherwise

the

catechumen would have


questioned

been
faith.

imperfectly

about

his

" This was the " redditio symboli^'* says Mabillon,* " which Amalarius affirms
-''

Liturg.
Rit.

Rom.
Lib.
i.

ii.

Eccl.

Martene (De Ant999, note. Art. xiii. 13) calls this c. i


;

" Interrogatio de fide ;" thus apparently, though not expressly, distinguishing it from the '' redditio

symboli" which he had explained already

(Art. xi.

18.)

Nor

is
:

Bingham more
e.g.

explicit.

And

there

are passages

(ibid.) which seem to indicate that the " redditio symboli " consisted in the re-

by Bingham (x. 2, quoted by Martene

Ferrand, Ep. ad Fulgent, quoted 10,) and S. Aug. Confess, viii. 2,

hearsal of the whole Creed in public by each cate-

chumen.
there
is

On

the other hand, even Martene,


*'

when

treating of the

redditio

symboli," notices that

a rubric of the Gregorian Sacramentary

preceding the prayer headed '' adreddentes,'" which runs as follows " Dominus papa post pisteiceis f^ and on which he says "Est d.utem pistetieis vox Graeca Tnarevet^;, id est, credis ? quia interroga: :

tiones

symbolum reddentibus

factse incipiebant."

Now, anybody who

will be at the pains of looking

100

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

took place, according to the Roman order, " And this," adds on Holy Saturday."

Bingham,* " was always to be made In the same words of the Creed that every Church used for the instruction of her
catechumens
;" just

as

is

done

still

in the

through his collection of baptismal offices (Art. xviii.) will see that in each case the interrogatories are longer or shorter, as the particular Creed then in use was long or short. (Orders iii. and vi. have the longest of all orders iv. and xii. in one place follow the Roman use, but the Gelasian Sacramentary orders v., x., xi., xii. in one place, and xvi.-xxi. the Roman use, but the Gregorian with additions. The rest have merely the first words in each case.) And further, that in all the more ancient of these services the recital of the Creed at length, even on the day of baptism, is ordered to be by the priest alone, as in the Gelasian *' Inde vero dicis symbolum, impositTi manu super capita ipsorum. ;" which same Creed is in the seventh of the Roman orders published by Mabillon expressly stated to have been the Niceno-Constantinopolitan as in the tenth of those published by Martene likewise though in France it was usually that of the West. * XI. 7, 8. Perminius *' De Sing. Lib. Can. Scarap." in Migne's Patrol. Ixxxix. p. 1035, seems decisive on this head.
; ;
:

ON THE ROMAN
Church of England.*
Sacramentary
office for

CREED.

lOI

In the Gregorian

there

was no baptismal

Whitsuntide seemingly, but only


;

for Easter

and

in this

we have

the same

Creed again, word for word, save that " Maker of heaven and earth " has been
inserted in the
first article

after the

word
the

" Almighty," and " Catholic "

after

word
first,

" Church."

Of

the

"

Roman

orders " published

by Mabillon, only the

which speaks of " the custom of bowing the knee for King Charles,"f and
therefore cannot
all

of

it

be older; the

seventh,

which bears considerable resemblance to the office for baptism in the Gelaand the tenth, which sian Sacramentary
;

Mabillon assigns to the eleventh century,


contain

any baptismal

office at all;
is

and

in

that of the seventh the Creed

not given

complete.

In that of the

first

and tenth

the Creed of the Gregorian Sacramentary


See the Three Offices for Baptism in the Book of Common Prayer: " Dost thou believe," &c. f 24. This has been reprinted by Muratori,
'''

ii.

974

et seq.

I02

ON THE ROMAN
word
for

CREED.

reappears,

word, amplified only


its last article.

by

'^

life

everlasting" for

Such, therefore, were the exact dimensions of the

Creed of the

Roman Church
the fifth
its

for several centuries

say from
I

to the tenth

on the showing of
;

own

service-books

just

what,

think, Rufinus,

rightly construed, should have prepared us


to
expect.

He
;

represents

it

as

of

all

Creeds
j

the
to

most elementary and

least

added
this

and what

is

the

baptismal

Creed of the Gelasian Sacramentary but


?

Compared with
word
last

the
it

Aquileian,
will be seen

given a few pages back,


that they agree,
for

word, in the

two

first

and four

single exception

pronoun

and

articles

with

mere question of a
intermediate, relating

that their entire diff'erence


is

consists in

what

to the Incarnation,

which in the Roman is curtly summed up in two words, "born On this head the conand suffered." temporary Creeds of Aquileia, Turin, and
Ravenna,
to

say nothing

of the East,

ON THE ROMAN
supplied

CREED.

03

what was not


the
the
S.

then, and for long


anticiS.

afterwards, in

Roman; and
teaching

pated

so

far

of

Leo.

Hence, when
versality of
belief in "

Leo

speaks, in his cele-

brated Epistle to Flavian, of " the unithe faithful professing their

God

the Father Almighty, and

His only Son, our Lord, Who was born of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary," he is as certainly quoting the exact words of the baptismal Creed of his own Church in the two first sentences, as he is borrowing from other
in Jesus Christ

Creeds in the third. And when the words, " Maker of heaven and earth,"

" Catholic," and "

life

everlasting,"

were
as in

added
the

to the

Creed of his Church,

Gregorian Sacramentary,
Jerusalem,

they had
Constanti-

existed already for centuries in the Creeds

of

Cyprus, and

nople, to say nothing of the West.


articles

As

are reckoned
it

in

the

Tridentine

Catechism,
eight in
its

contained

no more than
in
its

original,

and but nine

104
enlarged
additions

ON THE ROMAN
shape
;

CREED.

for
to
it

out
in
''

of the

three

made

the Gregorian
Hfe everlasting,"

Sacramentary, but one,


imports a

new

article.

Hence, further,

Leo says in another letter one to the Empress Pulcheria,* on which 1 must dwell again presently " Forasmuch
S.

when

as the short

and perfect confession of the


is

Catholic Creed, which


sentences

marked by the

of the twelve Apostles in the

same number, is supplied with celestial armoury to that extent, as to be able to decapitate all heretical opinions with its own sword alone ;" whatever be the Creed of which he is here speaking, he
cannot possibly mean that of his
exceeded that of the

own

Church, for the number of the Apostles


articles in the

Roman

Creed then by one-third; and for centuries

afterwards by one-fourth.
till
it

Never, in

had been supplemented from other Creeds sufficiently, would the two
short,

numbers square.
'''

Ep. xxxi.

ed.

Migne.

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

05

Such, then, are the simple facts of a

on which so much romance has been Of all the written, and is still current.
case

Creeds of those days the


least

Roman

could

pretend to have been composed, as

even

now

the Tridentine Catechism main-

tains solemnly,*'
It

by the twelve
from

Apostles.
existing

was

literally
;

the shortest of

all

Creeds

distinguished

all

other

Western and Eastern professions equally, by the extreme brevity with which the
Incarnation

was expressed
in
it

in

it

and
all
I

from

all

Eastern,

common with

Western, in that
verb in the
the
first first

commenced with the

person singular, instead of

person plural

"

believe," not
belief

"

we

believe ;"

and

asserted

in

"God,"

not in

"one God."
if

And

hence

those words of S. Ambrose, if he really

wrote them, or rather


dressed
Siricius

the letter ad-

by him and other bishops originally contained them


" Pars.

to

Pope " Let

them

believe the Creed of the Apostles,


i.

c.

i.

2, 3.

Io6

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

which the Roman Church ever guards and maintains inviolate " which I doubt extremely, from the abruptness of their appeal, isolated alike from anything that precedes or follows them^ they can refer to no other.

* Ep.

xlii.

Pope

for

Migne. his promptitude


ed.

It is

a letter to thank the


heretics,

in

condemning

whom they proceed to refute. " Sed de via perversitatis produntur dicere, virgo concepit, sed non virgo generavit. Quae potuit enim virgo concipere, potuit virgo generare cum semper conceptus praecedat, partus sequatur. Sed
particularly Jovinian,
:

si

doctrinis

non creditur

oraculis
*

Christi,

sacerdotum credatur credatur monitis angelorum

Quia non impossibile Deo omne verbum.' Credatur symbolo Apostolorum, quod ecclesia Romana intemeratum semper custodit et servat. Audivit All the rest of the Maria vocem angeli," etc. letter is in continuation of this and other proofs from Scripture and there is no hint anywhere what that Creed contained. It so happens that with the pseudo-Ambrose, e.g. the author of the *' Expl. Symb. ad initiandos," this is apt to be a " Quoniixm symbolum Romanas ecclepet point. and again, ''Hoc autem est sise nos tenemus ;" symbolum quod Romana ecclesia tenet, ubi primus Apostolorum Petrus sedit, et communem senten(Patrol, xvii., App. ii. p. tiam eo detulit," &c.
;

ON THE ROMAN
There
to
is

CREED.

I07

more question relating the Creed of the Roman Church to be


yet one

'j

settled before

we

conclude.

The

letters

of

S.

Leo

to Flavian

and Pulcheria were


j

written at different times;

that to

the

Constantinopolitan Patriarch before, that


to the

Empress

after, the

Fourth Council.

But even before the meeting of the Fourth Council, exception had been taken by the friends of Eutyches to a passage which has been already quoted from the earlier
letter,

|j

because the Creed appealed to there


differently

from " Why should he not that of Nicaea. have said in one God, and one Jesus Christ ?' " they asked to which Vigilius of Thapsus replied, that " at Rome, long
'
;

by the Pope commenced

before the Nicene Council

came

together,

from the age of the Apostles down to his own, and during the pontificate of S. Celestine, whose orthodoxy they allowed, the Creed had ever been so delivered to
1

155.)
it

His

zeal, possibly,

may have

led

him

to

insert

here.

Io8
the

ON THE ROMAN
faithful."

CREED.

So deUvered*

in
''

other

words, with the " one " before

God,"

and " Jesus " omitted, which the Nicene


Creed supphed.
Chalcedon,
find,
S.

After the Council of


never, as far as
I

Leo

can

appeals to the

Creed of his
to the

own
Creed
it

Church again, but always of Constantinople or Nicsea.


Fourth Council

Was

that

he deferred to the Eutychians or to the


?

Of

the Fourth Council

was attended by a greater number of bishops than any previous


that
it

we know

Council, and that

it

passed a canon, dis-

tinguished from other canons in general

by being appended
faith,

to their definition

of

and declaring under severe pains

and
viz.,

penalties, that, in future, there should

be but one Creed allowed for public use


that of Constantinople

combined.
*

To

this
is

and Nicsea canon the Pope was

This

passa^i^e

adduced by Bishop Bull,


2,

Ind. Eccl. Cath.


origin

vi.

to prove the ante-Nicene


it

of the

Roman

Creed, which of course

may
what

but not what that Creed cojitained, beyond


is

here stated.

ON THE ROMAN
unhesitatingly

CREED.

09

pledged
;

on

the

spot
in

through his legates

but afterwards,

consequence of his determined opposition


to the prerogatives claimed for the

Con-

stantinopolitan

See

by another equally

famous canon passed in the teeth of his legates, he was reported adverse to the
rulings of the

Council in general by
set

its

opponents, and movements were

on
its

foot in various parts of the empire for


revision.

He

had

to exert all his influ-

ence to prevent these from taking effect

and accordingly seems to have


upon, in future, to be
plicit
all

felt called

the

more exits

in

declaring his acceptance of

dogmatic decisions without reserve, and


all

more particular in appealing to its Creed. Thus, in the very first of his epistles to the new Emperor, his namethe
its its

sake, he says of

which he means
it

Creed "

" rule of faith "

by

that having

been promulgated by Divine inspiration,*

was incapable of improvement by sub''

Ep. cxlv. ed. Migne.

no

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

traction or addition."

He

repeats

this

again and again in other


last

letters.*

In his

letter

but one to the same Emperor,


the Nicene Creed proper at full

he
it

recites

length, to point out the

and

his

harmony between own doctrine.^ With the


expostulates for
{

monks of

Palestine he

having " forgotten the saving Creed and


confession they

had

recited before

many

witnesses

on receiving baptism."J Their baptismal Creed was then, and had long
as will

been the Creed of Constantinople,


I

be brought out more fully further on.


I

Singularly, this, of the three Creeds

named
*

by him,
ticles:

alone contained exactly tiiDelvc arthe Nicene Creed proper, exclusive

of
[

its

anathemas, only containing eight,

like the

Roman.

As, therefore, for other


expect that in writing

reasons,
to the
careful,

we might

Empress Pulcheria, he would be wherever insisting upon Creeds,

^
j|

to appeal to this, the Creed of the city


''

See Ep. clxii., f Ep. clxv. 3.

for instance, to the


t

same.

Ep. cxxiv.

ON THE ROMAN
where she ruled and to any other; so
reason,

CREED.

Ill

resided, in preference

for

this

additional

when we
to

find

him

declaring of

which he appealed that it contained "the sentences of the twelve Apostles in the same number," we cannot but infer that he could mean no
the

Creed

other.
I

have said that a canon was appended


of the Fourth Council
future,
that,

to the definition

ordering
Nicsea

in

the Creed

pf

and
be

Constantinople

combined
public
others.
all

should

employed

in

every

ceremony, to the exclusion of

The

Acts of the Third, or Council

of

Ephesus, had contained a decree to the

same eff^ect as regards the Creed of Nica^a, By the though less solemn in form. succeeding Emperors, Basiliscus and Zeno, even when opposing the Fourth Council, its Creed is regularly spoken of as the sole creed allowed, " in which they and all their subjects and progenitors everywhere had been baptized and professed

112
their

ON THE ROMAN
falth."^'
It

CREED.

received

similar

testi-

mony from
nople,

the Councils of Constanti-

Jerusalem, and Tyre, as

we have
by Emperor

seen in the next age.f

Later, only
the

another generation,

we have

Justinian declaring, in a formal edict, that

" the Fathers of Ephesus and Chalcedon,

wholly following the same holy Creed in condemning the errors of Nestorius and Eutyches, anathematised all
besides

who
is

delivered a definition of faith


a 'creed' or 'lesson'

that

to say,

to

any

presenting themselves for holy baptism,

coming over from any heresy whatsoever other than the one propounded by who met at the 318 holy Fathers " "and expounded by the 150 holy Nicsea Fathers," who met at Constantinople.^
or

* See particularly

the Encyclic of Basiliscus,


ib.

Evag.

iii.

4,

and the Henoticon of Zeno,


ib. 17.

14.

Peter of Alexandria says the same further on in


his letter to Acacius,

f Above
X

p. 87.

His

edict,

or

*'

Confession of Faith," against


ix.,

the three Chapters. Mansi

557.

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

II3

After this interpretation of

its

meaning

by the Prince of Jurisconsults, there can be no room for doubting what were the restrictive constructions put upon this canon by contemporaries, while having been passed at Ephesus as well as Chalcedon, it was as much upheld by the opponents as by the supporters of
the
latter

Council

a
it

convincing proof

was then observed. Again, the matter-of-fact way in which the joint Creeds of Nicsea and Convery generally
stantinople are connected in the edicts of
Basiliscus

how

and Zeno with the administra-

tion of baptism proves that in this respect


its

provisions

must have been obtained

in

many
law

churches long before they became


all.

for

And

with

this

correspond
S.

not merely those passages from

EpiCreed
that
it

phanius above quoted, where


appears prefaced

this

by the statement
but also
the

was

what

all

catechumens should

be

taught to

rehearse,

well-

known

statement of Theodore the reader,


I

114

O^

"^^^

ROMAN

CREED.

who
sixth

flourished in the early part of the

century

thereabouts, this
in church "
viz.,

517, or Creed used to be recited


that
till

A.D.

on one day of the year only


at the cateIt

on Maundy-Thursday,
to

chisings
cult

by the Bishop.* reflect on these

seemed

diffi-

facts

without

coming to the conclusion that what had thus become law for the empire must have become law, sooner or later, in Rome, too. Nor was this conclusion otherwise than abundantly strengthened by considering
further the conspicuous part played

by
the

the

Roman
of
of

Bishops

at

each

of

Councils

Ephesus
S.

and
to

Chalcedon^

and the outspoken


adhesion
decrees

and

often-repeated

Leo
latter.

the

doctrinal

of the

Even with no

other data to build

was, surely,

upon than these, there some ground for inferring


at

that the Creed promulgated at Chalcedon

must have been

one time received into

the baptismal offices of the


II., p. 32.

Roman

Church,

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

I5

either in connection with, or

totheabandonthere pre-

ment of what had been used


viously.

Coming

to the Gelasian SacraI

mentary, therefore, with this surmise,

was agreeably surprised


only confirmed there to
explain in detail.

to

find

it

not

the

letter,

but

supplemented in more ways than one, as


I

shall

It

has been
at
is

shown, some pages back, that both


Easter
called

and
the

Whitsuntide,

for

what

" Redditio Symboli,"

or re-

by the catechumens in the act of receiving Baptism, the form given in the Gelasian Sacramentary was a form consisting of eight articles only, and that this form, in reality, was and had been the Creed of the Roman Church downwards till then. But the administration of Baptism came last in a train of preliminary ceremonies, among which that
hearsal of the Creed

of the "

ScriitiJiiiim^''

or examination of

candidates, ranged over several


vious.

weeks pregiven in a
Sacra2

The
by

office

for this

is

place

itself

in

the

Gelasian
I

Il6
mentary,

ON THE ROMAN
and

CREED.
properly

to understand

it

we must go
" orders,"
consists

to the seventh of the

Roman

as printed

by Mabillon, which
with directions
are several

of

this exchisively,

for

its

performance.
it,

There
ut

other copies of
these

indeed,

extant besides
as

two.

'^

Ita

intelligamus,"

Muratori

says,

"

illo

usam

fuisse

Roit

manam
was

ecclesiam,"* not, however, that

peculiar to the
as

Roman Church

except

in this form,

Martene.f " notice" was given of

might be shown from In the Roman Church, then,


this

" examination

of candidates" on the second day or

Mon-

day of the third week in Lent:):, in the " The day of examifollowing words nation, dearly beloved, in which our
:

candidates are taught heavenwards,

is

at

hand.
" Lit.
Ital.
ii.,

Be

pleased, therefore, to be carei.,

Rom.
75.

531, note

Comp. Mabillon, Mus.


i.,

f
seq.
X

De

Ant. Rit.

Eccl. Lit.

c.

i,

Art.

ii.

et

" Denuntiatio pro scrutinio, quod tertia heb-

clomadci in

Quadragesima secunda

feria initiatur."

ON THE ROMAN
fill

CREED.

II

to

attend on the fourth day of the

week next ensuing, at the third hour,* that we may, by the help of God, be
able

duly

to

perform

this

heavenly

mystery, by which the devil, with his

pomp, is destroyed, and the gate of the kingdom of heaven set open, through Jesus Christ," etc. There were seven such examinations in all, of which that on Easter Eve was the last and at the end of each of the first five the day of the next was announced, showing that,
:

with the exception of the


last,

first

and the

the days for holding

necessarily

them were not the same every year. But it


to

would seem

have been always

at

one

of the examinations held in the fourth

week
S.

that

Isaiah,

two solemn lections one from the other from the Epistle of
the Colossians
read,

Paul to

were

and the commencement of each of the four Gospels expounded, " /// aiirhini
'*

is the reading of the seventh and, no doubt, the correct one. Order,"
"^

This

Roman

Il8

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

apertionem^'^ for the opening of the ears,


in

each

case.

And

then followed the


or

" traditio

syjnboli^^

delivery of the

Creed to the candidates, " prefaced as follows :"* " Dearly beloved, ye that
are to receive the

Sacrament of Baptism,

and be begotten a new creature of the Holy Spirit, embrace with all your heart the faith by which, believing, ye are to be justified, and, having your minds turned

by

true conversion to
souls,

God, the Illuminator


receive the

of our
spired

draw near and

Sacrament of the Evangelical Creed, in-

by the Lord,
;

instituted

by

the

Apostles

brief in words, to be sure, but

vast in mysteries, forasmuch as the


Spirit,

Holy
for

who

dictated

these things to the

masters

of the

Church,

composed,

saving purposes, a faith with such elo-

quence and such brevity that what you

must believe and keep always before you


*
**

Incipit pr^fatio symboli ad electos

id est,

antequam
quens."

dicas

symbolum,

his

verbis

prose-

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

I 1

should neither be above your comprehension nor fatigue

your memory.
to you, as

Learn,

therefore, the Creed

with attention, and that

which we deUver

we

received

it

on any corruptible substance, but on the pages of your heart.


ourselves, inscribe, not

This, then,

is

the beginning of the con-

fession of faith

What
" In
dates

is

which ye have received."* the Creed which follows?


do
these

what

language

candiasks

for baptism confess

Christ ?"
is,

the

presbyter,

and the answer

" In

Greek."
continues
:

Addressing the Acolyth, he " Declare their faith in the


profess
it."

form

in

which they

And

the Acolyth, placing his

hand on the head


is

of one of the children, repeats the NicenoConstantinopolitan Creed, which


at length,
it

given

in

Greek, word for word as


at the

had been promulgated


"

Fourth

General Council.
the presbyter;

You have
it
i.

heard the
In

Creed in Greek, dearly beloved," resumes

"hear
Rom.

in

Latin.

" Liturg.

p. 539.

I20

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

what language do

these confess Christ ?"

and the answer having been, " In Latin," he bids the Acolyth " declare their faith as before," and again the same Creed is
repeated
at
it

length

in

Latin,
in

word

for

word,

as

had been

Greek.

Thus,

in the earliest extant Office for

baptism of the

Roman

Church, the Creed


emphatically,
in

delivered to her

Catechumens was the


the?!

N iceno-Constantinopolitan
the
use,

only
be
it

Creed

general

remembered, whose Articles


to

more nor it was of this Creed, and no other, that her clergy were told to declare, by way of preface to it, that it had been " inspired by our Lord, instituted by His Apostles, dictated by the Holy
amounted less; and
twelve, neither

Ghost."
tains

Her

earliest

Sacramentary con-

no such glorification of the shorter Creed in which her catechumens had been instructed till then. This shorter
form, to be sure, she retained so far as
to limit the questions to be asked of the

ON THE ROMAN
catechumens
at

CREED.

121

the

font,
its

quently their answers to


terms, as before.
instruction

and consemore simple


in

And, indeed,

the

which follows the

rehearsal

of

the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, that

Creed

is,

perhaps, as

much

interpreted

by
it..

the shorter form as the shorter form

by

This, at
the

all

events,

is

what is then put

into

mouth of
is
;

the presbyter.

" Such
beloved
not

the

sum of our

faith, dearly

these are the

words of the Creed,

made by the wisdom of human speech, but arranged by the true reason that is from above, being what nobody lacks the ability Here the power to comprehend or retain. of God t he Father and the Son is declared equal an d on e. Here the only-begotten of

God
Iflesh

is

set forth

born according to the

of the

Holy Ghost and Virgin Mary*


is

IHere His crucifixion, burial, and resurrection

on the third day

preached.

Here His
and
sitting

ascension above the heavens,

on the right hand of the


is

Majesty of the Father,

confessed

and

22

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

His coming again


the dead

to judge ihe living

and

proclaimed.
professed

Ghost
Here,

is

Here the Holy inseparate from the


and the Sonof the Church

Godhead of
lastly,

the

Father

the calling

the remission of sins and resurrection of

the flesh

is

clearly taught

You
at a

have thus, dearly beloved, arrived

knowledge of the before-named Creed of now go and, without the Catholic faith changing a word of it, learn it by heart."
;

The

rest is irrelevant.

In

all

that relates
this

to the Father, Son,

and Holy Ghost,


fuller

epitome represents rather the


the shorter form.
are plainly epitomised

than

The remaining Articles


from the shorter
everlasting,"
as
life

form, into which "

we have
which
truth
is,

seen,

had not yet been

inserted,

doubtless, the reason

why

that

is

not noticed in this epitome.


so far

That the Roman should have


retained her old
in adopting that of the in

traditionary Creed, even

Fourth Council
becomes in-

exchange for

it

so far,

ON THE ROMAN
telligible

CREED.

23

enough,

if

we

apply the remark

of Rufinus to the circumstances of those


times.

Education was not Hkely to have


at

been improved or extended

Rome by

the invasion of Attila, which had pre-

ceded the Fourth Council by forty years

and the public

rehearsal of the Creed

by

candidates for baptism might have pro-

voked a burst of fanaticism had it embodied so much as a word which the


mass of the faithful had not been taught
themselves in
their

day.

Accordingly,

what was " delivered " to the catechumens in private, forty years after the
Fourth Council
to
sius

supposing

this

change

have commenced with

was
:

Pope

Gela-

the Niceno-Constantinopolitan rehearsed "


before

Creed
in

what was "

by them
receiving

public immediately

baptism
find
still.

was the same with what we used in the Church of Rome

And

in

the

epitome of

the

Creed put into the mouth of the presbyter


charged with instructing them, there
is

124

^^

'^^^^

ROMAN

CREED.

clear reference to

both forms, as has been

shown.
It

may
is

be asked, possibly, what proof

there

that the prefatory remarks pre-

ceding " the delivery " of the Creed had

been composed expressly for the NicenoConstantinopolitan Creed on


tion
;

its

introduc-

and had not likewise preceded the


of the shorter form
;

delivery

till

then.

This might be admitted


so the fact

and yet even*

would remain that the Roman Church had as little hesitation in assert-

ing of the
that
it

C reed

of the Fourth Council


;

had been inspired by our Lord instituted by the Apostles dictated by


;

the

Holy Ghost:"
showing
been
this
is

as

of

her

own:
had

plainly

in
said

what

sense they

formerly
after
all,

of her own.

But

mere hypothesis. Gelasian Sacramentary contains the


office

The
oldest

baptismal

extant

of the

Roman
assume,

Church.
for
all

Accordingly

we may

that appears to
it

the contrary, that

this preface, as

stands there,

was ex-

ON THE ROMAN
pressly
it

CREED.

25

composed

for the

Creed to which

there serves as an introduction,

namely

that of the Fourth Council.

And further,
is

anybody comparing what


Creed
in this preface
it

said of the
S.

with what
to the

Leo

says of

in

his

letter

Empress

Pulcheria,

will

hardly dispute the pro-

bability that

the author of this preface

borrowed from that letter of S. Leo. But that S. Leo must have been discoursing

on the Creed of the Fourth


letter

Council in that
proved.
a.

has been already

Afterwards,

when

the

Gelasian and

were introduced into France by Charlemagne and his successors, either from the custom of
Gregorian
Sacramentaries

chanting the Creed of the Fourth Council at

Mass having already prevailed there for some time, or else from national repugnance, this Creed was not generally
substituted
at

the
for

" traditio
that
it

symboli "

before

baptism

of the

West.

Martene says he found

in a pontifical

126

ON THE ROMAN
:

CREED.

of Saltzburg
the the

and

it

occurs in a pontifical
at length
:

of Poitiers given by him


in

and

tenth other

of his
hand,
to

orders further on.


that
it

On

which

had

formed the preface

in the Gelasian

Sacramentary appears
the West,

in several

of his

other Orders as a preface to the Creed of

by

that

time lengthened into


to

twelve

articles,

and supposed

have been

actually

composed by the Apostles. Hence, so far from this preface having been accommodated in the Gelasian
Niceno-Constantiit

Sacramentary to the
nopolitan Creed,

was, on the contrary,


ritual in

borrowed from that

France to be

accommodated to the Creed of the West, whose " institution by the Apostles " was
beginning to be maintained, according to
the then current
ferent sense

legend,

in

a far dif-

from what these words had borne when predicated of the Creed of The Galilean prethe Fourth Council.
faces
far

themselves,

it

should be noted, so

as

they

have been preserved, had

ON THE ROMAN
contained

CREED.

27

no

sort

of

allusion

to

this

supposed
Creed.*

authorship

of

the

Western
similarly,

On
where
Creed

the

morning of baptism,

the
is

Niceno-Constanti nopolitan

directed in the Gelasian Sacrato be recited

mentary

by the

Priest alone,

the earlier Gallican Orders published by

Martene f contain a direction to the same effect, with this exception, that it is the Western Creed which they prescribe.
Yet,
to

when

the candidates are called

upon

answer for themselves

at the font, the

questions put to

them
is

are taken

from the
;

Gelasian or Gregorian Sacramentaries


other words,
it

in

the

Roman

Creed in
to pro-

which they

are then called

upon

fess their faith.

The

questions in Orders

IV. and XII. in one place are from the


Gelasian;
in V.,

XXL,
"^^

they are

X.-XIL, and XVI.~ from the Gregorian, more


xi.,

*'

See those given in Martene, Art. Ancient Gallican Missal."


I

from the

Art. xviii.

128
or
less

ON THE ROMAN
added
note.
to, as

CREED.
in a

was remarked
regards

previous
recent

As
the
is,

the

more

Orders,

only change to be
that

noticed in

them

on the morning

of baptism the rubric, instead of directing


the

Western Creed

to be recited

priest alone, enjoins

him

to call

by the upon all

present, or at least the sponsors, to recite


this

Creed with him.

The

rubrics of

Order XVI., and


are to this effect.

several others following,

Such,

then,

were

the

modifications

which the Roman office for baptism underwent in France, when introduced and they are the there by Charlemagne
;

more
their

to be

noticed,

because they found


to

way

eventually

Rome

itself,

equally displacing there


displaced in

what they had France, and are to this day


all

observed in
obedience.

churches of the
this

Roman
service

Witness
in
as

rubric of our

own times ^' The priest


says, along

their

baptismal

he proceeds to the font,


the sponsors^

ijo'ith

a loud

ON THE ROMAN
voice

CREED.

29

"*

in

not

the

Niceno-Constantinothe

politan

accordance with the Gelasian

Sacramentary
in accordance

but

Western Creed,
offices

with the semi-, but only


of the
Afterwards,
the cantheir

semi-Romanised Gallican
eighth and ninth centuries.
as in those

same GalHcan
questioned
in

offices,

didates

are

respecting

faith at the font

the exact form pre-

scribed

by the Gregorian Sacramentary,


latest

with

its

additions,

and

differing

only from that of the Gelasian in being

more

full.

Thus
of the

in the existing office for

baptism

Roman Communion, we have


to

conclusive testimony both

what was
has under-

originally the Creed of that


to

Church, and

the vicissitudes
since.

which

it

gone

Previously to the days of

Pope Gelasius, it must have been either identical with the form preserved in his Sacramentary, or else more simple more simple, because whatever changes it has
;

- "

Golden Manual,"

p. 676.

"

130

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

undergone since then have been in the way of addition ; identical, because the
directions

the font,

the
Avhat

" You Creed


"
its

there given

to the

priest

at

ask

him

the words of

are

direct

testimony

to

exact dimensions were then.

The

candidates,

had they rehearsed continuously what they were then asked


in
said

three separate
:

questions,

must have

believe in
in

God

the Father Almighty

And

Jesus Christ His only Son our Lord,

born and suffered And in the Holy Ghost, the holy Church, remission of sins, and the resurrection of the body.

This is, again, precisely what they would say still save that they would insert " Maker of Heaven and earth at the end of the first article and ^' Catholic " before, and " the Communion of Saints " after the word " Church in the middle of the third, and " life
:

everlasting

'^

at

the

end.

The

second

ON THE ROMAN
article

CREED.

I3I

has remained to this day intact.*

Of

these

four

insertions,

the

two

first

appear in some copies of the Gregorian

Sacramentary without the two

last; in other,

and therefore probably


the

later copies,

with
is

two

last as well.

Hence

this

Creed

by every catechumen of the Roman Communion still, word for word as it stood in the seventh or eighth
virtually recited

century.

But, further, previously to the


all

days of Pope Gelasius, or at

events

of the Nicene Council, this Creed must have been the one " delivered " to cate-

chumens during their " scrutiny," as well as professed by them at the font. It is
of course possible that the Creed " delivered " to

them may have been


of the First
it

at
:

one
still,

time that
before
tainly

Council

then
the

must have been


as
it

as cer-

Roman,

was afterwards

the Niceno-Constantinopolitan.
''

And

the

Golden Manual," p. 678 but two glosses have been introduced into the English most
*'
;

gratuitously.

K 2

132

ON THE ROMAN

CREED.

Niceno-Constantinopolitan
doubtless,
till

it

remained,

this

was

in turn displaced
to

by the Western Creed subsequently


the
introduction of

the

Roman

Order

into France.

In the Gregorian Sacraoffice

mentary the
it

is

simply

which should contain wanting for that the


;

" scrutiny "

before

baptism

existed

at
full

Rome
vigour,

then and long afterwards in


is

proved by

its

adoption in France,

according to the

Roman manner
and

of con-

ducting

it,

in the ninth century,

with the
the
see

preftice to the Creed,

in several cases

the

Creed

itself,

unaltered

from

Gelasian
that the

Sacramentary.

Thus we

Roman Church
another,
in

has at one time

taught her catechumens one creed, and at


another
preference
to

her

own

though she has always questioned them on her own at the font in other
:

words, she has admitted, in retaining her

own,
other

that

it

had been improved upon in

churches.
if,

And

hence,

finally,

we

see that

according to the statement

ON THE ROMAN
of Sir

CREED.
derived

33

W.

Palmer,*
"all

who

it

from
(in

Mabillon,
France)

the

sacramentaries

were taken

from the

Roman
:"

Order, from the time of Charlemagne


there were several particulars,

notwith-

standing, on

which the

Roman

Order
the

had

in

turn ultimately to yield to

Gallican, even on as high a point as the

Creed.
" Orig. Liturg.
i.

p. 146,

134

CHAPTER

III.

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE TO CREEDS FIXED

AND UNIFORM.
There
I

are

two

or three

more points

re-

lating to Creeds in general

public Creeds^

mean,

solely

that need elucidating to


First

make
and

the whole subject intelligible.


foremost,
there
is

the

distinction

which

might have saved endless confusion had it had justice done to it previously, between creeds oral and written.
If
it

was

over-stated

underrated

by Le Brun, it was assuredly by Muratori in

opposing him.*
are

The

facts

of the case

simple enough.
lay
in the
Diss.
:

The germ
baptismal
c. i,

of

all

creeds
''

formula ;f

Liturg.

Rom.

ad

fin.

f
of

S. Matt, xxviii.

all

29 " Go ye make disciples nations, baptizing them in the name of the

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE,


and
their

ETC.

35

employment

at

any public
to

service w^as for centuries limited

the

baptismal ceremony.

As long

as this w^as

the case, the creed of each


oral essentially,

Church was^

uniform.

It

and therefore not fixed or was oral, it is shown to have


these reasons.
It

been

oral, for

was not
;.

merely peculiar

as regards other

churches
it

but, firstly, different versions of vailed at diff^erent times in

pre-

the

Church
diff'erent

whose creed
versions of
it

it

was

secondly,
it

were given of
;

by

writers

of the same age

and

thirdly, occasionally

by the same
one
place,

writer.

Professor Heurtley^

for instance, culls a shorter version

from and a longer from another, of


Holy

the Creed of Jerusalem, in the catechetical


Father, and of the Son, and of the
Ghost,'*

which is exactly S. Cyril's shorter form of the Creed " I believe in the Father, and in the Son, and in the Holy Ghost and in one baptism of re:
;

pentance."
doubtless,
*'

Heurtley, "
S.

Hanc regulam

Nicetas fidei Apostoli a

Fide," p. 3. Whence, (Symb. Expl. ad init.)

De

Domino

accepe-

runt, ut in

nomine

Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti'

omnes gentes

baptisarent."

136
lectures

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


of
S.

Cyril.*

A
of

longer and a

shorter

form
the

of the
churches

Baptismal

Creed
is

used

in

Cyprus,
S.

given by
in

S. Epiphanius.'j'

Augustine

his different

Expositions of that of

the African Churches, varies the wording

of

it

several times.

" This

last

article,"

says

Rufinus, on the Aquileian


asserts

Creed,

" which

the
its

resurrection

of the
the

body,
brevity
time.

concludes

summing of
it

perfection
:"

of the

whole with

succinct

showing how
ended, not

ended in his
years after his

It

many
the

death, according to S. Nicetas, with "life


everlasting."
is

Even

Roman
it
;

Creed
is

shorter in the

Gelasian, than

in

the
there

Gregorian
are
scarce

Sacramentary

indeed,

either, that are

two copies extant of word for word with each


after
it

other.

Thus, even
to

had been

committed
upon,
it

writing,

fluctuated,
n
(c

and commented and was liable


9.

De

Fide," pp. 3 and

t lb. pp. 11-15.

TO CREEDS FIXED AND UNIFORM.


to

137
as

change

from

still

being

oral

well.
It

may

be said to have been oral ex

officio^ so

long as

it

stood for public use


;

nowhere but in the baptismal office this being one means of concealing it from
those

who had
fit

pronounced

not received or not been " The catefor baptism.

chumens having been dismissed," says S. Ambrose, " I delivered the Creed to
the
'

competejites

'

in

the baptisteries of

the church."*

And

further reported to
in
civil

"It is be a customary thing


:

Rufinus

wars, that

because their

arms,

language, method, and manner of fight-

ing are the same

therefore every general,

to prevent fraud, should

distinct

symbol

which

give his soldiers


in

Latin

is

called

s'lgiium^

or iiidicitim

that if one

met another, of whom he had reason to doubt, by asking him the symbol, he might discover whether he was friend or
'

Ep.

xxxiii.

ad Marcellln., quoted by Bingham,

X. 2, 10, note.

138
foe."'''

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


Great pains,
accordingly, were

taken in early times to conceal the Creed

from the uninitiated or unbaptized, on which Professor Heurtley,'f as well as

Bingham '^
But
it

enlarge.

continued oral also for another " Nobody commits the Creed to reason. writing," says S. Augustine, " that it

may

be read

rather

let

your memory

serve for a manuscript, that


able to repeat without
getting,

you may be
for-

any chance of
delivered to

what has been

you

with so much pains." And Rufinus " The last of their ordinances was that
these things should

not

be written on

paper or parchment, but retained in the


hearts of the faithful, that
certain that
it

none had

learnt

might be them from

reading, an accomplishment
infidels are
'i^

which even now and then wont to ac-

Bingham, x. 3-1. f Harm. Symb. p. 32, note.


2.

X.

5, 9.

i
;

Serm. ad Catech.
Fide,"
etc., p. 85.

printed by Heurtley,

"

De

TO CREEDS FIXED AND UNIFORM.


quire,

39
)>*

but

from

Apostolic

tradition.

And
for

this

reason
it

would remain

in force,

was worth, long after the On ages of persecution had passed.

what

the other hand, the Creed ceased to be oral,

and took a permanent form by degrees everywhere, from being incorporated into
various other services
tismal, after

besides
also

the

baptook

which

it

became fixed
this

and uniform even


has
first

there.

How

place will appear presently,

when

account

been

taken of another and a


:

commoner
West.

distinction

viz.

that between

the baptismal creeds

of the

East

and
the

The
all

baptismal

creeds

of

West what
Creed

converged, and at last met, in has been since called " the Apostles'
:"

the

baptismal

creeds
of,

of

the

East lay at the foundation

and

at last

were

lost in,

the Niceno-Constantinoplitan,

becoming the Creed of the whole Church. Yet this in the Greek has preserved, and still exhibits, all the idiosynon
its
''

*'De Fide,"

p. 105.

140
crasies

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


of the one group as

much

as that

of the Apostles in our of the other.

own

tongue those
preconcerted

As though by

arrangement, all the Eastern commenced with " We believe in o?ie God :" all the

Western with " / believe in God." was their archetypal characteristic.

This

And

they had others, as they were gradually

For instance, developed on either side. " the Communion of Saints," one of the
latest

additions

to
it

the Western

Creed,

looks almost as if

had been
^'

inserted in

direct preference to the

one baptism " of


:

the

Niceno-Constantinopolitan

at

all

events, profession of the latter never ob-

tained in the West, nor of the former in

the

East.

"

He

descended

into
in
;

hell,"

similarly,

never

found
shall

place

any
nor

Eastern

and

orthodox

formula

"

Whose kingdom

have no end," in

any Western of any kind. But they agreed on both sides in having been all oral originally, and then had their developments stopped by becoming oral no

TO CREEDS
longer.

FIXED

AND UNIFORM.

I4I

The Creed of the


it

First Council,
is,
:

by whomsoever
have
said,

was composed,

as I

cast

in the Eastern type

and

corresponds too closely with that of the

Church of Csesarea preserved by Eusebius, not to have been borrowed from it to some extent.* At the same time, there
is

no reason to think that the Nicene Creed proper ever figured in any public
:

service

still

less

displaced the baptismal

Creed of any
sibly, the

local
:

Church, unless, posafter


its

African
called

reception into

what

is

the African code if thus

accounting for the " Credimus in

unum
J.

Deum
of
in

... et in

unum Dominum
Bishop
of

C,"

Facundus,
the

Hermiane,

which Professor Heurtley cannot explain.:}: Nor had even the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed any such effect, till it was promulgated by the
next
century,

Fathers
'-''

of the De

Fourth
Fide,"

Council

along

Heurtle}^ "

etc., pp. 4, 5.

f
I

As canon 137. Harm. Symb. p.

51.

142

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


their definition,

with

which had a canon

appended to it forbidding under severe pains and penalties the employment or

any other
use.

creed in

any way
as far as

for public

This, as has been already noticed,

had been preceded,


a similar
proper.

words go, by
council of

enactment of the

Ephesus, in favour of the Nicene Creed

And

both enactments owed their

origin clearly to the

same phenomena:
constantly
use,

the

diversities

and

shifting

forms of the creeds in


tiplication

of

new

creeds.

and the mulBut the canon


practical

of the Third Council was not, as far as

we

know, followed by any


;

results

the canon of the Fourth Council,


eff^ected

two radical changes almost immediately, which have


on the other hand,
never since been dropped.
these
letter

The
the

first

ot

was the
of
the

application

of the

strict

canon to

Baptismal

Creeds hitherto in use in the East, and


their
local

consequent abandonment in every

church for that of the Council.

The

TO CREEDS

FIXED

AND UNIFORM.

43

second was the insertion of this Creed


into the Uturgy or

Communion

Service,

immediately after the Gospel, as

now

step which, if not actually prescribed

by

the canon, proved highly conducive to


its strict

observance.

The

proofs of both changes have been


;

anticipated

* and

it

must

certainly be

ascribed to their joint operation, not only

that the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed

has been the only Creed employed for


public purposes in
the East ever since,

but also that

it is

to this

day

recited there

without exception, in public and private,

word

for

word

as

it

stands in the acts of

the Fourth Council.

All other creeds

having been prohibited for public use by


this canon,
it

found

its

way

into various

other services gradually besides the baptismal,


alike
'

and so became stereotyped

in all

the oral character of the Baptismal

Office being itself at length

merged

in the

written character of the

rest.

Obedience

* Above, pp. 111-112.

144
to this

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


canon in the West, where

Rome
re-

exercised patriarchal jurisdiction,

was

by private judgment alone, or by policy. She accepted it herself to some extent, and for some time but left others entirely free to please themselves. She
gulated
;

incorporated

the

Niceno-Constantino-

politan Creed into her baptismal ritual in

one place, retaining her

own

in another.

But she would not insert it in her liturgy, where no creed had previously been rehearsed.
policy,

Further,

when

it

suited her

she violated the canon in


;

more

ways than she had ever observed it first, by substituting the Western, wherever
she had inserted the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, in

her Baptismal Office;


last electing to insert

and, secondly, by at

the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed in

her liturgy
transcribed

not, forsooth, as

it

had been
Baptism

into her Office

for

from the
for

acts

of the Fourth Council word

word by the author of the Gelasian Sacramentary, but as it had since been

TO CREEDS FIXED AND UNIFORM.


interpolated

45

by

Reccared
jfinally, to

and

crowned Charlemagne.

two

heads,

Then,

conceal her tergiversations, she


it

discarded
Office.

altogether from her Baptismal

That

the

other
dictated

churches
their

of

her
course

Patriarchate

own

to her in the end, instead of to hers,


as
is

conforming

as plain,

historically speaking,

anything can

be.

Let

me
First

review

their proceedings chronologically,

even at
:

the risk of repeating myself.

their

use of theNiceno-Constantinopolitan Creed


in

the liturgy

or

Communion

Service.

This, as has been observed already,


enjoined

was

by no part of the enactments of

the Fourth Council.


that

The

Council ruled
in

no other creed should

future

be

compiled or employed for public use but


the Niceno-Constantinopolitan
this creed
:

not that

should become inseparable from

every public service, or be inserted in any


services

where no creed had been used hitherto. Still there can be no doubt

146
that
its

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


insertion
in the

Liturgy must

have been to some extent suggested or


favoured by the decrees of the Fourth
Council,
shortly

inasmuch
afterwards,

as

this

took

place,

Orthodox Church throughout the East. But in


in

every

the
its

West

notoriously the
in

first

to order

insertion

the

Liturgy v^as

the

Spanish King, Reccared, on his abjuration of Arianism at the

Third Synod of

Toledo, A.D. 589, forty years, in round numbers, after the Fifth Council, and

140 years
turn

after the Fourth.

Now,
folio,

if

we
and
all

to the Acts

of this Synod, which


pages

extend

over

several

abound
of the

with dogmatic

statements,

affirmed to be in
first

harmony with
is,

the faith
first

four Councils, one of the

things that strikes us

that they contain


less

no mention whatever, much


the nearest to
it

any such

formal acceptance of the Fifth Council,

of

all

in point of time.

And

the

moment we

try to account for

this omission

we

are

reminded that the

TO CREEDS

FIXED

AND UNIFORM.

47
all

Acts of the Fifth Council had been

but unanimously condemned in the West,

and that there was a large party still in North Italy that repudiated them. Next, if we recall some striking coincidences before noticed in connection with King e.g, that Reccared and his friends his own conversion is explained by the fact of his mother having been a French
:

princess

that at the time of her marriage

Venantius Fortunatus,
poet,

the

well-known
that

was
at

also the

most esteemed theocourt


;

logian

her

father's

he

(Venantius) had been educated at Aquileia,

where, there

Leander,

good reason to think, Archbishop of Seville, and


is

ecclesiastical

president

of

this

Synod,

though

his junior

by many
;

years,

may
at

have been

his schoolfellow

and that

Aquileia, finally, schismatic opposition to

the Fifth Council


If we put
all

waxed

hottest just then.

these circumstances together,

we may
this

possibly discover in the Acts of


a declaration

Synod

of Aquileian
L 2

148

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE

leanings, rather than of pure orthodoxy.

And

then, thirdly, the fact that the First


to

Synod

decree

the

insertion

of the
in

Niceno-ConstantinopoUtan
likewise, to exhibit

Creed

Western Liturgy should have been the


first,
it

in the interpo-

lated

form which

the '^Filioque^'*
satisfactorily

now bears may be clause


it

viz.,

with

explained

by supposing

that the copy

of the Acts of the Fourth Council, produced


at this

Synod, had been obtained


till

from
quite
ruler,

a city

whose bishops had been,


subject
to

recently,

heterodox

and were now schismatics. This explanation may be thought far-fetched, but from the twofold fact
it

attempted to be solved by

there can

be no escape.

It is as

undeniable that the

Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed was not


inserted in

any Western Liturgy


interpolated,
as

till

it

had been
bears in
in the
all
first

that

its
it

in-

sertion in the interpolated

form

now

Western
instance

liturgies

was ordered by crowned heads.


TO CREEDS FIXED AND UNIFORM.
"

49

The Holy Ghost,"


by

said

King Reccared
" ought to be

to his assembled

bishops,
us,

confessed equally

and taught to
Son,

proceed from the Father and the

and be of one substance with the Father

and the Son."


wards, recited

He
the

then, shortly after-

Niceno-Constantino-

politan Creed at full length before


all,

them

with those words added

"

And from
when

the Son."''
it

The

abjuring prelates,

came to their turn, anathematised with marked emphasis '' those who do not or
cannot believe that the
ceeds

Holy

Spirit

pro-

from the Father and the Son." Then the King, addressing the Council
again,
that,

ordained of his

royal

authority
the recent

"

To

give stability to
all

conversion of his people,

Gaul" Gallia Narbonensis, i,e, comprehending the provinces of Languedoc, Provence, and Dauphiny
of

Spain

and

the Churches

"should observe

this rule

namely, that
before
et scq.

at

every time of the


* Mansi, torn.

sacrifice,
ix. p.

com-

977

IJO

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE

municating in the Body and Blood of


Christ, the

most holy symbol of the

faith
all,

should be recited in a loud voice by

according to the custom of the Eastern


Fathers."

And
his
all

forthv^ath a canon v^as

passed

by

bishops

to

this

effect

" That in
Council

the churches of Spain and

Gallicia the symbol

of the faith of the


be
the
recited

of
to

Constantinople
the

according
voice

form of
it

Eastern

Churches^ so that

be chanted in a loud
before the Lord's

by the
is

people,

Prayer

said."

The

bishops professed

that they v^ere for reciting the Niceno-

Constantinopolitan creed in their respective dioceses

" according to the form of the


:"

Eastern Churches

in practice they con-

formed to that of

their

King.
future Synods of

And

their

precedent speedily became

law in Spain.
Toledo down
inclusively,
recited at
all,

At

all

to the seventeenth, a.d. 694,


creed,

this

whenever

it

was
with

was invariably
authorised

recited

the

interpolation

by

King

TO CREEDS
Reccared
;

FIXED

AND UNIFORM. I5I


Spain
it

and

from

was
per-

probably carried into France, and,


haps, England, in this shape

by the end
it,

of the next century, though no notice

seems to have been taken of


particular stress laid

nor any

upon
first

of Frankford, a.d.
centuries
after
its

Synod 794, upwards of two


it, till

the

promulgation in

Spain.

Up
to the

to that

time, for aught


it

we

know

contrary,

may have

been

supposed word for word with the Creed

by the Fourth Council. But the Synod of Frankford met, as everybody knows, in avowed hostility to the Seventh General Council, whose Acts had been published seven years before, And and since confirmed by the Pope. among them was the Creed promulgated by the Fourth Council in its original shape. That this Creed was attacked at
promulgated
Frankford,

and attacked expressly,

for

not containing the interpolation authorised

by King Reccared, appears from a work


called

"The Caroline Books," written either

IJ2

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


by

by

the theologians of Charlemagne or

that

monarch

himself, which, having been

submitted
there,

to the

Synod, was approved

and contained a vigorous denunciation of each and all of the decrees of the
Seventh Council, including
its

creed.

Its

creed, said the author of this treatise,

was

defective, because not sufficiently explicit

upon one
bers

mean
to

could its memby such reticence ? " Assuming


point.

What

them

be
still

orthodox on the point

in

question,

we

are

bound

to

consider

them on the verge of error for having neglected to make profession of their orthodox sentimentsT'" And the Synod
of Frankford proved that
reasoning
it

endorsed this

by adopting the interpolated More deliberate schism creed as its own. was never committed by any synod. Nor Notice of its proceedings, was this all. with a copy of the work approved by it,
having been sent to the reigning Pope,

he not merely vindicated every part of


* Lib.
ill.

c.

8 in Mio:ne's Patrol, torn, xcviii.

TO CREEDS FIXED AND UNIFORM.

53

the teaching of the Seventh Council that

had been attacked with

his

own

pen, but

intimated that the penalties appended to


the definition of the Fourth Council were
incurred

by

all

who impugned
this

its

Creed.

One might have supposed


determined action as
the Pope

that such

on the part of

would have compelled the supbut they took


little

porters of the interpolated Creed to retrace


their steps,
his words.

heed of

Even Paulinus of
all

Aquileia,

the most considerable of


bishops,
in

the Caroline

presiding over
after that

Synod of
it,

Friule

two years

of Frankford,

not merely reiterated his adhesion to

but apologised for

on the ground that, as the Second General Council had enlarged the Creed on the subject of the Holy Ghost considerably beyond what the first had laid down so, to refute
it,
:

those heretics

who

said

that

the

Holy
all

" Patrol, ibid, p. 1272.

See the remarks on


Is the

this in

my

pamphlet,

*'

Western Church

under Anathema

?" pp. 33-6.

154

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


to,

Ghost belonged
quently
Son."

and proceeded from


"

the Father alone, those words had subse-

been
indeed,

added,

And from

the

When, and by whom they were


he
particularly

added,
stating
;

shirks

and, in conclusion, he passion-

ately contends for the orthodoxy

of

all

who

form of the Creed. " How catholic those Fathers who, grounded in faith unwavering, have
professed either

confessed

the

Holy Ghost
!

to

proceed

How glorious those, from the Father likewise, who have confessed Him to
proceed from the Son as well
!"
''

ask

the reader to take particular note of this


position of the Aquileian patriarch,
for a
It

reason that will appear further on.

has

been maintained again and again on both


sides since

the schism between the

East

and West commenced, but it must be held to have been rejected on both sides equally, as each side to this day accuses the other
of
this

error

However, on the Procession. by the way. Here let us confine


-'=

Mansi,

torn. xiii. p. 835.

TO CREEDS FIXED AND UNIFORM.

55

our attention exclusively to the fact that


the
first

time
it
till

such

a compromise

was

suggested

was by Paulinus of Aquileia,


his

and that

death, or for ten years

more, no further discussion of the subject


is

recorded

to

have taken

place.
it

almost immediately after his death

But was

provoked

in the very heart of the East

by some Frank monks, and, to judge from their narrative, it seems more than
probable that their course had been traced

out for them beforehand by their Imperial


Master.

As soon

as

their

proceedings

had attracted sufficient notice, they wrote from Jerusalem, where they were staying, to the Pope, then Leo III., to say that one John, of the monastery of S. Sabas, had accused them of heresy, and tried, in
consequence, to get them put out of the

Bethlehem on Christmas Day that the priests and the people had assembled on the Sunday
at
;

Church of the Nativity

following over against the Sepulchre


that
is,

in

the

space

between

it

and

156
Calvary
faith faith

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE

and questioned
creed.

them on

their

and

They rephed

that their

was

that of the

Roman

Church, but

that they

knew

that in their

mode of
" Glory

saying the doxology, the


to

hymn

God" and

the Lord's Prayer, they used

some expressions that were not found in the Greek; and that in the Creed they spoke of the Holy Ghost as proceeding ftom the Son as well as the Father, which was the reason why John had called them
heretics.

This explanation of
the excitement.

theirs had,
or,

indeed, failed to give satisfaction,


least, allay

at

But they defended themselves to the Pope by saying that one of their number^ Leo, before leaving the West^ had heard the Creed so sung in the Imperial Chapel ; that Charlemagne had also made them presents of a Homily of S, Gregory and the Rule of
S. Benedict^

and

his Holiness

of a dia-

logue^njohere the

same expression occurred:


in the

and that
of
S,

it

was so^ moreover^


Still,

Creed

Athanasius,

they cannot but

TO CREEDS

FIXED

AND UNIFORM.
was not

57

acknowledge that
fore,

It

so read in

the Greek form of the Creed.

And,

there-

they beg his Holiness to ascertain

from the Emperor whether the Creed was not sung in his chapel, as they had stated,

and then
future.*

instruct

them how
to

to act for the

The Pope wrote


questing
sonal

Charlemagne

re-

him

to

intervene for their per-

safety,

but

without the
the

remotest
point

allusion

of any kind to

on
If

which they had asked


he enclosed

his directions.
it

their letter entire,


;

was with-

out comments if he accompanied it with " a profession," which he said he was

sending them,

" of the orthodox

faith,

which should be held stedfast and inviolate by all members of our Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church," this was not merely forwarded to the Emperor " for perusal," but evidently was meant
Christendom's Divisions," ii. 71-2, corrected in some respects. It is given by Neale in full " Eastern Church," vol. ii. 1 155-9.
<<

158
to

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


transmitted through

be

him.

And
it
it

there can be very Httle doubt but that

has come

down

to

us as

he revised
it,

rather than as his Holiness penned


this simple reason.
It

for

speaks of the

Holy

Ghost as proceeding from the Father and the Son in one place, and as proceeding equally from Both in another. And at
the end of the v^hole
that believeth

we

read

"

Him
faith,^

not according to this

the

Holy

Catholic and Apostolic Church

This, I stated in a former condemns." work, " was the strongest and most explicit declaration that

had emanated from

any Pope hitherto


cession.'"''

in favour of the views

then prevalent in the West on the Pro-

And

this, I

have become conIII. then.

vinced since from what followed, could

never have been made by Leo

Charlemagne was no sooner in receipt of these despatches than he convened a Synod


A.D. 809,
at

Aix-la-Chapelle, to discuss

the very point on which the


:-

monks had

a Christendom's Divisions," p. 72.

TO CREEDS

FIXED

AND UNIFORM.

59

consulted the Pope with so httle success,


that of the interpolated clause in the Creed,

and deputies were sent from thence to Rome with a long letter, as from himself,

which the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son is not only proved, but distinguished carefully from His temporal " So I think, so I hold," was mission. the exclamation elicited from the Pope on hearing this letter read. Would he " So I wrote myself not have added in the profession which I asked his Majesty to read and send on for me," had his own profession been as explicit on the subject, as it is in the form which it now bears. Or had it been received from him in the form which it now bears, would the Emperor have failed to notice the harmony between it and his own views in his reply ? Such a letter as was brought by these deputies to the Pope from the Emperor, must imply surely, that either the Pope had not explained himself previously to the Emperor on the
in
:

l6o

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


it

subject of

which explanation had


satisfactory.

treats,

or

that

his

not

been

considered

On

the point relating to the


as silent

Creed indeed, the Emperor was


as the

Pope had been

but the deputies

came purposely to press it upon the Pope Their conference by word of mouth. was a long one, spread over two days. Towards the end of it, one of the
deputies asked
:

" As

understand, then,
in

your Holiness or ders that the clause


tion be
first

ques-

from the Creed, and then afterwards be lawfully and freely taught and learnt by any one, whether by singing
ejected

or

by
I

oral tradition ?"


:

To which
is

the

Pope
:

replied

" Doubtless, that

my

desire

and

would persuade you by all means If this was impossible they so to act." might give up using the Creed at Mass altogether; and this he counselled, in
conclusion, as the better plan
:

" Let the

custom of singing that Creed cease in the


Palace, since
it is

not sung in our

Holy

Church."

As Charlemagne had adopted

TO CREEDS FIXED AND UNIFORM.

l6r

the custom of chanting the Hturgy from

Rome some
the creed

years before, the not singing


in both places, then, equiit.

was

valent to the not using

Finally, the

Pope, to give publicity to his determination of preserving the creed unaltered in his

own
two

church, had a silver tablet


plates

made with
and
the

or

compartments,

creed engraved in Latin on one, and in

Greek on the other

in either case

with-

out those words, " and from

the Son."

And

this

was by

his orders affixed to the

" confession " or shrine of S. Peter in the church of that name. S. Peter Damian
writes of
it
it

in the eleventh century that

was then seen


This looks

in front of the shrine of

S. Paul." as if

from

S.

Peter's,
S.

had been removed where it had hung


it

originally, to

Paul's

Church, though

Opusc. xxxviii. Do Process. Sp. S. " Beatus etiam Leo Papa in argentea tabula, quae ante sacratissimum corpus beati Pauli Apostoli videtur,
-''
:

erecta," etc.

62

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE

there are said to be relics of both Apostles


in each

now.
if,

And what indeed


it

could be

more

likely than that


as
is

should have been

removed,
terpolated
into the

stated

by Berno, the

in-

creed

had

been incorporated

Roman

liturgy just before then.

Berno, besides being at

Rome when

it

happened, was, as

pointed out to Arch-

bishop Manning,'"' a liturgical writer, and


actually then engaged in

work on

the

Mass
to

so that

particular in

"he would naturally be very his inquiries when he came


all

Rome, of
there."

places,

how

things were
is

done " up
the

And

his account

that,
is,

to that time, the

Romans"

Church of
but

Rome
that

generally

" had
that
to let

in no "wise chanted

the Creed

after the

Gospel

the

lord
till

Emperor
it

Henry would
suaded the
be chanted
at

not desist

he had per-

lord.

Pope Benedict,

Mass."

Now,
'
*'

the only creed then chanted at


or the

Church's Creed

Crown's

Creed,"

p. 10.

TO CREEDS FIXED AND UNIFORM.


Mass
in the

63

West being this interpolated creed, there was no necessity for Berno to explain what creed it was which the Emperor pressed upon the Pope. Similarly, there can be no more for me to prove that it was this creed as it is this Creed and no other which is used in the Roman liturgy to this day. Crowned
:

heads authorised
heads decreed

its

interpolation;
in

crowned

its

insertion
it

the

Com-

munion
stood.

Office,

where

has ever since

On
:

both points
the

Rome
to

conformed

to the West, not the

West

Rome.
:

Western Creed was not the adopted in time by Rome Roman Creed by the West. This is another of those facts which merely
Further

want

stating

with
I

sufficient

fulness to

be indisputable.
already

have demonstrated

what the Roman Creed was in and shown it to have been fact, still is much more distinct from all other Western forms of the Creed, than they from each Western forms varied, mainly other.

164
because

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


they
oral,

were

oral

the

Roman,

though

was protected by constant Western recital in public from change. forms, as they ceased to be oral, became fixed and uniform, and were finally merged in what has long been, and is still, called
the Apostles' Creed: the
tively crystallized
distinct

Roman, comparafirst,

from the

remains a

form

to this day.

we have seen, Roman Office

Both forms as exist side by side in the for Baptism now in use

where the priest is directed to repeat the Western Creed along with the sponsors in
proceeding to the font
;

but to interrogate

them afterwards merely to the extent of the Roman. When and how the Western
Creed got incorporated into the
ritual

Roman

Western Creeds, I have said, had a genius and mould of their own, and were far from being copied servilely from the East, still less from Rome the Roman Creed
has yet
to
:

be shown.

being merely part and parcel of the same


family with themselves.
It

must be

re-

TO CREEDS FIXED AND UNIFORM.


membered, indeed, that our

65

earliest speci-

mens

of

public

creeds begin with the

fourth century, and that

we

can hardly
in

compare them one with another


fairness before the fifth.

any

Subject to this

proviso, then,

we may
date,

say of the Western

Creed in general, that the additions made


to

which were purely Western, and not copied, were the followit

after this

ing

1.

The

article,

*'

Born by the Holy Ghost of

the Virgin

Mary:" enlarged

to,

"Con-

ceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the

Virgin Mary."
2.

The

article,

" Crucified

under

Pontius

Pilate and buried:" to, " Suffered under

Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and


buried."
3.

The

on the right hand of the Father:" to, Sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty."
*'

article, " Sitteth

4.

Anew

article, viz.,

"The Communion

of

Saints,"

was inserted immediately

after

that of the Church.

Similarly, the
after this date,

additions

made

to

them
must

which were copied

66

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


copied^ as they existed in other

have been

Creeds previously
1.
*'

were the following:

2.

Maker of heaven and earth:" copied from Eastern Creeds. "He descended into hell:" copied from the Third Sirmian and other semi-Arian
Creeds.

3.

"Catholic" between the words "holy" and " Church :" copied from Eastern
Creeds.

4.

"Life everlasting:" copied from Eastern


or African Creeds.

None of
the
three,
set
viz.,

these additions are

found in

Gelasian
i,

Sacramentary
2,

and

but

in

and 4 of the second all copied from the Gregorian


:

the East.
set

Number 4
:

alone of the
into
this

first

has been received

the

Roman
to
it

Creed since then

and

came

from the West.

How

each of these additions passed,


local

from being

and

oral

at first,

into

general acceptance finally, will be seen to

most advantage by selecting one of them


as

specimen.

Every

candidate

for

TO CREEDS

FIXED

AND UNIFORM.

67

baptism in Africa was asked, according


to
[i^S.

Cyprian,
life,

whether he believed in

everlasting

and

remission

of

sins

through the Church.


tismal

But how the BapCreed of the African Church ended


is

in the days of S. Augustine,

extremely

doubtful on his

own

showing.
it,

At one
though
of
it

time he comments on

as

it

ended with

" the

resurrection
as

the

body;" at another, with " everlasting


creed being
before,
it

though
as
I

ended
local

life."

Every

then

oral,

explained

was not always recited word for word in the same form even by the same person. But it can hardly have been from Africa that " everlasting life " was
imported into the
creeds of

the

West,

Rufinus affirms in express terms that the


last

article in

the creed on

which he was

commenting was " the resurrection of the body " " iiltimiis iste sermo " as he therefore calls it. And this was likewise

the

last

article

in

the

Roman

Creed,

when

the

Gelasian

Sacramentary was

68

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE

There is one creed, indeed, of earlier date, which ends with " everlasting life ;" and this by Professor " Symbolum RoHeurtley is headed manum a Marcello Ancyrano Julio Papa^ traditum," a.d. 341.* I must be allowed
composed.
:

to

express

my
of

extreme surprise, to read

in a

work, designed more particularly for


benefit

the

students,

anything
in

so

groundless
as S.

and misleading
is

misleading,
a note for

Epiphanius

cited

this title,f
gests,

which he not only never sugbut discredits in every word he


I

says; groundless, as

shall

not require

much

space to show.

Marcellus was a bishop of the Eastern

Church, deposed from his See of Ancyra,


in

Galatia,

by the Arians,
2>3^^
^^

in

Synod

held, A.D.

Constantinople.
S.

He

was

restored, in

company with
first

nasius

and

others,

in

under Pope Julius,


'

a.d.

Athaa Roman Synod 342, and ulti-

"

De

Fide,"
al.

et seq.j p. 24,

Haer. 52,

72.

TO CREEDS

FIXED

AND UNIFORM.

69

mately by the Council of Sardica, a.d.


347.
All

we know
between

of his movements
2^ji>^

for certain,
is,

A.D.

and 347,

was personally present at each of the Synods that restored him, and that he spent on one occasion a year and What we know three months in Rome. of his character even from his friends is
that he

not reassuring as

to

his

orthodoxy, or
S.

straightforwardness in general.
nasius

Athaa

himself once intimated, with

smile, to S.

Epiphanius, that
it

if

he said
that

nothing against Marcellus,

was not

he had
leaving

much

to

say in his favour.

He

then, according to S. Epiphanius, before

Rome

on the occasion
enclosing
as

referred to,
letter

whenever that was, addressed a

to

Pope

Julius,

profession

of

his faith, written,

he says, with his

own hand

being what he

had

learnt,

from Holy Scripture, and preached in church, and of which he always kept a copy by him. What
been taught
should
those

words mean

That the

lyo

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


was the Creed of
so

profession he enclosed

the

Roman, which he never


it

much

as
?

hints

was,"*

or of his

own Church

Of

his

own

Church

most assuredly
?

what

else

could be gathered from them

How

should Marcellus have learnt, been

taught, or preached

any other creed at Ancyra than the Ancyran ? At the same time most certainly this^ his profession was not : at least ^ in the shape it then

which was purely Western. Accordingly, what S. Epiphanius suggests and what few people surely would have much difficulty in believing that it was is, concocted by the deposed prielate for the
hore^

occasion

for

the purpose,

that

is,

of

clearing himself.

And

this,

again,
it

may
sent,

have been the reason


'^

why
se

was

'*

Romanum quidem
dixit

symbolum
says Walch,

tradere

nunquam

Marcellus,"

whom

quotes in a note: Harm. Symb. he said so, adding that it was aho Had p. 24. the Baptismal Creed of his own Church, his credit certainly would not have stood high with Professor H.
the Pope.

^-j

TO CREEDS FIXED AND UNIFORM. 17I


and not presented
Marcellus being in
it

to

Julius in
still.

person,

Rome

Further,

would appear from the same author that Marcellus employed more professions and that in dealing with than one Easterns the Creed in which he professed
;

his faith

was

that of Nicsea.
is

This proas

fession

of

his

extant as well

the
his

other; and

was being employed by

disciples in their
it

own

justification,
S.

when

was placed
It is

in the

hands of

Epipha-

nius.

headed, " Writing of the faith

of Marcellus." Putting them both together,

we see
to

plainly that he aimed at being an

Eastern to the Easterns, and a Western


the

Westerns.
is,

The
last

only

question
to suc-

that remains

how he managed
respect?

ceed so well in this

And
help

here geographical considerations


us.

may

would Marcellus get naturally from Ancyra, which lay


heart of Asia Minor,
to

How

most
in the
First,

Rome

the proceedings instituted against

him

at

Constantinople would be hkely to bring

172

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


thither,

him
some

and detain him there

for

time.

Next, as his condemnation

there preceded his acquittal at


six years, if

Rome by
previously

he came

to

Rome

to his acquittal,

and

his stay in

Rome was
and

limited to fifteen months, he cannot have

moved westwards very


travelled

rapidly,

may

have spent several years on the road. If he

by land

in those

nople to

and but few days ever went from ConstantiRome by way would
travellers

sea

his

be through Thrace and lUyria, both just


then

teeming with religious excitement


;

and episcopal gatherings

and

if

we

credit

him with having


this
is

spent some time at a


as Aquileia,

border-town of such celebrity

no more than S. Athanasius is known to have done in travelling from Rome to Sardica. Indeed it was at Aquileia, not Sardica, that the Council to which he was
and
as at a council

proceeding was to have met originally

convened there by the

Emperor Gratian thirty-five years afterwards, at which S. Ambrose was present,

TO CREEDS
the only

FIXED

AND UNIFORM.

73
in

two remaining Arian bishops


its

those parts were deposed,

orthodoxy
then
as

must have stood


its

full

as

high

civic

prestige.

Marcellus,

therefore,

whether to learn Western manners or enlist the orthodox in his favour, is likely to

have stopped at Aquileia longest of all At Aquiplaces, if he travelled by land. leia, and possibly most places round it, he would find a creed in use which would have
furnished

him with

the exact model on

which that presented by him subsequently to Pope Julius as his own was framed, and which, we can hardly doubt, must :
the Aquileian Creed, as
it

have transcribed

from the genuine Rufinus, being substantially word for word with his till just
at
its

close

his closing

with " The Resur7iot

rection of the

body,"

of

this

body,

and " Life everlasting"


here
out.
it is

in addition.

Now,

precisely that the Eastern crops

Easterns happened to be rather fond

of ending their creeds just then as he has.

"

We believe," said the Council of Antioch,

174
A.D. 341,

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE

"in the Holy Ghost; and, if we should add anything else, we believe
further in the resurrection of the

body
of

and
A.D.

life

everlasting."'''

The
S.

Creed

Jerusalem, on which

Cyril

lectured

348,f

the

creed

of the

Eastern

bishops

who withdrew from


Eyen the
a.d.

the Council

of Sardica the year before, had the same


ending. J longer of the

two bap-

tismal creeds published


as late as

by S. E.piphanius 373 had " Life everlast-

ing" for
yet into

its last article.

As

yet, indeed,

this article

was not in the Aquileian Creed, this it was adopted first of any

Western Creed
'''

in the fifty years, namely,

Soc.
S.

ii.

10.
p. 10.

f Heurtley, as before,
Hilar.

Fragm. iii. 29, and De Synod t A note on the last of these 34, Ed. Migne. passages shows that this formula was in reality that of the Council of Antioch, and had been sent into France by Narcissus and others as delegates from that Council to Constantinople, and was sent three years later into Italy by Eudoxius and others
in an enlarged form.

Heurtley,

p. 15.


Td CREEDS
that

FIXED

AND UNIFORM.
Rufinus

75
S.
its

elapsed

between

and

Nicetas.

S. Peter

Chrysologus

attests

whose communications with Aquileia must have been incessant, much about the same time ; and from thence it passed westwards and to Rome. But it was above two hundred years more getting into general acceptance, as may be seen from the numerous specimens without it furnished by Professor
Heurtley in his larger w^ork."
It is

presence in the Creed of Ravenna,

unnecessary to pursue the history

of these additions in detail any further.

One

of them

"

the descent into hell"

had been anticipated in a former chapter. And I have dwelt upon this particular
one

now

less

for

its

own
it

sake than for

the opportunity which

gave

me

of un-

ravelling the origin of the Creed of


cellus,
It

Marit

and exhibiting
/lot

it

in
;

its

true colours.

was
"

the

Roman

neither

was

framed on the model of the Roman, but


Harm. Symb.
pp. 38-77, in

which

S.

Augus-

tine's different versions are included.

176

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


:

of the Western Creed


also

this

Creed being

common

to the African

Church, and
at that

of the same family, but not by any means


identical

with the Roman, and


reality,

time shorter, in

than the Creed

of Marcellus by one Article.

By
most

the end of the seventh century this

creed had expanded to the exact form in


places v^hich
it

has

worn

ever since.

As

wanted a name, now that another creed was used in the Liturgy, it was called that of the Apostles and as it had come to consist, or to be held to conof exactly twelve articles, it was sist,
it
;

ascribed
Isidore
first

to their

joint composition.

S.

of Seville was, apparently,

the

to credit the Apostles

with
as
it

its

author-

ship,

and

to claim for

it,

stood then,

a higher antiquity than for the Nicene.


Pirminius, abbot in the diocese of Saragossa, led the

in
''

way, about a century later,* determining which Apostle composed


Mabillon
says
A.D.

758.

Migne's

Patrol.

Ixxxix. 1030.

TO CREEDS FIXED AND UNIFORM.


which
article.

77

These were fruitful themes for Charlemagne, who perceived their political value, and for those theologians who took their cue from him. Basilius of Ancyra had satisfied the Seventh
Council of his orthodoxy, but there were

two

articles

in

the
sins"

" Remission of
rection of the
profession.

Western Creed and " The resurpassed over in his

body"
It is

attacked

by the author

of the Caroline Books on both counts.* Of the first he says " This article the
Apostles are reported to have placed next
to the confession of the Father, Son,

and

Holy Ghost

in the

compendium of

faith,

which they determined on before separating, as a rule of belief and preaching and although studious of brevity there, to the extent described by the Prophet, where he says, 'A short word will the Lord make upon the earth still omit it they would not on any account, conscious that any profession without it would be neither
:'

iii.

6.

178

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE

sincere nor complete."

Of

the second
all

" This

also

the Apostles included on the other spiritual

occasions

among

teries delivered

mysby them when they went


different tongues,
to.

forth,

endowed with
faith."

instruct all nations

same

and languages in the Gherbald, Bishop of Laon,


"

is still

more

precise.

The

Creed," he

says, in bidding his clergy preach

upon

it

conformably with

instructions
is

received

from Charlemagne, "


in twelve versicles."

what the Twelve

Apostles arranged for our faith and belief


'

After such opinions

had obtained generally, it is easy to see that it would have been strangely inconsistent with them to have gone on adding
to the creed in question,
sacrilege to
article.
little

less

than

have enlarged

it

by a

thirteenth

But there were two


'-'

sets

of canonkal

Mansi, xili. 1084, and Charlemagne's letter, Comp.Leidrad, De Baptism, c. 4. Theop. 1087. Eter. and Beat. Ep. ad dulph. De Ord. Bapt. c. 6. Elipand. i. 87 and ii. 9, all in Migne's Patrol.

TO CREEDS FIXED AND UNIFORM.

79

enactments overlapping or following each other about the same time, which contributed
still

more

efFectually to fix

it

to

what

it

then was.

The

first

of these

relates to the

learning of the Creed and


all

Lord's Prayer by

as a devotional act,

and may be given in the words of a canon attributed by Burchard and others to the Synod of Chalons on the Seine,
A.D. 650.

"

It is to

be ordered that the


all

Lord's Prayer, in which


sary to the
life

things neces-

of

man

are contained,

and
in-

the Creed of the Apostles, in which the

Catholic

faith

is

contained

in

its

tegrity, be

learnt

by

all,

as well in

Latin

as in the vernacular, that


fess

what they pro-

with their mouths they

may
show

both
the

understand and believe with their hearts."


I

begin with this instance to

utter untrustworthiness of these collectors

of canons in the dark

ages.

Anybody,

who
the

will be at the
in

pains of referring to

two places what Burchard

Mansi, will see that

ascribed to the

Synod of

^8o

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


reality,

Chalons, forms, in
section

the

second

of

capitulary

Ahyto, Bishop of Basle,


turies later.*

by Haito, or nearly two cenauthentic enthis

The

earliest

actments

for

teaching

everybody

Creed and the Lord's Prayer combined


that
I

can discover, date from the eighth

century, and are few and far

between
;

before the reign of Charlemagne


ever,

howwith

there

is

one

fact

connected

their earlier
lost sight

history that should not be

of:

namely,

that

they

com-

menced elsewhere than

in Spain.

Among

the statutes of S. Boniface of Germany, A.D. 745,t we read, " Let the presbyters

announce that
the

all

the faithful under their

charge commit to

memory
:

the Creed and

Lord's Prayer
the

that

by

faith

and
they

prayer,

Holy Ghost
salvation."

assisting,

may

obtain

And

again

" Let the presbyters announce that no-

body, male or female, stand


''

sponsor at

Mansi, Mansi, \

x.

1196,

and

xiv. 393.

xii.

385.

TO CREEDS

FIXED

AND UNIFORM.
is

l8l

the holy font,


the| Creed

who

unable to repeat

and
S.

Lord's

Prayer
of
the
;

from

memory."
legislated

Cuthbert
for

Canterbury

similarly

South of

England a few years later and the Synod of Calcuith, A.D. 785, on behalf of the North " We have taught in our
:

second

chapter

that

all,

without

dis-

tinction, should

know
when

the Creed and the

Lord's Prayer."

Charlemagne,
to

it

came
...

to his turn
as

enforce
:

this,

dogmatised
all
.

well as

enacted
that

" First of

we

propose

you note all those who can neither repeat from memory, nor are willing to
learn the Lord's Prayer

and Creed of the

Christian faith
to

and that you cause them

come before us, and make them all, young and old, noble and ignoble, say, on coming thither, the Lord's Prayer and the Apostles' Creed, in which the fulness of the Catholic
faith
'

is

contained
is,

because,
his

'

without faith "


of
view,

that

from

point

without

dogma

; : ;

82
it is

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


impossible to please God.' " *
to

"
'

He
and

recurs

the

same

subject

again

again in his other capitularies,^ and in


his letters to

bishops, calling
it

to see that
clergy.

was

carried

upon them out by their

Gherbald,

Bishop of Laon, as

will be

remembered, was one of these

and the commencement of the pastoral issued by him in consequence, which has
been in part anticipated, runs
as follows

"

First

of

all,

we would admonish you,

that

we

have long preached ourselves,

and bade others preach on the Catholic faith and the Lord's Prayer The
Lord's Prayer
Father,'
etc.
;

it

is

when we
Creed
is

say,

'

Our

the

what the

twelve

Apostles arranged

for our faith

and
calls

belief in twelve versicles."

What

he

" the Catholic faith " in one place,

he

calls

"the Apostles' Creed " in another


is

and
''"

this

precisely
1090.

what

have quoted

Mansi,

xiii.

t lb. 1093,

and App. 171; also

xiv.

App. 256,

267,

and 361.

"
:

TO CREEDS FIXED AND UNIFORM.

83

him
stress

a second time

to

enable

me

to

lay

namely, that throughout these capitularies " the Catholic faith and " the Apostles' Creed " are apt to be
:

upon

regarded as synonymous terms, and used

one for the other.


printed

A
all

canonical epistle^
says

among them by Mansi,


all

" First of

let

presbyters, deacons,
to

and sub-deacons commit


Catholic faith."* ....
tularies

memory

the

One of
all

the capi-

A.D.

published at 789 " First of


:

Aix-la-Chapelle,

we admonish
and preached
Forty-fifth

that the Catholic faith be diligently read

by all bishops and


to
all

presbyters,

persons." f

And

the

Canon of the Synod of Mayence, a.d. 813: "Let the priests be constant in
admonishing
Creed, which
"

Christians
is

to

learn

the

the seal of faith, and the

Mansi,

xiii.

1095.

Op. iii. 955) claim a which they omit to


*'

The much
prove

Ballerini (S.
earlier
;

Leon.
for
it,

date

Catholic
it

faith "

of the

and explain the Athanasian Creed as


else.

though

could

mean nothing

f lb. App. 171.

184
Lord's
are

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE


Prayer."
to

Presently,

what they
" the

required

learn

is

called

Catholic faith." ^

The

point of this ob-

servation will appear further on.

Thus, the Creed was no longer


" delivered "
exclusively
:

to

be
the

to
it

candidates

for

baptism
into
all,

was
be

to

enter

devotions

of

all,

learnt
in

by

and

constantly preached on

church to a
copies

promiscuous audience.
of
it

Written

would be rendered necessary, and speedily follow from its enlarged use. Nor was this all A place for the Creed,
in addition to the

Lord's Prayer, before


in

long

suggested

itself

the

canonical

hours, and became the subject of another


set

of enactments, which
to their

we

need pursue

no further than

commencement.
acts

In a Vatican

MS.

of the

of the

Synod
there
is,

of
in

Aix-la-Chapelle,
addition to

A.D.

816,
list

the long

of
all

ecclesiastical

ordinances

common

to

other copies of them, a sort of appendix


''

Mansi, xiv. 73.

TO CREEDS FIXED

i\ND UNIFORM.

85

of supplemental regulations on most of


the subjects

previously

dealt

with,

as

though to reduce them whether made then, or


or place,
these

to practice; but
at

another time

Mansi cannot
directions

decide.*
for

Among
first

are

the saying of

the second of the canonical, or


the day
hours, called
is

of

" prime."

And
in

here provision

made
and

for repeating the

" Pater

Noster,"

the

" Credo

Deum,"
and

in secret at the

end of the

lection,

after "

Kyrie Eleison " thrice said.f

The

probability that this order

was made

then appears from hence.

Amalarius, the

well-known liturgical writer, and presbyter of Metz a place likely to be uppermost in the minds of men for some time to come known to have drawn is up his work, " Regula Canonicorum," at the instance of the Emperor Lewis, for approval by this Synod. This would

naturally bring
its

him
;

into connection
his

with

proceedings
- xiv. 283.

and though
f

own

lb. 305.

86

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE

work, being entirely compiled from the Fathers and earlier councils, contained nothing to the purpose, there was another

work, going by the same name, from which the Council culled largely, whose directions for saying the canonical hours were

the most specific of any that had appeared


hitherto,

and which he of

all

others at

Aix

then must have

known
fifty

best:

a"Regula
Bishop

Canonicorum," by Chrodegand,
of Metz, about
in this

years since.

Now,

work of Chrodegand

there are

directions for saying


at

the Lord's Prayer

prime in the place and manner already


;

described

but the Lord's Prayer only.*


it

Yet Amalarius in another, and seem a subsequent work of his,


ing of prime,
to the practice
testifies

would

in speak-

in

express terms

of saying the Creed, as


just as

well as the Lord's Prayer then,y


if

he had been commenting on these later " After the Lord^s Prayer^^ directions.

he
''

says,
C. i6.

" follows our Belief which the


Patrol, xc.

De

Eccl. Off.

iv. 2.

TO CREEDS FIXED AND UNIFORM.

87

Holy

Apostles

constructed,

concerning

the faith of the

Holy

Trinity, the dis-

pensation of the Incarnation of our Lord,

and the

state

of our Church."
practice

As no such
church only

was

in use

when
same
the
it

Chrodegand was

Bishop of

the

fifty years earlier, either

Church of Metz may have invented the interim and introduced it to


Council, or this Council invented
it

in

this

and

introduced

it

to

the

Church of Metz.

Of

the

two
;

rather incline to the former

alternative

but in either case there can


as

be no reason, so far

the use of the

Creed
this

is

concerned,

against

supposing

these directions to

have emanated from


A.D.

Synod of Aix,

816, whoever

was the prompter of them. Either way, it was at this date that the Western Creed
first

began
;

to

be said at the canonical

hours

and

in the

dominions of Charle-

magne
was
it

that this practice

commenced and
no mention of
S. Benedict,

enjoined.

There

is

whatever in the rule of

l88

FROM CREEDS VARIABLE,

ETC.

on which the Roman Office of those days was founded,* or, indeed, any other rules up to then:f and there is no hint, either in the works of Amalarius or in
the canons

of Aix-la-Chapelle, that

it

was then

any other time than at the end of prime. The modern rubric,
said at

therefore,

directing

it

to

be said before
at

matins and
hence, but

prime,

and

the end

of

compUne, was of course derived from

What
and
is

is

much later arrangement. common to both is, that it was


is

still

directed to be

said in secret

when
'

used.

Palmer's Orig. Liturg. i. 213-16. Abbot Smaragdus on this rule, Patrol,


seq.

Comp.
cii.

829

et

f E.g., the and Alcuin, *'


Ferias."

anonymous

rule

in

Mansi,

xiv. 334,

De

Psalm, usu," and " Officia per


cl.

598 the original Nicene Creed occurs among prayers and hymns from various Fathers, but not as forming part of any service. The '' Disput. Puer.," the *' Lib. de Div. Off.," and *' Symb. Expos.," which follow, are not
Patrol,

At

p.

his.

i89

CHAPTER

IV.

ON THE AGE, AIM, AND AUTHORSHIP OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.

There
addition

is

a third set of enactments, in


to

the

two

former

already-

described, at

one time running

parallel to

them,
noticed

at

another

intermingling
;

with

them, that
all

remains to be noticed
the

and

more

carefully, as

it

brings

us in sight of our proposed goal.


subject
is

Their

dogma.
well be separated
classes,

Though they cannot


into

two

the earlier of these enact-

ments have

really
lines

two

sides,

and combine
:

two

distinct

of thought
then

the

first

reared

in

Africa,

acclimatised
all

in

Spain, at length naturalised in


the

parts of

Latin

Church

the

second trans-

190
planted

AGE, AIM,
in

AND AUTHORSHIP
the
East,
its

maturity from

neglected or roughly handled

on

in-

troduction, and at length extinguished or


lost

in the

other.

Or, to put this in


rise

other words, they describe the

and
and
I

progress of theological dogma, so far as


councils are concerned, in uncivilized
illiterate

Europe.
earliest

The

specimen of the kind

mean is to be found in the first resolution of what is called the Second Council of
Carthage, a.d. 390, where the presiding bishop says - " To confirm the minds
:

of our brethren and fellow-bishops


promoted,
let

lately

us propose that which,

by

certain tradition,

the Fathers

unity of the

and adore Ghost to

we have received from that, as we have learnt the Trinity which we worship
Son,

Father,

and

Holy
to the

be

without

any

diversity
it

whatsoever, so
people

we

should teach

And all the bishops of God." answered " So we have received, so we


:
'''

Mansi,

iii.

692.

; :

OF THE

ATHAN ASIAN
:

CREED.

gI

hold unquestionably

following the faith

of the Apostles."

The heading
is
:

of this

canon or resolution
credatur
et

" Ut

Trinitas

prediceturT
later

Three years
''

Synod of Hippo
this

listened to S. Augustine, then a presbyter,

disputing^'*

as

he says himself, on

subject,

and that of the Creed of his Church generally, in words that have been preserved, and now form one of the " This best known of his smaller works.
Trinity,"

he told

his

hearers,
is

"

is

one

God:

not that the Father

the same

with the Son or with the Holy Ghost


but the Father being the Father, the Son
the Son, and the

Ghost,
written
:

this
'

Holy Ghost the Holy Trinity is one God, as it is

Hear,

Israel,

God
'

is

one God.'

Lord thy At the same time,


the

should
Is the
;'

we
*

be asked of each in this

way

Father
Is

God

?'

we

reply,

'

He

is

God
'

Yes

;'

same.

Son God ?' we reply and of the Holy Ghost just the Not by any means as it is said
the

192

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP
:

in the psalms of

men

Ye

are Gods.'

"*

Augustine refers more than once to the " learned and spiritual
In
this

work

S.

men" who had

written on the Trinity

nowhere cites them as authorities whom he must follow implicitly on the contrary, because none of them hadf " disputed hitherto with sufficient fulness and perspicuity respecting
before him, but he
;

the

Holy Ghost,"

as

he says, he

is all

the
this

more copious
article himself,

in speculating

upon

and

is

soon in advance of
It is

the boldest

till

then.

superfluous

to say that the Niceno-Constantinopolitan

Creed,

though
is

twelve years,

had been published nowhere named in his


it

work.

It

was never received


I

at all in

Africa that

can discover.

As

yet there the

had been no formal acceptance by


African
Nicaea.

Church,

even of the Creed of


at

This Creed was formally received

there, for the first time,


- "

what

is

called

De Fide

et

Symb."

16.

f Ibid.

19.

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


the eighteenth

93

of the Councils of Cara.d.

thage, under AureHan,


it

419, when

was incorporated into the African code but by then everybody that had
;

a turn for theological inquiries in Africa

was shaping his views from the larger work on the Trinity of the great Bishop of Hippo, which, according to his own
statement, excited so

much

interest there

came out that the first twelve books of it were stolen from him and circulated in an unfinished state.* Yet this work is but a matured and
long
before
it

highly-finished expression of the other.

Later writers in Africa

who

discoursed

on the Trinity, finding they could add


nothing to his speculations, only thought
of putting his conclusions into dogmatic

them with an air of positiveness from which he recoiled himself.


shape, and enunciating
'

Retract,

ii.

15.
it

From

the dedicatory letter to

Bishop Aurelian
correcting
in

them as much

appears that he was prevented as he could have wished

consequence.

194

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

To the

same

influences, unquestionably,
'

must be ascribed " the rule of faith said to have been drawn up in Spain long
before the introduction of the

Niceno-

Constantinopolitan Creed, at the Third

Council of
A.D.

Toledo, by King Reccared,

589, and it was in the spirit of this rule that even he/dogmatised in his opening
address, afterwards interpolating the Creed,
as if to

make both

square.

It shall
it

be

given in the shape in which


the collections of Councils

stands in
a sample,

as

not by any means that


shape:*

this

was

its

original

We

believe in one God, the Father, Son, and


of things visible

and invisible, by Whom all things were created in heaven and That this one God and this one Trinity in earth. belong to the Divine Essence. That the Father, however, is not the Son, but has a Son Who is not the Father. That the Son is not the Father, but is the Son of God, of the nature of the Father;

Holy Ghost, Maker

-''

looi

See comments of Pagi, given in Mansi, iii. and my own remarks, *' Christendom's
;

Divisions,"

ii.

431.

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


that the

95

Holy Ghost,

also, is

one

Who

is

neither

the Father nor the Son,

but proceeds from the

So the Father is unbegotten, Son unbegotten, and the Holy Ghost not and begotten, but proceeding from the Father and the Son. It is the Father Whose voice was heard
Father and the Son.
the

from heaven, saying


I

" This

is

my Son,
says
:

in
'*

Whom
I

am

well pleased ;" the Son,


;"

Who

went

and came from God into the Holy Ghost, of Whom the this world Son says " Unless I go away to the Father, the Paraclete will not come to you." That this Trinity,
forth from the Father,
:

distinguished by persons, united in substance,


in might, power,

is

and without diversity; neither, besides It, is there any divine nature, whether of angel, spirit, or power whatsoever, which we believe, or which any should believe to be God. That this Son of God, accordingly, God born of the Father prior to any beindivisible

and majesty both

ginning whatsoever, sanctified the womb of the Virgin Mary, and, without any carnal generation, assumed true man of her: two natures alone, the Godhead and the flesh, combining in one sole Person, our Lord Jesus Christ, in Whom there was neither an imaginary, nor in any sense phanThat He tastic body, but a true and solid one.

hungered and thirsted, grieved and wept, and endured all bodily pains. That He was crucified by the Jews, buried, and rose the third day conversed afterwards with His disciples, and ascended, the fortieth day after His resurrection, into heaven. That this Son of Man is also called the Son of
;

196
God
Son
:

AGE, AIM,
and we
call

AND AUTHORSHIP
Son of God, the

the Lord, the


flesh

of

Man.
call

We

believe there will be a resur;

rection of the

human

itnd as for the soul of

man, we
Divine

equal with
will.

it neither a divine substance, nor God, but a creature created by the

The
" rule"
lieve

only thing
is

oriental
:

about
''

this

its

commencement

We

be-

in

one

God ;"

but

the

Africans

themselves, after the Nicene Creed

had

been received amongst them, got into the


habit of

commencing

their professions in

the same manner, as

we have seen already


is

and

its

own

African caste

disclosed in

the same parapraph


verse created, not

by making the unithe Father, as in the

by

Western Creed, nor by the Father and


the Son, as in the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, but

by the whole
pet
all

Trinity,

which was

S.

Augustine's

dogma.
de-

And

it

is

African

through, with one

exception

the

paragraph,

namely,

claring the

whole work of the Incarnation to have been the act of the Son alone, without any reference to the Holy

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


Ghost,

97

which was, doubtless, original. There were sixteen Councils of Toledo, beginning with the third, at which the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed was received, and following each other for rather more than a century, where, if there was any dogmatism at all, it was of a piece
with
this
rule,

whatever
or
either that

its

length,

in

being either

African
is

Gothic.

The

form

it

takes

of a prefatory

discourse

from the King, of which there


or
capitulary,

are several characteristic specimens, or else

that

of a canon

headed
pleni-

"
at

De

evidenti Catholicse fidei veritate," as


;

the Fourth Council


fidei

or "

De

tudine

Catholicse," as at the Sixth.


is

Where
is

any dogmatism, the creed seldom recited and whether recited or


there
;

not,

it is

never really commented upon.


President,
for

On

one occasion* the

King
this

Recevinth,

apologised naively
:

omission by saying
faith
''

" This holy rule of

is,

therefore,

given on this occasion


Mansi,
x. 1206.

Viz. the Eighth Council.

198

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP
it

without comment, because

has been

expounded abundantly by holy doctors ere now, and business of urge?it moment
imposes upoft us other occupations T

In
it is

every case where the creed

is

recited,

with the interpolated clause due


Reccared
:

to

King

and

if six

Councils out of the

sixteen profess their agreement with the


first
first

four General Councils,


four only.

it is

with the

Then,

at the fifteenth or

last

of these.
his

King Egica, while proto

fessing

adhesion

the

first

four

General Councils, argues vehemently for


several

dogmatic positions against


II.,

Pope

Benedict

who had

disapproved of

them."*
I

have given prominence

to these facts

by these pioneers of Western dogmatism, whenever their own speculations were trenched
to illustrate the bold line laken

upon.

They

pledged themselves to the


xii.,

* Mansi, torn,

10.

Comp.]the Dogmatic
Mansi,
x.

Statement of the
p. 64.

Sixteenth Council.

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


faith of the
first

99

four councils, but inter-

polated the creed ordained

by the fourth

they took

no more notice of the Fifth Council than if no such council had met, though they could not have been ignorant that its rejection was causing a schism elsewhere and if, again, they attest having
;

had the

acts

of the Sixth Council sent

them
it

for

acceptance
will

by the Pope,
accept
it

after

declaring^ they

so

far

as

accords with the

first

four, they proceed

to dogmatise

themselves upon the points


it

defined

by

in

their

own

fashion.*

And on

the next Pope finding fault with

their theology, they reiterate their positions in his teeth, bidding the

world take
right.

note that he

But the
their

wrong and they chief singularity by


is
is,

far of all

proceedings

that

while

they

dogmatise with S. Augustine, they never


so

much as name

the Creed of his Church,

which was
''

that of the

West

also.f

The

Caps. 6 and 8-10. Mansi, xi., 1089-90. Braga, a.d. I Can. I of the Third Council of

200

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP
is

only creed they ever profess

that of the

Fourth Council, formally received, indeed,

form of the Eastern Churches," but accommodated in reality to their own views. Their teaching, again, was confessedly that of the African Church; but what they say of
to the
it

by them " according

themselves

is

that

it

is all

in

harmony

with the

faith of the first four councils, the

only councils to which they ever appeal.


Consequently,

when we come

to

esti-

mate
so

their effect

upon European theology,

much greater than is in general supposed, we must distinguish accurately


between

dogmatism and their creed. Their dogmatism and their creed not
their

having been connected originally, so


as

far

either

had any

distinctive

character,

they were not inseparable, except of course


to the extent that

one had been received

572, orders that catechumens should be taught the *' Credo in Deum ;" etc., but this was before the

conversion of King Reccared, and it is possible that " unum " may have slipped out even here before " Deum."

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


into the other.

20I

Accordingly, the one

Unk
the

that

bound

them
in

together

was

" Filioque " clause

the creed.

They
further.

were so

far correlative,
all

and no

On

the other hand,

other Western

nations had a creed of their


stantially

own, sub-

word with the African Creed, and were by no means unacquainted with African theology, which

word

for

had

in earlier

times penetrated into the


:

South of France by another route by way of Lerins and 'Marseilles.

viz.,

These remarks may serve

to

explain

what

actually took place.

The Third

of

the Councils of Toledo met a.d. 589, and the eighteenth, or last of them, A.D. 701.

Their influence would begin about the

same time, subsequently to the former, Thus, that it would survive the latter.
A.D.

650, we find traces of it as far north as Chalons on the Seine, where a canon

was then passed


"

We

words have defined unanimously and


in these
faith, as

with one accord, that the rule of

202

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

piously professed at the Nicene Council,

handed down by the holy Fathers, and explained by them, or as it was afterwards confirmed by the holy Council of
Chalcedon, be maintained
in
all

things

and by

all."*

And

at Braga, to the north

of Oporto,

where the Western Creed had apparently been taught, a.d. 572, the first canon of a council held there rather more than one hundred years later, speaks of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, which it recites with the interpolation of King
Reccared, as " our
It

own

rule of faith."

had been called " our belief" by a Synod of Merida nine years before.^ And it was doubtless intended to be paraphrased five years later by our own forefathers at the Synod of Hatfield in these words
'^

MansI,
xi.,

X,

1190.

f lb.
ix.

153.

And

for the previous

Synod,

838.
X
lb. xi. 77.

OF THE ATH AN ASIAN CREED.


"

203
and

We

have

set

forth

the

right

orthodox

faith, as

deUvered by our Lord

Jesus Christ to his Apostles, and handed

down
Spirit
:

in the creed of the holy Fathers

confessing the

Father, Son,

and Holy
in

the

Holy

Trinity in Unity, and


:

Three consubstantial Persons of equal honour and glory. God the Father, without beginning His Only-begotten Son, born of the Father before all worlds and the Holy Spirit, proceeding ineffably from the Father and the Son, according to the preaching of the above-named Apostles, and prophets, and doctors to all which we have subscribed, who with Archbishop Theodore have expounded the Catholic
the Unity in Trinity

one

God

faith."

Archbishop
Hatfield,
his

Theodore,
a

who
;

presided

at

was

Greek

but Abbot

Adrian,

inseparable

" assistant," by

whom
*

Pope Vitalian* had expressly pro-

See

my

Historical Tract on the " Filioque "

clause, p. 18-19.

Rivingtons, 1867.

204

^^^5 ^IM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

vided that his proceedings should be closely

watched, was
fact

learned African.

The
far

of his presence

would
it

go

to
this

account for paraphrase


;

the dogmatic turn of

but in that

affects to

have

been drawn from the Creed,

we must
had

infer, also, that the interpolated creed

by then been received in England. Two more professions of the Nicene


faith

remain to be noticed
of
first

one pure and


councils.
at

simple, the other in connection with the


faith

the
is

six

first

general

The

capitulary, published

Soissons

apparently

by

King
settled

Pepin

" That the Catholic faith


three

by the

hundred and eighteen bishops form-

ing the Nicene Council should be preached

throughout our

whole realm."* The second emanated from the Synod of


787,

Calcuith in Northumberland, a.d.

which
faith

commenced

its

capitularies

by

ordaining that " the

holy and inviolate

of the Nicene Council should be


"'

Mansi,

xii.

App.

iii.

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.

205
all

maintained faithfully and firmly by

who

are destined for


;

the service of the

sanctuary

and that

In synodical

meetings

every year the presbyters of each church,

whose duty

it

was

to instruct the people,

should be themselves examined diligently


respecting the
faith

in

general, so that

they

may

in all things confess, maintain,

and preach the Apostolical and universal faith of the six councils, approved by the

Holy Ghost,

as

it

has been delivered to


;

us by the holy

Roman Church
it,

and

may

not fear to die for


offer
;

should opportunity

whomsoever those holy general councils received, and condemning and rejecting from the heart everybody
receiving
that they condemned."*

From

this date references to the


It is far

Nicene

faith cease.

otherwise with the

dogmatism of the Councils of Toledo, and with their creed. Of their creed all
that need be said
all
is

that

it

is

in use

still

over the West, just as


*

King Reccared

Mansi,

xii.

937.

"

206

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

published

it

and not more inaccurately


the Creeds of the Apostles

named than
and
S.

Athanasius.
their

dogmatism a few words more must be added. The form it took, as I have stated already, was that of a prefatory discourse, canon, or capitulary, sometimes emanating from the monarch who convened them, sometimes from the
bishops, or presiding bishop, present, but

On

always on one theme

and

this for the


:

most part expressed in


the Catholic faith."

its title

viz.

" on

Of

course, so far as

the " Catholic faith " and the " Creed

were synonymes

named them
of both

as
;

and such
but
in

it

occasionally
it

so far
its

treated

alike

hands

the

"Catholic faith" in reality covered a

much

wider range, and it never professedly took It affected, the " Creed " for its text.
if it

nowhere

professed, to be supplemental

to the creed.

If

it

limited itself to topics


it

expressed in the creed,


tions

resolved ques-

respecting

them

on

which

the


OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.
creed
is silent,

207

and drew inferences from


to say
truths.
Its

them which wore the appearance,


the
least,

of

new

tone

was

that of self-assurance

what

it

particularly

and menace; and luxuriated in was the

systematic

employment of terms from

which the framers of the creed, and in Bome cases even the founder of itself had
pointedly shrank.
itself, I

By

the founder of
;

mean
the
it

S.

Augustine

and by the

creed,

Niceno-Constantinopolitan

for
at

was attached in Spain the head of whose framers I place


to this

S. Athanasius.*
S.

Athanasius

justified the introduction

of one word that was unscriptural into " the creed, and of but one are
:

We

not baptized in the


gotten^ nor do

name of

the Unbe-

we

address ourselves to the

Unbegotten in the Lord's Prayer :"f


''-

he

appear in Dr. Smith's forthcoming Diet, of Christ. Antiq. Art. *^ Councils


will

For reasons that

of Constantinople."

t De Dec. Synod. Nic. Ben.

c. 31.

Op,

i.

236.

Ed.

2o8
says,

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

even in defending the Nicene decrees.


sanctioned the

Whether he would have


v^ord
private formula,
able
to

" Trinity," or not, in any more

we may
its

not be perhaps
the
^^C:

say;

but

absence, and

absence of any such terms,* in asserting


doctrine,

from

his

own

authentic
is

" Exnote-

position of the Faith,"

at

least

worthy, coupled with one of the gravest


of his public
acts.

At

the end of his long

and glorious career, after his own judgment had been ripened by experience, after his name had become a proverb in
all

lands for orthodoxy, and

all

eyes were

fixed
"^ %
'^

A.D.

on the council assembled by him, 362, on returning from exile to give

peace to Christendom, application having

been
parties

made

tasis"
''

by two contending to decide whether the " Hyposof the Father, Son, and Holy
to
it
'*

The word
:

hypostasis " occurs once, and but

-/

and then as a disclaimer " To imagine three hypostases," he says, ''divided from each other, as men are by their bodies, would be to fall
once
into Polytheism."

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.

209
?

Ghost was to be considered distinct or in other words, whether the the same term " Hypostasis " meant " Person " or

" Substance "


less

the council, acting doubtinspiration,

under
of

his

deprecated
all

using any such expressions at

in speak-

mg

God

;*

and
to

still

more

fixing their
:

meaning too any propose

rigidly.

Further

" Should
to the

Creed of Nicese "


the East and
such,

West alike " silence all and persuade them rather to study
;

such was

add explanations
its

advice to

to be peaceable

for such conduct in our

opinion can only spring from a love of


controversy and nothing
It
else."']'

was due

to

this

excellent counsel

that the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed


is

recited in the

East to

for

word,

as

it

word was promulgated by


this

day,

the

Fourth

Council

nay,

more,

that

whatever the heresies condemned there


*
OvK.
iirl

Qeav
Soc.

Setv ec^aaav
6.

Tavrai^

'X^prjaOac

Toi^ Xe^eai.

iii.

f Mansi,

iii.

348-49.

2IO

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

since the days of S. Athanasius,

"Homoou-

sios"

is

still

its

single

exception to the

Scriptural language in

which it is couched* Strange phenomenon, that Eastern and Western Africa, separated merely by the desert of sand that borders on each alike,
should have produced theological schools
diverging so widely, to say nothing of
their other peculiarities,* as those

repre-

sented
at the

by SS. Athanasius and Augustine

same time, as S. Augustine cannot consistently with history be said to have created those influences which he above
all

others
it

rendered attractive, so neither

would
often

be

fair to credit

him with

the

reckless

and always more


his followers.

pro-

nounced tone of

On
-''

the point in question, for instance^


i.
:

'' Egypt, 66 or Eastern Africa, in S. Athanasius, laid down unerringly the science of what may be called

" Christendom's Divisions,"

Christian divinity
science of what

Algeria, or

Western

Africa, in

the person of S. Augustine, laid down unerringly the

may

be called Christian humanity


all

for the universal

Church of

ages and lands."

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.

211

the using of unscriptural terms, Tertulllan

had

in his

work

against

PraxeasT^Imost

two
the

centuries earUer, used both the

word

"person," and " trinity" in describing

Godhead

and

in his

own

time the
as

Second Council of Carthage directed,

we have
Unity
Nicene
as

seen, all to teach the Trinity in

they had received

it

from the
African

Fathers.

Not having
Creed

as yet received the

themselves,

the

bishops could not well have been think-

ing of the Fathers

who
all

framed

it

when
doubt

they said
existing

this

at

events with our

materials

we may

well

those

words having
imply
found
till

Fathers, though their


course

them
their
after
;

come from those teaching would of those words not

having

way

into

Greek

theology^
''

the

Nicene Council.
wrote some us himself and in
:

mean
in

this strictly

for Tertullian
tells

works
lius,

Greek, as he

the work of S. Dionysius of

Rome

a^^ainst Sabel-

which so far as it has been preserved, is in Greek also, the phrase " Divine Triad " occurs more than once. From these fragments being in

P 2

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP
it is

At

the same time,

also certain that

nothing had passed at the Nicene, or any


prevent those words, " unity " and " trinity " being used ever
other
council,
to so freely.

And
by

having been employed

thus freely
S.

a Council of Carthage, for

Augustine to have shown any mis-

givings in using

them afterwards would have been strange indeed. But S. Augustine may have heard also somewhat of
the rulings of the Council of Alexandria

whose feet he once sat, and into whose immemediate neighbourhood they must have been carried by Eusebius of Vercelli, the
S.

whether from

Ambrose,

at

energetic assistant

of

S.

Athanasius in

framing them,

or

else

from

his

own

Greek, this Pope has been supposed a Greek by but the question is, are these fragments birth preserved solely by being cited in SS. Athanasius and Basil, his '* ipsissima verba," or their translaThe work of the Roman tions from the Latin ? presbyter, Novatian, his contemporary, which is in Latin, and has been entitled ^' De Trinitate," For both see IMigne's contains no such word.
;

Patrol,

iii.

885

and

v. 109-16.

3 "

OF THE

ATHAN ASIAN

CREED.

Greek on the word " Hypostasis " and this most


Bishop Valerian,
a
:

who was

probably dictated his


the

own

reserve

about

word
his

""'

person,"
earlier

its

Latin equivalent.

In

popular instruction
altogether.

works intended for we seem to miss it


never occurs at
:

It either

all

in his " Euchiridon," for instance

or his

four books on " Christian Doctrine," or


his

" Sermon

to

Creed," or his

Catechumens on the treatises " On Faith and

the Creed," on " Faith and Works," and on " The Faith of Things not Seen ;
or else not
Trinity.

where he

is

engaged on the
.

In the 39th of his Tractates

on

John,* nothing that his supposed adversary can say will induce him to pronounce the word. " Three what, you
S.

ask

reply.

Father,

Son, and

Holy
not
I

Ghost.

Count
three
?

yourself.

Have
is

named
is

That which the Father


Himself

in

relation to

God
the

that
is
j

which
*

He
He

is
is

in

relation to

Son
26-7.

3.

commenting on

c. viii.

'

214

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

Thus God is neither removed from number nor comprehended by number. Because there but are three, there is as it were number ask, three what ? and directly there is no
the Father, and so forth.
:

number."

Overcome by the "


case," such
is

necessities
it

of the
in his

his

own

account of

work on
at
last,

the Trinity, he resigns himself


hopeless

of devising

anything

better,

to

terminology, which others

before
used.

him entitled to his respect had " One essence or substance, but

three persons ; " as

many

Latins,

worthy
treating

to be considered authorities, in

of this subject have


pressing in words
their

said,

unable to dis-

cover any more suitable manner of ex-

what they
. .

realized in

said

minds without words. Still they Three persons^ not because they
it

desired
silent
i
'*'

said,

but rather than remain

when
So

asked.*"
vii.

Even

then he was

V. g.

**

Placuit ita dici, ut dice-

retur aliquid

cum

quaereretur quid tria sunt, quae

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


only treading in the
beautiful

215
course,

which he had
ing.

traced for himself at startI hesitate, I shall

Whenever

never be

ashamed of inquiring; nor of learning, whenever I am wrong. Let me beg of my readers to go with me, when equally certain inquire with me when
. .

they hesitate to the same extent

come
find

back to
call
;i^^,

me when

they find themselves,

me

back to them

when they
hard
lines

wrong."*

How

sublimely superior in

all this

to the arrogant
!

of his

followers

Those
trariwise,

sixteen Councils of Toledo, con-

judging from their general tone,


visited

would have
Son,

any with the same


|

penalties for objecting to call the Father,

and Holy

Ghost

persons, as for

refusing to confess each

and

all

of them

God.
tria

But

must not anticipate what


.

esse fides vera pronuntiat

Quid
"

igltur
^

restat, nisi

ut fatemur loquendi necessitate parta


^'^^
.

haec vocabula." "^ - i. 3.

"

'--.

2l6
I shall

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP
intrinsic

have to say on the

cha-

racter of their

rulings hereafter;

as yet

we have by no means done with

the

form which they assumed. I have said that the title borne by one
of their capitularies
is,

"

On

the fulness

of the Catholic Faith."

This capitulary

neither contains nor appeals to the creed

But the heading of another is the same, where the creed alone had been recited, and the King apologised for leaving it without comment. On another
in

any way.

occasion, viz. at the Seventeenth Council,


it

was

recited

after
:

marks, ending thus

some prefatory re" With our mouths

we make
creed,

profession of the articles of the

which contains the sacrament of Charlethe whole of our holy faith." magne, we may remember, applied this identical language to the Western Creed " Symbolum Apostolorum, ubi Catholicse
fidei

plenitudo continetur."
it.

We
is

now
this

see
all.

where he borrowed

Nor

The

" Catholic faith" and the Western

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


or

go together in his capitularies, but never the '^ Catholic faith" and the NicenoCreed"
constantly

" Apostles'

Constantinopolitan

Creed, as

in

Spain.

With
their

this

single exception,

he and his

bishops

made

these Councils of

Toledo

dogmatic model.
is,

of Frankfort, that
his

At the Council by comparison, in

younger days, he had the assurance to attack the Second Nicene Council for having departed from what he asserted to
have been the
faith of the First
;

but Pope
this

Adrian having utterly


line

demolished

illusion in his bold rejoinder to the

Caroif to

Books, their royal author, as


himself, and,

conceal his defeat, abstained in the most

marked manner

doubtless,

influenced others to abstain equally, from

ever appealing again to the Nicene faith.

The
I

Council of Calcuith, in England, as


stated,

have

was the
,

last

to

do so for
fail

many
*
I

a long day.

Nobody can
xiii.

to

be struck with

this coincidence.'*

Fortuxiv. of

have gone through vols.

and

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP
was a creed
indi-

nately for him, there

genous in
authorship
this

his

own

dominions, for which

far higher antiquity, far

more distinguished

had been claimed.


capitularies,

And
and

to to

he appeals to his
If
it

this only.

was somewhat too simple


he could follow the
Fathers,

for his turn of mind,

precedent

of
it

the

Toledo

and

supplement

He

by dogmatism like theirs. might copy their manner throughout

Mansi, containing all Councils and Capitularies to the middle of the ninth century, without finding one such. Charlemagne's 31st Capitulary of one year, Mansi thinks a.d. 789, which is headed *' De fide Trinitatis pr^dicanda," cites the African Canon already quoted, and appends the original Creed of Nic^a, just as it is appended to the African code, but with this rather amusing difference that of its origin no more is said here than this ''A Magno Synodo dictum est;" and a date is given to it which seems intended to mystify. Append, to vol. xii. p. 164. Append, to

vol. xiv. p. 267,

contains a Capitulary of a.d. 802,


fidei,"

headed
believe.

*'

Admonitio de Symbolo

which

is

probably his

own summary
**

of

what

all

should

had a canon headed De fide Catholica;" but none of these refer in any way to the Nicene faith.

Most

of the Councils of this period

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


he might
to
at times at

219

apply the same

name

one time what he would mean by the " Catholic faith" should be
both
:

his

or their exposition
;

of the Catholic

faith

at

another the creed, not of Nicsea

or

Constantinople,

but of the Apostles


it

themselves, with which


in strict accord.

would be found
the repetition of

Hence

ambiguities already noticed in his capitularies.

Presbyters are told to learn

the

" Catholic faith"


course, there

by

heart,

which,

of

means " the Creed.

Bishops

and presbyters, to preach the " Catholic which is sometimes called the faith," " Creed" in the next sentence, sometimes

may mean more, and sometimes must. It must mean more, naturally, where the
Creed
fort,
is

specified in addition, as at
:

Frank-

for instance

" That
Trinity,

the Catholic
the Lord's

faith

of the

Holy
the

Prayer,

and

symbol

of faith
all.

be
not

preached and delivered to

Here we
and the

have plainly three things

specified,

two

the

first

to be " preached,"

2 20

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

last

two "

delivered."

What

is

called

" the Catholic faith of the Holy Trinity"


at starting
is

for

what

is

anything but mere tautology afterwards called the " symbol

of faith" or creed.
that

Waterland conjectured

by the former must have been meant the Athanasian Creed, but he was mistaken. As vet the " Catholic faith" meant
only the dogmatic expositions of
general then in vogue
it

in

nothing,

literally,

more

specific

than what the Second Council


this head.

of Carthage had enjoined on

There had long been a craving, to be sure, for something more specific, and this had been so often attempted without any real
success as to

have become, more or

less,

a positive need.

Whose epitome of the


?

Catholic faith, as distinct from the Creed,

should be followed

Should

it

be that

of the Third Council of Toledo, framed

by King Reccared, or of the fourth, which was that of S. Isidore ? of the eleventh, which was that of a bishop again ? or of the sixteenth, which was

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


that of another king
?

221

Again and again Charlemagne referred to his prelates and wise men for some standard formula, and they both agreed with him, and amongst themselves, in making S. Paul say that
" without
into
faith "
i,e.

without faith cast

mould " it was Several had impossible to please God." Alcuin,* by his own tried their hands
proper dogmatic

confession,

among
As he

the
;

number, several
but
at
last

times,f to no purpose
succeeded.
as
is

one

not so well

known

he used to be, he should not, perhaps,

be brought under notice


slight

without some
I

introduction.

Aquileia was, as
Alcuin's
first

" See, for instance,

words
.

De

Trin.

i.,

i.
.
.

" In libello quern f Ep. ex. (Ed. Migne), direximus vobis solatium et confirmationem fidei Catholicse. Sed in manibus majus mode habemus opus." Another was styled his
. .

Another was "On the Catholic Faith," composed at the instance of Archbishop Arno. (Ep. clxi.) The best known was his work " On the Faith of the Holy Trinity," dedicated to Charlemagne.
(Patrol,
ci.

" Confessio fidei,"

1003.)

222

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP
with Rufinus a long

Stated in connection

Western See that boasted of a Patriarch besides Rome and


back, the only
:

way

from the days of Augustus


other
It
cities in Italy,

it

had, of

all

ranked next to Rome.


to

Rome, when compared with other cities of Italy, much as Alexandria stood to Rome when comThus pared with other cities of the world.
stood, consequently,
it

might claim to be literally, both in Church and State, the Alexandria of Italy, And if its walls and palaces had
twice

been

ruined
it

by
it

the

Huns and

Lombards,
astical

attained to greater ecclesi-

splendour than

had ever enjoyed


his

before

under Charlemagne and

de-

scendants.

Of

this see

the

first

prelate

who had
Patriarch

caused

himself

to

be

styled

was named Paulinus. Another of the same name and dignity, but incomparably more famed for his attainments, and venerated
for his years
all

the world over

and strikingly grave deportit

ment, occupied

at the close

of the eighth

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


century.

223

He may
to
as

be

said,

without

exaggeration,

have been

idolised

by

such

men

Alcuin, and even inspired

Charlemagne with awe.


episcopal soul
fort,

was the of the Council of Frank-

He

and president as well as soul of that of Friuli, both of which have left their mark upon history. When he had written
against Felix, Bishop of Urgel, in Spain,

and founder of the sect called Adoptionists, he was thought to have exhausted
the controversy.
finita est."

" Aquileia locuta, causa

mirers.
see

Such was the tone of his ad" Should you have occasion to
Paulinus,"
says

Patriarch
to

Alcuin,

writing

Arno, Archbishop of Saltz-

burg, "salute
times.
I

him
just

a thousand thousand
finished

have

reading his

book of the Catholic faith, which he sent to the lord King, and so pleased was I with its eloquence and flowers of speech, its handling of the faith and its weight of authorities, that I think any further discussion of the topics at issue between our-


2 24

^^^) ^^^5

^^^ AUTHORSHIP

and the partisans of Felix superfluous. And happy is the Church and
selves

People of Christ as long


lord King,
it

as, besides

the

shall possess

but one such

defender of the Catholic faith."

There was more


true,

to be

done

still,

it

was

but error had been confuted once

for all in this treatise."*

which this passage occurs appears as edited by Migne in a much longer, and in his opinion a more complete form than it had when first pubthere would be little difficulty, lished
letter in
;

The

nevertheless,

in

proving the bracketed

portions of
all

it

to be detached fragments

indeed written by Alcuin, but neither

at

one time nor to one person

by some
in

transcriber afterwards

combined

one.

There can be no doubt,


Alcuin
is

for instance, that

here referring to the


Felix,
in
;

work of
work,
in

Paulinus against

three books,
this

dedicated to Charlemagne

and

vols. c.

Ep. io8, Ed. Migne. Alcuin's works are and ci. of his Patrjl.

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


according to
the
elaborate

225

showing of

Madrisius, appeared A.D. 796, the year


in

which the Council of Priuli met under


Alcuin, plainly, could
left

his presidency.*

not have

work of

that importance

long unnoticed; and even his acknowledg-

ment

that

Adoptionism had survived

it,

points to the same conclusion.

Four years after the work against Felix had appeared, we find Alcuin
writing again

Migne f
self,

and

A.D.

800,

according

to

this

time to Paulinus him-

in

a state of

mind bordering upon


the recent perusal of
in

ecstasy, created

by

work of his, yet expressed but unmeaning platitudes.


a

anything
as

Inflated

was the
could,
I

style

of those days, few people

think, read

what

is

there said

of

it,

without feeling curious to identify


Alcuin could so write

the work, of which so famous a scholar

and theologian
* Diss.
iv.

as

Hist. Crit. in Migne's Patrol, xcix.

545-92. Also " \ Ep. cxiii.

The

Life," c. 7.

2 26

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP
of the acknowledged

and

when

each

works of PauUnus that have come down to us had been gauged successively by
this praise

of his friend,

still

fewer would

probably dissent from the conclusion of " All this, in my latest expositor its
:

opinion,

must

refer

to

some work of

Paulinus that has not yet seen daylight ;"*

what may prove to be the same things to some work that has not yet been acknowledged as his. Let us see whether Alcuin has not in reality named the only possible work by describing it as he has. I shall extract enough from his letter to
or,

enable

my

readers to decide this point for

themselves

"

To my

most beloved lord in the

Lord of
"
I

lords,

and holy

father. Patriarch

Paulinus, greeting

seem to have been refreshed inwardly, that the hidden flame of charity
within
least

my
'I*

heart

may
lest
1.

be able to

elicit

at

some spark,

that be extinguished
ed.

Annot. ad

Migne.

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.

227
I

which burns within me, now that


dear.

have

opportunity to write something to one so

What when
!

have the privilege

of looking upon
than honey, do
verse
dise,
I

letters

from you sweeter not seem to hold conall

wholly with

the flowers of Para-

and with the eager hand of desire to pluck from thence spiritual fruits ? how much more, then, on perusing the
('

tract

libellum')

of your most holy faith^


all

adorned
in

with
to
its

the

spotlessness

of

Catholic peace ; eloquent


style

and

attractive
;

the

highest degree

in the

truth of

ideas

frm
I

as a rock

....

where, as from one bright and salutary


fountain in Paradise,

beheld the streams

of the four virtues irrigating not merely the rich plains of Italy, but the entire
demesne of ecclesiastical Latinity. Where, too, / beheld the golden outpourings of
spiritual ideas commingling
ivith

abundantly
polish.

the

gems

of

scholastic

Certainly you have achieved


Q 2

2 28

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

a work of immense profit and prime necessity in appraising the Catholic faith as you have:* the very thing I have so long desired myself, and so often urged upon the King, to get a symbol of the Catholic faith, plain in meaning and lucid in phrase, reduced to one compendious form, and given to all priests in each parish of every diocese to read, and commit to memory, so that
* "

Quam

plurlmis
fecistis

vero profuturum

et

per-

necessarium
tione,'' etc.

opus

in Catholicas fidei taxa-

The

exact

meaning

of this

word

in

Alcuin's mouth, is seen illustrated in the terse, dogmatic summary given by the author of the Caroline Books himself, and ending thus; " Hsec
'est

Catholicae traditionis fidei vera integritas,

quam

sincero

fatemur et in hoc opere, beati Hieronymi verbis expressam, taxavimusy Whether I have rendered it by the best English equivalent is another question.
corde
et
:

credimus

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.

229

everywhere the same faith might be heard uttered by a


multitude of tongues.

Lo

what

had desired in my humiHty, has been suppHed


I

by your genius. With the Author of our salvation you have earned for yourself a perpetual reward of this good intention, and praise amongst

men for

this perfect work.''


this letter

Like the former one,


contrast connects
longer.

ends

with a reference to Spain, but in marked


it

with Adoptionism no

That cloud

had

disappeared

wholly from the horizon, and, with the


exception of a slight haziness in the administration of baptism in

some

quarters,

and on the intermediate state between death and judgment in others, all was
bright

and

at rest

there.

This

letter,

accordingly,

cannot

have been written

230
till

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

in

Adoptionlsm had been extinguished other words before A.D. 800, which

was the year in which Charlemagne was crowned emperor. I have printed in italics those parts of it which I consider highly specific, and in large type what I consider absolutely distinctive. Most
people will agree with
j

me
:

that one set


descriptive
I

of expressions
of the

is

singularly

Athanasian Creed

hope to

prove to their satisfaction that the other


can describe nothing
will, again,
else.

Most people

be disposed to grant at starting

that,

had the Athanasian Creed been in

existence previously, either Alcuin could

not have

known of
to

it,

or else must have


it,

been singularly forgetful of


to
its

or blind

excellence
cites it

have written thus;

and yet he

himself solemnly two

or three years later, as


far as regards
its

we

shall see.

So

having " received peras a perfect

petual

praise
its

amongst men

work," or

combination of " spiritual ideas with scholastic polish," its " irrigating

OF THE

ATHAN ASIAN

CREED.

23

the entire domain of ecclesiastical Latinity,'^


in other words, the

whole Latin Church,


its

the " adamantine strength of

verities,"

and the " eloquence and


its

attractiveness of

style,"

Alcuin

may

deserve to be called

alternately

a critic of

discernment or a
that he has desupplied'^'*

true prophet.
scribed

But
as

in

P aulinus

" having

the very desideratum of which he himself

had been

so long in quest
faith,

of the Catholic

plain in

symbol meaning

and
to

lucid in phrase, reduced to

one comall priests

pendious form, to be given to

commit to memory, so that everywhere the same faith might be heard uttered by
a multitude of
tongues,

he has solved

a long-vexed historical problem for us of

high
letter

interest,

which, but for

this

stray

of

his,

might never have been untells

locked to the end of time, but which,

touched with the key supplied here,


its

own

tale,

from beginning

to end,

in

the simplest form.

To

introduce the reader to this at once,

^232

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP
I

without further preliminaries,

must ask

him
shall

to

take

my

word here

for

hope

to

authenticate for

what I him by

facts hereafter,
,

though Alcuin
it

may have
that

convinced him of
this

already

up

to

S^^
)

time there are no testimonies to

tTie

existence

of
extant

the
will
;

so-called

Athanasian
for

'

Creed

that

bear
that

criticism
this

moment
j

from

very year
year

they are both numerous and continuous

and that
also

for

some time from


themselves

this

they

divide

into

two
I

classes,

apparently distinct,

but fraught

with evidence of the same intention.


shall

confine myself in

this

chapter

to

such testimonies as are indisputable, and,


as
I

stated,

date from this year,

con-

sidering,

however, but one


a.d.

class first, viz.

that

for

which Alcuin was,


800,

doubtless,
at

responsible.
earliest,
I

then,

the

compliments Paulinus enthusiastically on having " supplied a


Alcuin
precisely

symbol of the Catholic faith"


1

of the kind he wanted, and had repeatedly

: :

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.

233
priests

spoken about to Charlemagne, for


to learn

by

heart.

Two

years from this,

Synod met at Aix, under Charlemagne, at which Alcuin's own work " On the Faith of the Holy Trinity" was read and approved, at which Paulinus himself seems
at the latest, or

A.D. 802, a

to
at

have been a leading personage,* and which a " General Capitulary" was

passed, containing,

amongst other things,


of
the

provisions
clergy,"

" for the instruction

which commence thus " These are the things which


1.

all

eccle-

siastics are

commanded to learn " The Catholic faith of S. Athanaall

6 1-

sius,
2.

and
"

other things on the faith.


Apostles' Creed also.

3.

The " The

Lord's Prayer to be underits

stood thoroughly with

exposition."

And
'''

other items.f

Alcuin and Paulinus both died, A.D.


Madrisius says ''as legate of the Pope," but this sounds mythical. See Migne's Patrol, xcix.,
Life, c. 2.

f Pertz,

Monum. Germ. Legum,

i.

105-9.

234

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP
was almost
their last

804, SO that

this

work
their

but

it

survived them.

The

capi-

tularies

of Theodulph, Bishop of Orleans,

junior

by some

years,

contain a

similar ordinance

" Wherefore,
priests

we admonish

you,

of the Lord, that you both retain


that

in

your memory, and understand with


hearts, the Catholic faith
I believe,'
:

your
the
'

is,

and

'

Whosoever
it is

will be

saved, before

all

things

necessary

that he hold the Catholic faith.'"*

In another work of
presently,
pressly,
I

his, to

be quoted

Theodulph

calls

the latter ex-

" the

Creed of

S.

Athanasius."

Shortly afterwards

and

of course with
it

the same object of getting


heart

learnt

by

it

was ordered

to be recited, like

the Apostles' Creed, at prime.

Among
a.d.

the directions for saying the day-hours


attributed to the

Synod of Aix,
"

816,

on which some remarks have been made


previously,

we

read

On
xiii.

Saturday, the
1009.

* Cap. 2.

Mansi,

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


Psalms
Lord's
*

235
*

Confitemini

Domino
:

in Nomine,' as above

to

and Deus which on the


'
'

Day*

let
is

the
to be

'

Catholic faith

be

added, which
voice,

sung with heart and


lection,

and by nobody with the head


Afterwards the
'

covered.
^

then the

Kyrie Eleison
'

thrice repeated, followed


'

by the

Pater Noster
I

and

'

Credo,' said

privately."

quote the whole to show that


is

by

the " Catholic faith "


distinct
is

here meant

something
again,

what

from the Creed. But, meant by the " Catholic


is

faith" in this passage,

at

once seen from

the

following

injunction
Basle,

of

Haito or
years

Ahyto,
later.

Bishop of

some

" Fourthly, that the


sius

faith of S.

be learnt by

priests,

Athanaand recited from


at

the heart on the Lord's

Day

prime."f

Hincmar, the well-known Archbishop of Rheims, or*

Later by thirty years

Mansi,

xiv. 305,
is
*'

where the reading (posssibly,


die."

a misprint)

omni

t Mansi, 395.

236
dained
:

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

" That every priest should fully

learn the exposition of the Creed

and of
also

the Lord's Prayer, according to the tradition of the orthodox Fathers


.
. .

and

commit
nasius
'

to

memory
the
will

the discourse of

Athawith
to

on

faith,

beginning
saved
:'

Whosoever
it it

be

so as

understand

thoroughly, and be able to

put

into plain language."*

About the

same time, the injunctions of Bishop Haito were republished verbatim by the Emperor Lewis Il.f Obviously enough, a practice like this

would

require time to
;

spread in

those
fierce

disorganised ages
broils that

and amidst the

ensued between the grandsons

of Charlemagne particularly, be surprised


habitual
in

we
or

cannot

that

formula

become
diocese,

one

kingdom

should seem long afterwards

all

but unin process

known
*

in another. J

However,

Mansi, xv. 475.

f Pertz,
X

Monum. Germ. Legum,


the life-time
of

i.

439.

Even during

Charlemagne

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.

237

of time, what Alcuin had advised became

and to this day the Athanasian Creed is committed to memory praclaw


for all
;

tically

by all ecclesiastics of the Roman Church in saying it in their Sunday Office


for prime.

were councils held, a.d. 813, at Aries, Mayence, Rheims, Tours, and Chalons, by his order, of which only the three first published any dogmatic canon at all none of them name, and the first alone shows acquaintance with, the Athanasian Creed. (Mansi, xiv. 58.) Charlemagne himself seems to have published a capitulary, A.D. 802, headed, " Admonitio de symbolo fidei," which names no creed at all, and is purely original. (lb. App. 267.) There is no allusion to it in the letter said to have been written by him to Leo III., from Aix, a.d. 809; (ib. 23-6;) none in the dogmatic canons passed at Paris, (ib. 536,) or Aix, (ib. 677,) or the Archbishop of Bourges, within thirty years of that time. It is named by Adalbert, Bishop of Tervan, in professing his faith to Archbishop Hincmar on his consecration (ib. xvii. App. 426,) quoted unnamed by one bishop in England, whose date will be discussed hereafter and for other authorities subsethere
;
:
;

quently to this period,

may

refer generally to

Waterland's Hist.

c. 2, p.

39, et seq., ed. 1728.

238

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

But if the Athanasian Creed was really the work of Paulinus, how came the title which it has always borne to have
been given to
this
is,

it ?

The
for

real

answer to
class

fear,

supplied

by the

of

testimonies remaining

examination;

otherwise there would be several ways of

accounting for

it

perfectly free

from

cavil.

In the
fessedly

first

place,

the

work was conbut


compiled.
it

not

original,

Secondly, Paulinus, had he published


himself,

might have quoted


for giving
it

precedents

to

numerous the world

under cover of a greater name than his

Without appealing to forgeries, own. had not Vigilius, Bishop of Thapsus, in Africa, published numerous works under
borrowed names, including that of S. Athanasius and were there not countless
;

unexceptionable

tracts

and
If

sermons in
people

circulation attributed to S.

Augustine that

were none of
should
not

his

were

christened after their patron-saints,


their

why

works be?

Besides,

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.

239

" Call your picture a Raphael or a Rubens,

whatever

its

intrinsic excellencies, if
is

wish

it

to attract general notice,"


still.

you what

people say

But, thirdly, Paulinus,

was not the publisher of his own work. It was taken out of his hands by his imperial master,

and appropriated
!

to a public

Well had this stood alone, there would have been little still to explain Paulinus was had in the course pursued. in high honour by his master, and by all who knew him but this was a limited He was no world-wide circle after all. And Charlemagne was much celebrity. too good a politician to have required the
purpose.
;

entire clergy of his

dominions to learn by heart " the faith of the Patriarch Paulinus,"


there

who was
nothing

then
else

alive.

Further, were

to

be considered,

we

might recognise a touch of humour or affectation in the misnomer harmonising


admirably with what

we know
for

to

have

been the manners of his times and court.

To

gratify his thirst

knowledge, he

240

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

had gathered a number of learned men around him, who pursued their studies in his palace, where there was a first-rate library for those times, and formed what Mr. Hallam'* calls " a sort of literary

whose members were designated and addressed each other by assumed names. Charlemagne was called David,
club,"

Alcuin

Flaccus

or

Horace,

Angilbert

Homer, Arno Aquila, Riculph Damsetas,


Adelard Augustine, and so
nus,
in spite
forth.

Pauli-

of his years, cannot have

been the solitary exception to a rule to

which Charlemagne conformed. What was his nam de plume ? Why should it There were not have been Athanasius ?
several

fanciful as

well as well-founded

analogies, patent to everybody,

and highly

congenial

to
it.

the tastes of those days in

favour of

Aquileia was and had long


I

been in some sense, as


Alexandria of
Italy.

have shown, the


its

Paulinus,

bishop,

had

patriarchal rank,
*

and

this,

combined

Middle Ages,

iii.

521, note, ed. 1837.

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


with his age, acquirements,

24

and grave
the

demeanour, raised him


above
his

aloft

on a pedestal

fellows.

Constantine,

founder of the Byzantine Empire, had


his Athanasius, should

not Charlemagne,
?

the restorer
Besides,
it

of the Western, have his

had actually happened, that as when the Consubstantiality of the Son of God with the Father was challenged, the Egyptian Athanasius stood firm when

Rome
the
as the

failed

so

when

the Procession of

Holy Ghost from

the

Son

as

well

Father was challenged, and

Rome

temporised once more, the Italian Athanasius

headed the orthodox.

Considerations

like these

to

would have been passing likely have weighed with the members of
club "
at

" the

Aix,
that

were
they

there

the ever

smallest

evidence

had

elected to call Paulinus Athanasius.

Unin

fortunately, there

is

not a grain of evi-

dence

in

their

writings

at

least,

those that have

come down to us he was ever known to them by R

that
that

242
name.

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

Was

he then singular in having


this

no assumed name at all ? Or ivas his assumed name knoivn only to


initiated^

the

and
so,

kept
It

a profound secret
little

from
this

all else P

matters

whether

was

or whether

the

name of
Creed

S.

Athanasius was given to the

alone, so long as there ivas concealment.

And
and

concealment in one
for

way

or other,
there

some

deliberate

purpose,

must have been, otherwise the origin of this Creed could not have remained so
long a mystery.

This brings
the

me

to

my

other class of

testimonies in reserve.

They

belong to

same period, beginning almost as soon, and extending at least as late, as But their peculiar feature the first class. and is that they are wholly controversial
;

not only

so,

but confined exclusively to

one controversy

Holy Ghost
Church.

and

the Procession of the


that not with heretics

or sectarians, but with the whole Eastern

As everybody knows, who

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.

243

knows anything of
line divines

these times, the

two

principal questions handled

by the Caro-

And

were this and Adoptionism. Adoptionism being a revival of


arguments

Nestorianism, though in the rudest guise,


necessitated recourse to all the

employed by the Fathers of the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon once more. Now, there were three times the number of works written against Adoptionism at least, that there were on the Procession and by a.d. 800, with one exception, they had all been published. But in all eighth
century works against Adoptionism the

Athanasian Creed
this

is

never once cited or

even implied as such in any way.


one

In
to

exception^

dedicated,
his successor

not

Charlemagne, but to
it is.

Lewis,

The

treatises

on the Procession
to a.d.

commence subsequently
'''''

800

and

Agobard adv.
: '

Fel. (or rather, a


:

posthumous
:

tract of Felix), c. 2
ait

*'

Quia

ut beatus Athanasius
nisi quis

integram inviolatamque servaverit, absque dubio in aeternum


peribit.'

Fidem Catholicam
"

R 2

244

^^^i

-^^^5

-^^^ AUTHORSHIP

of these there

is

not one in which the


is

Athanasian Creed

not cited prominently

by name, sometimes more

than

once.

View

these facts in connection with the


letter

complimentary

addressed

by Alcuin
can doubt
written,

to Paulinus that year,

and

who

when
or

the Athanasian Creed

was
it

by

whom
latter

Probably the
to

earliest

of

these

testimonies

has been
for

anticipated.*

Charlemagne had
been
either
else

some

years

previously

sending
receiving

monks to Jerusalem, or monks from Jerusalem, on

various errands.

Three such had presented him at Rome, on the occasion of his coronation, with the keys of the Holy Sepulchre and of
Calvary, together with a banner, in the

name of

the Patriarch. +

And

one such J

was of German

extraction,

named Egil-

bald, otherwise called George, being abbot

of the convent on
the controversy,
' C. 3.
I

Mount Olives, where first known with any


t

Eginhard, a.d. 800. Annal. Laur. a.d. 807.

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


certainty to have been agitated at
fort,

245

Frankrevived,

was

first

revived.

It

was

as the reader

may

need to be reminded,
that convent singing

by some monks of
t)f

the interpolated creed there in the hearing


the

Geeks

and

who
it

defended themto the

selves for so singing

Greeks
that of

by

declaring that their faith

was

the holy

Roman Church
it

to

the Pope^

by declaring that

ivas so said in the

Ci'ced of S. Athanasius,

The Greeks
Church;

were
the

told that the interpolated creed re-

presented the faith of the

Roman

Pope was confronted ijoith the Athanasian Creed ; a former Pope having
ventured to rebuke Charlemagne for his

former onslaught on their uninterpolated


creed.
I

have

called this testimony to the ex-

istence

of the Athanasian Creed probably of


class

the

earliest
It

two

and for
it

this

was this incident on Mount Olives which made Charlemagne bid his theologians
reason.

can hardly be doubted

246

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP
in writing

occupy themselves
cession.

on the Pro-

Now, what
to

the character of their

works was
date

be appears from the dedi-

cation affixed to one

of them, and their

from the address of another. Theodulph, Bishop of Orleans, says


:

*'

Imperii vestri, rex inclyte, jussa secutus

Defero Theodulphus haec documenta libens; Queis Patre seu Nato procedere Spiritus almus Astruitur, legis hoc reboante tuba."

What
was to on the
ingly,

he had been ordered to do, then,

from the Fathers Procession. His work, accordconsists of citations from the writcollect passages

ings of twelve Fathers


three Greek.
it

nine

Alcuin's treatise

Latin and
for such

is

considered to be from bearing his

name in a MS. given to the church of Laon by one of its bishops named Dido,

who

died

A.D.

891

has

dedicatory

letter prefixed

to it,* confirming in prose


.
. .

* Inter quos ego

tremus

sancti Evangelii et

vestrorum famulorum exbeatorum Patrum

auctoritatem secutus, secundum vestrse sublimitatis jussionem, conscripsi libellum.

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


all

247

Theodulph had stated in verse, but addressing Charlemagne besides as ^^ Augustus^ As Charlemagne was crowned Emperor A.D. 800, and as Alcuin
that

died A.D. 804, this treatise to have been

by Alcuin, cannot have been written


earlier

than the one, nor


date.

later

than the
treatises

other,

In any case both


after the

were written

establishment of

the empire ; for " rex" in poetry, joined " with " imperii," and having " Augustus
for
its

pendant, cannot

mean

less.

Their

reference to the Athanasian Creed

might

almost seem to have been traced out for

them.

Alcuin says in his

first

chapter
the

" The blessed


then .... in the
Catholic
faith,'
is

Athanasius,

most

reverend Bishop of the city of Alexandria,


^

Exposition* of the
illustrious doctor

which the

entitled " Exposition

genuine work of S. Athanasius of Faith," and in his work " Against the Heresy of Felix," c. 58, Alcuin
a

* There

seems

to cite this

but his quotation


*'

is

in reality

taken from the doubtful tract cribed to S. Athanasius. (Op.

De
30.

Incarn." as-

iv.

Ed. Ben.)

248

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

himself composed, and which the universal

Church

professes, declares the Pro-

cession of the

from the Father and the Son in these words " The Father is made of none, neither
Spirit

Holy

created nor begotten.

The Son

is

of the
of the

Father alone, not made, nor created, but


begotten.

The Holy Ghost

is

Father and the Son, not made, nor created,


nor begotten, but proceeding."

Then,
" For,

in bringing his

work

to a con-

clusion, once

more
Bishop
^

as the blessed Athanasius,


testifies
:

of the city of Alexandria,


as

the Father
is

is,

such

is

Such the Son, and


continuing

such

the

Holy

Ghost,'

etc.

his quotation right


cited before,

through what he had


verse,
itself, as
^

and ending with the

which, of course, speaks for


therefore that
be

not

having been done without meaning.


think of the
Trinity y^
to the
njoill

He

saved musl thus

On

reference

work of Theo-

* Migne's Patrol, cv. 71.

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


dulph,
It

249

may

appear to have been done


also
:

Theodulph, in " quoting from what he calls " the Creed


with concert
of
for
S.

Athanasius, to

show

that the

Holy

Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son, begins where Alcuin had begun first, and ends where he had left off last.* But it is Ratramn, the monk of Corbey, writing in the days of Archbishop Hincmar, who best describes the gain its publication had been to the Latins. Having
designated
it

as

" the

treatise

concerning

the faith which S. Athanasius published,


a7id proposed to all Catholics for accept-

ance^^ he continues

"

The

Latin bishops, therefore, highly

approving of the orthodox doctrine which

and looking upon it as a singular bulwark of strength against the wicked Arian dogma -for they perceived
it

contained,

that

it

had

been

dravonfrom Scripture
faith

added to the symbol of the


speaking of the
''

in

Holy Ghost,

'

Who

pro-

Migne's Patrol, cv. 247.

250

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP
Father and the Son.'
is,

ceedeth from the

Hence

it is

from those days, that

from

Constantine,

when

the

Council

of the
to our

318 Fathers met

at Nicsea,

down
the

own

times, the

Western Church has ever


;

held this faith

not

that

Catholic

Church of the Greeks has ever abandoned it from unwillingness to part with the
true
doctrine,
Still

as
it is

is

declared

in

their

works.

this faith

the Greeks

are

which you accusing now, moved


deceived
I

know not by what levity, know not by what error."

which passage I remarked four " That in point of fact the years ago
:

On

use of the Athanasian Creed for controversial purposes


;

originated

with

the

Greek question and the effect of it was to set up a fictitious antiquity for Latin doctrine, analogous to what was set up
through the pseudo-Decretals for Latin
discipline."*

With
*

the evidence

now

before
ii.

me

"Christendom's Divisions,"

430.

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.

25 I

can come to no other conclusion than that


this effect

was deUberately planned by


^,

Charlemagne, and planned for a twofold


purpose
:

first,

to justify the interpolated

/
'

creed to the Pope, and convict the


;

Greeks

of error in rejecting it and secondly, to substitute " the Catholic faith of S. Athanasius"
in

j
(
i

the West, as a standard of


~^"

orthodoxy, for that of Nica^a.

Charlemagne's aspirations were patent

wanted to found a second Roman Empire upon a durable basis. To effect this it was necessary that every
enough.

He

remaining

tie

binding the West to depen-

dence upon the East should be weakened


or dissolved.
fully,

As he examined them
all

care-

he found them

rotten

and ready
religious

to burst at a touch but one,


religious tie
tie
;

namely, the

and even in the

was a flaw, which, by judicious straining, might be compelled to give till a rupture was efi^ected and this was the interpolated Creed. He saw it was as
there
:

safe to be

upheld by the West as to be

252

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

condemned by the East. On this he lost no time in bringing pressure to bear, How was he but at first he was foiled. foiled ? Having appealed to the faith
of the
First

Nicene Council against the


less

Second, he had been answered by no

an authority than the reigning Pope,


proved
to

who

him that the faith of both Councils was the same who warned him also that to attack the Creed of the
;

Second was,
penalties

in

effect,

to

incur

all

the

decreed

against

the

smallest

departure from that Creed by the Fourth


Council.

Any
faith,,

further

appeal

to

the

Nicene
to

consequently, was out of

the question, was


fatal

dangerous,

might be

the Creed

of

his

choice.

To
was

appeal to the Creed

"of
was
any.

the Apostles"

on

this point, again,

futile, as it

the least explicit of

But the die had been cast, and Rome must be won If Rome sided with the at all costs. Greeks on a question of religion, it
needed not his sagacity to foresee
that

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


his

253

Empire would be deprived of the very prestige on which, for durable purUnder these poses, he could rely most.
circumstances,
let

us

suppose

that

S.

Athanasius had really written the Creed


bearing his

name, that

by some mis-

chance

had been buried in a corner till then, and then unexpectedly come to light and been placed in the hands of Could he have desired Charlemagne.
it

anything better calculated to advance his

Here was the greatest champion of Orthodoxy the Greek C hurch had ever produced formally stating the
purpose
?

Procession according to the Latin view.


1 he could not have this, a Creed
S.

which
/

Athanasius might

have written, or
/

which people might be persuaded he had, was obviously the next best thing. And this was precisely what Paulinus placed in
his hands.

As

have

said,

there were

several personal reasons suggestive of the

name of

Athanasius, under the circum-

stances, as

worthy

to be borne

by Paulinus.

254
Others

^^^) ^1^5

^^^ AUTHORSHIP

may

have commended themselves


grounds.

on

intrinsic

There

v^as

genuine work of S. Athanasius entitled " Exposition of the Faith." And this is

one of the designations applied to the Athanasian Creed by Alcuin. Again,


there

was a work by Vigilius, Bishop of Thapsus, on the Trinity, then circulating as a work of S. Athanasius. It is quoted
such,

as

and

in

immediate connection

with the Athanasian Creed, by TheoThe similarity dulph, to name no more.

between the Athanasian Creed and

this

work has
quently,

often been noticed

it

is

as if

one had suggested the

other.

Conse-

was called " The Faith of S. Athanasius," and the latter supposed to be a work of his, each would bear out the other in its fictitious
the

when

former

title.

All

these

considerations

may

have

helped to determine the naming of the

Athanasian Creed, by whomsoever suggested.

Admirably put together

as

it is,

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


its

255
it

naming achieved
as

its

success.

Had
Creed

appeared
S.

the

Faith

or

of

Augustine,
it

no Greek
it

would have
in

given

a second thought, or been at the

Greek to Accommodating it in his own views. Greek for it found its way into Greek
pains of accommodating

at

last,

just

as

the forged donation

of

Constantine was ultimately by


wildered

the betheir

Greeks

admitted
the

into

canon

law

from

unscrupulousness
it

and assurance with which forward on the Latin side.


seen the stress laid
clauses

was put

We

have

upon

its

damnatory

by the theologians of Charlemagne. No sooner had the conquest of Constantinople been achieved by the Latinity which he founded, than it was, by a strange fatality, pressed upon the Greeks once more by the envoys of Gregory IX., whose collection of the
Decretals
geries
:

recalls

so

many

kindred for-

and

this

NicGea, as if

time in the old Church of in mockery of the " Nicene

256
faith"

AGE, AIM,
of

AND AUTHORSHIP
ages,
it

former

to

whose

tra-

had been opposed with so much success in the West. And this was the use, and this the tale, which
ditionary prerogatives

the Popes encouraged of the Latin doctrine


next,
it

it

then.*

First,

was formally

stated

was to be received under anathema " Wherefore whoever believes the Holy Ghost not to proceed from the Son is in the way of perdition." Then this is justified by the Creed which S. Athanasius is stated to have composed in
:

Latin.

Whence holy

Athanasius,

when

an

exile in the West^ in the

" Exposition

of the Faith ^^ which he setforth in Latin ^ " The Holy Ghost is of the says
:

Father and of the Son, not made, nor


begotten, but proceeding."
all.

Nor

is

this

A citation immediately
I

follows from

quote from the formal paper which the Mansi, xxiii. 61-299, from Monks exhibited. which I inadvertently inferred in " Christendom's
Divisions"
then.
ii.

'

430, that this Creed existed in Greek

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.

257

the genuhie " Exposition" of the same


Saint, which, the envoys are pleased to

admit,

" he

set

forth

in

Greek,"

but

where he could

not for a

moment be

understood to say the same thing but for the gloss put upon his genuine *work
by the counterfeit Creed,

The

puzzled

Greeks, of course, could only solve* the


difficulty

by evading

it.

And
it

such was

the

prestige this secured for

by one

fiction after

another that, at the distance

of nearly

five

hundred years from Charleis

magne,
appeal,

S.

Thomas Aquinas
confirmation
to
it

content to
the

in

doctrine,

alone.

of "

Latin

The
the

Holy
Son."

Ghost,"
not
to

he

says,

" has been

thought

proceed

from
Creed

Four

authorities,

including the Nicenoin


its

Constantinopolitan
adulterated

unargu-

shape,

and

three

ments on the negative

side follow.

One

authority suffices, on the affirmative side,


to determine the question
''

" Sed contra


307,
et seq.

See their reply, Mansi,

xxiii. p.

258
1

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

quod dlcit Athanaslus in symbola Such has been the success of a suo."* The two golden calves never false title. stood Jeroboam in better stead for v^eaning the ten tribes from Jerusalem, than the fabricated origin of this and the Apostles^ Creed stood Charlemagne for weaning the West from " the Nicene Let policy be measured by faith." success alone, and this naming of the Athanasian Creed was a masterpiece. But what excuse can be made for men devoted to God, like Alcuin, like Pauliest

nus himself,

who

could

assist

in propa-

gating what they must have

known

to

be a fraud and a

lie

They must have


if

known both
position
it

of them,

was

not whose comnot have re-

for

it

may

ceived

its last

touch from either of them


it

at least
it

whose

was

not.
S.

To

have

Athanasius " need have implied no more than that in their opinion it had been fairly
called
*

merely " the faith of

Sum. Theol.

I. 9.

xxxvi. art. 2.

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


culled

259

from
it,

his works.

But

to assent to

speak of
actually

like Alcuin, as

having been

composed by him, only shows


days were to a monarch
falsifications

how men

degradingly subservient the best of


in those

against

whose

of fact they

no more dared

protest,

than his offences


;"

against morality reprove.

He

was

their

" David

but though

he was a greater sinner than David in

many ways,

they never credit him with


sins.

any of David's
anybody

He

was

their

Pope;
to

they neither consulted


besides him.

nor

deferred

As he commanded,
;

so they wrote;

what they wrote, they


and when he
this for

submitted to his correction

bade them do
protested
it

themselves, they

done
=*'

would have been far better " For one thousand by him.'''
ci.

Alcuin, Ep.

venerand^
jussionis

pietati

Migne. " Gratias agimus vestras quod libellum vestrae


ed.

prasceptum,

vobis

directum,
;

auribus

sapientiae vestras recitari fecistis

et

quod notare
:

jussistis errata illius, et remisistis ad

corrigendum, quamvis a vobis melius emendare potuisset quia


S

26o
I

AGE, AIM,
I

AND AUTHORSHIP
elsewhere,

years," as

stated the fact

" the Latin Church has been committed,

through
sJv>/y*

them,

to

the

theological

ipse

dixit of a secular autocrat, as lax in practice as


:

Henry VIII. on divorce and marriage as sanguinary, when it suited his purpose, as Eccelin da Romano, son-inlaw of Frederic IL, great
and great in arms, but unscrupulous and impatient of any control short of his own
in intellect

will in both."*

If

we

should say that the

damnatory
.

clauses of the

Athanasian Creed

were dictated by him originally, or inserted with his own hand in revising
it,

we

should probably not be far wrong.

Nothing was published by his gravest theologians without his imprimatur and his own words to the bishops of
Spain
faith "
alterlus

in
for

epitomising

" the
are
:

Catholic

their edification

" This

judicium

in quolibet opere plus saepissime

valet

quam

proprii auctoris."
is

The

qualification

in this last sentence


is

wanting elsewhere.
ii.

He

here speaking of his work against Felix.


* ''Christendom's Divisions,"

548.

1:

OF THE
orthodox

ATHAN ASIAN

CREED.

26

handed down by the Apostles its teachers, and by the universal Church preserved, we for our part and abihty profess to maintain and preach everywhere entire: seeing that in any
faith

besides this,

which the Church has always from the beginning peacefully and unanimously kept, there is no salvation ;" ^
or, as

he puts
:

it

in the Caroline
is

Books,

affirmatively

" This

the

true faith

this profession

we

hold

and

maintain

he

who

keeps this unconfused and un-

defiled will

both cases
creeds, but

have eternal salvation." f In he is speaking, not of the


of a dogmatic summary drawn

up by himself of what he thought everybody bound to believe pronouncing on some points where the creeds were re;

served, and defining

some that had never


at
all.

formed part of any creed


this tone

And
some

he forced upon or encouraged


Reference was made

in

others.

pages ago to a formula which the reign* Mansi,


xiii.

900.

iii.

i.

262
ing

AGE, AIM,
Pope,

AND AUTHORSHIP
III.

Leo

submitted to him
I

before sending into the East.

pointed

out that

it

contained stronger expressions

in favour of the Latin

cession than are to

view of the Probe found in the extant

writings of any Pope for the next four

hundred years and that it ends with a damnatory clause Ukewise " Him that
;
:

beUeves not according to this faith, the

holy Catholic and Apostolic Church con-

demns." As Leo had accepted a synodical

from the Patriarch of Constantinople, in which the Greek view of the Procession is laid down only two years before, and as he that same year also
letter

peremptorily declined authorising the insertion of the " Filioque " into the Creed,
if

penned those sentences on the Procession, he cannot surely be supposed to have penned the anathema, with
he
really

which his letter at present stands credited. But the reasons against crediting Paulinus with the damnatory clauses of the Athanasian Creed are still more cogent.

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.

263

In general, no doubt, the Athanasian

Creed

is

a compilation, as I have intimated

already,

and
:

shall

substantiate in

detail
it

further on

but there are portions of

which

fit

Paulinus so well,

that in fact

they could be attributed to nobody with

more
I.

reason.

Of

these the verse relating to the

Procession of the

Holy Ghost
is

is

most

conspicuous.
itself.

It

literally

moderation

Few

advocates of the Latin docf

would have been content to stop where it stops few Greeks, as a contributor to Macmillan observed four years ago,* would have declined going as far. The Holy Ghost is described as
trines
;

" of the Father and of the Son,"

first
:

the preposition used being ^, not ex

and

then " neither made, nor created, nor begotten, but proceeding
rigidly supplied in the
is
?

"

The

copula,
verses,

two previous
in this.

altogether

wanting

The words

may

imply, but they notably stop short


* For Nov., p. 24.


AND AUTHORSHIP
" the Holy Ghost pro-

264
of

AGE, AIM,

asserting, that

from the Son " in the Latin sense " ex Patre FiHoque procedit."
ceeds

An
tion
is

explanation of this studied moderaas plainly

wanting, as

it is

plainly

supplied in the address of Paulinus to the

Synod of Friuli, just one year after Pope Adrian had vindicated the faith of the
Seventh Council against Charlemagne, A.D.
796.
Part of
this

what
it

am
as a
is

about to quote

from

address has been anticipated.

Nobody can

read

whole without
acting the part

feeling that the speaker

of apologist for somebody throughout

who

had gone too far, had been called to " Far be it from account, and reproved. us," he says, " and from every faithful hearty either to compose or teach a different faith or creed or differently from what
:

they enjoined."

He

is

quoting the very

Canon which
beware of
violation,

the Pope bade his master

There had been no he contends, of this canon when


violating.

the " Filioque "

was

inserted.

Nobody

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.

265

blamed the Constantinopolitan Fathers for having enlarged the Creed of Nicaea.

The words
creed.

" and from the Son," had


authority

been added on similar grounds to their

When, and by whose


were
added,

they

and
state
:

against

what
he
Perlength

heretics,

he omits to
is

and
he
at

this

cannot conceal
plexed

his

weak

point.

with his

subject,

bursts forth as already stated in the strain

of compromise before quoted


Catholic
in faith

"

How

those

Fathers

who grounded

unwavering have confessed the Holy Spirit to proceed from the Father

how

glorious those likewise,

who have

confessed
as well."*

Him

to proceed

from the Son


unquestionably
least

He who
*

said

that,

would have been not the


Compare with
iii.

likely to

this the Conf. of Faith ascribed

to Alcuin,

arguing in favour of the Latin view, he proceeds " Et ideo non alia, non diversd, sed una eddemque fide, credo et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem, Qui ex Patre Filioque procedit," etc.
22, where, after
:

"

266

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP
:

have written
created, nor

this

"

The Holy Ghost,


:

of the Father and the Son


yet

not made, nor


;

begotten, but proceeding

would have been the least likely to have added " He, therefore, that will be saved^ must thus think of the Trinity.'* Granting accordingly that Paulinus com:

posed the
the

first,
?

who

could have composed

and Theodulph, writing by order of Charlemagne, both terminate their citations from the Athanasian Creed with this verse, as I have
second

Alcuin

the Caroline Books remarked already themselves say " This is the true faith
: :

... he

who

keeps this unconfused

and
"
:

undefiled

will

have eternal salvation


practically to

which amounts
thing.

the same

On

the other hand, Charlemagne

never once quotes the Athanasian Creed


himself.

How

is all

this to

be explained

The

teaching of the Athanasian Creed on the


Procession

was too moderate


it

for Charleit

magne

yet, such as

was,

may have

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.

267

seemed calculated to answer his purpose better than any thing more pronounced.

He He

let it

stand then, on the principle of


the
thin

utilising
let
it

edge of the
as to

wedge.

stand yet so

put out-

side the pale

believed

less

and hence supplemented


it

of salvation everybody

who
it

with

As
but

it

words of his own to that effect. was not strong enough doctrine
he never appealed to
himself:

for him,
its

very moderation might convince


:

the Pope

and

this, asserted

under pain

of salvation, confound the Greeks.

His

monks from Mount


were instructed to
themselves
press
it

Olives, accordingly,
it

refer to
;

in

excusing

to

the one

his theologians to
stress laid

against the others with


particular clause

on the
frighten

most likely to
this

them into submission. Whatever the reader may think of


the
lately

explanation,

almost verbal identity

between the passage


the Caroline Books,

quoted from
central

and the

of

the damnatory clauses in the Athanasian

268
Creed

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP
;

is

a simple fact
it

central,

say, to

from two more standing making three at the beginning and end Similarly, that which stands at in all. " This is the Catholic faith, the end which except a man believe faithfully and firmly he cannot be saved," cannot but recall what Charlemagne, writing to the Bishops of Spain, had said of " This orthodox his own summary faith .... we profess to maintain and preach everywhere entire, seeing that there is no salvation in any besides it."
distinguish
;
:

What

is,

as

it

were, prefixed to the

Creed, was a general axiom of those days founded on the verse which says " With-

out

faith "

meant dogma then " it is impossible Its specific application to please God." to the dogmatism which follows is riveted

everybody which

thought

by the other two.

The

teaching of the Athanasian Creed,

then, on the Procession apart from those

damnatory

clauses at the middle

and end,

OF THE
I

ATHANASIAN CREED.
fix
it
is

269

contend goes far to

upon Paulinus,
mentioned in
next instance

the

moment
Nor can

his
it,

name
and

connexion with
2. less
I

his history told.

think

my

cogent, provided our previous associa-

tions are dismissed in

examining

it.

From

constantly repeating the Athanasian Creed,

we have
us that "

got the doctrine engrained into


j

all

men

will rise

with their

own
\
;

bodies ; " but there

was
says

explicitly

was a time when this taught nowhere but in the


" Ecclesia nostra,"
" quse

Aquileian Church.
Rufinus,
'

quod
'

a
:

cseteris
'

traditur,

carnis

resurrectionem

uno
will

addito pronomine tradidit,


resurrectionem."
'

hujus carnis

Anybody who

be

at the pains

of comparing the various

professions

and dogmatic summaries extant


expressed^
directly to
fact,

previous to the ninth century, will find


that wherever this doctrine
it is

can be traced more or

less

the Creed of Aquileia.


sequently,

This

con-

would go
*

far
43.

to connect the

270

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP

author of the Athanasian Creed with that

Church
3.

in

some way.
the longest and most inis
it

One of

volved verses of the Athanasian Creed


the following

in our English version

forms two
pelled

" For like as

we

are

by the Christian verity to ledge every Person by Himself to be God and Lord, so we are forbidden by the
Catholic religion to say, there be three

comacknow-

Gods
found

or three Lords."

The

matter of this

is,
:

doubtless, to be

in S.

Augustine

but Waterland's
for
just

parallels*

fail

him

here completely
is

the turjt

of the sentence^ which

what
Felix

is

supplied in the thirteenth chapter


first

of the

book of

his

work

against

by Paulinus

himself,

in arguing

from the Trinity to the Incarnation. " For just as in the Mystery of the

Holy
Three

Trinity,
Persons,

by

the

distinction

of

and

the

inseparable

majesty of

one and the same glorious


- Hist., p. 234.

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.


Essence, one

27
us,

God

is

believed

on by

not three

so,

in the dispensation

of the

great and holy sacrament of the Mediator

of

God and man,

the

Man

Christ Jesus,

by the

real distinction

of two Natures, and


once prompts

profession of the truth of one Person, the


rule of Apostolic faith at

and

incites

us to believe sincerely with

the heart unto righteousness, and to confess healthfully

with the mouth unto


Sons,

sal-

vation,

not

Two
but

Two

Gods, or
the

Two
Christ

Christs,

One and
either,

same

Jesus,

of

and in either

Nature,

True and Only-begotten Son of God, the True and Almighty God." 4. This passage, for matter again, might
the

have been quoted for another purpose.


occurs, as has been said, in a

It

work against

Adoptionism
this treatise,
is

it,

therefore, connects the

author of the Creed with the author ot

by showing that Adoptionism specifically condemned in the Creed.

272

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP
with

Compare

this passage, for instance,

the following verse

"Who,
Man,
Christ.

although

He
not

be
two,

God and
but

yet

He

is

one

"One:
manhood
"

not by conversion of the

God-

head into Flesh, but by taking of the


into

God.
:

One

altogether

not by confusion of
.

Substance, but

by unity of Person."

Putting the question of their authorship out of sight, both cannot but have been
directed against the

same
of

error.

Waterwith

land,

from connecting these


older
heresies

verses

the

Nestorius

and

Eutyches, instead of their revival, such


as
it

was, by Felix,

is

hopelessly puzzled

to decide

when, and by whom, and with


Creed could have been
I

what
I

object this

written.*

sum up what

venture

to think

has

been established on
.

each

of these

points:

* Hist.,

c. vii.

OF THE ATH AN ASIAN CREED.


I.

273

Its

age and authorship have been

established

from hence

A.D.

800 Alcuin
letter

compliments Paulinus in a glowing


addressed to
great
is

him on having supplied a need by a recent work of his, which


described
in

thereupon

terms hardly

capable of being improved

upon had he

been describing

this Creed.

Within a year of that time a work bearing a name by which this Creed was afterwards known for centuries is,

by
the

Alcuin's

master,

ordered

to

serve

very

purpose
this

which
of

Alcuin
Paulinus

had
ad-

declared

work

mirably

fitted to serve so recently,

and to

which he had been directing his master's Alcuin attention for some time before.
himself
first

cites this

Creed, a year

later, for

the

and only time in

his life,

dying the

year following.

It is cited freely

by

others

thenceforward, never having been cited in

any document
Creed
itself

earlier

than A.D. 800.

This,

indeed, has to be further proved.


contains

The
T

strong grounds for

274
fixing

AGE, AIM,
Its

AND AUTHORSHIP

authorship upon PauUnus, and

nothing to the contrary.


2.

The

object

embodied

in

it

has been

shown

to be twofold,
its

by distinguishing
and
it,

between
Paulinus,
to supply

compiler

publisher.

in compiling

simply meant

what had been


achieved
:

so long discussed,

but

never

dogmatic comfaith in

pendium
sition

of the Catholic

oppoor

to

the errors

then

prevalent,

supposed to be prevalent, over and above


the Creeds.
it,

Charlemagne, in publishing
this

had another purpose besides view, which determined its title


probably suggested to him,
instance,

in

a title
first

in the

by

its

being a work by Paulinus.


is

This other purpose


title

revealed not in

its

only, but in the uses to


it.

which he
quoted

turned

First

of

all,

he caused

it

to be

simultaneously, both against the Greeks,

and to the Pope, with the object of vindicating the ^^ Fill que'''* which King
Reccared had inserted
in

the

Niceno-

OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED.

275

Constantinopolitan Creed, and which he,


for reasons

best

known

to himself,

had

taken under his special patronage. Next, he decreed that " the faith of S. Athana^
sius"

namely,
by

this

Creed

should
is

be

learnt

heart everywhere

by

his clergy.

The

significance of this act

strikingly

brought out by contrast.


Pepin, following
all

His father

other precedents else-

where
faith "
his

till

then, decreed that the " Nicene

should

be

preached

throughout

whole realm. Charlemagne, from having quarrelled with the Second Nicene
Council, and discovered that
it

was
to

his

own

creed

really

which was

in

fault,

abstained

from ever referring


as

Nicene faith " in those capitularies

"the which

he published
tuted for
those
it

King, and overtly substias

" the faith of S. Athanasius" in

which he published
as

Emperor.

He
In

thus adopted " the faith of S. Athahis

nasius"
this

standard

of orthodoxy.

he was followed slowly but surely

by

the Popes,

who

received

it

at

his

276

AGE, AIM,

AND AUTHORSHIP
It

bidding into their Breviary, and used


against

the

Greeks with a shrewdness

which in this case w^as not their own; and by the schoolmen also, who saw in it their best argument for the Latin doctrines,

both alike testifying to the surpass-

ing foresight and sagacity with which a

document so framed had been so called and utilised. This, then, is the solution
>

of the mystery that has so long enveloped


the Athanasian
Creed.
It

was
a

at

once

the expression of Latin dogmatism, and the lever of Latin despotism


:

symbol
of
the

of the
to

impending
a
spirit

subjugation

Church of
act,

Christ, both in

thought and
but

which was neither of


of
first

Jerusalem,

nor yet of Greece,

Rome

of

Rome

pagan, and then


recite

Christian.

Every time we
it

the
vr-'X^ "*

Athanasian Creed,
ture that speaks
:

is

reason not Scrip-

Charlemagne not Atha- ^ a faith deliberately nasius that expounds


:

set

up

in opposition to the faith of Nicasa


is

and Constantinople that

professed.

All

OF THE ATH AN ASIAN CREED.


this
is

277
facts

incontrovertible,

unless the

which have been adduced


In discussing
its

are not facts.

structure,

we

shall

be

brought face to face with the


for challenging

sole

ground
its

them

namely, that of

pre-existence.

^78

CHAPTER

V.

THE ATHANASIAN CREED A COMPILATION^ NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.

The
title

detection of the spuriousness of

its

was

not, of course, sufficient in itself

to establish the comparatively late origin

of the Athanasian Creed


feeling in general,

and

its

intrinsic

merits as a composition, or a conservative

may have
its

predisposed

many
come

to stop short of that,

and to wel-

testimonies to

antiquity

from

whatsoever quarter without cross-examining them.


selves

Such testimonies range them-

under three heads


in

is

i.

External
;

testimonies
2.

which
3.

it

named

or,

Manuscripts in w^hich
and,

it is

transcribed,
it

as such;

Passages cited from

in appearance, but without

naming

it,

in

other works.

THE ATHAN ASIAN CREED,


I

ETC.

279

shall

dispose of the

two former of
First,

these very summarily.


discredited in

they are
all

general,

and one and

by the threefold fact that it is nowhere cited by Alcuin and his contemporaries before A.D. 800 that he himself hailed the appearance of just such a work in that year by the most celebrated of his friends as a public boon and that from A.D. 800 onwards not only was the Athanasian Creed cited by him and by others as such, but it was turned to the very purpose, which on his own showing he knew of no work at all calculated to
equally,
:

serve, previously to perusing that


friend.

of his

Alcuin, if the expression


let

may

be

allowed, literally

the cat out of the

bag

in disclosing this.
is

Secondly, there

no MS. of

it

or testi-

mony
relied

to

it
:

before then extant that can be


in short, the

on

date assigned to

more remote the them, the more delusive

they

have been found.


testimony
still

Even

so,

the

earliest

cited has never

been

28o

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


earlier

supposed
century.

than the end of the sixth


I

Here again

regret

having to

find fault, in the interest of students, with

Professor Heurtley's editorship


plain of there being so

and comto mislead

much

work especially planned for their benefit. One of the tracts reprinted by him is a commentary on the Athanain

them

sian Creed,

with

this

heading

" Venantii

Honorii Fortunati, Pictavensis Episcopi,


fidei
is

Catholicse Expositio?"*

And

this

his

introduction to

it

"
a

The
it

tract

of

Venantius Fortunatus

is
;

commentary
supplies

on the Athanasian Creed


of that formulary.
still

and

the earliest external testimony to the date

Venantius was ....

living in the year 600.

His com-

mentary

may

be dated at about the year

57"t
So
land,
'^

far as these
is

remarks are concerned,


but his
p. 40.

the Professor

merely repeating Water;

and Waterland:}: Muratori


De Fide
I

**

et S." p. 153.
p.

f Ibid.
293, et seq.

C,

iii.

60

Comp.

1:

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


heading
others.
is

28
all

in

advance of both, and of


first

came to light containing it this commentary was found without any heading at all, and was so printed by Zaccaria.* Muratori
In the
that

MS.

discovered

it

in another
fidei

with

this

heading
"

" Expositio

Catholicse Fortunati."f
:

Waterland, in another, with this


positio in fide Catholica."

Ex-

And no
of

other
belief,

transcript of

it,

to the best

my

has since been found.


fication

If so,

what
have

justi-

can the Professor offer of his neiv


?

heading

Should he not

first

satis-

fied himself that

Muratori was right in


Fortunatuses that

singling the

well-known Bishop of Poitiers


the

out

of
the

all

many

figure in his collection of Italian records


as

Fortunatus of

this

commentary.
to

Certainly, the one reason

which seems

have weighed with him

is

not convincing*
it

The MS.

containing

it,

and attributing

to a Fortunatus, contained another tract,


* Excurs. Lit., p. 507.

f Anec.

ii.

212, et seq.

282
entitled

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


" Exposition of the Creed by
Presbyter,"

Fortunatus the

which Exin

position proved identical with that of the

Bishop of
tract has

Poitiers,

occurring

the

eleventh book of his Miscellanies.

This

been noticed in a former chapter.


reflected that

But Muratori should have


there
is

nothing in either the Miscellanies

or any

known work of
let

the

Bishop of

Poitiers indicating

his acquaintance

with

the Athanasian Creed,

alone this

com-

mentary

moreover, that his

own MS.
one of

contained

two more commentaries on the


Creed besides
this,

Athanasian

them with the same heading, minus the word " Fortunati," which Waterland's MS. omits too further, that the word " Fortunati," strictly construed, would
;

make Fortunatus
and not
contains
its

author

of the Creed,
as

commentator,
extracts

he himself

admits; and,

lastly, that this

several

commentary from Alcuin.

Waterland, from his

MS.

omitting these,

was put on

his guard,

and bracketted

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


them
as

283
say

interpolations.

Who
?

shall

they were not quotations

The
was a

tract is

made up of
so

extracts

all

through.

And

it

happens

that

there

rather

energetic Fortunatus, Patriarch of

Grado,

and second of that name, who was employed by the son and successor of Charlemagne to negotiate with the East, A.D. 824, and died afterwards in France.* Who more likely to have occupied himself with the Athanasian Creed, and quoted Alcuin, and been transcribed, it he left anything behind him in writing, by French hands ? At any rate, the most recent editors of the works of the Bishop of Poitiers have decided upon internal evidence,
this

as well

they might, that


his.f

commentary can be none of

* *'Vir inquieti animi," says Pagi, (ad Baron.


A.D. 824, n. g,) " qui

meruit, ut

tamen multis in rebus laudem Lib. iv., de videre est apud Sigon.
et

Regn.

Ital.

Ughell.

Tom.

v.

Ital.

Sac.

in

Patriarch. Grad."

f "Auctores Hist. Lit. Franc, inficiantur illam Expositionem nostri Fortunati fetum esse quorum
:

"

284
Its

THE ATHANASIAK CREED


author

may have
the

stolen

from
''

the

author

of

beautiful

hymns

Ave

Maris

Stella"

and
v^ell

" Vexilla

Regis

from others; but, to judge from this specimen, and in the absence of any more direct proof, he was
Prodeunt," as
as

clearly not that Fortunatus.

Passing
spurious

by

the

now-acknov^ledged
S.

letter

of

Isidore

to

Duke
to

Claud, which imposed on Bishop Pearson,*

but

which,

by
in

referring

the

Athanasian Creed

the

with the

which it been then raging on the Procession, tells us in so many words why it should have been antedated by two centuries, and assigned to S. Isidore we come to the
strife
:

same breath asserts to have

sententias ut

meam adjungam

facit

stylus,"

etc.

Michael Angelo Luchi ad Venant. Fort. ap. Migne,


Patrol. Ixxxviii. 586.

Creed attributed to S. Athanasius, which though we cannot say was his, yet we know was extant about the year 600, by the Epistle of ad Claudium Ducem.' Isidorus Hispalensis, On the Creeds, ii. 193, Oxford Ed.
in the
*

"As

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


last

285

remaining

of

the

stock-passages

hitherto relied
it

on

a canon of Autun, as
:

has been called, which runs thus

" That

any presbyter,

deacon,

sub-

deacon, or clerk not reciting the Creed

which the Apostles by inspiration of the Holy Ghost delivered, and the Faith
of the holy prelate
factorily,

Athanasius,

satis-

be condemned by the bishop."

This canon has

been

assigned

to

Synod of Autun,
A.D. 640,

said to

have been held


Assigned

under

S.

Leodegar.
?

but on what grounds

Simply that it was discovered two centuries and a half


ago by Sirmondus,
canons
Dijon,^'=

in

a
S.

collection

of

at

the

Abbey of
this

under

Benignus in heading, " Canones


I."

Augustodunenses Era
heading

What

this

may mean is one thing; and what credit may be due to this collection To judge of the latter coranother.
rectly,
till

it

has been printed entire, or


described

impartially

by a
i.

competent

* Concil. Gall.

507.


286
critic,
is

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


out of the question.
it

All the
is

notice given of

by Sirmondus

confined

to this canon.

collection of the

same

kind has come to light more recently,

and been printed in Paris, but in part only, named, after the owner or discoverer
of the

MS.

containing

it,

the

Herovall
to

Collection."

Morinus appears

have

seen this at Angers, about the time v^hen

Sirmondus
in

may have
at

been making extracts

from the other


seen both.

Dijon

the course of his

and Sirmondus, researches, to have


;

From

the single remark he

volunteers on the subject,


infer that

we

are left to

they were duplicate copies

and not the only copies that he had seen either of the same collection.f But he

from Petit in Migne's Patrol. xcix. ggi. Because M. Petit printed this collection in the same volume with Archbishop Theodore's Penitentiale, Professor Brewer, by a strange oversight, speaks of this canon as in the Penitentiale. Athanasian Creed, p. 5, note. Concil. Gall. i. 506 in his note, p. 620, he f quotes, " Consensio domini Leodegari episcopi Augustodunensis," as inscribed in the last place
;

* Reprinted

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


cannot have examined them with
care.

287

much
means

Fortunately,

we have
it

the

of examining the Herovall collection for


ourselves, so
far as
editor,

has been printed.


I

M.
it,

Petit,

its

as

learn through

Abbe Migne, whose Patrology


infers its antiquity

contains

from the absence of

any

reference in

it

to the False Decretals.

As

it

could not well have referred to

them

had

it

been compiled only the year before

their publication,

no higher antiquity than


it

the latter half of the ninth century can

be claimed for any part of


score
;

on that
Popes
it

while by appealing to the decrees

of two legendary synods under


Gelasius and
directly
Silvester,
its

one part of

negatives

own

antiquity

beyond the earlier half. Again, we have two lists of canons given at the beginning and end of this collection, which by no
of several
^'

codices," including those of Angers

and

Dijon.
Dijon.

As the reading
he
its

Collection,

Of

is different in the Herovall probably quoting from that of import he offers no intelligible ex-

is

planation whatever.

288

THE ATHANASIAN CREED

means square with each other.* The one said to be prefixed to it is the longer and later of the two, and contains several references " Canones Romanorum," for
instance

not found
it

in the other.

By its

own

must have been made subsequently to the pontificate of Gregory III., or A.D. 741, whose decrees In both, however, with a it includes.
confession
single exception, the style throughout
is

the same, and the

number of bishops sup-

posed to have been present at each of the

synods whose canons are cited, is carefully e,g. " the Nicene canons of 3 1 specified
:

bishops," and so forth.


tion occurs last of
all

The single

excep-

runs
sancti
so

thus

on the longer list, and " Canones Angus 1 dun en ses


episcopir

Leodegari

Now,
was

it

happens that there

never

but

one canon of Autun supposed to be cited in this collection at all, namely, the canon
in question
'^'

and with

it

the

first

chapter

Both printed

in p. 1076, the

longer one in a

note.

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


of
this collection
is

289

begins.

On

the other

hand, there

no mention of any canons

of Autun whatever in the shorter list but what it ends with is " Consensio et
:

confirmatio Leodegari episcopi."

What

can

this possibly

mean

It

means unlife-

questionably that this collection was, in


its

original shape^ framed during the

time ot Bishop Leodegar


approval

when he would
and
re-

not, of course, be styled " saint,"

ceived

his

and

confirmation.
to
it

That
longer

additions were

made
is

subse-

quently to his death


list,

attested

by the

No

where he is styled " saint." canons of Autun were named in the


list,

shorter

because this collection origin-

-1.

ally contained

none

though Autun,
the others,

in

one

sense, appropriated all

on
the

their being confirmed there.

When
it

canon in question was


placed at the

inserted,

was

head of the collection^ and being placed there was designated, " Canon Augustodunensis sera I.," as being first of a collection confirmed by u

290
the
See.
list

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


saint

and

former bishop of
the

that

The

entry with which

new

of contents closed, " Canones Augussancti

todunenses

Leodegari

episcopi,"

was conceived
African

in the

same
been

spirit.

The

named by Dionysius Exignus, " canons of the Synod


canons

had

of the Africans at Carthage:* the fact being


that they

had been framed

at eighteen or

more

different synods,

but were subse-

quently collected and confirmed at one


that of Carthage, a.d. 419.

Individual

canons, on the same principle, were not

anfrequently cited as canons of Carthage,

though they had been framed

at

Hippo.
place

Why
easily.
is

the interpolator chose the

first

for the

canon in question

is

explained
;

The
"

first

chapter of this collection


fide
et

entitled

De

symbolo " and


it is

the next canon quoted in

that of the

Third Council of Toledo prescribing the


-''

singular number

<<

Which enacted"
'*

he

continues, using the

138 Canons."

In his preface

he speaks of

it

as

'*

Africanum Concilium."

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


recital In

29

church of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, " according to the form


I

of the Eastern churches."


attention already to the

have

called

marked preference given in the capitularies of Charlemagne to the Apostles' and Athanasian Creeds Canons enjoining their over the Nicene. use would accordingly, by those who obeyed him, have precedence given them
over canons enjoining
its

use.

This
It

cir-

cumstance serves of

itself to indicate

both

the origin and age of the canon.


one, doubtless, of the

was

many

canons framed
at

in the ninth century,

whether

Autun

or elsewhere, to give effect to the "General


Capitulary," published a.d. 802, where j^^J, ^^V.^"^' the learning by heart of the " Catholic yJx /t^^ ^
faith

of S. Athanasius,''

is

as

we have
suppose

^^^tL^S^'c^^Qf.u^
-

seen, first enjoined.

To

assign an earlier ^
to

^^^^

date to this canon,


that

would be

what
at

this capitulary prescribed

had

been law in France long before, and that

Tours was ignorant of what very clerk at Autun had not so long u 2
Alcuin

292
since
heart.

THE ATH AN ASIAN CREED


been in the habit of learning by
in conclusion,

One word,
"
asra."

on the term

To

our
:

ears

it

may sound
well-known,

familiar
it

enough

but, as

is

had a barbarous origin, having come out first in Spain, and marked a basis of computation then in use there, but which
Its was current out of Spain. meaning in these remote times, therefore,

never

should

not
for
is

be

too

hastily

assumed.

" ^ra,"

instance,

some have taken

for granted,

here equivalent to canon or

number
then,

one.

This

it

may
:

be

now and

where the reckonings in and out of Spain happen to coincide but who can assume their agreement in all cases beforeTaking this collection as a hand ?
specimen,
acra

we have
and the
2

'^

Canon Toletanus
referred
to,

"

canon

doubtless, is canon

not,

however, of
in

every Council of Toledo

succession,

but of the Third of those Councils only. Further on, we have " Canon Aurelian-

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


ensis aera i," for

293

" Concil. Aurelian. iii. can. i " and again, " Canon Arausicanus asra 28," for what is " Concil.

what
;

is

really

Araus.

i.

can.

29 "

similarly,

" Canon
i.

Araus. sera 24," for " Concil. Araus.

can.
for

25

"

" Canon

Aurelian.

asra

4,"

and "Canon Aurel. iv. asra 9'' for Concil Aurel. v. can. 1 2." There was a method in use likewise, mentioned
"Concil. Aurel.
iii.:"

by

S. Isidore, for

taking account of the

parallel

where canons and asras figured, and where the obscurity that enshrouds their meaning ought to deter everybody from reckoning upon it as certain in other cases.*
passages of the Gospels,
Etym. vi. 15. '' De canonlbus Evangeliorum." " Sunt canones numero decern His words are quorum primus continet numerus in quibus quatuor quorum (Evangelistas) eadem dixerunt, etc.
'''

Evangelistas numerus quidam capitulis affixus adjacet, quibus


expositio
haec
est.

Per singulos

numeris

subdita

quae indicat in

est^ra quaedam minio notata, quoto canone positus sit numerus


Verbi gratia
:
:

cui subjecta est sera.

si

est

cera
:

prima, in primo canone


tertia in tertio
:

si

secunda, in secundo

si

et sic
.

per ordinem usque ad deci.

mum

perveniens.".

294

THE ATH AN ASIAN CREED


let

In quitting these testimonies,

me

append a noteworthy passage from Waterland illustrating a connection which I fully agree with him exists between the first and third.

"This comment of Fortunatus," he says, " is a great confirmation of what


hath been above cited from the Council of Autun; for
if the

Creed was noted

comment upon it so early as the year 570, no wonder we find it strongly recommended by that Council
enough
to deserve a in the year 670, a

hundred years

after.

And it

is

observable that as that Council

recommends the Apostolical and Athanasian Creeds^ ^without saying a ivord

of the Nicene^ so Fortunatus, before them, comments upon those two only, taking no
notice of the third."

Had
stitution

Waterland only noticed the sub-

of the faith of
have
called

S,

Athanasius
in

and of
which

the Apostles^ for the Nicene, to


I

attention,

the

Caroline Capitularies, his

own

concluding

INOT

AN ORIGINAL WORK.
would have
inspired

295

observation

him

with truer notions of both the one and


the other.

There
ward.
I

is

one more document that

will notice,

though

it

is

rarely put for-

mean the profession said to have been made by Denebert Bishop of Worcester,

on

his consecration,
;

A.D.

799, to

Archbishop Athelard

which, as Water-

land says, "contains," but without naming


it,

" a considerable part of the Athanasian


viz.,

Creed,"*

from the commencement


all

to
is

the verse, " So that in

things,

as

aforesaid, the Trinity in Unity,

and the
;"

Unity
clause
cult

in Trinity,

is

to be

worshipped
not

stopping notably short of the damnatory

which

follows.

This

is

diffi-

to

explain.
it,

Hearne, whose
supplies a

collec-

tion

contains

similar professions

number of by bishops in England


but of these there
all
is

of the same date


of

not one containing anything at


to

similar

that

Bishop Denebert;
* Ibid. p. 157.

though

296
several

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


other

bishops

speak

of having

learnt their professions equally

from the
of his

same

source,

viz.,

the teaching of their

predecessors.*

The
had put
?

uniqueness

profession therefore consists in his quotation.

Who

it

into his

mouth

Why

not Alcuin

Alcuin had

many

disciples in

England, of
been one
;

whom

Denebert

may have
to give

sponding with them

was always correand would be sure


intelligence of a

them the earliest new work by Paulinus.


to

W hen he wrote
of
it

express
it

his

admiration

to

its

author,

had not been named perhaps contained no damnatory clauses at all, And Alcuin may have but the first.
simultaneously quoted the
as a
first

half of

it

specimen to Denebert, whose conse-

cration

was impending

for

the dates in

each case are too


''

close,

without either
:

E.g. a bishop of Hereford says


et

" Insuper

orthodoxam, Catholicam, Apostolicamque fidem, sicut ab illis didici, paucis verbis exponam," which is word for word what Denebert says of his.
etiam
Text. Roff. p. 270.

Comp.

p. 251.

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.

297

being fixable to a year, to present any


difficulty^

and Denebert have quoted


In this case
first
it

it

to

his
to

Primate.

would
ofily^

seem

have been

used, for public

purposes, in England, but in part

and 7iot under a forged name. The witness of MSS. to the


over-rated

antiquity

of the Athanasian Creed has been both

and

over-stated.

Negative

proof

is

the only proof really supplied

MSS.

MSS. may prove

that

by they them:

selves cannot be older

than a given period

they can never prove themselves as old


the possibility, or probability, greater or
less,

that they

may

be as old,

is

as

much

as

can ever be deduced from them on the

constructive side.

Take,

for instance, the

Lombardic and the Anglo-Saxon charac''

Alcuin's letter, for instance,


;

may have been

written a year sooner

or Denebert's consecration

a year
to the

later.

Denebert was among the subscribers


of Cloveshoe, a.d. 803,

Synod

and Athelard's

decree of the same year; (Wilkins, i. 167-8;) but not to the Synod of Baccauceld, a.d. 798. No intermediate subscriptions have been preserved.

298
ters,

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


on which
in
stress
is

apt to be laid in

this instance.

The
any

use of the Lombardic

would not

case prove a

MS.

older

than the sixth nor the Anglo-Saxon than


the seventh century. But the Anglo-Saxon

continued to be written after the Conquest for some time


;

and the Lombardic

swing one hundred " We Lombards," said years earlier. Liutprand, Bishop of Cremona, to the
in full

must have been

Emperor of
''

Constantinople,

a.d.
;

968,

disdain to be called
'
'

Romans

so

much

Roman is the bitterest term of reproach that we can apply to our enemies: under the word Roman we comprehend
so, that
' '

all

that

is

ignoble, craven, miserly, de-

generate, false, vicious." *

When so much

was unextinguished, it is not likely the Lombardic character even in ordinary writing had Take, again, the handfallen into disuse.
of the

Lombardic

spirit

writings of the reigns of

Edward

I.

and

Queen

Elizabeth respectively, which are


*

Ap. Baron,

a.d. 968, n. 23.

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


within everybody's reach.
first

299

A
down

MS. of the
older than

kind could not be

set
;

the thirteenth century

nor of the second

kind than the sixteenth.


prevailed for

But both

styles
;

upwards of a century
to
its

and

either could, of course, be imitated at

time
there

subsequently

any own, where


it.

was a reason

for using

Pre-

viously to the introduction of printing,


there

would naturally be more


as

reason, as
imitation.

well

greater

facility,

for

Volumes were not

so easily multiplied,

but that everybody was bent on utilising


every blank leaf in those he possessed
already
;

while, most of these being works

of

art, taste

alone

would

dictate that there

should be no great discrepancy noticeable

between the performances of the


the
earlier
scribe.

later

and

This,

again,
all,

when
was a
so

everybody
scribe

who

could write at

by
to

profession,

would not be

difficult

ensure

as

now

caligraphy

being then studied in

all its

different styles

with as much

interest as architecture.

300

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


apply these remarks to the
neither the use of the
earliest

To
MSS.
Creed
:

exhibiting copies of the Athanasian

Lombardic nor of the Anglo-Saxon characters would of itself prove them earlier than the tenth or eleventh centuries, though it would prove them later than the sixth or seventh, and would not be inconsistent with their being of any date between the one and
the other.

Most, again, of the

MSS.

in

question are Psalters, which were complete


in themselves,

and not

at first intended to

include

more.

Hymns
became
Service,

and

Canticles

obtained admission in them as they were

composed,
taken
into

and
the

popular,
or

were
:

both

the

Athanasian Creed among them, and in Sometimes they general placed last.

formed a separate appendix; sometimes were written on parchment of a different quality from what had gone before some;

times showed a different style of handwriting, obviously


later.
If,

occasionally,

they were written on identical membranes,

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


and
rest

301

in the

same handwriting with the

of the volume, careful inspection of

the Calendar or of the Litanies would,


in most eases, alone suffice to prevent

any

conclusion being

formity

since

drawn from such uniit would have to be exSo much


for the

tended to the confessedly later insertions


in these,

no

less.

themselves.

On

the other hand,

MSS. if we

turn to accounts given of


times

them

at various

by the learned

men who have


with
be

examined them,

we

are confronted

numerous
quity

instances in

which

their anti-

has

been overstated
closer
it

only to

abandoned on
not one where

investigation,

and

has ever been placed

beyond doubt.
heard
of,''

"

The

oldest

we have
"
is

says

Waterland,

one

mentioned by Archbishop Ussher, which

he had seen

in the

Cotton Library, and

which he judged to come up to the age of Gregory the Great." But Waterland himself disposed of this summarily by observing " that there is not at this day

302
in

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


Library any such

the Cotton

MS.

copy of the Athanasian Creed, nor indeed

any Latin

Psalter, that

can come up to
it

the age of Gregory, or near

:"* a re-

mark

said to be

as

true

now

as then.

Waterland appeals with more confidence to two MSS. vouched for by a French
divine

named Antelmi, one


it

called

the

Treves MS., and another purporting to

have been copied from


Collection.

in the Colbertine

But he again assigns them a date two hundred years later than

M.

Antelmi.

Besides, he has forgotten


told

to notice

what Montfaucon

Muratori

personally, viz., that he thought neither

MS.

earlier

than the reign of Charle-

magne.f The character of the Treves MS. is Lombardic of that in the Colbertine Collection Anglo-Saxon and the from its Anglo-Saxon character latter, alone, Montfaucon would ascribe to the But when Muratori, eighth century.
;
;

* Crit. Hist.,
t

c. iv.
ii.

Murat. Anec.

224.

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


similarly,

3O3
in

decided

that a

MS.

the

Ambrosian

Library,

where

he

was

Hbrarian, belonged at least to the seventh

century, from
bardic,

its

characters being

Lom-

Montfaucon,

who was shown


placed
it

over this collection by him, and had a

high respect for


a century
fact
is,

his authority,

later,

without hesitation.^

The

j
^j

bardic,

from the use of the Lornnor of the Anglo-Saxon characters


neither

alone ^ should

we

be justified in concluding

any MSS.

to

belong to one century more

than another,

between
as

the

sixth

and
has

eleventh centuries.

The Vienna MS.,


special claims

it

is

called,

of

its

worth
itf as

dissecting.

own, which are well Waterland speaks of


end of a
letters

" the famous manuscript of Charles


at

the

Great,

the
in

Gallican

Psalter, written

of gold, and

presented

by Charlemagne, while only King of France, to Pope Adrian I. at


* Crit. Hist., p. 98, Notes,
t Ibid. p. loi.

304
his
first

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


entrance

upon the

pontificate, in

the year 772.

Lambecius, in his catagives a large account

logue of the Emperor's Hbrary at Vienna,

where
of
it."

this
I

MS.

is,

need hardly say that Waterland


it is

in describing
becius.

only transcribing

Lam-

victed

But Lambecius is easily conon his own showing of assuming


to

what he ought
draws

have proved.

He

from the dedicatory verses in gold letters on folio i.* But these might have been written by any King Charles, on giving this Psalter^to any Pope Adrian. There is nothing in
his conclusion

them whatever to prove that the donor was Charles the Great, or the recipient
Adrian
I.

Again, they are very inferior

in point of style to the epitaph given a

few pages on,'f and said to have been composed by Charlemagne for this Pope.
Further, there
'^''

is,

besides these dedicatory


Vindob.
ii.

Comment, de
p. 265.

Bibl. Cass.

5,

pp.

261-98.

t lb,

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


verses,

305

an attestation by a notary of the


this Psalter, declaring

empire prefixed to
that
it

had been used by Hildegard, wife of Charlemagne, during her life-time and given by him after her death, and
in

memory of
See.

her,

to

the
S.

Church of
course

Bremen on nominating
that

Willehad to

This

Lambecius of

found hard to reconcile with the dedicatory verses, as he had interpreted them ;
it

ought to have
in
this

tack.

him upon another Hildegard, whose name is everyset

thing

attestation,

only became

queen

herself
I.

in

the

year in
It

which
not,
in that

Adrian

therefore,

became Pope. have been given


it

could

to

him

year, if she used


as queen.

during her life-time


she
died A.D. 783,

And

as

and S. Willehad became bishop of the Church of Bremen only four or five
years later, the probability
is,

surely, that

Charlemagne, entertaining any regard for


her memory, would not have parted with
it

at

all

in

the interim.

Besides

had

306

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


been written after a Pope

this attestation

had possessed it, would not his use of it have been a fact for commemoration equally with its use by the queen ?

On the
tion to
authorities

other hand, suppose this attesta-

have been prefixed to


of
the

by the Church of Bremen


it

shortly after they

and that
and
all

it

became possessed of it, was taken out of their hands

in another generation to be sent to


is

Rome,

plain.

The

dedicatory verses

savour of the age of Charles the Bald


infinitely

more than of Charlemagne and Charles the Bald was no more than King of France when Adrian 11. Several letters passed became Pope. between them on that occasion. Add this further consideration which Lam;

becius

himself supplies.
is

He

says that

the Athanasian Creed


canticles contained in

one of thirteen
to the

an appendix

Psalter in question.
state

He

does not, indeed,

whether the parchment or handdiffers in

writing of the appendix

any way

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.

307

from that of the Psalter ; but he would scarcely have called it an appendix, had he considered it to have formed part of Further, he tells the Psalter originally.
us that the
in
S.
this

" given to the " Te Deum appendix, is " Hymnus quern


title

Augustinus invicem condiderunt ;" to the Creed, " Symbolum sanctorum Apostolorum ;" to this, " Fides
et

Ambrosius

S.

S. Athanasii episcopi Alexandrini."

None

of these
century
;

titles

are older than

the ninth

and

it

was sometime before they


of the Athanasian

got into general use even then.

The
Psalters

earliest copies
I

Creed that
;

have seen myself have been in

but except where the Psalters

are confessedly
selves, their

none of the

earliest

them-

age was a question altogether

independent of that of the Creed.

The
;

Creed was written in different characters,

on

different

parchment, or both

and

formed part of a collection of prayers and hymns at the end of the volume, that

from having found

their

way

into the

X 2

3o8

THE ATHANASIAN CREED

Breviary, or become popular in convents,

had

at length

been bound up with the

The venerable Psalter among the Cotton MS.* in the British Museum, known as " Augustine's " and probably
Psalter.

the oldest in England

is

a case in point.

Formerly there was a charter of King Ethelbald prefixed to it, which 'was thought to have settled its date. But
the fact
to
it

is

this

charter

originally,
it still.

no more belonged than what is bound up


least

with
styles

Obviously, there are three


four

qualities

of parchment, and at

of

handwriting
It

in

the

existing

volume.

begins with a preface to the


Latin.

Psalms in
capitals,

This

is

written

in

which

are neither the capitals of

the Psalter, nor of the other pieces which

precede the Psalter

but are the capitals ot the prayer following the psalm " extra
;

numerum,"

or the

Goliah Psalm

at the

* Catalogued

as ''Vespasian A."
it

Waterland

has remarked upon

at

some

length, but not to

much

purpose.

Hist. Crit. pp. 93-6.

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


end of the
the Psalter,
Psalter.

309

This psalm, again, though in the same capitals as the rest of

was not written by

the

same

hand.
these

The author of the catalogue to MSS. considers the capitals of the


and the
rest Italian
;

Psalter English,

but

there are really three sorts of capitals to

be distinguished, not two.


the

The

parts of
i.

volume not
2.

in

capitals

are:

A
the

short prayer immediately preceding


Psalter.

miscellaneous

collection

appended to the Psalter, and comprising the " Te Deum," with this heading
matutinus diebus Dominicis " Inthe Athanasian Creed, with this
:

*'

Hymnus

;"

cipit fides Catholica ;" a

prayer with this

" Oratio Eugenii Toletani episcopi "


lived in the seventh century

he
is

the rest

anonymous, and includes a confession to God in Latin, with one leaf left blank and four prayers or addresses to the Cross,
with two more leaves
left

blank.

3.

There

is

Saxon version

interlined
;

over

the entire Psalter proper

and over the

3IO
"

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


''

Te Deum
is

and

Athanasian

Creed,
is

which

not in capitals either, but

all

by

the same hand.

The parchment on

which everything preceding the Psalter, and the psalm " extra numerum " at the end of the Psalter, is written, is of one quality, that of the Psalter another, and
that

of the appendix another.

The
leaf
is

Psalter proper, of

which the
contains,

first

unhappily

gone,

besides

the

Psalms, the usual canticles from the Old

and New Testament the hymns for morning and evening, by S. Ambrose; and a hymn for Sundays, which if not his, was at any rate well known and
;

much

esteemed

when Bede

wrote.

It

contains nothing whatever to point to a


later date,

and must have been all written It is one of the by the same hand.
noblest relics of antiquity

we possess

and,

for all that appears to the contrary,

may

have been
called,

really

what

it

has long been

" Augustine's Psalter."


translation,

But the
it

Saxon

with which

has been

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


interlined,

3 II

and the pieces which have been prefixed and appended to it since then, are mere parasites^ and of different
growths
;

the charter, the preface to the

psalms, and the psalm " extra

numerum,"

probably the

earliest

the other pieces in


psalms, the next

capitals preceding the

the prayer before the psalms, the Saxon


translations,

and the appendix, the


is

last.

In the catalogue, the appendix


Conquest.

held to

have been penned about the time of the


I

think there can be no doubt

of the prayer before the psalms and the

Saxon
hand.

translations

being by

the

same

What
in the
also,

is

called

" Athelstan's Psalter"


is

same

collection*

a case in point
It

but of another description.

has
is

been bound up with a good deal that


extraneous to
several of
it,

but

its

parasites
itself.

are

them

older than

There
styles

are several qualities of parchment in the


existing

volume,

and

several

of

* Catalogued as

Galba A.

xviii.

312

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


all

handwriting,

in small characters.

Calendar, in Latin,

comes
A.D.

first.

This

contains a calculation in one place showing


it

must have been made


accordingly

date has

been

703, which claimed for


is

the whole volume.

This

negatived
28, where

summarily by what we read


*'

p.

most pious Emperor," is recorded to have " departed this life on the ides of February;" his son " Pepin,
Charles, the

glorious

and

King, on the ides of June ;'* " Bernard, most grandson, his

glorious King, on the ides of

May,"

etc.

A
It

prayer for their souls follows.


last

Now,

the

of them, Bernard, died A.D. 818.


to see that the Calendar

needs but a glance at the parchment

and handwriting
is

a perfectly distinct production

rest.

next,

The Latin prayers, may or may not have


chronicler

from the which come


death

been written

by

the

of

the

of

Charlemagne and
are, doubtless,

his

descendants,

and
but

in the

same hand

as the

prayers

which follow the

Psalter,

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.

313

could not have been penned, anyhow, at

the same time with the Psalter, or by the

same

scribe.

This remark applies equally

to the short abstract of the

Book of Psalms,
end

following the
still

last

batch of prayers, and


solitary leaf at the

more

to the

of the volume, containing a Litany in

Saxon savouring of the same age


words,
but
Calendar.

Greek

characters,

with

the

The

Psalter itself

embodies

much

that

forms no part of the one called Augustine's:


a fact consistent

enough with the age


assigned both.

which

tradition has

prayer for

the

repose

of the souls of

Charlemagne and

his descendants

would

be perfectly natural in a Prayer Book of

King
their

Athelstan, once the fond pet of his

grandfather, Alfred,

who began
fresh.

life

when

memory was

still

This, and

the prayers preceding and following the


Psalter,

may have
was
left

been written, while the


possession,
till

Psalter

in his

on what
then.

had been

blank leaves

In

314

THE ATHANASIAN CREED

the Psalter proper, the Psalms are preceded

by a

and supplemented by the Psalm " Extra Numerum." The Canpreface,


in their

come next then the " Te Deum," without any title


ticles,

usual

order,

then the " Gloria in Excelsis," designated as " a hymn for Sundays ;" the " Lord's
Prayer," and the " Creed,"
as

word

for

word
of
S.

now

used

last

of

all,
''

the Athanasian

Creed, designated as

the faith

Athanasius

of Alexandria"

all

in

the

same hand and on the same parchment. Athelstan came to the crown A.D. 924.
It

has been already stated that in Psalters

confessedly later than the ninth century

the Athanasian Creed

is

no longer found

in an appendix, but figures in

what may
Instances

be called the text of the

Psalter.

of

this

kind are supplied by the Harleian


British

MS. 2904 in the Douce MS. 127 in


whose
Athanasian

Museum, and
as the

the Bodleian Library,

Litanies, in the

same hand
Psalter,

Creed and

contain

the names of Kings

Edmund

and Ethel-

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


bert

315

amongst the martyrs of the former,

and one of the

many Dominies commemo-

from the eleventh century downwards,* amongst the monks


rated in hagiography,

of the

latter.

Other instances that

may
are
is

be consulted in the British


2

Museum

B.V. of the King's Library, which


century,
instead

assigned in the revised catalogue to the

tenth

of

the

ninth

Vitellius

MSS., and MS. 863 among the Harleian, which proclaim themselves to be of the same age, or rather more than a century later.
In
all

E xviii. among the Cotton

MS.
I

copies of the Athanasian


it

Creed that
us,

have seen,f

appears in the
to

exact form in

word
:

for

which it has come down word as it is still printed


being in

in
its

Latin

the only variations

* Potthast's Bibl. Hist., s. v.

f And this is what the Benedictine Editors of " Latini codices plerique omnes Symsay bolum exhibent cum perpaucis varietatibus uno excepto Colbertino antiquissimo, qui non sententia, sed verbo tantum tenus multum discrepat ab editis." Op. S. Athan. ii. 716.
it
: :

3l6
title,

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


which
are sufficiently explained byfalse

its

appearing under a
given to
it

name.

The
Theo-

title
is

in the
S.

Roman
as

Breyiary

" Symbolum

Athanasii."

dulph, Bishop of Orleans,


seen

we have
Angilbert,
called
it

might have

added

Charlemagne's

own
it
:

Secretary*

by
or

this in

the

ninth

century.
called

Later,

even then,

was

"

Fides^'*
it

more generally

at the

same time, be
in those

remembered, " CreecT^ was

days
I

one of the senses which " Fides" bore.

make
has

these remarks in

reference to

been

advanced on

each

what head by
versions,

Canon Swainson.f
*

As

to

Greek

Among

the

Stat.

Rub. attributed to him.

*'In his vero majoribus Litaniis, post Antiphonas^

Psalmos, aliaque id germs, cantabantur tria SymApostolorum, Constantinopolitanum, et bola, Athanasii deinde oratio Dominica." Migne's S.
:

Patrol, xcix. 850.

f Letter to Dean Hook, pp. 41-3, and 66-70. With reference to the last of these, I would ask

whether ancient commentators in general ever cite more of a work than the passages they select from it for comment ?
also

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


in reference to

317

Brewer has said,* I never heard of any Greek writer so much as noticing it till it had been described to the Greeks by the envoys of Gregory IX. A.D. 1233, as having been

what

Professor

composed by S. Athanasius in Latin.f It began to be canvassed among them


from that time, and was,
first

in all probability,

translated into their

own

tongue by

some Latiniser
ceased to be

to

possibly

himself, sixty years

by John Veccus later, after he had


during his long
as

Patriarch,

confinement
against his

be

used

weapon
views.

countrymen, who, in turn,


it

accommodated

to

their

own

Specimens of each
the end of the

sort

may

be seen at

second

Benedictine
S.

Edition

volume of the of the works of


is

Athanasius; J but the subject


further.

not

worth pursuing any

* Athn. Creed Vindicated, pp. 61-2.

f Above, c. iv. p. 257. X The Editors say of Greek versions in general " Sane nullum

codicem, qui trecentorum

vidimus Graecum hujus Symbol! sit annorum ; nee anti-

3l8
It

THE ATHAN ASIAN CREED


only remains for

me

to explain

how

f!

passages, in appearance

from the Athanasian Creed, are found again and again


in writeJiB anterior to the ninth century.

The

fact

is

that,
it

instead of
at
all,

their being

citations

from

the Athanasian
first

Creed
I

is,

on the contrary, from

to

last,

a veritable mosaic of such passages.


this escaped

How

Waterland, in digesting
is,

matter for his ninth chapter,


to be explained

perhaps,

from his notion of the Creed having been composed at a time when original writing was the rule, and
not the exception.

Had

he studied the
half as
failed to

productions of later ages with

much
period

care,

he could not have


original

have seen that there was a long dreary

when

writing
rule.

was the
the

exception,

not

the

From

quum alium And further:

a quopiam visum fuisse novimus."


**Graecae formulae ita inter se dis-

sonant, ut a variis interpretibus ex Latino Graece versas fuisse conspicuum est." Of the four they
give, Nos. 2
I

and 3 are with the " FiUoque," and


it.

and 4 without

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.

319

seventh to the twelfth century there was

no

style

greater
original

more popular, or carried to a nicety, than the patchwork style


only so far
as

concerned the
the
pieces

arbitrary

shapes into which

were cut, and the seams by which they Every classical were joined together.* scholar knows what Ausonius makes Virgil say refer to it merely I for
illustration

of
One

the

liberties

taken with
later,

the Fathers two centuries or more

my

contention
identical,

is

not, of course, that they

were

but they were the same


writer after another

in kind.

made
:

them say what they never meant and this was done by piecing passages from
the
earlier

and

later

Fathers
there,

together,

bit

here and

a bit

without

naming them,
their

always

detached

from

context,

sometimes

interpolated,

often

separated

from
or

each

other
till

by
a the

original

remarks

comments,
agreeable

position

was

attained

to

* Above, pp. 70-2.

320

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


which

age or fancies of the compiler,

none of them
latest,

singly, or

would have instances which have been indicated already must suffice. Isidore died S.
Bishop of Seville
fonse
A.D. 6t,6^

none but the owned. The few

and
of

S. Ilde-

became
former

Archbishop
later.
is

Toledo

twenty years
of
the

One of
"

the works

Offices ;" of the

On Ecclesiastical latter " On the KnowBoth


S.

ledge

of

Baptism."
their

are

good

specimens of
describes his

kind.

Ildefonse

own work as
of
the

" a congestion"

or " agglomeration" which he had


for

made
and

the

good

Church,

arranged not for propounding

novelties

of his

own unknown

till

then, but for

unfolding the counsels of the ancients to


the intelligence, or noting

them down
this carried

for

the memory.*
in practice
?

How

was

out

It is quite

possible that in

the

work
*

thus described there are really


verified

more quotations than have been


See the end of his Preface.

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


as yet;

32

but as yet the authorities there


practically to be confined to
:

cited

seem

two S. no more than


these
his

Isidore,

who

was, indeed,

his contemporary,

senior

and

S.

though His Augustine.

longest and most frequent quotations are

from

S.

Augustine

but

when

S.

Augus;

tine fails

him, he goes to
fail

S. Isidore

and

when both

him, he

inserts statements

of his own.*

Whether he had read the Expositions of the Creed by Rufinus and


;

^ Starting from 33, which contains the extract below, 34, consisting of six lines, is his own

from the middle of c. i from S. Aug. de Fide et Symbolo. 36-7 are his own once more. 38 begins and ends with his own, but the intermediate is from S. Aug. ibid., c 2. 39 is from S. Aug. ibid. c. 3-4 but 40-2 is from Then to 45 is from S. Aug. Enchir., c. 38-40. S. Aug. de Fide et S. again, 45 being in part from S. Isid. Etym. vii. 10, and in part his own. 47 there is a quotation from S. Isid. Eccl. Off.
but
35
is
;

i.

30

otherwise the rest


is

is

all

his

own
;

to 50,
in

What

said on

*'

the Ascension,"

etc.

the

three next sections

from S. Aug. ibid. but the seven sections which follow on *'the Holy Ghost" are all from S. Isid. Etym. vii. 3, where the Latin view of the Procession is maintained as a dogma.
is

322
S.

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


for himself,
S. Isidore,
I

Nicetas

or got at
I

them

only through
to judge
;

leave to others

but
to

from each
carried out,

down a specimen show how the process of


set

dovetailing quotations in those days

was

and one writer made

to speak

for another.

from Rufinus,

The italicised portions are as now edited in each case

the remainder from S. Nicetas.


S. Isidore, Eccl. Off.
ii.

S. Ildefonse,

Cogn.
33.

33-

Bapt.,
ut

Discessuri itaquCf

Pro

solidate

itaque

dictum

est,

ad prcedicanApostoli in-

dum,

istud unanimitatis

initianda fidei bene discessurl ab invicem Apostoli

et fidei suce

hoc unanimitatis in.


est

dicium posuere.

dicium posuerunt.

Est autem Symbolum quod agnoscitur per Deus, quodque proinde


credentes accipiunt, ut noverint qualiter contra

Quod Symbolum
'

signum vel indicium per quod agnoscitur Deus quod ideo cre:

dentes
fidei

accipiunt

ut

diabolum

fidei
:

certain

sciant qualiter certamen

mina quidem

prasparent

quo
sunt

contra
:

pauca

pr^parent

in

diabolum quo cum

verba, sed

omnia

conti-

pauca

sint verba, conti.

nentur incrementa.
totis

De

enim

Scripturis
collecta

haec breviatim

nentur omnia Sacramenta. In quo ideo ab Apostolis breviatim

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK,


sunt ah ApostoliSf ut quocollecta sunt ex

323
omnibus

niam plures credentium


literas

Scripturis, ut quia nulli

nesciunt, vel qui

credentes vel literas nescirent, vel scienter occu-

sciunt per occupationes


saeculi Scripturas legere

pati

impedimento
iis

saeculi

non possunt,
ficientem

haec corde
suf-

Scripturas
liceret,

legere

non
et

retinentes habeant
sibi

hoc

corde

scien-

memoria

retinentes suf-

tiam

salutarem.

Est

ficientem sibi

haberent

enim breve fidei verbum ut olim a Prophetd prcsdic" Quoniam verbum turn
:

scientiam salutarem."

breviatum faciei Dominus super terramJ"'^

The

passages
2.
*'

themselves

run

thus

in

R. and N.
Discessuri igitur, ut diximus, ad praedicandum istud unanimitatis et fidei suae Apostoli indicium possuere." .... Then i "In his vero completur prophetia quae dicit verbum enim consummans, et brevians in gequitate quia verbum breviatum faciet Dominus super terram." ....
: :

Rufinus,

S.

Nicetas,

13.

'*

Retinete semper pactum


:

quod fecistis cum Domino id est, hoc symbolum quod coram angelis et hominibus confitemini. Pauca quidam sunt verba, sed omnia continent Sacramenta. De totis enim Scripturis base brevitatis

causa collecta sunt tanquam gemmae pretiosae in una corona compositae, ut quoniam plures cre-

Y 2

324

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


passage
cited
at the

The
tale
is

by them
S.

as

from

Rufinus occurs
the

end of the legendary


Isidore

tacked to his
first

work which
and

to cite,

may have com-

posed, as

suggested in

my
it

first

chapter.

Let

this

be denied, and
for

will not

ex-

culpate

them anyhow
is,

tampering with

S. Nicetas as

they have.

observation
collected

His beautiful that "these things were


parts of Scripture, like
to

from

all

precious

gems,

adorn

one crown

they robbed him of his poetry, and put a

word of

their

own
:

into his
viz.,

mouth which

he never uttered
collected by the

" that they were

ApostlesV
should

As
it

it

cannot

be denied that they have both interpolated


S.

Nicetas,

why

be thought

incredible that one of

them should have


Alcuin,
or

interpolated

Rufinus

the

writer of a

work

attributed to him, has


less

quoted
dentium

S.

Nicetas no

unfairly.

S.

literas nesciunt, vel qui sciunt, per occu-

pationes sasculi Scripturis

habeant sufBcientem

sibi

legere non possunt, scientiam salutarem"


.

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


Nicetas
besides

^^2^

explaining

the
the

Creed,

wrote " on the


:

power

of

Holythe

Ghost " and in doing so, doctrine of His Procession

laid

down

in strict

har-

mony with
Alcuin in
starts

the

uninterpolated

Creed,

his

own

profession of faith

with a quotation word for word


S.

from

Nicetas on the

first

article

* but

commences the articles relating to the Holy Ghost by defending its interpola" And, therefore, not with another, tion. nor a different, but with one and the same faith," he says, " I profess my belief in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of Life, Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son." He must have known that this had not been hitherto the teaching of the Church, or he would not have apologised for it though he was, of course, free to maintain it, if it had not been condemned. But he had no busi:

ness, after this, to


* Confess. Fid.
iii.

make
20.

S. Nicetas testify
quotation
is

The

from

Explan. Symb.

2.

;^26

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


he professed
:

to all

and

transfer

what the

bishop had said of the statement of the

Aquileian Creed on the Trinity to his own * " This rule of faith the Apostles
received from the

Lord

that they should

baptize

all

believers in the

Name

of the

Father, Son, and


ever, S. Nicetas

Holy Ghost."

How-

was not the only writer


of

who was so served. One of the best known works


Alcuin, as was stated in
is

my

first

chapter,

one dedicated to Charlemagne on the

There is nothing in its dedicationf that would lead us to infer that it was a compilation, still less a compilation from a single author, as it purports to be
Trinity.

statement of the Catholic doctrine of


Trinity.

But even contemporaries described it as having been collected from and different works of S. Augustine ;J
the
*

Confess. Fid.

c.

23,

and Explan. Symb.


it

8.

f
t

M. Migne's Patrol, ci. 11-13. As Teganus said on sending


:

to

Bishop

" Ideo istud volumen vobis transmisi, Hatto quod sanctus Alcuinus summus scholasticus ex

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


several of the

327
exhibit

MSS.

containing

it

a note to this effect, at the end of the


third book.*
first

Further, the whole of the

book, and the three first chapters of the second, came to be circulated in a

separate
tine,

formf
this

as a

with

sermon by S. Augus" De Trinitate et title


:

Columba."
pilation,

But the truth


it is

is, it is

comS.

and

not a compilation.

Augustine seems the only writer quoted in


it
;

and

as far as the letter goes,

it

consists

from
out

first

to

last

of

passages

strung

together from him.


is

But the tone throughcould be conceived.^

as unlike his as

It is positive

w^here he

was

diffident,

dog-

where he was only speculative, menacing where he was meekness itself.


matic

The

compiler adopts his language but to


in

variis libris S. Augustini congregavit

unum."
ex-

Patrol,

ci. g.
iii.

*'

Explicit liber

de S. Trinitate,

quam

cerpsit Alcuinus de libris S. Augustini." lb. 58. " was its place ** De Tempore f Serm. xxxviii.
:

among
X

his
it

Sermons formerly
altogether.
i.

but the Benedictines

rejected

Alcuin, de Trin.

16.

328
express

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


his
it

changing

own when

thoughts
it

instantly

lags behind them.

He

would have people think they


S.

are
are

reading

Augustine
treatise,

when

they

reading his
it

but he takes care that

shall

be but himself

who
and

speaks.
is

He
will

wants

all

his authority,

ready to
as

accept as

much of

his sentiment

bear out his own.

Witness the beginning " Should anyof their respective works.

body reading
" object
*
:

me,"

says

the

bishop,*
is

'

understand

what

said

he had said even of the received doctrine of the Trinity: " Sed primum, secundum auctoritatem Scripturarum, sanctarum utrum, Again, ita se fides habeat demonstrandum est." ix. I., " Quod ergo ad istam qusestionem ahinet, credamus Patrem et Filium et Spiritum Sanctum nee Patrem esse FiHum nee esse unum Deum Spiritum Sanctum vel Patrem esse vel Filium sed Trinitatem relatarum adinvicem Personarum,
i.

De Trin.

4,

Unitem asqualis essentui. Hoc autem quasramus intelligere ab Eo Ipso, Quem intelligere volumus, auxilium precantes ut quantum tribuit
et

quod intelligimus explicare tanta cura


tudine pietatis cupientes, ut etiam
si

et

sollici-

aliquid aliud
.

pro alio dicimus, nihil tamen indignum dicamus.

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


perfectly, but
assert
it is

329
let

not well said


if

'

him
and

his

own
if

opinion

he

will,

refute

mine

he can.

Now,

should he

do

this

with truth and charity, and


the same to me, should
I

make
alive,

known
it

be

would be the greatest benefit that I And a could reap from my work." good deal more to the same effect. All this was foreign to the genius of
the compiler;

consequently the

opening

of his work is drawn from another source. " For those who wish to attain to the
true
bliss, faith
:

is

before

all

things neces-

sary

according to the teaching of the

Apostle,

which says

'

Without
It

faith
is

it is

impossible to please God.'


therefore, that

clear,

nobody can

attain to
:

the

true bliss except he please

God

and that

nobody can
faith.
.

please

God

except through
being, then,

Every

rational

on arriving

at a suitable age,
.
. .

should learn

the Catholic faith," *


"^

viz.
is

what he

is

Alcuin de Trin.

i.

3.

What

omitted before
is

the words " every rational being "

taken word

33<^

THE ATHANASIAN CREED

about to lay
S.

down
in

as

such

dovetailing

Augustine

the

manner

already
will
also

described,

and

as the following

show
I.

S.

Aug. de Trin.

i.

4.

Alcuin de Trin.
^*

3.

" Allthe Catholic com-

All

the

inspired

mentators on the Holy Scriptures of the Old

Scriptures

and

New

of the Old Testament, inCatholic

and

New

Testament
the

terpreted in a

who have written on


Trinity in the
before me, that
I

sense, indicate that the

Godhead
have
to

Father, Son, and Holy

Ghost
the

is

one God, of
of

read, have concurred in

same substance,

teaching

according

the Scriptures, that the

one essence, and inseparable unity in the Godhead."

Father, Son, and Holy

Ghost indicate a divine unity of one and the

same substance, equal


and inseparable
but one God."
;

so that

there are not three

Gods

The opening paragraph was


ing
for

not sweep-

enough

for

the

compiler:

but

as

word from S. Fulgent, de fide ad Pet. Prol. I, which Peter Lombard (Sentent. i. 19. 5.) quotes as a work of S. Aug., as did Theodulph (Patrol.

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


altered
half.
2.

33^

by him,

It

asserts

too

much by
6.

S.

Aug. deTrin.
in

V.

ii.

Alcuin de Trin.
" Accordingly
gift

i.

''Accordingly,

the

this

Holy Ghost

is

some
comis

of

God,

viz.,

the
prothe
is

sort the ineffable

Holy Ghost,
ceeds

Who
from

munion
therefore,
called,

of the
:

Father

equally

and the Son

and

Father and the Son^


in
effable

perhaps, so because the same designation is applicable


to the

some sort the incommunion of the Father and the Son


:

Father and the

and

is

therefore perhaps

Son."

so called,
plicable to

because the
is

same designation
the

ap-

Father

and the Son."

Here
S.

the

compiler

has

interpolated

Augustine with a phrase he never


"
:

used

Who
on

proceeds equally from the

Father and the Son."


tine taught
this

What

S.

Auguswas,
^^

head

distinctly,

that

the

Holy Ghost

proceeds

princi-

cv. 257-8) then.

All in the text

seems his own;

though the idea is the same. The well-known formula of Pope Hormisdas " Prima salus est regulam rectse fidei custodire " (Patrol. Ixxiii. 393) may have suggested both.

;^^2

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


by His
gift

pally " from the Father, and

from the Son too.* But this Alcuin everywhere carefully suppressed. People,
therefore,

who

supposed that in reading


S.

Alcuin they were reading

Augustine,

were deceived both ways. Nor was this all by any means. Alcuin, as has been
stated^

dedicated

his

magne.
occasion.

Let us
First,

see

work what he

to
said

Charle-

on that

he declares his object in

writing

it

to

have been, to supply Charle-

magne with " a manual " on the faith of the Holy and Undivided Trinity and
;

this, as

he

says, not because


it

he deemed
the superior
that

any part of

unknown

to

wisdom of
verbum Dei

the Emperor, but


**

he

* E.g. XV. 17.


nisi

In hac Trinitate non dicitur


;

Dei nisi Spiritus Sanctus nee de Quo genitum est verbum, et de Quo procedit principaliter Spiritus Sanctus nisi Deus Pater. Ideo autem additur principaliter quia et de Filio Spiritus Sanctus procedere repeAnd again, c. 26 " Filius de Patre ritur." natusest: et Spiritus Sanctus de VaXvQ principaliter, et Ipso sine uUo temporis intervallo dante, comFilius

nee

Donum

muniter de Utroque procedit."

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


might discharge the
as
office

2>33

of " Master,"
waste of

he had been named by some, and conothers

vince

who

thought

it

time for the Emperor to carry out his


noble intention of learning the rules of
the
art

of logic, which blessed Augus-

tine, in his

books on the Trinity, showed


eminently
necessary^

he

thought

by
on

proving that the deepest


the

questions

Holy
the

Trinity could not be

solved

without recourse to the subtle distinctions


of
categories."
.
.

more mischievous writer by another.


expressed
kind.
or

gloss
S.

Never was a put upon one

Augustine never
anything of the

implied

The

portion of his
is

work
;

to

Alcuin

refers

the fifth book

which and the

account given by his Benedictine editors

of the contents of this book is as follows " Coming to those positions of the heretics,

which they found not upon


but
their

Scripture,

own

reasonings,

he

refutes

them," etc. As he had said himself: " Wherefore, that we may begin to reply

334

^^^ ATHANASIAN CREED


of our faith concerning
are not spoken of as

to the adversaries

those things

which
the

they are thought, nor thought of as they


are,

among

many

things urged

com-

monly by
faith, this

the Arians against the CathoHc

they seem to consider one of


points
:

their strongest

namely, the dis-

which they draw when they say ' Whatever is said or thought of God, must fall under the head of substance,
tinction

not of accident.'
to
it,

"*.... And

his reply

which he developes at great length, and presses home with overwhelming force, is that some things are said of the Godhead relatively
relations of the
It to
:

that

is,

in describing the

Divine Persons composing


or to the creation.

Each Other,

In

this

way he

meets them on their


but

own
all

ground, and annihilates them with their

own weapons
through
in
:

it

is

refutation
to

it

was never intended


Alcuin
it

be

constructive.
it

simply perverted

making

the basis of a dogmatic


* V. 2.

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


system
;

;^^^

and

in devoting a chapter to the

elucidation of the categories in a formal

exposition of the
Trinity, as

Catholic faith of the

ought to
put a

though the one could and be explained by the other, he

fatal gloss

has stuck to

upon S. Augustine which him ever since, and impregon the highest of
It
all

nated the springs of dogmatic theology

with

false principles

subjects

in

the

West

ever since, under

cover of his name.


praise of the

has been said in


j

schoolmen in general that


Aristotle
;

they Christianised
deniable that on
that

it

is

unand

one point
one,

at least,

cardinal

they

rationalised

Christianity.*

" All which things," says Alcuin, in conclusion, " devoutly considering with
myself,
large
I

have chosen the time of the

gathering of the priests of God,

and preachers of Christendom assembled


at
*

your command, for laying before your


*'

Day, and how to meet them," pp. 55-7, where examples are given.
Difficulties of the

2^6

THE ATH AN ASIAN CREED

most excellent majesty such a mass of


resources, as I believe will not prove inefficacious, in the

matter of the Catholic


at least that

faith

supposing

God,

Who
my

gave

me

the will to speak, has, as

I trust

he has of His mercy, enlightened

heart with the spirit of grace to the dis-

cernment of the
of
faithful

truth.

Wherefore, in

answer to the prayers of the whole body


people,
it

is

much

to

be

desired,

that

your empire
glory
:

may

be ex-

tended with

all

to tbe

end that the

Catholic faith ^

human race, may he imprinted


gift

which alone quickens the which alone sanctifies it,


in

one confession on

the hearts of all ; so that

by

the gracious

of the

Almighty, the same unity

both of holy peace and perfect love

may
the

govern and protect

all

men

everywhere."
to

Alcuin had his wish


letter
;

fulfilled

in point of

fact

he contributed

much as anybody to its fulfilment. The empire of Charlemagne was exas

tended, as he had prayed, in process of

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


time,

337

with

all glory ; for

it

established a
it

hold on the mind of Europe, which

maintains to this day, by employing as a

means, what he had proposed as its end. " The large gathering " to which he
refers,

was the Synod of Aix,

a.d.

802,

where Paulinus and he received their crowns ; where his own work on the
Trinity received the imperial imprimatur^
\

and

all

the deference due to a standard

authority

from that time forth


ecclesiastics

and
p^^

where
S.

all

of the empire were


published for the

/t^lts

required "to learn the Catholic faith of ^^^j:w^

./i^.S,

Athanasius," then
time.

first

" The Catholic faith^ which

alone quickens,

which alone

sanctifies the

human
one
these

race,

ivill be soon

imprinted in

confession

on the hearts of all

by

means," argued

the correspondent

of Alcuin, and the framer of this capitulary ; " nor will there be wanting a
corner-stone to

my

empire,

when

it

has
shall

become law.
be
the

Augustine epitomised
of

text-book

my

theologians

2>^S

THE ATHANASIAN CREED

Athanasius epitomised a rule of faith for

my

clergy."

He had,

probably, with his

own

hand, given the finishing stroke to

both before they were published.

He

was well aware of the principles on which both were compiled. If there was any difference between them it was confined to details, which so far imparted a touch of originality to each. The work of Alcuin was compiled virtually from
one writing of one writer
nus from
still all
;

that of Pauli-

many

of the

Alcuin issued
it

many writers same school. The work of forth in his own name but
writings of
;

consisted almost
S.

entirely

of passages

from

Augustine, and from him alone.

The work
there
in
it

of Paulinus passed for a com;

position of S. Athanasius

but, in reality,

was not a word from first to last In the work of quoted from him.
;

Alcuin the pieces forming the patchwork

were cut large were cut small.

in that of Paulinus they

Waterland, as has been stated already.

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


collected a

339

number of

parallel passages, or,

more

strictly,

morsels from S. Augustine,


if he

out of which he might,

had

tried,

have

manufactured another Athanasian Creed

with ease but the idea never seems to have


;

struck him, that


piled in this

it

had His

really

been com-

way.

object in

throwing

them together, as he tells us, had been " to show that the Creed contained nothing but what had been asserted in as full and express words, as any words of the Creed are, by church writers before A.D. 430."* But in the first place,
strange to say, there
his
is

but one parallel of

whole

list

drawn from any church


;

and next, Waterland should have remembered, to revert to the extreme case before touched upon, that it was precisely by
writer but one, viz. S. Augustine

quoting

'word for isoord^ that Ausonius perverted him. Neither WaterVirgil

land's parallels

from

S.

Augustine, nor
S.

even Autelmi's parallels from

Vincen-

* Crit. Hist. c. ix. p. 226.

Z 2

340
tius
first

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


of Lerins, are to the point,
context
till it

has

been shown, that they mean in their


all

own
to
it

that they are adduced to

support in the Creed.


are not

The

truest parallels

found
his

till

the speculations of

S.Augustine had been converted into posi-

meaning assumed or glossed upon, where it had not been explicit and innumerable tracts and sermons circulated as his which a later age had produced. Paulinus had doubtless a common-place book, in which he wrote down extracts from whatever came in his way that struck him most, ranging them
tive
;

dogma;

under various heads, in order to have

any moment, as If he drew from occasion required. originals, the works of which he may be supposed to have made most use would be that of S. Augustine on the Trinity, besides his smaller treatises on the Creed, on Faith, Hope, and Charity, and so forth the Commonitorium of S. Vincentius; Vigilius of Thapsus on the Trinity S.

them ready

for use at

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.

34

Fulgentius on the Trinity, and on the

Faith to Peter the Deacon.

know

of

no one work that more resembles the Athanasian Creed in style and in tone than this and this, somehow or other, got placed among the works of S. Augus;

tine.

Lastly, the

work on Etymologies

by S. Isidore. Or, again, he may have drawn from a later class of writings that were drawn from these. One of the
sermons on the Creed formerly given to
S.

Augustine, for instance, began thus

"

admonish and entreat you, dearly

beloved brethren, that whosoever will be


saved, learn, hold firmly, and maintain
inviolate the right

and Catholic
see,

faith.

So
he
the

then ought everybody to Son, that he believe the

that

believe the Father, that he

believe

Holy Ghost.

The Father God, Holy Ghost God

the
:

Son God, and the


Such
as the Father,

nevertheless not three

Gods, but one God.

such the Son, and such the

Holy Ghost.

At

the same time

let

every faithful soul

342

THE ATHANASIAN CREED

Son is equal to the Father as touching His Godhead, and inferior to the Father as touching His Manhood of the flesh which He took of ours. And the Holy Ghost proceeding from Both."* Most of the remainder is really taken from S. Augustine but the opening sentence is unique; and to this, it can
believe that the
;

hardly be doubted, the author of the Creed

was indebted for his first verse. King Reccared, in conjunction with

it,

may have

suggested his next

" Should

any be unwilling to believe this our righ< and holy confession, may they be made to feel the wrath of God with everlasting
anathema.f
Passing by "

The Rule
Spain,
as

of Faith," of

unknown
then

authorship and uncertain date,

extant in

having been
Ed.
to S.

* S.

Aug. Op.
It is

Migne.

Append. Serm. ccxliv. assigned by the Benedictines


V.

Caesarius of Aries, but cannot be earlier than the

seventh century. f Mansi, ix, 980.

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


given
already,*

343

the

fourth

Toledo probably suggested the

Synod of two verses

which follow, and


nation
:

several

on the Incar-

" Believing a Trinity in the distinction


of Persons, and preaching an Unity in
the

Godhead, we neither confound the

Persons nor divide the Substance."

....

Then of our Lord


ties

" having the proper.


.

of two Natures in one Person,

enduring passion
salvation
hell,

and

death

for

our
into
to
:

He
and
shall

descended

come again

judge

both

the

living

and the dead

who

will receive

from Him, some, for


sins,

their deserts of righteousness, eternal life

others,

for

their

the

sentence
is

of

eternal punishment.

This
;

the

faith

of the Catholic Church

this confession

we keep and

hold;

this

anybody, by

preserving most firmly, will have everlasting salvation."f


*

Above,
I,

p. 194-6.

t C.

Ibid. X. 616.

344

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


eleventh

The

Synod of Toledo may


:

well have suggested others

" For should


the Persons,

we

be asked of each of

we must

of necessity confess

So the Father by Himself is called God, the Son God, the Holy Ghost God yet not three Gods, but one God. So also the Father by Himself is called Almighty, the Son Almighty, and the Holy Ghost Almighty yet not three Almighties, but

Him

God.

one Almighty.
fore,

Each

Person, there-

by Himself, is believed and confessed full God, and the whole Three Persons One, undivided and equal one God.
Divinity, power, and majesty

They

have,

which

is

not smaller in Each, nor larger


:

Each less, when called by Himself God, nor all Three more, when together called God.
in all I'hree

for neither has

These Three, then,


as

are

One
;

that

is,

in Nature, but not in Person

still

neither

Persons

are

They

to
as

be considered
neither

separable.

Forasmuch

may

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK. One


after

345

be believed to have existed before or

Another, nor
at

One
the

to

have wrought
. .
.

work

any time without Another."


later

century

Elipandian

or

Adoptionist

controversy

brought

the
the

doctrine of the Incarnation,

and

all

former errors
assailed,

by which
special

it

had

been

into

prominence.

Ac-

cordingly, such passages as these are of

frequent occurrence:

"

The

Father alone

is

of none,
Father, not

but

of Himself.

The Son
Himself.

is

of

the

of

The Holy Ghost

is

of the Father and

the Son, not of Himself.*

Wherefore, the Son alone was made

Man

in the

Unity, not of Nature, but


Such, then, was that

of Person.f

....

assumption, which

made God Man, and


. . .

Man God
* Eter.
et

and of Both One Christ.|


Beat, ad
Elip.

1-19

in

Migne's

Patrol, xcvi. 905.

t Ibid.

ii.

74, p. 1016.

Ibid.

i.

127, p. 973.

346
For
as

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


the soul and body, being of a
is

different substance,

one man, so

God

and Man, being of a different substance, is one Christ.* Thus much on the Trinity. Now on the grace by which
.
. .

we

are redeemed, according to the teaching

of our Mother the Church.

Forasmuch as both to beUeve rightly, and think truly, respecting the Mediator of God and Man, true and perfect Man, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ belongs,
undoubtedly, to everlasting salvation.f
. .
.

Whosoever
faith,

shall

deviate

from the true

shall
.

not have the grace of sal.


.

vation."J

These specimens must


such
materials

suffice.

From
un-

the

Creed

was,

doubtedly, put together verse by verse

nor
it

is it

at

all

necessary to suppose that


in

was put together


first

bad

faith.

But,

in the

place,

we have
ii.

to deal with

* Eter. etBeat.

60, p. loii.

f Alcuin, Conf. Fid. iii. 2. X Eter. et Beat. i. 95, p. 953.

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.


the Creed as
it

347
it

was published

and

was

work of S. Athanasius, when, literally, there was not a verse in And, it that had been culled from him. literally, the first use to which it was
published as a

j
'

turned

was

to assail

the Creed, which

was
for

his parting

bequest to the Church,


!

such

the Niceno-Constantinopolitan

These are facts which cannot be explained away, whatever may


Creed really was.*
be thought of
again,
let it
its

intrinsic merits.

But,

be supposed to be a correct
S.

exponent of the mind of

Augustine,

from
be
the

whom

so

much of
then

it is
?

undoubtedly
to
^

borrowed.

What

Professing
it
!

" the

Catholic faith,"

represents
Is this a

mind of
?

a single Father

contradiction in terms or

not,

to begin

with

And

next, are there


S.

doctrine

on which
?

no points of Augustine has not


is
?

been followed
faithful

But, further,

it

exponent of his
:

mind

Cerinto

tainly not

so
*

far

as

it

converts

Above,

p. 207, note.

348

THE ATHANASIAN CREED


speculation with

dogma what had been


\

him, appeals to logic instead of Scripture,

and menaces
will not accept

any with perdition who terms which he long hesiall,

tated about using at


'

and

at last

only

justified in controversial 'works ^

and from
it

the sheer necessities of the case even then.*

Let
j

it

have been compiled

cannot have been


it

published

in ever so

good

faith, S.
is

no more represents the mind of Augustine than of S. Athanasius, but

a gloss
sents
1

upon both.

The

spirit it repre-

is

that of the African

Church

in

and sixth centuries; of the Spanish Church in the seventh both overrun then by barbarians and of the
the
fifth

divines
*

of Charlemagne in
p.

the

eighth

I continue the quota214, note, speaking of *' Substance " and " PerHe is tion. son " as distinguished from each other. " Quid igitur restat nisi ut fateamur loquendi necessitate posita haec vocabula, cum opus esset copiosd dis-

Above,

putatione adversum

insidias
vii. 5.

vel

errores

haereti-

corum?

**

DeTrin.

NOT AN ORIGINAL WORK.

349

and ninth centuries above all, whose work and with this spirit it has been it was the means of indoctrinating Latin Chris:

tendom everywhere for one thousand years at what may be called the point of the sword. It is perfectly true, as I have seen alleged somewhere, that the word " anathema" never occurs in it there might have been just the shadow of a doubt as to what that word meant, and consequently some ground for hope, if it had only said^ " Let him be anathema."*
:

It

affirms,

therefore,

categorically,
all

and
has
the

without
laid
*
is

reserve,

of

that
//

it

down

en

masse^

that

"

is

The popular meaning


strict

one thing, its and then occurs


all

attached to this word meaning another. It now

in

simple offering to
that
that
it

no bad sense at all, but as a God. And it is on this sense

is founded. It is a " separated " to God, to do what He will with, and in the worst of cases, there is always a chance that God may pardon what man condemns, or bless where man has cursed. See Suicer's Thesaur, s. v.

ever

means

thing

*'

set apart " or

2^0

THE ATH AN ASIAN CREED,


faith,

ETC.

Catholic

which,

except

man
non

believe faithfully, he cannot^ or will not

be able to
poterit^ as

be saved."
it is

Salvus

esse

in the Latin.

35^

CHAPTER

VI.

CONCLUDING REMARKS.

That

Charlemagne

settled

both creeds

and dogma for the West, and established a breach between Eastern and Western
Christendom on dogmatic grounds, by

means of
the

his general capitulary directing

" Catholic Faith " of S. Athanasius and the " Apostles' Creed " to be learnt

by the
802,
is

clergy throughout his empire, A.D. Ju. c^^^*^

^
/

a simple

fact.

Aquileia supplied ,^^0^1^^


-

him with

the materials he wanted: he ^^,^^

^'

^^/^

accommodated them to his own purposes and in his own way. From Aquileia came the legend of the Western Creed having been composed by the Apostles from Aquileia the article, which in primitive times
it

wanted, of the descent of our


;

Lord

into hell

from Aquileia, most pro-

^^2

CONCLUDING REMARKS.

bably, the Latin version of the Niceno-

Constantinopolitan Creed used

by King

Reccared in Spain, and interpolated with


the

"FiHoque"

clause;* from Aquileia,

most

certainly, that

" appraisement of the

Catholic faith," f which has been learnt


so long as the Athanasian Creed.

There

was a sinister look about them all. The names of the two Creeds were fictitious
:

the "descent into hell" and the "Filioque"


clause

had never,

till

recently, stood in

any orthodox Creed, and as yet both Charlemagne legitiwere unauthorised. matised them all in appropriating them
to his
*

own

ends.

From

the time that


the fact that

Above,

p. 57-70.

To which add

S. Isidore himself has not a word about the Fifth Council in any of his extant works. He passes it

over notably Etym.

vi. 16,

and

in the Collection of

Canons

ascribed to him, where a later


in the

hand has
It
is

inserted mention of the Sixth Council.

not

named

Pseudo-Isidorian Collection.
Ixxxiv.
S.
hell
c.

See

138. Migne's Patrol. comments on the descent into treatise " De Fid. Cath.," Lib. ii.

Isidore's fullest

are in his

50-54.

f Above, p. 228.

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
the Western Creed, as
it

^^^^

stood then^

was
as

ordered to be learnt as the " Creed of the


Apostles
;"

and the work of Paulinus


empire

the " Catholic Faith of S. Athanaslus,"


the

by

whole

no

western

ever

doubted about the one being an inspired


composition in
other being
its

its

existing form, or the

proper exponent.

The

orthodoxy

of the

Niceno- Constantino-

politan Creed itself

was impeached

and

Charlemagne headed the opposition in impeaching it where it differed from

these

till

at length there
its

was no

hesita-

tion in pronouncing

teaching on one

point at least complete.


clause,

The

" Filioque"

which had been added to it in Spain, had been added rightly, and those who As it refused to admit it were heretics. was expressed in the " Faith of S. Athanasius," it ought to have been expressed,

had
celled

it
?

not

been

surreptitiously

can-

in the
:

Creed of Nicaea and Con-

stantinople
later.

said the

West, two centuries


2

The

shortcomings of the Niceno-

354

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
Creed

Constantinopolitan

were

made

patent on another point, as time went on;

was not avowed all at once. " The descent of our Lord into hell," was not this an article of faith in the Apostles' Creed, and in the Creed of S.
though
this

Athanasius alike
I

Should
?

it

not, there-

fore,

be taught as such

accordingly taught in

As such it was the West but in


;

process of time, the mediaeval doctrine of

purgatory was evolved from


this

it,

and

is

to

day bound up with it, as the Catechism of the Council of Trent attests.*

When

the representatives of the Eastern


at

and Western Churches assembled

the

Council of Florence in the fifteenth century to consider the points on which they
differed, the doctrines

which had flowed


admission

from the " Filioque "


* Part
I.

irregular

of

the

clause in one Creed,


5.
**

and of

Art. v.

Prasterea est purgatorius

ignis
.
.

.... Ac
.

de hujus quidem doctrinae veritate

dum

eo diligentius et saepius parocho disserenerit, quod in ea tempora incidimus, quibus

homines sanam doctrinam non sustinent."

CONCLUDING REMARKS.

^^^

" the descent into hell" in the other, were literally found to be the only two points
of any moment, and were therefore the
only two points discussed at any length,

on which the teaching of the West and Both had been first the East differed.
declared

necessary
:

to

salvation
its

in

the

Athanasian Creed
the East and
to agree

since

publication
able

West have never been about them accordingly,


;

the
|
>

very purpose which Charlemagne had in


publishing
it

But there were still graver effects produced by its publication, whether he foresaw them or not, on which a few words must be said. / There is evidence that Charlemagne,
survives to this day.
I

in ordering the " Faith

of

S.

Athanasius"

and the " Creed of the Apostles" to be learnt by his clergy meant to substitute the
" Faith of
S.

Athanasius" for the Nicene.

Was

it

that he

was

fully conscious of the

antagonism that

exists

between them, and


of his ordi-

contemplated the

full effects

nance on the minds of men, on thought


2

356

CONCLUDING REMARKS.

and action in the remote future? Yet the connection between cause and effect must have been obvious enough to smaller

minds than

his

even then.

The immeits

morial boast of the Nicene Creed was


Scriptural language
to this
:

having been confined

on the principle that it alone is inspired, and therefore certain to express what God has revealed on the principle that belief in God, to which this Creed was limited originally, should be professed in His own words. One word had, in:

deed, after the fullest deliberation, been

admitted there, which was not of this


character, but
it

stood alone, and

was such

an exception

as

proved the

rule.

rule

relaxed advisedly that the Founder of the

Christian religion might be declared

God

in the strictest sense possible could admit

of no further exception.
ness

Its

inviolable-

when the Creed was enlarged. Belief in the Holy Ghost, though professed with much greater fulwas again
illustrated

ness than before,

was

limited

to

what

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
Revelation says of

357

Him

in express terms.

As

the remaining Articles had not occurred

at all in the original Creed, this rule

not applicable to them directly


deviation from
it

in their case

was and any was more

than counterbalanced by the speedy application of another rule to the entire Creed
in
It
its

enlarged form,
fact,

viz. that

of

finality.

was, in

no sooner promulgated
it

in
Its

this

shape than

was

declared

final.

teaching on the Trinity was pronounced


perfection, as
it

stood then

the smallest
interit

on any subject was dicted under pains and penalties, and


addition to
it

was
for

ordered to stand as

it

was stereotyped
all

public use to the exclusion of


creeds in future.
in insisting evident.

other

The mind of the Church


these
first

upon
the

two

rules

is

self-

By

the action of the

reason

is

excluded peremptorily from the


faith
:

domain of

and

faith itself

is

limited,

in describing each mystery, to language

which the

Holy

Ghost had

specially

set apart for that

purpose.

By the

second,

2S^

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
Articles of

new

Faith, as well as

new

Professions of Faith for public use, were

forbidden.

The sum
to

of

all

doctrine

necessary

salvation having been ex-

pressed in the existing Creed


said virtually

Be

the decree

it

enacted that no be-

liever shall in future

be required to profess
this last rule,

more.

Simultaneously with

the anathema which had been appended


to
this

Creed in
dropped,

its

original

state

was

tacitly

as

being

no

longer

necessary.

Everybody must admit the marked


contradiction to both these rules in the

Athanasian Creed.
first, it

In opposition to the

invites reason to assist in

mapping
its

out the

province

of

faith,

utilizes

deductions without scruple in


struction of
dialectics

the con-

dogma

invoking the laws of

where Scripture is silent in expounding mysteries, and terms of philosophy where Scriptural terms will not
express
its

own

subtleties to the full.


it

In
all

opposition to the second,

declares

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
that
it

359

contains

necessary

to

salvation,

whether found in the Creed of the Church some of them being points which or not
:

must have been omitted from the Creed of the Church by design.*

Nothing can be
tagonism that
if the

clearer

than the an:

exists

between them

so that

principles

on which the Church's


were
right,

Creed was
principles

constructed

the

on which the Athanasian Creed was constructed were wrong so that the
;

latter

is
;

false in
false

principle,

as well

as in

name and
or

not on my showing, nor


single individual

on the showing of any


collection

of
false

individuals, ancient

or
all

modern, but
the

on the showing of

General

Councils

by

whom
it

the

Church's Creed was framed and confirmed,

and whose authoritative teaching


deliberately
*

was

published

under

lying

I instance the expression borrowed from the Aquileian Creed, which involves a conflict with science that men will rise with *' their own
:

bodies.''

Which

those they were born with, had


''

in

mat ure

age, or died with

360

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
for political ends, to under-

name, and
mine.

Will

it

be asked what the

effects

of

its
is

publication have been?

The answer

written in history

it

meets us in broad

daylight

it is

patent to angels and men.

which its publication was intended to promote has become chronic even to the lines of thought. There is one part of the Church where the faith
division

The

of the true

S.

Athanasius continues to be

the unalloyed standard of doctrine to this

day

where the authority of the Church's Creed in the exact form in which it was
;

promulgated
was, and
creeds
all
its

is

as undisputed as

it

ever

new doctrines as well as new where throughout are unknown

vicissitudes,

amounting

at

times

almost to annihilation, the provinces of


reason and faith have been kept jealously
distinct,

and where consequently there is not, nor has ever been any standing for rationalism. And in this part, which men
have ridiculed
as
crystallised

and hope-

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
lessly

36

stagnant

taking root

upwards none can

as

now, there are signs of downwards, and bearing fruit for a second spring, which
till

dispute.

Contrariwise, there

is

Church which is " ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth " which has
another part
of

the

multiplied

its

creeds,

till

their

name
its
:

is

" Legion
till

" which has added to


is

creeds,

each one of them


farrago

a " Macrostyche morals,

"

of religion,

politics,

metaphysics,
cipline,

church order,

church disstill its list

and what not


is

and

dogmas
as

far

from completed

and
in

of

this,

we have

been told of

late

years, in

virtue of

its office

of developing doctrine
that of
this

what
part

if its true

name should be

rationalising the faith P


all

And

the old land-marks of the

Church

have been gradually swept away in favour of a despotism, on which everything accordingly, from the least to the greatest,
depends, and

whose

last

expedient

for

supporting

itself

has been to declare that

362
do what
is

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
it

will

it

cannot do wrong.

This

that part of the Church,

whose

teachers

have been imbibing


after

their principles, Sunday-

Sunday
effect

for

one thousand

years,

from the and the


of faith
the

faith of the false S. Athanasius

has been that they have


in

authorised reason to legislate


;

matters
as

thought of nothing so
of
their

much

logic

conclusions;

and

claimed as matters of faith every subject

worth claiming of which the reason takes


cognisance.
It
is

self-evident that in a

system like

this there
is

can be no limit to
that
lies

dogma;

it

also

self-evident

the
its

security for each

new dogma
Thus

in

having been drawn logically from others


previously received.
decrees
are

the Vatican

the

logical

consequence

of

the teaching of the schools

so

much was

acknowledged by
it

their promoters

and
But

was

realized

in

framing
fall

them, that

they must stand


ing

or

together.

the logical connection between the teach-

of the schools and the

Athanasian

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
Creed
torical
is

363
his-

no

less

certain;
is

and

their

connection
it

indisputable.

From

which

also

follows that Charlemagne

endowed the Latin Church with many more things, and things of much greater
importance

than

merely
as

broad

lands.
as the
call

The Latin Church


Established

a system

Church of Europe, to things by their right names is a

tree

that has

grown out of
it

his

loins.

He

endowed

with

its

theology,

when he

put into the hands of his clergy the " Faith" of the pseudo-Athanasius to be
learnt,

and the work of Alcuin on the

by them at the Synod of Aix, a.d. 802 he endowed it with its discipline at the Synod of Aix, A.D. 816, presided over by his son and successor, of which Dean Milman says
Trinity to be studied
;

no
the

less

eloquently than justly

:*

The

four great acts of this Council were

among

boldest and most comprehensive

ever sub-

mitted to a great national assembly.


*

The Emperor

Lat. Christ. III. 117.

364
was
still

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
in

theory the sole legislator ; not only were the secret suggestions, but the initiatory motives from the supreme power. It might seem
that in the three acts which regarded the hierarchy

the

Emperor legislated for the Church but it was in truth the Church legislating for herself through the Emperor. It was Teutonised Latin Chris;

tianity organising the

whole Transalpine Church,


It

with no regard of the Western Pontiff.


the

was

completion^ ratification,

magne's scheme

extension of Charlea scheme by its want of success

or universality

still

awaiting

its

The

vast reforms

comprehended

at

consummation. once the whole

All these laws are enacted by the Emperor in Council for the whole empire almost tantamount to Latin Christendom

clergy and the monasteries.

of approbation, ratification^ confirmation by the PopCj not one word.


It

has indeed been pretended that Pausat

Hnus

at the first

of these synods as
I

legate of the Pope.


difference
if
it

do not

see

what

need make to the argument

he

did.

Two

bishops are said to have


at Frankfort,

represented the

Pope

where

was formally condemned, which they were aware his Holiness had as formally confirmed.*
the Second Nicene Council
* " Christendom's Divisions,"
ii.

394.

CONCLUDING REMARKS.

^6^

And

what greater liberties were ever taken with any Pope than were taken by
again, these

Caroline divines with Eugenius

II.

in dictating to

him where his duty lay, in reflecting upon the acts of his predecessors, at the celebrated Synod of Paris
against images, A.D. 825,

which the Pope


to

had no
silence?*

alternative

but

accept

in

No
cisely

strange to

say the really noble


then,
is

part played

by some Popes
is

pre-

what Rome

forget,

most anxious to and to hide now. There were

some Popes who saw through the revolutionary designs of Charlemagne, and who resisted the mischief which he was bent upon perpetrating to the utmost of But the letter of Adrian I. their ability.
in defence

of the Seventh Council and

its

uninterpolated creed, never saw daylight

with the goodwill of Rome, and would


See the amazement expressed on all this by Baronius a.d. 824, n, 31-3, and A.D. 825,
*
:

n. 4, etc.

366

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
if
III.
it

have been disavowed


silver

could.

The

tablets

of Leo
creed

on v^hich the

was engraved, are not among the relics which Rome has
uninterpolated
preserved.
j

And

as

for

the

act

of

John VIII. in fraternising with Photius, and in summoning S. Methodius, the


Apostle of the Sclavonians, to
ask
]

Rome

to

him whether he
it

accepted and used

the creed as the


six

first
it

had been promulgated by councils and received by


of Pope

Rome,*
he

procured for him, even while

lived, the scandalous sobriquet

Joan, or the female Pope.f

Why
these
.

would
if

Rome
in

bury the
?

acts

of
for

Popes
reason
:

she could

Simply

this

that,

process

of time,

when
and

policy dictated,

and opportunity
as

offered,

she accepted both the doctrine

discipline

of

Charlemagne

her

* See his

own

letter to

Count Sventopulcher.

Ep. 293,
**

in

Migne's Patrol, cxxvi. 905, or Baron.

A.D. 880, n. 16.

Christendom's Divisions,"

ii.

413.

CONCLUDING REMARKS.

367

own, turned her back upon pure, genuine antiquity from thenceforth, and by so
doing,
in

turn.

Latinised the Teuton.

The Apostles' Creed, the Athanasian Creed,


she accepted their
recite
titles,

and bade her clergy

both as such

at the times fixed

by

Charlemagne.

She accepted the rules he had laid down for Church discipline ; she discarded the uninterpolated creed from her Baptismal Office, and commenced using that of
the

Apostles

instead

she

introduced

the interpolated Creed into her liturgy.

The

teaching of the

false

Athanasius
in

and of Alcuin she declared orthodox

opposition to that of the true Athanasius,

and
his
shall

to those faith

who

persisted in adhering to
councils.

and that of
Teacher

When
men-

we have
?

got to the end of her

daciousness

of

Christendom

she claims to
**

be
down a
kindly nest,

The

earth, that in her genial breast


for the

Finds

When

wafted by the
It floats at

warm

south-west.
:"

pleasure

368
is

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
of the kindly
!

a graphic illustration

welcome given
fiction

to fictions in hers

The
any-

of the Apostles' Creed was incul-

cated

by her

as gospel, as long as
it

thing could be got out of


tage.

to her

advan-

was exploded, she was equally pleased to fall back upon the idea, too hastily propounded by critics, that the Creed so called was really the Roman. It has turned out to be no more the Roman than the Greek.* The Easterns had their creed the Westerns, including Western Africa, theirs and Rome hers, which remained stationary,
this
;

When

while the

rest

grew.

The

Eastern, in

process of time,

grew

to be the

Nicenoafter

Constantinopolitan, or the Creed of the

Church
obsolete

the Western to be
;

named

the Apostles

the
at

even

Roman only to become Rome as a profession.


still

Her

candidates for baptism are


in
it

exas a

amined

by word of mouth

in the

form of question and answer ; but


* Above,
c. ii.

It is

given at length, p. 130.

CONCLUDING REMARKS,
profession
it

369
first,

was exchanged,

at

in

obedience to law, for that of the Church

from motives of poUcy, for that Neither of them had been of the West.
afterwards,

indebted for a single article they contained


to

Rome,

Both were

original

and inde-

pendent compositions,
concerned.

as far as she

was

She accepted both without


in
either.

making
creed,

alterations

Her own

on the contrary, was enlarged from After this, it would be superthem.*


fluous to inquire

what the teaching


creeds

office

of

Rome was when


is

were formed;

and never has been, a creed in use which the Church owes to
for there

not,

her.

Subsequently to her adoption of the


Caroline system, she endeavoured to take
credit to herself for the creed that
lies
it.

under-

Athanasius," she would have the Greeks believe, " had

" The

holy

composed

it

when an
*
t

exile in the

West,"f

Above, pp. 164-7. Above, pp. 255-6.

2 B

3 70
to

CONCLUDING REMARKS.

do honour to Pope Julius whose guest The legend was of course diche was.
tated

by

consciousness

of the

secret

sources

of her

own

inspiration.

The

conquest of Constantinople by the Latins

had enboldened her to claim, amongst other things which she had never claimed This brings before, to define doctrine. me to the first of what I shall call papal from their cardinal profession creeds of which the being belief in the Pope

best

known

to us

is

that

of Pius IV.

Down

to the ninth

century, the utmost

claimed

by the

Popes

themselves

on

behalf of their see had been that, '' as matter of fact ^ it^"* not they, " had never

swerved from the faith.*"

Pope Adrian

had

to lay stress

on

this distinction to get

* Adrian II. 's formula, slightly varied from that

of Hormisdas, at the council


A.D. 86g.

The words

'are,

condemning Photius, " Et quia non potest


:

D. N.

I.

C. praetermitti sententia dicentis

'

Tu

es

Petrus," etc. haec quae dicta sunt rerum probantur effectihus, quia in sede Apostolica immaculata est

semper servata

religio."

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
his assertion allowed

37
for as yet

even so

everybody remembered, and nobody v^as as yet audacious enough to deny, the con-

demnation of Honorius
sides, history

for heresy.

Be-

then deposed to another fact


till

equally pertinent, and doubly patent,


fiction

had obscured it, as regards Rome, viz. that it was one thing to keep creeds, and another to make them. But times were changed when Clement IV. composed his Creed.*

He
as

therefore argued,

with
the

all

the pseudos\ to back him, " that

Roman
all

Church,
ought,

it

was

credited

above
faith,

others with having upheld the


it

so

when any

questions

are

raised

on

doctrine, to define them."

And

this, after

the lapse of six centuries,


last

Pius IX. has capped at


that he

by
is

declaring
infallible.

who

defines doctrine
eff^ects

Such have been the

of inviting

reason to dogmatise in matters of faith,


*

See this Creed epitomised,


ii.

in

**

Christendom's

Divisions,"
\

362-3.

I.e.

Decretals, donations, legends, etc.

B 2

37^

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
logic to

and ot empowering
clusions
ful

heap con-

one upon another, rigidly mind-

of their syllogistic consistency, but in

utter indifference to their conformity

with

objective truth of whatever kind.

Hence
for

the dictatorial, inflated, menacing, unreal


character

which

has
schools

earned
so

the

teaching of the
;

much

con-

tempt hence the "peremptory,


lute, overbearing,

stern, reso-

and

relentless"

mould,

the reverse of Christian, attaching to the

Church
is

in

which

it is still

upheld.

Reason

always exacting and imperious where


;

she reigns unchecked

and she

will

make

use of the imagination to


for her

up

to

on any subject her mark, or else

weave where facts


conflict

fictions

are not

with her

axioms.
the "
it

Previously to the publication of

Novum Organon"
to

of Lord Bacon,
least

was heresy

impeach the

of the

physical nostrums she had derived from

her great oracle, Aristotle.


in our

And when

own

days the Vatican decrees were

published in defiance of history, they were

CONCLUDING REMARKS.

373

defended on the ground that the appeal

was treason. In the same breath a slur was designedly cast upon the memories of De Marca, Bosto history
suet, Mabillon,

Montfaucon, Martene,Cal-

met, Simon, Launoi, Thomassin, Morin,

Tillemont, Baluze,

Du

Pin,

and a host of

other ornaments of the Gallican Church

who
clear

had, throughout the whole range of


literature,

ecclesiastical

done so much to

away

the rubbish of ages, to dis-

criminate between truth and falsehood

between primitive truth


fiction

and

and
its

medieval
pedestal

set

truth

upon

and whom, in sacrificing once more to " the insolent and aggressive faction"
:

as she did recently,


finitely

France parted with in-

more glory than she gained at Inkermann or Solferino. But history, like physical science, is certain to triumph at last and sooner or later the logic of reason will have to bow low
:

in the dust again before the logic

of

facts.

374

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
detection of forgeries, will
is
:

The

go on

till

" there

nothing hid that shall not be

known

"

and

all

who have

been parties

to " the

mystery of iniquity " that has

been working
to public gaze.

among

us so long, exposed
till

Then, and not

then, will

Christianity be disenchanted of the Spirit

of Evil that has for such ages divided her


professing
then, will

members

then,

and not

till

Rome

learn to distinguish be-

tween what she has inherited from Peter, and what from Charlemagne. And then,
lastly,

by the combined Greek and Teuton, and


with them, the
past

action
all

of the
take
reli-

who
old

part

glorious
loyally
live

gion of the

by

the

former

so

preserved

will

again

in

adapting

itself to

the
in

multifarious

delive;

mands of the times

which we
purified

when

the flame of faith will burn

all

the

brighter

from having been


of

from

the dross

human

supports, and the

blessings of free

thought

by

which

is

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
not

375

meant licence and of free government by which is not meant anarchy be

secured to

the

lowest

as

well

as

the

highest, as well in

Church

as in State.

5.

Andrew

Day^

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